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6.

Internal lightning protection
6.1 Equipotential bonding for metal installations
Equipotential bonding according to IEC 60364-441 and IEC 60364-5-54 Equipotential bonding is required for all newly installed electrical power consumer’s installations. Equipotential bonding according to IEC 60364 series removes potential differences, i.e. prevents hazardous touch voltages between the protective conductor of the low voltage electrical power consumer’s installations and metal, water, gas and heating pipes, for example.
antenna remote signalling system equipotential bonding of bathroom buried installation, operationally isolated (e.g. cathodic protected tank installation) metal element going through the building (e.g. lift rails)

According to IEC 60364-4-41, equipotential bonding consists of the main equipotential bonding (in future: protective equipotential bonding) and the supplementary equipotential bonding (in future: supplementary protective equipotential bonding) Every building must be given a main equipotential bonding in accordance with the standards stated above (Figure 6.1.1). The supplementary equipotential bonding is intended for those cases where the conditions for disconnection from supply cannot be met, or for special areas which conform to the IEC 60364 series Part 7.

230/400 V

5

kWh

1 Equipotential bonding bar (main equipotential bonding, in future: main earthing terminal) 2 Foundation earth electrode 3 Connector 4 Lightning current arrester 5 Terminal 6 Pipe clamp 7 Terminal lug

8 6 1 6 to PEN 4

8 Isolating spark gap SEB distribution network

heating 6 insulating element 6

Z gas water waste water 7 4 IT system terminal lug for external lightning protection 2 3 3

Z foundation earth electrode / lightning protection earth electrode

Fig. 6.1.1 Principle of lightning equipotential bonding consisting of lightning and main equipotential bonding (in future: protective equipotential bonding)

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LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 147

railways in accordance with EN 50122-1 (railway lines of the Deutsche Bahn may only be connected upon written approval) ⇒ measuring earth for laboratories. which. the foundation earth electrode is an optimal and effective complement of the equipotential bonding.1 shows the terminals and the respective components of the main equipotential bonding. if no intolerably high earthing voltage can be dragged. be labelled the same as protective conductors. if intolerably high earthing potentials can be transferred ⇒ railway earth for electric a. steel skeleton. but being able to introduce electric potential including the earth potential.e. More exact descriptions and designs of the foundation earth electrode can be found in Chapter 5.1.c. The decisive factor for the design of the main equipotential bonding conductors in accordance with IEC 60364-5-54 and HD 60364-5-54 is the cross section of the main protective conductor. If a foundation earth electrode is used as lightning protection earth electrode. i.5. if they are separate from the protective conductors Figure 6.g. The main protective conductor is the one coming from the source of current or from the service entrance box or the main distribution board. ventilation and air conditioning ducting) ⇒ metal drain pipe ⇒ internal gas pipe ⇒ earthing conductor for antennas (in Germany in DIN VDE 0855-300) ⇒ earthing conductor for telecommunication systems (in Germany in DIN VDE 0800-2) ⇒ protective conductors of the electrical installation in accordance with IEC 60364 series (PEN conductor for TN systems and PE conductors for TT systems or IT systems) ⇒ metal shields of electrical and electronic conductors ⇒ metal cable sheaths of high-voltage current cables up to 1000 V ⇒ earth termination systems for high-voltage current installations above 1 kV according to HD 637 S1. The design of a foundation earth electrode is governed in Germany by DIN 18014.de .Main equipotential bonding The following extraneous conductive parts have to be directly integrated into the main equipotential bonding: ⇒ main equipotential bonding conductor in accordance with IEC 60364-4-41 (in future: earthing conductor) ⇒ foundation earth electrodes or lightning protection earth electrodes ⇒ central heating system ⇒ metal water supply pipe ⇒ conductive parts of the building structure (e. Equipotential bonding conductors do not carry operating currents and can therefore be either bare or insulated. and d.5. lift rails. green/yellow.dehn. if an electric potential including the earth potential can be introduced via them. they can be taken from Chapter 5. Design of the earth-termination system for equipotential bonding The electrical low-voltage consumer’s installation requiring certain earthing resistances (disconnection conditions of the protective elements) and the foundation earth electrode providing good earthing resistances at cost-effective installation. for example requires terminal lugs for the earthing busbar. additional requirements may have to be considered. as long as they fulfil a protective function. Note: Extraneous conductive components also include conductive floors and walls.c. Normative definition in IEC 60050-826 of an extraneous conductive component: A conductive unit not forming part of the electrical installation. The following installation components have to be integrated indirectly into the main equipotential bonding via isolating spark gaps: ⇒ installations with cathodic corrosion protection and stray current protection measures in accordance with EN 50162 ⇒ earth-termination systems of high-voltage current installations above 1 kV in accordance with HD 637 S1. Equipotential bonding conductors (in future: protective bonding conductors) Equipotential bonding conductors should. 148 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www.

