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Mediterranean Marine Science
VoI 1/2. 2000. 31-40
Seasonal Variation oI the Cold Intermediate Water in the Southwestern Black
Sea and its Interaction with Sea oI Marmara Ior the Period 1996-1998
H. AItiok
1
. H. Yüce
2
and Bedri AIpar
1
1
University oI IstanbuI. Institute oI Marine Science and Management. MuskiIe Sok. 1. 34470.
VeIa. IstanbuI. Turkey
2
Turkish Navy. Department oI Navigation. Hydrography and Oceanography. CubukIu.
IstanbuI. Turkey
Manuscript received: 19 August 1999; accepted in revised Iorm: 27 March 2000
ABSTRACT
Seasonal variations of the cold intermediate vater (CIW) in the southvestern Black Sea and
its entrance into the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus) vithin the upper layer flov have been
studied by using monthly oceanographic data sets collected in 1996-1998 period. In addition.
the advection of the CIW via Strait Of Istanbul to the Sea of Marmara has been investigated.
1he CIW is a permanent and characteristic vater mass of the Black Sea. reneved every year
by vinter convection markedly observed in the northvestern Black Sea. It is transported vith
the rim current along the boundary of the basin. 1he average temperature of the CIW is about
6
o
C. 1he 8
o
C isotherms defines its upper and lover boundaries. 1he upper boundary of CIW
rises up to the 20 m depth in the shelf and coastal upvelling regions vith a thickness of 40 m.
On the other hand. the depth of the upper boundary may decrease dovn to 40 m vith a
thickness of 120 m in the anticyclonic regions.
1he CIW. located betveen 30 and 65m depths. vas observed from April to September at the
northern approaches of the Strait of Istanbul in the Black Sea. Hovever. the CIW. vithin the
Black Sea´s upper layer flov. does not enter into the strait in the beginning (April. May) and
at the end (September) of this period. 1he CIW betveen 20 and 50m vater depths vas
observed in the northern entrance of the strait in summer (June. July and August) and it vas
carried into the strait by the southbound surface current. Its temperature increases
southvards along the strait. due to the mixing vith the varmer surface and bottom layers.
1his increment ranges betveen 2 and 4
o
C depending on the rate of mixing. 1he physically
altered vaters enter the Sea of Marmara vith temperature of 11-14
o
C.
32
In the Sea of Marmara. a residual cold intermediate layer (CIL) is observed in summer. it is
fust placed on top of the halocline. 1he average temperature of the upper layer increases from
spring to autumn. In some months. hovever. there is a decrement in the average temperature
of the upper layer. 1he altered CIW vaters entering the Sea of Marmara may be responsible
for this cooling.
Keyvords : CIW. Black Seai Sea of Marmara. Strait of Istanbul
INTRODUCTION
The BIack Sea represents a unique environment in that it is a reIativeIy smaII. deep basin.
which is connected via a shaIIow water passage. the Strait oI IstanbuI. to the Mediterranean
Sea. ThereIore. it Iorms a semi-stagnant basin with anoxic conditions beIow 150-200 m water
depth.
The BIack Sea posseses restricted water exchange with the Mediterranean Sea and reIativeIy
Iarge amount oI the river discharges (Stanev 1990). The deep water. reIativeIy highIy saIine
and anoxic. is pIaced beIow the permanent haIocIine which is restricted to upper Iayer (150-
200m). The upper Iayer consists oI severaI Iayers. which are mixed Iayer. seasonaI termocIine
and CIW. The seasonaI termocIine at 15-30m depth depends on spatiaI and temporaI
variabiIity. The coId intermediate Iayer. which is deIined by the temperatures Iess than 8GC.
takes pIace between the seasonaI and permanent termocIine (Trukhchev et aI.. 1985. Stanev
1990). It can be observed when the surIace Iayer temperature is higher than 8 GC.
