You are on page 1of 68




21806114005 21805114007 21805114008 21805114022

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of


Chikkarayapuram, Chennai-600069

APRIL 2010



HEMANATHAN” who carried out the project work under my supervision. Submitted for the Anna University Practical Examination held on______________

SIGNATURE Prof.S.Mukundan HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Department of Mechanical Engineering Sri Muthukumaran Institute of Technology Chikkarayapuram, Chennai – 600 069

SIGNATURE Mr. M. Arsath Rahuman Project Guide SENIOR LECTURER Department of Mechanical Engineering Sri Muthukumaran Institute of Technology Chikkarayapuram, Chennai – 600 069


We render our profound and heartfelt gratitude to our principal Dr.M.SUNDAR SRI MUTHUKUMARAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI-69 for his encouragement and co-operation in accomplishing our project entitled as “DEVELOPMENT OF LOW COST PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE” We thank our head of the department Prof.S.Mukundan for allowing us to undertake this project. His advices and guidance along with our enthusiasm showed us the path to achieve our cherished goal. We are indebted to our guide Mr.M.Arsath Rahuman whose persistent guidance has helped us to achieve success. We also reveal our sincere thanks to the faculty members of Mechanical department whose suggestion and teaching brought the comprehension to complete this project. We would like to take this opportunity to thank our friends for their endurance, patience and support in achieving our ambition. We remain with gratitude to our parents, lecturers, non-teaching staff and management (SRI MUTHUKUMARAN EDUCATIONAL TRUST) forever.

which is then sent to the heating chamber by a plunger which is operated by a rack and pinion arrangement. home appliances and most other plastic products that we use today. Injection moulding is the only technique for producing many idle products in large volume and the most common method in part manufacturing. The die is held by a clamping unit which holds the die while the molten plastic is forced through the die. Injection moulding is used to produce many parts like bottle caps.ABSTRACT The objective of the project is to develop a low cost plastic injection moulding machine by using conventional injection moulding process. The die is removed after sometime to get the final product. scrap losses are minimal and high tolerances are repeatable are some of the advantages of the injection moulding techniques. The heating chamber melts the plastic which is then forced into the die. containers. The basic injection moulding process involves the feeding of granulated thermoplastic into the hopper. materials can be used in wide range. . plastic combs. Low labor costs.

1 .2 .For Clamping Force And Torque Table 4.1 .Screw Type Machine Fig 1.Two Plate Mould Fig 1.Detailed View Of Rack And Pinion Holder Fig 5.3 .4 .For Mould Table 4.5 .1 .5 .2 .2 .For Spring Table 4.1 .3 .1 .For Pinion Table 4.Three plate mould Fig 1.3 .1 .Methodology Fig 3.Plunger Injection Moulding Machine Fig 1.Injection Moulding Machine Fig 5.Detailed View Of Clamping Unit Lock Nut PAGE NO PAGE NO .Detailed View Of L – Bracket Fig 5.6 .LIST OF TABLES Table 1.Types of Thermoplastic Materials Table 3.For Heating coil LIST OF FIGURES Fig 1.4 .Delayed action Mould Fig 1.Properties of Thermoplastic Materials Table 4.

6 .Detailed View Of Injection Unit Fig 5.Fig 5.Detailed View Of Clamping Unit Fig 5.4 .Detailed View Of Spring Fig 5.Detailed View Of Rack Fig 5.5 .8 .Detailed View Of heating coil LIST OF ABBREVIATION DESIGN OF PINION SYMBOL Z1 Z2 D Pc d1 V N F Ft P σc σb I Ko No of teeth on pinion No of teeth on wheel Diameter of pinion in ‘mm’ Pitch circle in ‘mm’ Circular Pitch diameter in ‘mm’ Velocity in m/s Pinion speed in rpm Plunger force in ‘N’ Tangential plunger force in ‘N’ Power in watts Compressive stress in N/mm2 Bending stress in N/mm2 Gear ratio` Shear stress factor ABBREVATION .7 .

M Fs B Y Fd Vm E Q Fw K a Module in ‘mm’ Static load in N Face width in ‘mm’ Form factor Dynamics load in ‘mm’ Pitch line velocity m/s Errors in action in ‘mm’ Ratio factor Wear load in N Load stress factor N/mm2 Centre distance in mm SPRING SPECIFICATION P D D C K L Ls ∂ Pitch in ‘mm’ Diameter of wire in ‘mm’ Mean diameter of the spring in ‘mm’ Spring index Stiffness in N/mm Length of the spring in ‘mm’ Solid length in ‘mm’ Deflection of the spring in ‘mm’ .

W N G τmax α Axial load on the spring in N Number of active coils Modulus of rigidity of the spring material in N/mm2 Maximum shear stress induced in the wire N/mm2 Helix angle in degree TORQUE : Fcavity Wcavity Pscrew D0 Di Φ Pwheel L dpitch Dwheel T Load applied on the cavity in N Clamping force in N Load applied on the circumference of the screw in N Outer diameter of the screw in ‘mm’ Inner diameter of the screw in ‘mm’ Angle of friction in degree To tangential force to be given on the wheel in N Length of the handel in mm Pitch diameter in mm Wheel diameter of handel in mm Torque in N/mm .

D α P P DM wheel Cp μ ηcoil T Tmelt Tatm Diameter of the mould in ‘mm’ Helix angle Power in watts Pitch in ‘mm’ Mass of the finished product including loses in Kg Mean circumference of the screw in mm Specific heat capacity in J/KgK Coefficient of friction Efficiency of the coil Time of melting Melting temperature in degree Atmospheric temperature in degree HEATING COIL : .

3.1 Thermoplastic Materials 1.3.1 Types Of Injection Moulding Machine 1.3.2 Thermosetting Plastics 1.1.2. INTRODUCTION 1.2Classification Of Polymers 1.TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER NO TITLE ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOL 1.2 Screw Type Machine 1.1 Plunger Injection Moulding Machine 1.4 Mould PAGE NO 123 .3 Pre Plasticizing Machine 1.3.3 Injection Moulding Machine 1.1.1Evolution Of Injection Moulding 1.2.1.