563 200 www. Reference is made therein to the testing of the lightning protection units in accordance with EN 50164-1. It defines the following connection possibilities as a minimum: ⇒ 1 x flat conductor 4 x 30 mm or round conductor Ø 10 mm ⇒ 1 x 50 mm2 ⇒ 6 x 6 mm2 to 25 mm2 ⇒ 1 x 2.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 149 .2 K12 Equipotential bonding bar. 25 mm2 Al or 50 mm2 steel. For earth conductors of antennas (according to IEC 60728-11 (EN 60728-11)).5 x cross section of the between two bodies largest protective conductor of the installation between a body and an extraneous conductive part 6 mm2 with mechanical protection without mechanical protection Possible limit Table 6.1. the minimum cross section of the main equipotential bonding conductor is at least 6 mm2 Cu. The supplementary equipotential bonding (Table 6. then this component can also be used for lightning equipotential bonding in accordance with IEC 62305-1 to 4 (EN 62305-1 to 4).1 1xcross section of the smaller protective conductor 0. 6. If the requirements in the previously mentioned standard are met. Fig. Terminals for equipotential bonding Terminals for equipotential bonding must provide a good and permanent contact. DIN VDE 0618-1: 1989-08 (German standard) contains details of the requirements on equipotential bonding bars for the main equipotential bonding.1.5 mm2 Cu or equivalent conductivity 4 mm2 Cu or equivalent conductivity − Minimum 25 mm2 Cu or equivalent − conductivity Cross sections for equipotential bonding conductors In any case. Part No. 25 mm2 Cu has been defined as a possible maximum.5 mm2 to 6 mm2 These requirements on an equipotential bonding bar are met by K12 (Figure 6.5 x cross section of the protective conductor 2. it must be able to carry current safely and have sufficient corrosion resistance.1. This standard also includes the requirements for the inspection of clamping units of cross sections above 16 mm2 with regard to the lightning current ampacity.1) must have a minimum cross section of 2.1.5 mm2 Cu for a protected installation. the minimum cross section is 16 mm2 Cu. Equipotential bonding bars Equipotential bonding bars are a central component of equipotential bonding which must clamp all the connecting conductors and cross sections occurring in practice to have high contact stability.Main equipotential bonding Supplementary equipotential bonding Normal 0.2).dehn. and 4 mm2 Cu for an unprotected installation.

and also this supplementary equipotential bonding can be limited to a particular location. offer enormous advantages for mounting (Figure 6.dehn. ⇒ IEC 60364-7-701 Rooms with bathtub or shower ⇒ IEC 60364-7-702 Swimming pools and other basins ⇒ IEC 60364-7-705 For agricultural and horticultural premises The difference to the main equipotential bonding is the fact that the cross sections of the conductors can be chosen to be smaller (Table 6.1. These are . The reason behind is to interconnect all simultaneously accessible parts as well as the stationary operating equipment and also extraneous conductive parts.6 shows equipotential bonding of heating pipes with straight-through connection.3 and 6. a supplementary local equipotential bonding is required.5 Pipe earthing clamp. earthing pipe clamps corresponding to the diameters of the pipes are used (Figures 6. Figure 6. which can be universally adapted to the diameter of the pipe.1.6 Equipotential bonding with straight-through connection 150 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. Fig. The IEC 60364 series Part 7 draws attention to the supplementary equipotential bonding for operational facilities. The supplementary equipotential bonding is also required if the environmental conditions in special installations or parts of installations mean a particular risk. A low-impedance conductance to the various parts of the installation and to the equipotential bonding is recommended. 540 910 Integrating pipes into the equipotential bonding In order to integrate pipes into the equipotential bonding.4). These pipe earthing clamps can be used to clamp pipes that are made of different materials (e.1. Supplementary equipotential bonding If the disconnection conditions of the respective system configuration can not be met for an installation or a part of it. rooms and installations of a particular type. Pipe earthing clamps made of stainless steel. 6. 6.4 Pipe earthing clamp. Part No.1). 408 014 Fig. Part No.1. the supplementary equipotential bonding must be used for installations or parts of installations of IT systems with insulation monitoring.Fig. These components allow also a straight-through connection. Test and inspection of the equipotential bonding Before commissioning the electrical consumer’s installation. for example. steel.1. A guide value of < 1 Ω for the connections at equipotential bonding is considered to be sufficient.5). 6. 407 114 Fig.3 Pipe earthing clamp. Moreover.1.1.de .g.1. Part No. the connections must be inspected to ensure their faultless condition and effectiveness.1. The aim is to keep any touch voltage which may occur as low as possible. 6. copper and stainless steel).