CoId intermediate water (CIW) is Iormed by the sinking water which cooIs surIace Iayer oI
northwestern BIack Sea in winter (ToImazin 1985. Stanev 1990. Oguz et aI. 1998) The CIW
is advected by the Rim Current characterised by a predominantIy cycIonic. time depended and
spatiaIIy structured basin-wide circuIation. During its course around the basin. it is entrapped
by the associated eddy IieId. where it is continuousIy modiIied (Oguz et aI. 1992). In the
peripheries oI the anticycIonic eddies there is observed a rising oI CIW. oIten creating an
anamoIous coId patch on the sheII (Adrionova and KhoIoptsev. 1992).
When the seasonaI termocIine is sharp in Iate spring and summer. the heat and saIt transport
into the CIW is Iimited and thereIore the characteristics oI the CIW do not change
signiIicantIy. However. the verticaI transport oI the heat and saIt into the CIW increases in
autumn due to the weak seasonaI termocIine (Oguz et aI.. 1992. Sur and IIyin 1997).
The CIW is a dynamicaIIy passive Iayer (Stanev. 1990) and it can be easiIy inIIuenced by the
surrounding water. CIW is advected by the upper Iayer IIux coming Irom the BIack Sea to the
33
Strait oI IstanbuI. In the vicinity oI the strait. the Mediterranean water interacts with the CIW
and their temperature and saIt content change (Özsoy et aI.. 1991).
In the Sea oI Marmara. an intermediate coId Iayer presents just above the saIinity interIace in
summer months. This Iayer is partiaIIy Iormed within the Sea oI Marmara in winter months.
and is partiaIIy advected Irom the BIack Sea (ÜnIüata et aI. 1990).
In this study. monthIy temperature variations aIong the Strait oI IstanbuI are evaIuated in
order to eIucidate the eIIects oI the upper and Iower IIuxes on the CIW. We investigated the
reIation oI the monthIy temperature variations observed in the Sea oI Marmara during summer
months with the CIW`s seasonaI changes in vicinity oI the strait. We aIso studied the coId
intermediate Iayer which onIy existed in the Sea oI Marmara Irom May to September.
MATERIAL
The monthIy CTD data were coIIected by the research vesseI R/V Arar oI the IstanbuI
University. Institute oI Marine Sciences and Management (IMSM-IU) during the period oI
February 1996 - December 1998. The Iocation oI the monthIy station are given in Figure 1.
Our anaIyses are aIso based on the CTD measurements in the BIack Sea exit obtained by the
Department oI Navigation. Hydrography and Oceanography (DNHO). The DNHO`s sea triaI
are reaIised in November 1995 and 1996. May. June. JuIy 1996 and October 1997 in diIIerent
number oI stations. The Iocation oI these station are shown as dots in the reIated pIots in
Figure 2.
Figure 1 Iocations oI monthIy visited stations on R/V Arar. (K1 one in 3 m)
B2
B7
B13
K0
K1*
K2
M8
M23
T1
2S.SE 29.uE 29.2E
4u.SN
41.uN
41.2N
41.4N
34
Figure 2 The starting depth oI the CIW in the Southwestern BIack Sea.
29.00 29.20 29.40
41.15
41.25
41.35
41.45
8-10.05.1996
29.00 29.20 29.40
41.15
41.25
41.35
41.45
03.06.1996
28.90 29.00 29.10 29.20 29.30 29.40
41.15
41.25
41.35
41.45
27.06.1996
28.90 29.00 29.10 29.20 29.30 29.40
41.15
41.25
41.35
41.45
3-4.07.1996
28.90 29.00 29.10 29.20 29.30 29.40
41.15
41.25
41.35
41.45

28.90 29.00 29.10 29.20 29.30 29.40
41.15
41.25
41.35
41.45
24-27.10.1997
28.80 29.00 29.20 29.40
41.15
41.25
41.35
41.45
41.55
29-30.11.1995
35
SEASONAL VARIATION OF CIW IN THE SOUTHWESTERN BLACK SEA
In the southwestern BIack Sea. approaches to the Strait OI IstanbuI. diIIerent water masses meet
and interact with each other. The upper Iayer oI the BIack Sea is inIIuenced by the Rim Current
and river discharge. The CIW is advected by the upper Iayer into the area. Another water mass is
the Mediterranean water coming Irom the strait. The seaIIoor morphoIogy pIays important roIe
on the transportation oI the Mediterranean water which IIows in a channeI deIined by the 55m
isobath. with a width ranging between 650 and 1950m. The Iength oI channeI is approximateIy
7.5km in the direction oI 33GT. Then it turns and extends 2.5 km toward north. The siII depth is
61m and its Iength is 3.75km (Yüce. 1996). Since the Mediterranean water comes across the
CIW at Iirst. its saIinity and temperature decreases. The starting depth oI CIW is determined by
the upper Iayer. whiIe its ending depth is determined by the Mediterranean water. iI it is there
depending mainIy on the water depth. However. the CIW is generaIIy Iowermost Iayer due to
shaIIowness (·100m).