8 Methodology 2.1.2 S. Mould Material Selection Criteria 1.1.5 Material Selection Criteria 2.5 Runner Less Mould 1.4.4 Mould Fabrication 2.6.1 Introduction To Plastic Process 2.7 Application of Injection Moulding 1.4.6 Plants Visited 2.1 L&T Demag Plastic Division 2.2 Fundamentals Of Polymers 2.4.3 Split Mould 1.2 Three Plate Mould 1.A Plastics .6 Injection Moulding Technique Process 1.4 Delayed Action Mould 1.6.1 Types Of Mould 1.4.1 Two Plate Mould 1.3 Thermoplastic Materials 2.4. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.

SELECTION OF LOW COST PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE 3.2 Heating Unit 3.2.1 Introduction 4. DESIGN OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS Injection Unit 3.2.3 Mild steel 3.3 Selection Of Mould Material 3.4 Mould 3.4 Stainless Steel Polypropylene 3.1 Reason For Selection 3.4.2 Components Of Injection Moulding Machine 3.2 Design Of Pinion .3 Clamping Unit 3.4 Material Considered Design Procedure adopted 4.3.1 High Density Polyethylene 3.4.1 Design Of Spring 4.

4 Installation CONCLUSION .8 Design Of spring 4.10 Specification 5.7.2 Mould 6.7 Heating Coil Calculation 4.5 Design Of Volume Of Component 4.4 Materials Properties For Various Components 4.3 Assembly 6.4.1 Experimental Observation 4.1 L.2.2. DRAFTING AND MODELLING FABRICATION OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS 6.Bracket 6. 6.6 Volume Of component 4.3 Known Parameters 4.3 Design Procedure Of Heating coil 4.2.9 Torque Calculation 4.5 Design Of Pinion 4.4 Design Of Clamping Force And Torque 4.

Polymer can be of long chain molecules or branched long chain molecules or molecules of interconnected three dimensional . Some waste material is still produced though. The mould remains closed while the part cools and when it is taken off the ‘flash’ (excess material that seeps between the two halves of the mould) is removed. The barrel has a nozzle at its end that connects to the mould and the mould itself has a ‘sprue’ or narrow channel through which the plastic moves on its way to the mould cavity. Transfer Moulding introduces a plunger. 1. which is already closed. or ram. that pushes the plastic through a barrel and into the mould cavity.RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE WORK CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Plunger Moulding has the plunger mounted horizontally and the plastic fed into the barrel from a hopper mounted on top. Here. leaving a fixed amount of material in the barrel for injecting.2 CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS: Polymers is a large macromolecule built up of repetition of small and simple chemical units called monomers. As the plunger moves along the barrel it automatically cuts off the supply of granules.1 EVOLUTION OF INJECTION MOULDING: One of the earliest forms of plastic moulding was Compression Moulding. Transfer Moulding reduces the amount of waste and removes the need for de-flashing. a fixed amount of plastic is placed in the lower half of a mould and heated before the upper half of the mould is closed over the top of it. in the barrel and interconnecting parts of the mould (depending on its shape).

Of greater importance are the properties of threes materials as final products. This is an advantage in moulding process such as extrusion or injection where scrap or rejected products can be reground and mould again. . The repeat unit of the polymer is equivalent or nearly equivalent to the monomer or starting material from which the polymer is formed. thermosetting materials. however.1 Thermoplastics materials: Thermoplastic polymers are characterized by softening upon heating and hardening by cooling. Merits of thermo plastic materials:  Thermoplastic materials have the potential to be recyclable since they can be moulded. Plastics are a family of materials not a single material.networks. extruded and reused.  Thermoplastics  Thermosetting plastics The basis for this classification is the way in which the monomer was polymerized.2. Addition polymerization produces thermoplastics materials and condensation polymerization usually produces. Some of the thermoplastic materials will burn freely when exposed to an open flame while others of this group will not support combustion. each member of which has its own distinct and special advantage. Whatever their properties of form. 1. they can be softened by heat and remoulded over and over again. Since the giant molecules of these materials have no strong bends between the individual molecules. most plastics fall into one or two groups they are.

Demerits of thermoplastics: TPEs relative to conventional rubber or thermoset are relatively high cost of raw materials. it consumes less energy and closer and more economical control of product quality is possible.  Styrene block copolymers are used in shoe soles for their ease of processing. general inability to load TPEs with low cost fillers such as carbon black (therefore preventing TPEs from being used in automobile tires). Application:  It is used in the automotive sector and in household appliances.  Hence. mostly in Portable Cord. batch-to-batch variations in weighting and metering components are absent.  TPEs can be easily colored by most types of dyes.  TPE is also finding more and more uses as electrical cable jacket/inner insulation. high compression set and low thermal stability. with no need to add reinforcing agents. Thermoplastics also require little or no compounding. poor chemical and heat resistance.  TPE is commonly used to make suspension bushings for automotive performance applications because of its greater resistance to deformation when compared to regular rubber bushings. stabilizers or cure systems. . leading to improved consistency in both raw materials and fabricated articles. and widely as adhesives. Besides that.  It is widely used for catheters where nylon block copolymers offer a range of softness ideal for patients.

2. infusible mass. Examples of thermosetting plastics:     Urea-formaldehyde Bakelite Melamine resin Polyesters . possesses quite different characteristic.1 types of thermoplastics 1. The cross-linking molecular structure with strong chemical bonds between the polymer chains causes these materials to be rigid and hard as no slippage can occur between polymer chains. Intensive heating of a thermo set will cause breakage of the chemical bonds resulting in a charring of the material.2 Thermosetting plastics: The group of thermosetting polymers numbering less than the thermoplastic group. with good heat resistance. strong and rigid. Because of the irreversible reaction by which they polymerize they form a rigid. They are not flammable.Examples of Thermoplastics materials : Polyethylene Low density polyethylene (LDPE) High density polyethylene (HDPE) Polypropylene Polystyrene Acrylonitrile butadiene (ABS) Polyvinyl chloride Polyamides Nylon 6/6 Polycarbonates Acetal Acrylics Cellulose plastics Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) Cellulose nitrate Fluoro plastics (PTFE) Table 1. Since all the bonds are strong. when the material is heated no chain flow or softening can occur. hard and often brittle. In general thermosetting plastics can be described as being hard.

