26 views

Uploaded by Muhammad Ihsan

- Gas lift 2
- solving inverse problem by genetic algorithm
- Dea 2012 Proceedings
- MSc Dissertation - Matthew Sparkes
- 1005.0340
- A multiple-population evolutionary approach to gate matrix layout
- Genetic Algorithm
- A New Algorithm for Stope Boundary Optimization
- Design Optimization print.pdf
- The Automatic Production of Space
- Oil Tanker Cargo Hold Structural Optimization Using Ultimate Limit States
- Computer-Aided Project Organization & Management
- opt-2010-v2
- Genetic Algorithms
- convex problems
- ECON 100A Math Handout
- Minimization and Maximization
- Linear Programming
- main project
- A2 Intro to GA ppt

You are on page 1of 7

May, 19-23, 2002, Brasilia, Brazil

Systems by Genetic Algorithms

Iceland

Summary: Local optimization of individual hydro- Algorithms (GA) is used at each stage in the parameter

electric power plant parameters such as tunnel diameters design and optimization of each hydroelectric project.

or dam height is a standard feature in the design of Finally a case study is presented and discussed based

hydropower stations. Combining such local optimization on data from the Icelandic electrical power system for

problems into a global optimization process for a set or optimization of individual projects. Therefore, these

sequence of hydroelectric plants with traditional general tools and specific case studies should be

optimization techniques is an interesting and challenging important for the design and operation of hydro-

problem considering the potential of powerful modern dominated power systems in general.

computer hardware and software. It is, however, often a The stage wise computations were carried out using

formidable task and a problematic one, due to the often the HYDRA software developed at the University of

excessive computational burden and the associated Iceland.

complexity of the problem. Furthermore, global Keywords: Optimal design, sequencing, sizing,

optimization is often difficult due to factors such as the hydro-plants

dynamic behavior and nonlinearity of the objective

function as well as multiple local optima. Therefore I. INTRODUCTION

attempts have been made to solve this problem for each This paper deals with hydroelectric power system

hydro plant by efficient and modern methods such as expansion planning and optimal design of hydroelectric

those based on evolutionary computational techniques. plants.

In this paper this problem is developed by addressing It is well known that each hydroelectric plant is in

simultaneously a sequence of hydro-projects rather than general unique, due to local conditions. Therefore, the

a single project, and performing the global optimization solution philosophy and problem definition must and

simultaneously on all projects using both a proposed will depend on local characteristics and conditions

one-shot approach and iterative techniques, using prevailing at each location of the plant. Generally, each

Lagrange multipliers as economic signals between stages plant has a wide range of different design parameters,

in the expansion process, while the method of Genetic such as reservoir size and dimensions, dam height,

diameter of tunnels, penstocks, etc. Clearly the project

construction cost is a function of these parameters. The

* total cost, consisting of construction and operations cost

Faculty of Engineering, University of Iceland, Hjardarhagi 6,

107 Reykjavik, ICELAND; e-mail: jonase@hi.is and egill@hi.is can be represented by the total discounted project cost

-2-

NPV (net present value) using an appropriate discount or where certain parameters describing marginal cost

interest rate. benefits are passed between stages of the process. One

Consider now the plant and system benefits, what such marginal cost quantity is the long-range marginal

they are and how they depend on plant parameters. cost (LRMC) of the FEPC. LRMC is an indication of

Individual hydro plants will have a number of factors future energy prices, see for instance [3] with the original

reflecting the output or benefit derived from the plant. definition of the use of LRMC in hydro planning. See

An obvious example of benefits is the firm energy also [2] for a closer definition of this important cost

production capability (to be called FEPC normally in concept.

GWh/year), which is the plant’s possibility for delivery The paper is arranged as follows. In Section II we

of firm energy, assuming a given time-distribution of describe the theoretical foundation for linking adjacent

water flow and power demand of the market that the plants in a sequence by marginal cost signals. In Section

plant serves. Another quantifiable benefit is the income III the iterative and one-shot optimization approach is

from actual energy produced by the plant and sold on the described. In section IV the optimization process for

market. Still another example of an obvious benefit is the individual plants, based on the application of Genetic

available instantaneous power or installed capacity Algorithms is described and finally in section V a case

(MW) to meet peak demand. Another quantifiable study involving optimization of individual plants based

benefit could include the spinning reserves the plant, the on marginal cost signals are presented and discussed and

produced reactive power, reactive power capacity, etc. the appropriate conclusions are drawn. Finally an

etc. All these potential benefits could depend on, and appendix describes the notation.

therefore be a function of, the previously mentioned

parameters (tunnel diameter, dam height etc.). II. THEORETICAL OPTIMIZATION FRAMEWORK