In order to determine the seasonaI variations oI the CIW. the depths oI 8GC temperature were
pIotted Ior each survey. The upper Iayer boundary oI the CIW takes pIace 28-36m in May
1996 (Figure 2). The higher depth vaIue was observed in deeper regions. In June 1996. the
starting depth oI CIW was observed between the depths oI 30 and 38m. The upper Iayer
thickness increases due to atmospheric heating. In the end oI June 1996. during another cruise
in an extended area. the upper Iayer boundary oI the CIW is in the range oI 24-40m. In JuIy
1996. 10 days Iater. it ranges between 24-32m. In addition. the starting depth oI CIW seems to
be higher in the channeI which the Mediterranean water IIows in (Figure 2).In October 1997.
we did not observed the upper Iayer boundary oI the CIW in the shaIIow sheII area. For
deeper areas. the depths oI the 8GC thermocIine was between 58 and 64m upIiIting oIIshore
direction. In November 1996. it was about at 60m water depth. In November 1995. the spatiaI
variation oI CIW is again observed in deep areas. varying between 60 and 75m depths (Figure
2).
MONTHLY VARIATION OF TEMPERATURE IN NORTHERN ENTRANCE OF
STRAIT OF ISTANBUL
The comprehensive data set coIIected Irom February 1996 to December 1998 reveaIs monthIy
and interannuaI variabiIities in the temperature at the stations K0 and K2 (Figure 1). The
overIay temperature proIiIes oI these station (dashed Iines reIers the station K2) are given in
Figure 3. The March and October 1998 data are missing Ior both stations whiIe the January
36
and September 1997 data are onIy missing Ior the station K2. In 1996. the station K2 was
measured onIy Ior two months (August and November). The temperature proIiIes in station
K0 provides us the monthIy variation oI entering water Irom the BIack Sea. Temperature
distribution in the station K2 indicates the characteristics oI the south-western BIack Sea. The
monthIy variations oI the upper Iayer. coId intermediate Iayer and the Mediterranean water
can be seen in Figure 3.
Two-Iayer water coIumn was observed in the stations K0 and K2. except some uncommon
situations during the year. In the end oI autumn. the temperature oI the upper Iayer was not
distinguished Irom the temperature oI the Iower Iayer. since their temperature were very cIose
to each other (~14GC). In February 1998. the Mediterranean water was not observed in the
station K2 due to the bIockage oI the Mediterranean water.
The upper Iayer temperature indicates the seasonaI changes. The minimum temperature was
observed as 3.0GC in February 1996 and the maximum temperature was Iound to be 24.8GC in
August 1998. The upper Iayer thickness ranges Irom a Iew meters to 50-65m down to where
exists the Mediterranean water.
The Mediterranean water can be observed in aII months expect February 1998 in the station
K2. Its temperature was in the range oI 13.5-15.0GC. Its thickness changes seasonaIIy between
5 and 20 meters. reaching the minimum vaIues in winter and earIy summer months. The
temperature and thickness oI the Mediterranean water were determined by the hydrographic
conditions in the Strait oI IstanbuI.