 Materials like wood. cameras.  In the aerospace industry. whistles. driers and other "white goods".   Melamine resin is often used in kitchen utensils and plates.  Polyimide Epoxy Merits of thermosetting plastics: Some of the merits of the thermosetting plastics are they retain their strength and shape even when heated. solid-body electric guitars. Applications:  Thermosetting plastics have their applications in saxophone mouthpieces. Polyester epoxies are used as powder coatings for washers. and others that are 'low-tech' are glued with epoxy resin internally stiffened with foam and completely covered with plywood . and will not become weaker when the temperature increases. This makes thermosetting plastics wellsuited to the production of permanent components and large. epoxy is used as a structural matrix material which is then reinforced by fiber. appliance casings. Additionally. these components have excellent strength attributes (although they are brittle). solid shapes.

toaster. Outside of our homes injection moulded products are still all around us – the car. the industrial . At the end of the day. if we look at the switch we use to turn out the light. When the plastic cools the mould is opened and the newly formed plastic part is removed. often changing the channels with the injection moulded remote control that we hold in our hands.1. hair brush. many of us watch television screens that are encased in injection moulded plastic. or in the lamp on the bedside table. or screwed to the head board. Injection moulding is a major processing technique for converting thermoplastic materials to useful end products. our world would be very different without it and product designers need to know about it. toothbrush – even the buttons on your blouse or shirt.3 INJECTON MOULDING MACHINE: From the moment we get up in the morning until the moment we go to bed at night we are surrounded by products that have been produced. shower head. there’s a good chance that you will spend a large portion of your day tapping the injection moulded keys of an injection moulded computer. On the other hand. owe their existence in their current form to Injection Moulding. school or college is full of injection moulded components and whatever you do. Even when we go to bed at the end of the day. whether it is on the wall. The alarm clock. Whereas the domestic and low value and low performance commercial items are generally moulded with conventional and commodity plastics. they will use it many times during their careers. Injection Moulding is the process of heating plastic granules to melting point before injecting them at high pressure through a nozzle into a mould. wholly or partially. it is a piece of injection moulded plastic. coffee machine. bus or train you ride to work. on Injection Moulding Machines. Injection Moulding is an important part of our everyday lives.

the machine operating cycles. Considerable progress has been made in recent days in the construction of advance moulding machines. Injection moulding may be described as a batch process. The brief description of an simple operation without any problems.1 Plunger injection moulding machine: Fig plunger injection moulding machine . improve the quality of the mouldings and economical production costs.components and engineering articles are being gradually replaced by so called high performance engineering plastics.3. This enables mouldings to be made to very close tolerance. 1.1Types Of Injection Moulding Machine: 1. The collaborative inter dependence of questions and demands a high degree of technical ability and above ability. moulds and modified injection moulding methods. Whereas this is far from being the true situation.

it forces the screw backwards against a pressure pad. the distance the screw travels and hence the amount of fluid material fed into the mould is regulated by means of limit switches. the screw stops rotating. an Archimedean screw is used instead of a plunger. 1. To fill the mould.2 screw type machine In the single screw machine. .1. There is however the possibility of fluid material passing back along the screw flights but this is usually avoided by fitting a backflow stop valve on the tip of the screw. When sufficient material to fill the mould has accumulated. As the softened material accumulates. It is not necessary therefore to meter the amount of material passing from the feed hopper to the barrel.The earlier and simpler type of machine used a heating barrel to soften and melt the plastics material and a reciprocating ram to inject the material into the mould.3.2 Screw type machine: Fig 1. pressure is applied to the screw through the pressure pad. The screw rotates in the barrel. causing it is move forward in the barrel and displace the fluid material through the nozzle into the mould. carrying the plastics material along its flights to the nozzle end.

from which the melt is forced into the mould by means of a plunger.4 MOULD: Mostly the plastics products are not produced in a small quality but used to be produced in large quantities. The mould is made for a particular product with simple and straight forward design. no of impression and the machine to be used. it is best assured that the mould will give consistent product for longer period and the product will be readily accepted in any market local or international. The plasticizing barrel can be either parallel. For this the mould must be made out of good grade of steel. heat treatment must be given for the core and cavity and the other moving parts to withstand the wear and tear the mould must be properly constructed with proper alignment and matching with the mould parts etc. 1.1 Types of Mould: Injection moulds are divided into various types depending upon the moulding shape and size. heat treatment with proper concepts. The screw feeds solid granules along a heated plasticizing barrel into an injection barrel. That means the mould should last longer to produce more number of components.3.4. 1. fabricated with proper mould material. with or at an angle to the injection barrel. a non return valve prevents fluid material from passing back into plasticizing barrel. type of gate.1.3 Pre plasticizing machine: The screw plasticizing principle is sometimes used in two barrel machine. .1.

4.4 three plate mould . 1. The (gating) feed system will be side grated.1 Two plate mould: Fig 1.1.2Three plate mould: Fig 1.1. This type of mould will have only one daylight where the mouldings and feed system will be on the same parting line.4.3 two plate mould This is a simple mould which may be single impression or multi impression mould.1.

That is.This type of mould will have two daylights.4. or when a single impression mould id gated at more than one point from the cavity the mould will be a three plate type of mould. The ejection mechanism also to be carefully designed to prevent folding of the ejector pin with splits. 1. movement and alignment of the splits. This type of mould requires careful design of various functional parts of the mould. When a moulding has to be gated at the back of cavity and is a multi impression mould.1. the feed system will be in between the fixed half and the floating half. The design of this type of mould required careful consideration and the location. The mould parting line will be between the floating assembly and moving half of the mould. .3 Split mould: Two mould components having continuous external undercut. example the cavity is split into two pieces. This is achieved by providing suitable cams of hydraulic cylinders. The ejection of the moulding will be on the parting line where as the ejection of the moulding will be on the parting line where as the ejection of the feed system will be between the fixed half and floating assembly. To facilitate the ejection on the moulding the splits (cavity salves) are required to be moved perpendicular to the axis of the mould opening.

