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Q. 1: Define the term friction? Solution:

MAIT

When a body moves or tends to move over another body, a force opposing the motion develops at the contact surfaces. This force, which opposes the movement or the tendency of movement, is called frictional force or simply friction. Frictional force always acts parallel to the surface of contact, opposite to the moving direction and depends upon the roughness of surface. A frictional force depends upon the coefficient of friction between the surface and the body which can be minimized up to a very low value equal to zero (theoretically only) by proper polishing the surface.

**Q. 2: Explain with the help of neat diagram, the concept of limiting friction. Solution:
**

The maximum value of frictional force, which comes into play, when a body just begins to slide over the surface of the other body, is known as limiting friction. Consider a solid body placed on a horizontal plane surface. Let W = Weight of the body acting through C.G. downwards. R = Normal reaction of body acting through C.G. downwards. P = Force acting on the body through C.G. and parallel to the horizontal surface. F = Limiting force of friction If ‘P’ is small, the body will not move as the force of friction acting on the body in the direction opposite to 'P' will be more than ‘P’. But if the magnitude of ‘P’ goes on increasing a stage comes, when the solid body is on the point of motion. At this stage, the force of friction acting on the body is called ‘LIMITING FORCE OF FRICTION (F)’. R = W; F=P If the magnitude of ‘P’ is further increased the body will start moving. The force of friction, acting on the body is moving, is called KINETIC FRICTION.

Q. 3: Differentiate between; (a) Static and Kinetic Friction Solution:

(b) Sliding and rolling Friction.

(a) Static Friction: When the applied force is less than the limiting friction, the body remains at rest and such frictional force is called static friction and this law is known as law of static friction. It is the friction experienced by a body, when it is at rest or when the body tends to move. Kinetic (Dynamic) Friction When the applied force exceeds the limiting friction the body starts moving over the other body and the friction of resistance experienced by the body while moving. This is known as law of Dynamic or kinetic friction. Or It is the friction experienced by a body when in motion. It is of two types; 1. Sliding Friction 2. Rolling Friction (b) Sliding Friction: It is the friction experienced by a body, when it slides over another body. Rolling Friction: It is the friction experienced by a body, when it rolls over the other.

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Page 1

FRICTION

MAIT

Q. 4: Explain laws of friction? What are the factor affecting the coefficient of friction and effort to minimize it. Solution:

The laws are enunciated as follows: 1. The total force of friction that can be developed is independent of area of contact. 2. For low relative velocities between sliding bodies, total amount of frictional force is independent of the velocity. But the force required to start the motion is greater than that necessary to maintain the motion. 3. The total frictional force that can be developed is proportional to the normal reaction of the surface of contact. So, coefficient of friction (μ) is defined as the ratio of the limiting force of friction (F) to the normal reaction (R) between two bodies. Thus,

μ

=

=

Or, F = μ.R, Generally μ < 1 The factors affecting the coefficient of friction are: 1. The material of the meeting bodies. 2. The roughness/smoothness of the meeting bodies. 3. The temperature of the environment.

Q 5: Define the following terms: (a) Angle of friction (b) Angle of Repose Solution:

(c) Cone of Friction

(a) Angle of Friction (θ): It is defined as the angle made by the resultant of the normal reaction (R) and the limiting force of friction (F) with the normal reaction (R). Let, S = Resultant of the normal reaction (R) and limiting force of friction (F) θ = Angle between S and R Tan θ = F/R = μ Note: The force of friction (F) is always equal to μR (b) Angle of Repose (α): It is the max angle of inclined plane on which the body tends to move down the plane due to its own weight. Consider the equilibrium of the body when body is just on the point of slide. Resolving all the forces parallel and perpendicular to the plane, we have: µR = W.sin α (1) R = W.cos α (2) Dividing 1 by 2 we get Tan α = µ But µ = tan θ, [θ = Angle of friction] i.e., θ=α The value of angle of repose is the same as the value of limiting angle of friction.

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Page 2

FRICTION

MAIT

(c) Cone of Friction: When a body is having impending motion in the direction of P, the frictional force will be the limiting friction and the resultant reaction R will make limiting friction angle θ with the normal. If the body is having impending motion in some other direction, again the resultant reaction makes limiting frictional angle θ with the normal in that direction. Thus, when the direction of force P is gradually changed through 360°, the resultant R generates a right circular cone with semi-central angle equal to θ. If the resultant reaction is on the surface of this inverted right circular cone whose semi-central angle is limiting frictional angle (θ), the motion of body is impending. If the resultant is within this cone, the body is stationary. This inverted cone with semi-central angle, equal to limiting frictional angle θ, is called cone of friction. It is defined as the right circular cone with vertex at the point of contact of the two bodies (or surfaces), axis in the direction of normal reaction (R) and semi-vertical angle equal to angle of friction (θ). Fig (9.4) shows the cone of friction in which, O = Point of contact between two bodies. R = Normal reaction and also axis of the cone of friction. θ = Angle of friction