The surIace water temperature increases as a resuIt oI seasonaI heating in ApriI. In the station
K0. the topmost 5-m water Iayer were heated in ApriI 1996 and 1997. In ApriI 1998. on the
other hand. the warm upper Iayer extends down to nearIy 50m water depth and its temperature
was aImost 10GC. In the station K2. the CIW was between 40 and 60m depths in ApriI 1998.
From May to August. the CIW was observed beIow the seasonaI termocIine in the station K0.
During this period. in the station K2. the CIW take pIaces as a thicker and coIder Iayer than
that in the station K0 (Figure 3).
The temperature oI the upper Iayer starts to decrease in September and it reaches to a
minimum vaIue in February. AIthough the CIW was not observed in this period. there was a
very thin coId water just above the Mediterranean water in the station K2. in November 1997.
In the previous month. the CIW was not detected in the same station. It couId be advected
Irom Iar shore to the study area.
37
S
u
2u
4u
6u
Su
D(m)
S S S S S S S S S S
T(degC) 1996
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
S
u
2u
4u
6u
Su
D(m)
S S S S S S S S S S
T(degC) 1997
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
S
u
2u
4u
6u
Su
D(m)
S S S S S S S S S S
T(degC) 1998
1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12
F
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e

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0

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K
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.

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)
38
M23 M8 B2 B7 B13 K0 K2 K1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
26-27 May 199S T(degC)
min.: 8, max.: 15, c.i.: 1
M23 M8 B2 B7 B13 K0 K2 K1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
23-24 1une 199S T(degC)
min.: 8, max.: 14, c.i.: 1 min.: 16, max.: 22, c.i.: 2
M23 M8 B2 B7 B13 K0 K2 K1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
21-22 1uly 199S T(degC)
min.: 8, max.: 14, c.i.: 1 min.: 16, max.: 22, c.i.: 2
Figure 4 The temperature transects in the Strait oI IstanbuI and its south and north
39
Figure 4 Continued
M23 M8 B2 B7 B13 K0 K2 K1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
22-23 September 199S T(degC)
min.:9. max.:21. c.i.: 2

M23 M8 B2 B7 B13 K0 K2 K1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
25-26 Agust 199S T(degC)
min.:S. max.:24. c.i.: 2
40
In September 1998 and in August 1996. the CIW in the station K2 was very thin and the
temperature increased above the Mediterranean water. This Ieature may impIy the heating oI
Mediterranean water. whiIe it is passing through the Strait oI IstanbuI. by the overIying warm
upper Iayer. This means that there was no any coId water contact with the Mediterranean
water (Figures 3 and 4).
In JuIy 1998. there was nearIy 7.5GC surIace temperature diIIerence between the station K0
and K2. The CIW was very thick and nearIy started at 15m water depth in the station K0 in
this month. The CIW. rather than the upper Iayer. moves toward the Strait oI IstanbuI.
&,:02',),&$7,21,1675$,72),67$1%8/
The temperature transects aIong the Sea oI Marmara. Strait oI IstanbuI and at the BIack Sea
exit are given in Figure 4 Irom May to September 1998 which can be observed the CIW in
BIack Sea exit oI the strait.
In May 1998. temperature oI the surIace Iayer is about 15GC in northern part oI the Strait oI
IstanbuI. It decreases to Iess than 14GC in the station B2. In the Sea oI Marmara. the surIace
temperature is greater than 14GC. There is a coId Iayer oI 5-6m thickness and its temperature
is Iess than 11GC. beIow 20m depth in the Sea oI Marmara. The CIW was Iound in vicinity oI
the strait (station K1 and K2) between 55 and 65m. As noticed Irom the Figure. the CIW does
not eIIect signiIicantIy the upper Iayer oI the strait. It eIIects the Mediterranean water in the
station K2. as decrease its temperature. CooIing oI the surIace water in the station B2 is due to
a hydrauIic jump which creates a mixing in water coIumn (Oguz et aI 1990). The temperature
oI coId water entering together with the upper Iayer to the Sea oI Marmara is higher than that
in the coId intermediate water in the Sea oI Marmara.