1.5 delayed action mould Some mouldings warrant the movement of the splits to the delayed for the certain amount of opening of the mould. This is the splits will be in a closed condition (delayed) till the mould opens to release the interfering member for the movement.5 Runner less mould: The aim in any manufacturing process is to keep the amount of waste to a minimum. This type of mould may use cams or sequenced hydraulic cylinders to the operation of the mould.4 Delayed action mould: Fig 1. To bridge this distance one makes of melt flow way systems which convey the plastic melt from nozzle to the gate . in injection moulding this means that no material must be lost between the nozzle and the mould cavity.

For shorter run. hot die steel with suitable recommended hardness is essential for long life and also for good quality of the moulding. three factors have to be critically considered They are  The moulding machine  The material  The mould . Particularly core. elegant and precision injection. The moulding surfaces should be polishes smooth in order to get a good finish and free ejection of the moulding. In order to get more consistent.1. mild steel is recommended and for a medium run pre hardened steel is used but for a larger production run. Electro plating/chromium plating of core and cavity may be done after polishing according to the finish required and also the type of polymer used. Similarly guided members. compression or blow moulded parts for any applications.5 MOULD MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA: Greater care is necessary whenever we choose the material for the various parts of the mould. cavity and other melt flow areas must be a toughened steel which should be heat treated. Generally the selection of the mould materials is based upon the production requirement of the mouldings id based upon the production requirement of the mouldings. actuating member level in order to get a good quality moulding with a long service life of the mould.

elegance on the products the cavities have to be polished to mirror finish. The above three factors the machine. moulded temperature control system. In the case of producing plastics products to have better appearance. En30B. proper alignment between the two platen etc. Mould material: Mould material uses are Good grade of mild steel for bolster or the mould housing is used for the manufacture of core and cavity special alloy steel are used. En24. This . If substandard plastic raw materials are used good quality plastic components are also assured. The machine must be accurate in giving correct injection pressure. A good injection moulding machine will definitely give consistent good quality products. High carbon and high chromium steel is also used for the manufacturing of core and cavities. H12. The most important role is played in getting quality and precision moulded part is by the mould designs and fabrication of mould for particular product.Moulding machine: The machine which is used for producing injection moulded parts plays a very important role. the material and the mould (3M) are inter related. H13. Pre hardened steel is also used (Hardness level) for 30-32RC core and cavities without heat treatment. P20 etc. The different types of plastics materials used for producing various products must be of good graded quality. If anyone is not proper it is best assured that we will not get any quality moulded components. They are hot die steels with 5% chromium En8.

mirror finish or high polish of the cavity can be obtained by two ways that is by way of electroplating and surface or by using superior quality of alloy steel for making the cavities. Mould: The mould polishing not only gives super finish on the product but helps the material (plastic) to flow in to the cavity with less pressure and also ejection of the product from the cavity or core will be very easy without straining the ejection system provided in the mould. Once the mould design is completed. the manufacturing of the mould must be exactly to the design provided and all the parts (mould elements) including the core and cavity must be made according to the dimension. In order to get good moulded components the mould must function well with all systems. provided adequately The systems are:  Feed system  Cooling system  Ejection system Every care must be taken in providing the above systems effectively in the mould. Short cuts will lead to difficulties at the time of finishing the mould. . Through checking must be carried out at every stage. Never take a short cut while making the mould. All the above systems must be carefully studied at the design stage and incorporated. every part in the mould has to be done as per the requirement.

Injection moulding is used for create a variety of parts.1. bottle caps. Servo drives can be used to operate the injection screw. fluid plastic is injected at high pressure into a mould. The steel or aluminum mould is machined with the contours of the final product. packaging. The locking unit holds the mould closed for a predetermined time to allow the muolded article to cool and solidify. Heated. automotive dashboards. which can take several minutes with large mouldings. Injection moulding is the most common method of part manufacturing. as precision control is often required for the injection step. and most other plastic products available today. In the moulding cycle of the plunger injection moulding machine.6 INJECTION MOULDING TECHNIQUE/PROCESS: The injection moulding machine comprises of a locking unit for keeping the mould firmly closed against high injection pressure and an injection unit for heating and plasticizing the material and injection it into the mould. automotive dashboards. the injection mouilding time is generally not more than few seconds. 1. Injection moulding is used to create many things such as wire spools. which is the inverse of the desired shape. Significant energy savings are often realized by replacing hydraulics with electric drive systems on injection moulding machines.7 APPLICATION OF INJECTION MOULDING : Injection moulding is a manufacturing technique for making parts from plastic material. and most other . The decisive element of the cycle is the cooling time to ejection. whereas the dwell period to the solidification of the sprue or on the gate requires several seconds. bottle caps. like plastic milk cartons. AC drives will commonly be used to power the hydraulic oil pressure pump for operating the mould works of an injection-moulding machine. pocket combs. pocket combs. containers.

Some disadvantages of this process are expensive equipment investment. the ability to use a wide range of materials. low labour cost. minimal scrap losses.plastic products available today. Some advantages of injection moulding are high production rates. Injection moulding is the most common method of part manufacturing. and the need to design mouldable parts 1. potentially high running costs. and little need to finish parts after moulding.8 METHODOLOGY: Development of low cost injection moulding machine Survey of injection moulding machine Selection of low cost injection moulding machine Design of various components Drafting and modeling Fabrication of various components Implementation Conclusion . It is ideal for producing high volumes of the same object. repeatable high tolerances.

the industrial components and engineering articles are being gradually replaced by so called high performance engineering plastics. Whereas the domestic low value. Considerable progress has been made in recent days in the construction of advance . Whereas this is far from during true situation. Injection moulding may be described as a batch process.Fig 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO PLASTIC PROCESS: Injection moulding is a major processing technique for converting thermoplastic materials to useful end products. The collaborative inter dependence of questions and demand a high degree of technical ability.6 methodology CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW From the tailor made training programmed on plastics for engineers book we collect information about  Introduction to plastic process  Fundamentals of polymers  Thermoplastic materials  Mould fabrication  Mould material selection 2. the machine operating cycles. The brief description of an simple operation without any problems. On the other hand. low performance commercial items are generally moulded with conventional and commodity plastics.