5. 6. Fig. 6.2. Directive for the use of surge protective equipment Type 1 (up to now Class B) in main distribution systems” (see subclauses 7. A convenient installation site is the point where cabling going Fig. this also integrates the supply conductors of the low voltage consumer’s installation into the equipotential bonding.1 and 6.2. 6.1) (Figures 6.2 of IEC 62305-3 (EN 62305-3) as well as in subclause 7 and Annexes C and D of IEC 62305-4 (EN 62305-4).2 Equipotential bonding for low voltage consumer’s installations Equipotential bonding for low voltage consumer’s installations as part of the internal lightning protection. Analogous to the equipotential bonding with metal installations (see Chapter 6. In addition to all conductive systems. the equipotential bonding for the low voltage consumer’s installation shall also be carried out immediately at the point of entry into the object.1) telecommunication lines with metal conductors.2. represents an extension of the main equipotential bonding (in future: protective equipotential bonding) according to IEC 60364-4-41 (Figure 6.2.2.2).3 Equipotential bonding for information technology installations Lightning equipotential bonding requires that all metal conductive components such as cable lines and shields at the entrance to the building shall be incorporated into the equipotential bonding so as to cause as little impedance as possible. The requirements governing the installation of the surge protective devices in the unmetered area of the low voltage consumer’s installation (main distribution system) are described in the directive of the VDN (Association of German Network Operators) “Surge protective devices Type 1.1.1 DEHNbloc NH lightning current arrester installed in a busbar terminal field of a meter installation (refer to Fig.6.2) 6. and also fibre optic systems with metal elements.1).2 DEHNventil ZP combined arrester directly snapped on the busbars in the terminal field of the meter cabinet www.2 and 8.1.2. Examples of such components include antenna lines. (Figure 6. The demands on such surge protective devices are described more detailed in Annex E subclause 6.1).de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 151 .dehn.3. The lines are connected with the help of elements capable of carrying lightning current (arresters and shielding terminals). The special feature of this equipotential bonding is the fact that a tie-up to the equipotential bonding is only possible via suitable surge protective devices.

α α air termination tip sealing unit range α α feeding point isolated air-termination system (DEHNconductor) connection equipotential bonding insulating pipe isolated down conductor (HVI-conductor) 230 V~ DATA 230 V~ antenna s ^ 0. as this would affect their functioning.2 Isolated construction of a lightning protection system at a cell site outside the building transfers to cabling inside the building.1 Lightning equipotential bonding with isolated air-termination system. antenna installations are generally mounted in an exposed location.3. especially in the event of a direct lightning strike.75 m in air = s ^ 1. Antenna elements that are connected to an antenna feeder and cannot be connected directly to the equipotential bonding.3. (cable structure.5 m in brickwork = s = separation distance equipotential bonding to BTS earth-termination system Fig. type DEHNconductor. In order to minimise induction loops within buildings. Both the arresters and the shielding terminals must be chosen to be appropriate to the lightning current parameters to be expected. Antenna installations not capable of carrying lightning currents must therefore be equipped with air-termination systems in whose protection area the antennas are 152 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. the following additional steps are recommended: ⇒ cables and metal pipes shall enter the building at the same point ⇒ power lines and data lines shall be laid spatially close but shielded ⇒ avoiding of unnecessarily long cables by laying lines directly Antenna installations: For reasons connected with radio engineering. Expressed simply. connectors and fittings) or suitable additional measures. 6. should be protected by arresters. In Germany they must be integrat- ed into the equipotential bonding in accordance with DIN VDE 0855 Part 300 (German standard) and must reduce the risk of being affected through their design. it can be assumed that 50 % of the direct lightning current flows away via the shields of all antenna lines.dehn. 6.de . the lightning current splits so that 50 kA flow through the earth conductor and 50 kA via the shields of all antenna cables. for professional antenna systems according to IEC 62305-3 (EN 62305-3) Fig. Therefore they are more affected by surges. If an antenna installation is dimensioned for lightning currents up to 100 kA (10/350 μs) (Lightning Protection Level III (LPL III)).