In June 1998. the surIace temperature increases to ~22.0GC in two adjacent basins whiIe it is
coIder in the Strait oI IstanbuI. The CIW can be observed between ~40-50m depths in the
station K0. IongitudinaI temperature transect indicates that the coId intermediate Iayer beIow
warm upper Iayer ascends aIong the strait. During transition. its temperature increases because
oI mixing with adjoining waters. In the Sea oI Marmara. there is a coId Iayer oI 5-6m
thickness with Iess than 11.0GC temperature. The coId water with upper Iayer oI the strait
enters to the Sea oI Marmara with a temperature oI ~12GC.
In JuIy 1998. the CIW is thicker to the north oI the strait. This cause the upper Iayer to get
coId in the strait. The surIace temperature in the strait was very coId according to BIack Sea
and Sea oI Marmara. EspeciaIIy. it is Iess than 13GC in the station B2 whiIe it is higher 22GC
41
in the Sea oI Marmara. The warm surIace water in the BIack Sea does not enter to the strait.
The coId waters cover aImost the strait in the upper Iayer. The coId water at surIace in the
station B2 settIes down in the intermediate Iayer in the Sea oI Marmara. Temperature oI the
coId Iayer in the Sea oI Marmara is ~12.0GC.
In August 1998. the CIW is Iound between ~30 and 40m depth in the station K0. Its inIIuence
is observed in the intermediate Iayer up to station B13. The surIace temperature coming Irom
the BIack Sea does not signiIicantIy change in the north oI the strait. In spite oI decrement in
the temperature oI the surIace water in the station B2. the temperature oI the upper Iayer
entering to the Sea oI Marmara was higher than 14GC which was greater than those oI the
previousIy months.
The temperature transect in September 1998. indicates that there is no coId water between the
upper and Iower Iayers in the strait. The CIW is Iound onIy a Iew meters in the station K2.
The temperature contours are incIined upwards Irom the station K0 to the station B2. The
temperature is decreasing with depth in the water coIumn aIong the strait. The coId water
beIow the seasonaI termocIine is not observed in the Sea oI Marmara.
In normaI conditions. the temperature oI the intermediate Iayer in the Strait oI IstanbuI is
aImost greater than 8GC in summer (Figure 4). But this does not mean that the CIW is absent
in the strait in summer. One can obviousIy see a tongue-shaped extension oI the reIated Iayer
in the temperature transects aIong the strait (Figure 4). This Iayer ascends (toward the surIace)
and its temperature increases because oI hydrauIic conditions (Oguz et aI.. 1990) in the Strait
oI IstanbuI. This modiIied CIW mixes with upper and Iower Iayers aIong the strait. Its
temperature is ~11-12GC when it enters to the Sea oI Marmara in June and JuIy.
The station T1. Iocated at the deepest part oI the eastern Sea oI Marmara (Figure 1) is not
directIy inIIuenced by the coastaI waters. The evidence oI temperature decrement oI coId
intermediate Iayer during summer months can be seen cIearIy Irom the T-S diagrams oI the
station T1 (Figure 5). The temperature and saIinity data were coIIected Irom May to
September 1998.
As noticed. there are three water masses in the Sea oI Marmara. except in September 1998.
The temperature oI the surIace waters with a saIinity oI 20-22 saIinity is ~13GC in May 1998
and increases to ~23GC in August 1998. A coId water mass with ~25 saIinity and 9-10GC
temperature underIies the surIace Iayer. Its temperature and saIinity increase to 11-12.5GC and
42
~26.5 Irom May to JuIy. The temperature and saIinity vaIues oI the Iower Iayer are ~14.5GC
and ~38.5. respectiveIy.
Figure 5 T-S diagrams in station T1 Iocated in the eastern basin in the Sea oI Marmara
Even the temperature oI this coId water mass in Sea oI Marmara increases during summer.
this increase is not reguIar. For exampIe. the temperature (~9.5) oI coId water mass in JuIy 9
th
1998 was coIder than that (~10.3GC) measured on June 24
th
1998. The source oI this coId
water can expIain the modiIication oI the CIW coming Irom the BIack Sea through the Strait
oI IstanbuI.