4 MOULD FABRICATION: The machine which is used for producing injection moulded parts plays a very important role. references also made to ‘commodity’ or large-huge plastics and specialty polymers bit this basis is purely commercial and naturally is bound to vary with time depending on usage pattern. be borne in mind that difference in properties will also result from the differences in structure.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF POLYMERS: Polymers are a large macromolecule built up of repetition of small and simple chemical units called monomers. One clarification attempts to categories plastic on the basis of the chemical structure of the polymer constituent. improve the quality of the mouldings and economical production costs.3 THERMOPLASTIC MATERIALS: The term plastics refer to a vast range of materials based on macro molecular organic components. proper alignment between the two . moulds and modified injection moulding methods. Sometimes based on the tonnages of plastics used. Polymer can be of long chain molecules or branched long chain molecules or molecules of interconnected three dimensional networks. moulded temperature control system. 2. The repeat unit of the polymer is equivalent or nearly equivalent to the monomer or starting material from which the polymer is formed. It must. however. 2. The machine must be accurate in giving correct injection pressure. Traditionally plastics have been divided into two major classes according to their behavior towards heat and consequently this subdivision is primarily one based on process ability.moulding machines. 2. This enables mouldings to be made to very close tolerance.

These class of plastic materials are capable of High loading for long period of time at elevated temperature in adverse environments. If substandard plastic raw materials are used good quality plastic components are also assured.5 MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA: A smaller share of the total plastics production although still measured in the billions of pounds is reserved for engineering plastics. Europe largest manufacturer of injection moulding machines. A good injection moulding machine will definitely give consistent good quality products.6. If anyone is not proper it is best assured that we will not get any quality moulded components. The performance of our machines has consistently provided unparalleled results which directly reflect in part quality . The most important role is played in getting quality and precision moulded part is by the mould designs and fabrication of mould for particular product. The different types of plastics materials used for producing various products must be of good graded quality. India’s largest engineering conglomerate and Demag Plastics Group GmbH. Behave in a predictable manner when subjected to design techniques and formulas. the material and the mould (3M) are inter related. L&T machines are of the finest quality. As a leader in the manufacture of injection moulding machines in India since 1992.6 PLANTS VISITED: 2. 2. The above three factors the machine. 2.1 L&T demag plastic division : L&T Plastics Machinery Limited (formerly L&T-Demag Plastics Machinery Limited) was a Joint Venture company between Larsen & Toubro Limited.platen etc.

From this visit we collect information about the working of various types of automatic moulding machine from various divisions. L&T bought the stake held by Demag in the joint venture company and has become a fully owned subsidiary of L&T. The factory has advanced facilities for research & development. plastic cap moulding system. house hold articles moulding machine. perform moulding system.and cost effectiveness of the moulding. we get the information about various types of machines.2 SA plastics: From this visit. Products produced: Plastic injection moulding machine. In March 2009. 2. Semi automatic plunger injection moulding machine: .6. L&T machines are manufactured at the state-of-the-art new manufacturing facility in Chennai that is fully equipped for producing machines in sizes up to clamping force of 1000 Metric Tons. L&T Injection Moulding Machines due to its consistent performance and high productivity has established itself as a preferred choice with plastic moulders. they are listed below  Manual plunger injection moulding machine  Semi automatic plunger injection moulding machine Manual plunger injection moulding machine: In manual injection moulding machine the operation of the injection and the clamping are done manually. packaging moulding machine.

water tank. .1 REASON FOR SELECTION: The injection moulding machine which are available today are of lower and higher tonnage machines. In higher tonnage machines injection pressure is very high and also we require higher clamping force. In this plastic injection moulding machine we can produce components which require very less injecting pressure clamping force and low processing temperature. hand shower.In this machine injection of plastic is done by hydraulic cylinders and the other operations are done manually. Products produced: Water tap. This type of machine is required for high end application and the cost of machines are also very high. CHAPTER 3 SELECTION OF LOW COST PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE AND MATERIAL 3. This machine are not required for producing components that can be made manually. and also to stress the importance of recycling process we decided to fabricate low cost plastic injection moulding machine. union etc.

The force is applied in the pinion and then transferred to the rack which acts as a plunger.2 Heating unit : . 3. whereas the spring is used for automatic retraction of plunger.1injection moulding machine 3.2. Barrel: The barrel acts as a temporary storage where the plastic material is melted. The hopper is used for supplying material to the barrel. The barrel contains the hopper and spring.2.Fig 3.2 COMPONENTS OF INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE : 3.1 Injection unit : Rack and pinion : The rack and pinion is used for applying the force which is required for injecting the the molten plastic material into the die.

The heater heats the barrel which in turn heat the plastics inside the barrel. The molten plastics which stays in runner is removed as waste. It acts against the injection pressure applied by the injection unit.3 Clamping unit: The clamping unit is mainly used to clamp the mould to the center of the nozzle. . The temperature of the heater is controlled by a control box. 3.45%. 3.6 0. The clamping unit does not allow any movement of the mould during injection of molten plastics into the mould.3 SELECTION OF MOULD MATERIAL Material used : EN8MS  EN stands for "Euro-Norm"  Tensile properties can vary but are usually between 500-800 N/mm2 Composition : C Si Mn 0.In this unit the plastics materials that is added to the barrel is heated by a heater.2. 0. Mould consists of a runner through which the molten plastics enter the cavity.35 0.0%. 3.4 Mould: The mould consists of core and cavity. Cavity is the main part where the molten plastics fill inside and take the required shape of the mould. 1.2.35%.05 0.