Q. 6: A body of weight 100N rests on a rough horizontal surface (µ = 0.3) and is acted upon by a force applied at an angle of 300 to the horizontal. What force is required to just cause the body to slide over the surface? Solution: In the limiting equilibrium, the forces are balanced. That is ∑H = 0; F = Pcosθ ∑V = 0; R = W – Psinθ Also F = µR P.cosθ = µ(W– P.sinθ) P.cosθ = µ.W– µ.P.sinθ µ.P.sinθ + P.cosθ = µ.W P(µ.sinθ + cosθ) = µ.W P = µ.W/(Cosθ + µ.sinθ) = 0.3× 100 / (Cos30° + 0.3sin30°) = 29.53N .......Ans Q. 7: A wooden block of weight 50N rests on a horizontal plane. Determine the force required which is acted at an angle of 150 to just (a) Pull it, and (b) Push it. Take coefficient friction = 0.4 between the mating surfaces. Comment on the result. Solution:

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FRICTION

MAIT

(a) Let P1 be the force required to just pull the block. In the limiting equilibrium, the forces are balanced. That gives ∑H = 0; F = P1cosθ ∑V = 0; R = W – P1sinθ Also F = µR µ(W – P1 sinθ) = P1cosθ or P1 = µW / (cosθ+ µsinθ) = 0.4 × 50 /( cos 15° + 0.4 sinl5°) = 18.70N .......Ans (b) Let P2 be the force required to just push the block. With reference to the free body diagram (Fig.2), Let us write the equations of equilibrium, ∑H = 0; F = P2cosθ ∑V = 0; R = W + P2Sinθ Also F = µR µ (W + P2sinθ) = P2cosθ or P2 = µW / (cosθ – µsinθ) = 0.4 × 50 /( cos 15° – 0.4 sinl5°) = 23.17N .......Ans Comments. It is easier to pull the block than push it.

Q. 8: A body resting on a rough horizontal plane required a pull of 24N inclined at 30º to the plane just to move it. It was also found that a push of 30N at 30º to the plane was just enough to cause motion to impend. Make calculations for the weight of body and the coefficient of friction. Solution: ∑H = 0; F = P1cosθ ∑V = 0; R = W – P1sinθ Also F = µR µ(W – P sinθ) = P1cosθ or P1 = µ W / (cosθ + µsinθ) ...(i) With reference to the free body diagram (Fig (1) when push is applied) ∑H = 0; F = P2cosθ ∑V = 0; R = W + P2sinθ F = µR µ(W + P2sin θ) = P2cosθ P2 = µW/(cosθ – µsinθ) ...(ii) From expression (i) and (ii), P1/ P2 = (cos θ – µsin θ )/ (cos θ + µsin θ) 24/30 = (cos 30°– µ sin 30°)/ (cos 30°+ µsin 30°) = (0.866 – 0.5µ)/(0.866 + 0.5µ) 0.6928 + 0.4µ = 0.866-0.5u On solving µ = 0.192 .......Ans Putting the value of µ in equation (i) we get the value of W W = 120.25N .......Ans Also

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FRICTION

MAIT

Q. 9: A block weighing 5KN is attached to a chord, which passes over a frictionless pulley, and supports a weight of 2KN. The coefficient of friction between the block and the floor is 0.35. Determine the value of force P if, (i) The motion is impending to the right (ii) The motion is impending to the left. Solution:

Case-1 From the FBD of the block, ∑V = 0 → –5 + R + 2sin30º = 0 R = 4KN ∑H = 0 → –P + 2cos30º – 0.35N = 0 P = 2cos30° – 0.35 × 4 = 0 P = 0.332KN .......Ans Case-2: Since the motion impends to the left, the friction force is directed to the right, from the FBD of the block: ∑V = 0 → –5 + R + 2sin30° = 0 R = 4KN ∑H = 0 → –P + 2cos30° + 0.35N = 0 P = 2cos30° + 0.35 × 4 = 0 P = 3.132KN .......Ans