Therefore, both plant design parameters and Consider first a single project with a single benefit

quantifiable benefit factors are generally multi- measure, (for instance the FEPC) or installed capacity (in

dimensional quantities, although the benefits can in the [MW]). This could be the first project in a system

simplest case, be concentrated to be represented by the expansion process. The appendix describes the notation.

one dimensional benefits measure, such as the FEPC. As opposed to ref. [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], we do not here

The traditional approach in hydro plant design is assume a fixed energy sales price and optimization of the

addressing each plant, its design and the associated net present value of the profit. Instead, the objective

parameters by applying a particular optimization process function in the present formulation of this paper is a

to determine the optimal design of the plant. The selected design that gives a preselected marginal cost of a benefit

basis for optimization is a given price or marginal cost factor (energy), and finally leads to a LRMC for the

and each plant parameter is optimized with respect to this sequence of projects. However these two approaches are

marginal cost. In previous papers, therefore [3], [4], [5], basically equivalent. Therefore, the objective is to

[6], [7] the optimization of individual plants has been determine the minimum cost function, given a certain

carried out using the software HYDRA that utilizes benefit, or to minimize:

Genetic Algorithms assuming specific energy prices,

C = min Cd (u1 , u2 ,..., un ) [1]

which have formed the basis for the economical u1 , u2 ,..., un

in question. x = E (u1 , u2 ,..., u n ) [2]

However, when a number of hydroelectric projects is

By introducing the Lagrange multiplier, we get

on the drawing board and plans are for constructing them

in a sequence, each of the plant has different parameters C ( x) = min {Cd (u1 ,..., un )

u1 ,..., un , λ

[3]

−λ ⋅ [ E (u1 ,..., un ) − x ]}

and the construction and the selection of certain

parameters in one station will and should influence the

optimal selection of similar parameters in other plants, in C(x) is the cost function for the project and

spite of the different timing of the plants. In this paper dC

=λ [4]

we develop this interaction concept towards a more dx

global optimization approach by considering the which is the marginal cost. From eq. [3]:

expansion process as a whole (multiple plants), where ∂C

interaction of parameters in a number of hydroelectric = 0 i = 1, 2,..., n [5]

stations is explicitly considered through marginal cost ∂ui

signals. In previous papers ([6], [7], [8]) a similar

methodology has been presented assuming the are the conditions for a stationary point, which leads

previously mentioned one dimensional representation of to:

system and individual plant benefits in the form of ∂Cd ∂E

capacity, x, or the FEPC. (Firm energy production =λ⋅ ; i = 1, 2,..., n [6]

∂ui ∂ui

capability) and assuming a simple cost capacity

relationship, C(x) depending on this benefit factor, x. ∂Cd

Eq. [6] states that the marginal cost, with

In this paper we go a step further by suggesting an ∂ui

iterative optimization process for a sequence of projects, respect to a parameter (for instance tunnel diameter

-3-

the cost per unit of installed capacity [$/MW] multiplied Pro- Pro- Pro- Pro-

:λ1 :λ2 : λ3 : : λΝ

∂E ject ject ject ject

by the marginal increase in the benefit measure, #1 #2 #3 #N

∂xi

(such as marginal capacity per meter of tunnel width

[MW/m]). For an optimum, the marginal cost (λ) Figure 1. A one shot approach to optimization of a

according to eq. [6] must be the same for all design hydro project sequence

parameters. By introducing Lagrange multipliers, we once again

Next consider 2 projects, again with a single benefit get

measure, such as the FEPC. The objective is to find the

M

minimum total discounted cost: P ( x, y ) = min ∑ C1 + d 2C2

P = min {C1 (u1 ,..., un ) + d 2 C2 (v1 ,..., vm )} v1 , v2 ,..., vm j =1

u1 ,u2 ,...,un ,

[7] [16]

u1 ,u2 ,...,un ,

v1 , v2 ,..., vm

−λ1 [ E1 + E2 − x ] − λ2 [ F1 + F2 − y ]}

subject to:

which leads to:

x = E1 (u1 , u 2 ,..., un ) + E2 (v1 , v2 ,..., vm ) [8]

∂C1 ∂E ∂F

By introducing Lagrange multipliers, again, we get: = λ1 ⋅ 1 + λ2 ⋅ 1 ; i = 1, 2,..., n [17]

∂ui ∂ui ∂ui

P( x) min {C1 + d 2 C2 − λ [ E1 + E2 − x ]} [9]

u1 , u2 ,..., un ,

v1 , v2 ,..., vm

and

∂C ∂E ∂F

which leads to: d 2 2 = λ1 ⋅ 2 + λ2 ⋅ 2 ; j = 1, 2,..., m [18]