0.015% P.80% S. 0.25% Mn.06%.S. P < 0.MPa: 660.015% Stress . Selected mould material composition : C. 0. Tensile Elongation %: 7.40% Si. Yield Stress x 10^6 Pa: 530. 0. . 0.

 The properties and applications of HDPE vary wide ranges depending on the molecular weight.I 10000-25000 10000-25000 10000-25000 10000-15000 10000 10000-25000 15000-40000 8000-30000 8000-30000 10000-20000 10000-20000 Table 3.4 MATERIALS CONSIDERED : 3.  It is made from petroleum or natural gas feed stocks.V.C (plasticized) P.1 High Density Polyethylene:  Hdpe is made by the polymerization of ethane that is ethylene (CH2 = CH2) in the presence of catalyst.S. MATERIAL POLYSTYRENE(GENERAL PURSOSE) Polystyrene (rubber modified ) Polyethylene (low density) Polyethylene (high density) Polypropylene P.1 Properties of Thermoplastic Materials .C (rigid) Cellulose acetate Cellulose acetate butyrate Polymethylemethacrylate Nylon Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Styrene acrylonitrile Polycarbonate Acetal INJECTION TEMPERATURE °F 350-550 375-500 300-500 330-530 375-600 320-400 300-400 350-440 350-440 350-475 520-650 MOULDING PRESSURE P.4. the method of manufacture.V. and differences in structure and density.3.

.  It is also used for the manufacture of industrial components.959g/cm3.  It is harder and more opaque.965.  It is used for cable coating and insulating pipes.  It has a high degree of crystallinity.  Density : 0.  It is stronger and high tensile strength.94-0.  They are tough and flexible over a wide range of temperature.Characteristics of HDPE:  They have excellent resistance to solvents and chemicals.  Specific gravity : 0. Applications:  Films made from HDPE are widely used for packaging and lamination of natural fibers.  They posses good electrical insulation properties.941-0.  Pipes made from HDPE are used for transporting water and various other chemicals.  They are non toxic.  It is made by low pressure technique.

CH3). etc. Typical applications of HDPE include flexible bottles.2 Polypropylene:  Polypropylene is formed from the monomer propene that is propylene(CH2 = CH .946g/cm3.4.  It is similar to HDPE but its mechanical properties make it more suitable for moulded parts than polyethylene.  They are lighter in weight. toys. 3. harder.  It has high temperature resistance in view of higher melting point.  They are relatively low resistance to ultra-violet light.  They have good chemical and thermal resistance.90-0.  Specific gravity : 0.  This is also belongs to the group of polyfins like polyethylene and is manufactured by the low pressure process.  It is reasonably economical.  It is commonly recycled.91. and often stronger than polyethylene.  They have excellent fatigue resistance and a higher use temperature.855-0. Applications: . Characteristics of polypropylene:  They are stiffer. buckets.  Density : 0.

molybdenum. car interior components. copper(0. are made from this material. nickel.6%) and silicon (0. the proportions of manganese (1.4.65%). 3. it may also contain lead (free cutting mild steel) or sulphur .  It also include low cost semi rigid moulded products such as house wars.1%-0.3 Mild steel : Mild steel is a carbon steel typically with a maximum of 0. 0. brief and suit cases etc.4%-0.6%) are fixed. tungsten. titanium. chromium. Properties :  The maximum limit is 2 % carbon in the manufacture of carbon steel.  Polypropylene is used in washing machines. vanadium and zirconium are not. most plastic live hinges. carpet fibers. niobium. such as those on flip-top bottles. extruded pipes. while the proportions of cobalt.5% Silicon and some + traces of other elements such as phosphorous.7% manganese. polypropylene is resistant to fatigue.25% Carbon and 0.  Carbon makes mild steel stronger and stiffer than other type of steel .  Very thin sheets of polypropylene are used as a dielectric within certain high performance pulse and low loss  High-purity piping systems are built using polypropylene. etc. bottle caps. vacuum sweepers.

in the presence of water. The calculated average industry grade mild steel density is 7. . but it is not stain-proof).4. Properties:  stainless steel is the ability to maintain the same surface. corrode. Pure iron is prone to rusting and is highly unstable. as it is extracted from iron ore.e. which prevents mechanical and chemical damage.  Pure iron is the main element of stainless steel. or rust as easily as ordinary steel (it stains less.85 gm/cm3. its corrosion resistance. colour and structure i. It is also called corrosion-resistant steel There are different grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment to which the material will be subjected in its lifetime. Rusting of iron is due to its reaction with oxygen. and resistance to corrosion are required. 3.  It is not brittle  Mild steel is the cheapest and most versatile form of steel and serves every application which requires a bulk amount of steel.4 Stainless steel Stainless steel does not stain.  Chromium forms a transparent and passive layer of chromium oxide. Stainless steel is used where the properties of steel.

1 INTRODUCTION : Engineering design is the process of devising a system. . component. It is a decision making process in which the basic sciences and mathematics and engineering sciences are applied to convert resources optimally to meet a stated objective. Among the fundamental elements of design process are the establishment of objectives and criteria.CHAPTER 4 DESIGN OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS 4. or process to meet desired needs. synthesis. analysis.

1 Design of spring:  Calculation of maximum deflection: δmax = L .construction.2 DESIGN PROCEDURE ADOPTED: 4. testing and evaluation.Ls  Calculation of axial load on spring: δmax =  Calculation of helix angle: tanα =  Calculation of shear stress factor: ks = 1+ .  Plunger force  Pinion  Spring  Heating coil  Clamping force  Mould 4.2. The various components that are required to be designed are listed below.

2 Design of pinion:  Selection of material  Calculation of pitch circle diameter: Pc =  Calculation of tangential force: F=  Calculation of power: P = Ft × v  Calculation of transmission ratio: i=  calculation of module: Ft = where v =  Calculation of static load: . Calculation of maximum shear stress: τ = ks  calculation of spring stiffness: K= 4.2.