Q. 10: A block of 2500N rest on a horizontal plane. The coefficient of friction between block and the plane is 0.3. The block is pulled by a force of 1000N acting at an angle 30º to the horizontal. Find the velocity of the block after it moves over a distance of 30m, starting from rest. Solution: Here ∑V = 0 but ∑H ≠ 0, Because, ∑H is converted into ma ∑V = 0 R + 1000sin30° – W = 0, W = 2500N R = 2000N ...(i) ∑H ≠ 0 ∑H = µR – 1000cos30° = 266.02N ...(ii) Since ∑H ≠ 0 By Newton’s third law of motion F = ma 266.02 = (2500/g) × (v2 – u2)/2.s ⇒ v2 = u2 + 2as u = 0, v2 = {266.02 × 2 × s × g}/2500 v2 = {266.02 × 2 × 30 × 9.71}/2500 v = 7.91m/sec .......ANS Q. 11: Homogeneous cylinder of weight W rests on a horizontal floor in contact with a wall (Fig 12.15). If the coefficient of friction for all contact surfaces be µ, determine the couple M acting on the cylinder, which will start counter clockwise rotation.

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FRICTION

Solution: ∑H = 0 ⇒ R1 – µR2 = 0 R1 = µR2 ...(i) ∑V = 0 => R2 + µR1 = W ...(ii) Putting the value of R1 in equation (ii), we get R2 + µ2R2 = W R2 = W/(1 + µ2) ...(ii) Putting the value of R2 in equation (i), we get R1 = µW/(1 + µ2) ...(iv) Taking moment about point O, We get MO = µR1r + µR2r = µr{R1 + R2} = µr{(µW/(1 + µ2)) + (W/(1 + µ2))} = µrW{(1 + µ)/(1 + µ2)} MO = µrW(1 + µ)/(1 + µ2) .......ANS

MAIT

Q. 12: A metal box weighing 10KN is pulled along a level surface at uniform speed by applying a horizontal force of 3500N. If another box of 6KN is put on top of this box, determine the force required. Solution: In first case as shown in fig 1 ∑H = 0 µR = 3500 ...(i) ∑V = 0 R = W = 10KN = 10000 ...(ii) Putting the value of R in equation (i) µ = 0.35 ...(iii) Now consider second case: as shown in fig 2 Now normal reaction is N1, ∑H = 0 P – µR1 = 0 ...(iv) P = µR1 ∑V = 0 R1 = W = 10KN + 6KN = 16000 ...(v) R1 = 16000 Putting the value of R1 in equation (iv) P = 0.35 × 16000 P = 5600N .......ANS

Q. 13: Block A weighing 1000N rests over block B which weights 2000N as shown in fig (9.19). Block A is tied to wall with a horizontal string. If the coefficient of friction between A and B is 1/4 and between B and floor is 1/3, what should be the value of P to move the block B. If (1) P is horizontal (2) P is at an angle of 300 with the horizontal. Solution:

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FRICTION

(a) Whe nP is horiz ontal Con sider FBD of block A as shown in fig 12.20. ∑V = 0 R1 = W = 1000 ...(i) R1 = 1000 ∑H = 0 T = µ1R1 = 1/4 × 1000 = 250 T = 250N ...(ii) Consider FBD of block B as shown in fig 9.21. ∑V = 0; R2 – R1 – W = 0 R2 = 1000 + 2000 Fig 9.22 R2 = 3000 N ...(iii) ∑H =0 P = µ1R1 + µ2R2 = 250 + 1/3 × 3000 P = 1250N .......ANS (2) When P is inclined at an angle of 30° Consider fig 9.22 ∑H = 0 Pcos 30° = µ1R1 + µ2R2 = 250 + 1/3 × R2 R2 = 3(Pcos300 – 250) ...(iv) ∑V = 0 R2 – R1 – W + Psin30° = 0 R2 + Psin30° = R1 + W = 3000 ...(v) Putting the value of R2 in equation (v) 3(Pcos30° – 250) + 0.5 × P = 3000 On solving P = 1210.43N .......ANS

MAIT

Q. 14: Explain the different cases of equilibrium of the body on rough inclined plane. Solution: If the inclination is less than the angle of friction, the body will remain in equilibrium without any external force. If the body is to be moved upwards or downwards in this condition an external force is required. But if the inclination of the plane is more than the angle of friction, the body will not remain in equilibrium. The body will move downward and an upward external force will be required to keep the body in equilibrium. Such problems are solved by resolving the forces along the plane and perpendicular to the planes. The force of friction (F), which is always equal to μ.R is acting opposite to the direction of motion of the body. CASE -1: Magnitude of minimum force ‘p’ which is required to move the body up the plane. When ‘p’ is acted with an angle of ϕ. Resolving all the forces Parallel to Plane OA: PcosΦ – µR – W.sinα = 0 Resolving all the forces Perpendicular to Plane OA: R + PsinF – W.cosα = 0 ...(i) Putting value of ‘R’ from (ii) in equation (i) we get