The individual cables must be integrated into the equipotential bonding as follows: a) Unshielded cables must be connected by SPDs which are capable of carrying partial lightning currents.g. metal dampproofing) and / or metal supporting elements ⇒ cables with metal sheath and additional lightning protection reinforcement The splitting of the partial lightning current between IT lines can be determined using the procedures in Annex E of IEC 62305-1 (EN 62305-1).g. at the entrance of the building ⇒ Metal core: termination by means of earthing clamp e. metal vapour barrier) or metal supporting elements ⇒ cables with metal elements in the core and with metal sheath or metal supporting elements ⇒ cables with metal elements in the core. Choosing a suitable cable. Fig.3.3). SLK. Cables capable of carrying lightning currents must be chosen. Requirements: ⇒ The shield at both ends must be connected to the main equipotential bonding to be capable of carrying lightning currents (Figure 6.g. The electrical isolation of the lightning protection system from conductive components of the building structure (metal structural parts. For all types of cable with metal elements. Partial lightning current of the line divided by the number of individual wires = partial lightning current per wire. the respective partial lightning current share must be determined for each antenna line involved in down conducting. the lightning current flows via the shield. the length of the antenna line and the amplitude of the lightning current. antenna installations mounted on buildings can be protected by means of ⇒ air-termination rods ⇒ elevated wires ⇒ or spanned cables In each case the separation distance s must be maintained in the areas protected against lightning strikes.1 and Figure 6. 6.3.2).3. The required cable dielectric strength can be determined from the coupling resistance.g.3.3 SAK shield connection system capable of carrying lightning currents www. Fibre optic installations: Fibre optic installations with metal elements can normally be divided into the following types: ⇒ cables with metal-free core but with metal sheath (e. DEHNgap CS. reinforcement etc.dehn. the minimum peak value of the lightning current. and the isolation from electric lines in the building. but without metal sheath. According to the current standard IEC 62305-3 (EN 62305-3). base part BLITZDUCTOR CT.de LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE 153 .g. SAK. However. capacitive/inductive interferences can reach the wires and make it necessary to use surge arresters.). must be determined. near splice box ⇒ Prevention of potential equalising currents: connect indirectly via spark gap e. ⇒ Metal sheath: termination by means of shield terminals e. rather than directly Telecommunication lines: Telecommunication lines with metal conductors normally consist of cables with balanced or coaxial cabling elements of the following types: ⇒ cables with no additional metal elements ⇒ cables with metal sheath (e. which adversely affects the transmission characteristics of the optical fibre.located. prevent partial lightning currents from penetrating into control and supply lines and hence protect sensitive electrical and electronic devices from being affected or destroyed (Figure 6. and the metal elements must be connected to the equipotential bonding bar either directly or via an SPD. b) If the cable shield is capable of carrying lightning currents.

then: TAE IT installation 3 OUT 4 ⇒ for the terminal connected at both ends.5 DEHN equipotential bonding enclosures (DPG LSA) for LSA-2/10 technology.5).de . 6. earthing clamps or equipotential conductors. 154 LIGHTNING PROTECTION GUIDE www. the partial currents of all wires add up to 30 kA again to load in the downstream discharge path. ⇒ In both buildings where the cable ends. After the discharge elements have flown through. By means of a multi-core telecommunications line for example this can be demonstrated: ⇒ A telecommunications cable with 100 double wires coming from LPZ 0A is connected in an LSA building distribution case and shall be protected by arresters. To be safe from any damage in the discharge path lightning current tested enclosure systems can be used (Figure 6.dehn. but also the discharge path to the equipotential bonding.3. and the active wires must be connected in the same lightning protection zone (usually LPZ 1) ⇒ If an unshielded cable is laid in a metal pipe.Telekom customer c) If the cable shield is not capable of carrying lightning currents. capable to carry lightning current ⇒ The resulting symmetrical splitting of lightning current to the individual wire is 30 kA / 200 wires = 150 A / wire. Partial lightning current of the cable divided by the number of individual wires + 1 shield = partial lightning current per wire ⇒ if the shield is not connected at both ends. ⇒ The lightning current load of the cable was assumed to be 30 kA (10/350 μs) BLITZDUCTOR BCT MLC BD 110 No. it is recommendable to take the threat parameters from IEC 61643-22. At first this means no special requirements to the discharge capacity of the protective elements to be used.4 Lightning equipotential bonding for connection of a telecommunications device BLITZDUCTOR CT (application permitted by Deutsche Telekom) Fig. the lightning protection zone concept must be applied.3. it has to be treated as if it were not there. For a telecommunications line hence results a maximum load per wire of 2. Of course not only the used SPD must be capable of withstanding the expected lightning current load.919 347 1 IN 2 BLITZDUCTOR CT BCT MLC BD 110 5 kA (10/350 μs) APL Fig. this must be treated like a cable with a cable shield which is capable of carrying lightning currents. for example clamping frames.3. partial lightning current of the line divided by the number of individual wires = partial lightning current per wire If it is not possible to determine the exact wire load. the procedure is the same as for a signal wire in an unshielded cable. 6.5 kA (10/350 μs).