3 Design procedure for heating coil:  Calculation of heat absorption rate: Heat absorption rate = ηcoil × heat generation rate  Calculation for time of melting: Heat absorption rate = k = 0.8.  Calculation of maximum wear load: Fw = d1qkb  Check for wear load : Fd < Fw 4. b = 10module from PSG data book  Calculation of .Fs = πm[σb]by pg.5 to 1 from PSG data book pg. and v: b = 10m d = mZ1 v=  Calculation of accurate Fd using bukinghams : from PSG data book pg.51  Check for beam strength: Fs >= Fd If not design is not satisfactory by increasing the face width or by increasing the module or by increasing by reducing dynamic

 Calculation of effectiveness of the coil: By experimental observation the time taken for melting is noted and by using the same formula as mentioned above.3  Calculation of load applied on the circumference of the screw: Pscrew = Wclamp × tan(α+Ø) ×  Calculation of torque exerted on the screw: the coefficient of friction for screw jack or thread .2.4 Design of clamping force and torque:  Calculation of injecting pressure: Pmax =  Calculation of force developed in the cavity: Fcavity = Pmax × area of the cavity  Calculation of helix angle of the screw: tanα = d=  Calculation of angle of friction: tan Ø = μ is assumed as 0. 4.15 to 0. The effectiveness of the coil is calculated.

3 KNOWN PARAMETERS: Spring:  Pitch = 20mm  Diameter of the coil = 6.T = Pscrew ×  Calculation of torque exerted on the wheel: T = Pwheel × 4.36mm  Mean diameter of the coil = 57.2.3mm  Length of the coil = 45mm  Solid length of the coil = 24mm Pinion:  Number ot teeth on pinion = 11  Number of teeth on wheel = 22 .5 Design of volume of component: Calculation of total mass of the product:  Calculation of volume of the material: Density = 4.

 Diameter of the pinion = 35.098mm  Diameter of the cavity = 40mm  Pitch of the screw = 6mm  Outer diameter of the screw = 115mm  Inner diameter of the screw = 110mm  Length of the pinion handle = 220mm Mould: Experimentally Observed : .6mm  Pinion speed = 10rpm Heating Coil:  Power of the heater = 500watts  Melting temperature of the plastics = 60ºc  Atmospheric temperature = 25ºc  Efficiency of the coil = 70% assume Experimentally Observed:  Time taken for melting the plastics = 2sec Clamping Force:  Plunger area = 19.

2700 J/kg k  Density = 0.946 g/cm3 High Density Poly Ethylene:  Specific heat capacity = 2100 .6/11 d1 = 10mm .5 DESIGN OF PINION: 1.4 Materials Properties For Various Components: Pinion:  Mild steel   Maximum bending stress = 140 N/mm2 Maximum compressive stress = 500 N/mm2 Poly Propylene:  Specific heat capacity = 2900 J/kg k  Density = 0.959 g/cm3 Stainless steel  Modulus of rigidity = 70 kn/mm2 4. Weight of the product = 3.941 – 0. To find pitch circle diameter: Pc = = π*35.082gm 4.855 – 0.

To find the total power: P = Ft*V = 422. Selection of material: Mild steel C45 For C45 mild steel Ø = 20° .235*10-3m/sec 3.86 N 4.213 W 5. To find the tangential force: F= Ft = F*cosØ = 450*cos20° Ft = 422. To find velocity: V = = V = 5.86*5.2.235*10-3 P = 2.

136 m~2 * = 8.5 = 500 N/mm2 6.25 . Z2 = 22 Z2 = i*Z1 I= 22/11 I=2 7.b = 140 N/mm2 c from data book pg.759*10-3 m/s Ft = 422. Calculation of module : Ft = V = = V = 5.86 = m = 1. To find transmission ratio: Z1 = 11 .


Calculation of Fs : Fs = πm[


from data book = 8.50

y = 0.154 – y = 0.154 – = 0.0711 = π*2*20*140*0.0711 Fs = 1250.856 N 9. Calculation of b, d, and V: b = 10m b = 20mm d = mZ1 d = 22mm V= = V = 0.0115m/sec

10. Calculation

of accurate Fd by using buckinghams: from data book = 8.51

Fd = Ft + For c value from 8.53 table 41

For 20º full depth cteel and steel the error in action value is 11860e For e value 2mm module and carefully cut gears e=0.025 The ‘c’ value is c =11860*0.025 = 296.5 N/mm = 296.5 kgf/cm Ft = = = 192.17 N Ft = 19.2173 kgf Vm = 0.0115m/sec = 0.0115*60 = 0.60m/min b = 20mm b = 2cm

Fd = 19.2173 + = 21.096979 kgf Fd = 210.96 N Satic load is greater than dynamic load So design is safe. 11.Calculation of wear load: Fw = d1qkb (assume k=0.68)

Q= = = 1.333 = 22*20*1.333*0.68 Fw = 398.8336 N Wear load is greater than dynamic load So design is safe. 4.6 VOLUME OF THE COMPONENT: The mass of the product Shrinkage and other losses = 3.64gm = 5% of the mass

7*500 = 350 J/sec .822/0.The total mass of the product Total mass of the product For PP the range of density is = 3.855-0.7 HEATING COIL CALCULATION : Total Power Consumed by the heater = 500W Rate of heat generated by the coil = 500 J/sec = 3.985cm3 Rate of heat absorbed by the plastic is theoretically equal to heat generation But while transferring of heat there may b losses .64 =3.959g/cm3 For maximum density the volume is = 3.946 Volume of polypropylene For HDPE the range of density is =4.64*(5/100)+3.941-0.82gm = 0.959 Volume of HDPE 4.hence the heat absorption rate by the plastic is always less than the heat generation rate of the coil Let efficiency of the coil is assumed as 70% Heat absorption rate by the plastics = ᶯcoil * heat generation rate = 0.04cm3 = 0.822/0.946g/cm3 For maximum density the volume is = 3.