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FRICTION

P = W.[(µ.cosα + sinα)/( µ.sinΦ + cosΦ)] …(ii) Now putting µ = tanθ, on solving P = W.[sin(α + θ)/cos(Φ – θ)] ...(iii) Now P is minimum at cos(Φ – θ) is max i.e., cos(Φ – θ) = 1 or Φ – θ = 0 i.e., Φ = θ Pmin = W.sin(θ + Φ) θ

MAIT

CASE-2: Magnitude of force ‘p’ which is required to move the body down the plane. When ‘p’ is acted with an angle of ϕ. Resolving all the forces Parallel to Plane OA: PcosΦ + µR – W.sinα = 0 ...(i) Resolving all the forces Perpendicular to Plane OA: R + PsinΦ – W.cosα = 0 ...(ii) Putting value of ‘R’ from (ii) in equation (i) we get P = W.[(sinα – µ.cosα)/(cosΦ – µ.sinΦ)] Now putting µ = tanθ, on solving P = W.[sin(α – Φ)/cos(Φ + θ)] CASE-3: Magnitude of force ‘p’ which is required to move the body down the plane. When ‘p’ is acted Horizontally. Resolving all the forces Parallel to Plane OA: Pcosα + µR – W.sinα = 0 ...(i) Resolving all the forces Perpendicular to Plane OA: R – Psinα – W.cosα = 0 ...(ii) Putting value of ‘R’ from (ii) in equation (i) we get P = W.[(sinα – µ.cosα)/(cosα + µ.sinα)] Now putting µ = tanθ, on solving, P = W.tan(α – θ) CASE-4: Magnitude of force ‘p’ which is required to move the body up the plane. When ‘p’ is acted Horizontally. Resolving all the forces Parallel to Plane OA: Pcosα – µR – W.sinα = 0 ...(i) Resolving all the forces Perpendicular to Plane OA: R – Psinα – W.cosα = 0 ...(ii) Putting value of ‘R’ from (ii) in equation (i) we get P = W.[(sinα + µ.cosα)/(cosα – µ.sinα)] Now putting µ = tanθ, On solving, P = W.tan(α + θ) α

Q. 15: Block A of weight 520N rest on the horizontal top of block B having weight 700N as shown in fig (1). Block A is tied to a support C by a cable at 300 horizontally. Coefficient of friction is 0.4 for all contact surfaces. Determine the minimum value of the horizontal force P just to move the block B. How much is the tension in the cable then.

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FRICTION

MAIT

Figure 1: Solution: Consider First FBD of block A Fig 2. ∑H = 0 µR1 = Tcos30° 0.4R1 = 0.866T ...(i) R1 = 2.165T ∑V = 0 W = R1 + Tsin30° 520 = 2.165T + 0.5T 520 = 2.665T T = 195.12N ...(ii) Putting in (i) we get ...(iii) R1 = 422.43N Consider First FBD of block A Fig 3 ∑V = 0 R2 = R1 + WB R2 = 422.43 + 700 ...(iv) R2 =1122.43N ∑H = 0 P = µR1 + µR2 P = 0.4(422.43 + 1122.43) P = 617.9N .......ANS

Figure 2:

Figure 3:

Q. 16: Determine the force P required to impend the motion of the block B shown in fig (1). Take coefficient of friction = 0.3 for all contact surface. Solution:

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Page 9

FRICTION

Consider First FBD of block A Fig (2) ∑V = 0 → RA = 300N ∑H = 0 → T = 0.3NA T = 90N Consider FBD of Block B ∑V = 0 → RB = RA + 500 RB = 800N ∑H = 0 → P = 0.3NA + 0.3RB = 0.3 (300 + 800) P = 330N

MAIT

.......Ans

Q. 18: Two blocks A and B of weight 4KN and 2KN respectively are in equilibrium position as shown in fig (1). Coefficient of friction for both surfaces are same as 0.25, make calculations for the force P required to move the block A. Solution:

Considering equilibrium of block B in figure (2). Resolving the force along the horizontal and vertical directions: Tcos30° –µRb = 0; ...(i) Tcos30° = µRb Rb + Tsin30° – Wb = 0; Tsin30° = Wb – Rb ...(ii) Dividing Equation (i) and (ii), we get tan30° = (Wb – Rb)/µRb 0.5773 = (2– Rb)/0.25Rb; 0.1443Rb = 2– Rb Rb = 1.748N Fb = µRb = 0.25 × 1.748 = 0.437N Considering the equilibrium of block A in figure (1): Resolving the forces along the horizontal and vertical directions, P = Fb + µRa Fb + µRa – P = 0; Ra – Rb – Wa = 0; Ra = Rb +Wa = 1.748 + 4 = 5.748 P = 0.437 + 0.25 × 5.748 P = 1.874N .......Ans

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