&21&/86,21
The starting depth oI CIW observed in the vicinity oI the Strait oI IstanbuI in BIack Sea gets
deeper Irom May to November. The spatiaI variation oI the CIW indicates that it is Iound in
earIy summer even near-shore. Because the seasonaI termocIine is pIaced at ~20m water
depth. However. when the seasonaI termocIine is deeper in autumn. the upper boundary oI
CIW can be observed at ~60m water depth.
15.O 2O.O 25.O 3O.O 35.O 4O.O
Salinity
8.O
1O.O
12.O
14.O
16.O
18.O
2O.O
22.O
24.O
T
(
d
e
g
C
)
13.5.98
27.5.98
11.6.98
24.6.98
9.7.98
22.7.98
11.8.98
26.8.98
23.9.98
43
In the northern exit oI the Strait oI IstanbuI. the CIW can be observed Irom May to August. Its
starting depth increases Irom 10m (May) to 65m (August). It generaIIy reaches its maximum
thickness in June and JuIy. When the voIume oI the CIW is Iarger in the northern exit oI the
Strait oI IstanbuI. its interaction with the upper Iayer in the strait increases. This increases
mixing oI the CIW with bounding Iayers. Thus. the temperature oI the upper Iayer in the strait
decreases southward. In the southern exit oI the strait. as a resuIt oI hydrauIic jump over the
southern siII. the mixing degree is higher and a coIder water mass Iorms in this region. Since
this coId water mass is denser than the surIace waters in the Sea oI Marmara. it sinks. We
have observed that there was a temperature decrement in the coId intermediate Iayer in the
Sea oI Marmara in summer. This modiIied coId water coming Irom the strait together with the
upper Iayer cause Iurther temperature decrement in the coId intermediate Iayer oI the Sea oI
Marmara.
5()(5(1&(6
Andrianova. O. R.. KhoIoptsev. A.V. 1992 On water stratiIication in the western BIack Sea.
OceanoIogy. VoI:32. no:2. 234-240.
Oguz. T.. Besiktepe. S.T.. Ivanov. I.I.. Diacanu V.. 1998. On the ADCP derived Rim Current
Structure. CIW Formation and the RoIe oI MesoscaIe Eddies on the CIW Transport in the
BIack Sea: ResuIts From ApriI 1993 Observations. In: Ecosystem ModeIIing as a
Management TooI Ior the BIack Sea. VoI.2. 93-118.
Oguz. T.. Özsoy. E.. IatiI. M.A.. ÜnIüata. Ü.. 1990. ModeIIing oI hydrauIicaIIy controIIed
exchange IIow in the Bosphorus. J. Phys. Ocenography. 20. 945-965.
Oguz. T.. VioIette. P. and ÜnIüata. Ü. 1992. The upper Iayer circuIation oI the BIack Sea: its
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Özsoy. E.. Z. Top. G. White and J. Murray. 1991: DoubIe diIIusive intrusions. mixing and
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285-319.
Sur H. I. And IIyin. Y. P. 1997. EvoIution oI sateIIite derived mesoscaIe thermaI patterns in
the BIack Sea. Prog. Oceonography. 39. 109-151.
44
ToImazin. D.. 1985. Changing coastaI oceanography oI the BIack Sea. Progr. I: North-western
sheII. Prog. Oceanog.. 15. 217-276.
Trukhchev. D. I.. Stanev. E.V.. BaIashov. G.D.. MiIoshev. G.D.. Rusenov. V.M. Unique
Ieatures oI the mesoscaIe structure oI hydroIogicaI IieIds in the western part oI the BIack Sea.
OceanoIogy. VoI:25. No:4. P:443-6. 1985
ÜnIüata Ü.. Oguz. T.. IatiI. M.A. and Özsoy. E. 1990. On the physicaI oceanography oI the
Turkish Straits. In 1he Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits (Pratt. I.J. ed.). NATO/ASI
Series. KIuwer Academic PubIishers. NetherIands. 25-60.
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exit. Estuarine. CoastaI and SheII Science. 43. 597-616.

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