1078sec Expected time of melting t = 1.7.865 = ᶯcoil * 500 Effectiveness of the coil melts the plastic = 38.8 DESIGN OF SPRING : P = 20 mm .Heat absorbedtion rate = 350 Time for melting Time for melting = = = 1.82gm Heat absorbedtion rate = = = 193.865 J/sec Heat absorption rate by the plastics = ᶯcoil * heat generation rate 193.1 Experimental observation: Time of melting = 2sec Mass of the finished product including losses = 3.1078sec 4.77% 4.

3 mm.t the max deflection is the difference of the total length and solid length of the spring δmax = L-Ls δmax = 45-24 δmax = 21mm δ= (For Stainless steel.k.58 N =1+ .36 m D = 57.G=70 kn/mm2) 21 = Wmax = Wmax = 456.05 w.d = 6. C= = C=9 ks = 1 + ks =1.

02 Maximum Shear Stress : τ = Ks * τ = 1.9 TORQUE CALCULATION: Fcavity = Pmax * *D2 Pmax = .05* τ= 271.658 kg 4.Wmax = 45.912 N/mm2 Spring stiffness K= = K = 21.742 N/mm Total plunger force to be given is 456.658 kg tan α = = α = 45.58 N or 45.

052 N Fcavity = 199.036 .= Pmax = 1.014 mm Di = 0.6 mm Do = 0.59 N/mm2 Pmax =1.035 mm d= = d = 0.59*106 N/m2 Fcavity = 1.04)2) Fcavity = 1998.0358 m Pitch = 6 mm = 6*10-3 m πDo = 115 Do= 36.59*106 *((π/4)*(0.8052 kg Pscrew = Wclamp* tan (α +Φ) tan α = =d πDi = 110 Di = 35.

492 N Pwheel = Wclamp *tan (α+Φ) * Dwheel = L*2 Dwheel = 220*2 Dwheel = 440 mm Dwheel = 440 *10-3 m Pwheel = Wwheel * tan (α+Φ) * = 717.3 Φ =16.0358/2 T = 12.84 N-m .053 +16.7) * Pwheel = 20.7 ˚ Pscrew = Wclamp * tan (α+Φ) = 1998.492 *0.96 N Total Torque excerted on the screw T = pscrew *d/2 = 717.053+16.tan α = α= 3.053˚ tan Φ = 0.7) Pscrew = 717.492* tan (3.052*tan (3.

of teeth on pinion Z1 No. 5. Maximum deflection δmax Maximum plunger force Wmax Helix angle α Spring stiffness K Maximum shear stress τmax Table 4.04g/cm3 .742N/mm 271. 3.1 for spring 21mm 456. 2. 4. 3. 2.3 For mould 3. 6. 2. 4.2 For pinion 22mm 44mm 2 33mm 11 22 1.82gm 4.of teeth on wheel Z2 Table 4. 5.10 Specifications: 1. Total mass of product m Volume of the mould V cavity Table 4.96 * T= 4.Also total torque exerted on the wheel T = Pwheel * = 20. Pitch circle diameter d Diameter of pinion D Module m Center distance a No.02º 21.6112 N-m 4.58N 45.912 N/mm2 1.

59N/mm2 1. 1.1. 2.77% . 4. Force developed in the Fcavity cavity Helix angle of the screw α screw Torque exerted on the Tscrew screw Torque exerted on the Twheel wheel Maximum pressure Pmax Table 4.052 3.6112N-m 1.5 For Heating coil Expected time of melting T Effectiveness of the coil η 1998.053º 12. 2.84N-m 4. 5.1078sec 38.4 For clamping force and torque Table 4. 3.

drilling is done at the corners of the work piece and dowel pins are inserted in the drilled holes. the thickness of the work piece is reduced to the required dimension.1 L-BRACKET: The plates are in the shape of C-section are cutted to the required dimensions. the rack and pinion holder is mounted and fastened vertically so that the rack reciprocates . Then using drilling operation. Then using surface grinding operation .3 ASSEMBLY: The assembly considered in two different steps. Then engraving operation is done to the required symbol and shape. The ends at which welding are to be done are surface prepared. The plates are kept in the desired positions and then using arc welding process the plates are welded.2 MOULD: The work piece is mounted on the lathe machine. 6. The first is the asse mbly of injection unit and the second is the assembly of clamping unit. The surface of the work piece is made into a perfectly flat surface. Then using milling operation the milling is done to get the runner of required dimension. In the injection unit assembly. Then using the turning operation the work piece is turned to get the cavity of required dimension. To give support to the section the 6. Both the units are assembled in L-bracket. The injection unit is assembled vertically and the clamping unit is assembled horizontally. Then using facing operation .CHAPTER 6 FABRICATION OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS 6.

The injection moulding machine is installed in such a way that operation or rotation of the pinion and clamp. The clamping unit is fastened to the L-bracket horizontally with the help of bolts.4 INSTALLATION OF INJECTION MOULDING MACHINE: The assembled injection moulding machine in mounted on the wooden table and fastened to it. The temperature controller can digitized to get the precise temperature control and therefore increases the efficiency of the entire system. Recommendations for Future works: There is a huge scope for future works by giving automation to the plunger unit and to a great extent to the clamping unit a center locator can be placed so that there is no problem of adjusting the center of mould and the injection nozzle. The process is done by drilling holes on the wooden table and the L. . The power supply to the heating coil is given through the temperature controller which controls the supply and temperature of the heating coil.vertically.64gms. and installed. fabricated.82gms of input. assembled. the final output of the finished product was 3. 6. Conclusion: Thus the development of low cost injection moulding machine has been designed. Then. the injection unit is mounted on the L-bracket vertically with the help of injection unit holder. The hopper is screwed to the barrel of the injection unit such that the spring is locked in between them. It has been tested successfully and found that for the specified temperature of the plastic material and for 3.bracket and fastened with the help of bolts and nuts.

wikipedia. palanivelu  Mould Fabrication: By Mr. Fredric Moses By Ms.N. Raghu  Fundamentals Of Polymers: By Dr.  www. Brahatheeswaran  Thermoplastic Materials: By  www. Irene Suresh Internet source  www.Reference:  Introduction To Plastic Process: By Mr. K.