∂C1 ∂E ∂v j ∂v j ∂v j

= λ ⋅ 1 ; i = 1, 2,..., n [10]

∂ui ∂ui

Similarly, the interpretation of eqs. [17] and [18]

and

would be that the long-range marginal costs with respect

∂C ∂E

d 2 2 = λ ⋅ 2 ; j = 1, 2,..., m [11] to the benefit factors (λ1 and λ2) should be discounted

∂v j ∂v j when converting them between the adjacent projects in

Furthermore, by combining the above equations: the expansion sequence. This is in accordance with the

∂C ∂C1 general results in ref. [2].

d2 2

∂v j ∂u i = 1, 2,..., n

= i =λ ; [12] III. THE METHODOLOGY OF A ONE SHOT SEQUENTIAL

∂E2 ∂E1 j = 1, 2,..., m APPROACH AND AN ITERATIVE PROCEDURE

∂v j ∂ui

The above theoretical considerations imply that

Eq. [12] can be interpreted similarly as eq. [6] optimization of simultaneous parameter design of several

namely that the ratio of marginal cost to marginal benefit hydroelectric projects could be performed by either a one

is constant for all project parameters for both projects. shot approach or an iterative process:

However, the discount factor, d2 distinguishes between 1. First the proposed one-shot approach would assume

project #1 and #2 (adjacent projects in the sequence) so a given future LRMC vector (λN), carried back in

that the marginal cost/benefit of project #2 should be time from any future projects beyond project #N.

discounted when comparing with the corresponding Figure 1 shows how a marginal cost vector of

marginal cost/benefit for project #1. In ref. [2], the Lagrange multipliers with respect to each benefit

condition for optimal size was derived, stating that the factors is carried once back in time (forward in the

“current marginal cost” (eq. [4]) should equal the long sequence) with the appropriate discounting from the

range marginal cost, discounted to the start up time of the last project to the first, thereby indicating, at each

current project. In addition the timing of projects and its stage, the optimal marginal cost (λ).

dependence of project size was explicitly analyzed 2. The proposed iterative process implies that the

assuming a linear demand function. Here, however it is marginal cost vector is alternatively carried back and

sufficient to note the conditions for optimum design and forth in time (λ and β) until a stable optimum is

how the discount factor influences this design (eq. [12]).

Finally consider 2 projects with 2 benefit measures,

such as (1) FEPC and (2) capacity in megawatts. The

objective is to determine (and minimize): : Pro-

:λ1 Pro-

:λ2 Pro-

: λ3 : Pro-

: λΝ

P = min {C1 (u1 ,..., un ) + ject ject ject ject

u1 ,u2 ,...,un , #1 #2 #3 #N

v1 , v2 ,..., vm [13]

+ d 2 C2 (v1 ,..., vm )} : :β1 :β2 : β3 : :βΝ

subject to:

x = E1 (u1 , u 2 ,..., un ) + E2 (v1 , v2 ,..., vm ) [14] Figure 2. An iterative approach to optimization of a

y = F1 (u1 , u 2 ,..., u n ) + F2 (v1 , v2 ,..., vm ) [15] hydro project sequence

-4-

29.000 H1 1. Dam

28.800

28.600 500

50/0,01

h2

NPV [Mkr]

28.400

50/0,025 1

28.200

50/0,05

28.000 50/0,005

50/0,001

27.800

27.600

10/0,01 2. Pr.

27.400 Shaft D

27.200

27.000

1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 41 46 51 56 61 66 71 76 81 86 91 96

X4

Generation #

H2 L4 d4 H3

Figure 3. Development of solution for the different 3. Powerhouse 4. Tailrace Tunnel

parameters in Table 2

reached. Figure 2 shows this process, whereby the Figure 4. A simple hydropower plant [3],[4]

design is first carried out for the last project in plant. It does so using genetic algorithms, (GA)

sequence and marginal cost signals are passed belonging to the class of methods called evolutionary

between stages with the appropriate discounting. methods [1]. The GA method seeks out the optimum by

giving the vector {ui} in eqs. [1], [2], [7], etc, definite

In both cases, “local” optimization of the design of values, calculating Cd (eq. [1]) and comparing the results.

each hydro plant (each stage) is carried out using genetic This sounds as both impractical and time consuming, but

algorithms, as described in Section IV. In addition an the genetic algorithm seeks out the optimum and finds it

adjustment of a project sequence towards an optimal one, with astonishing speed [3], [5], [6] and [7]). Table 1

can also be accomplished by using the methods proposed shows an example of the results of such an optimization

in ref. [11], to be discussed further in Section V discussed in the case study in Section V. But for the

The Lagrange multipliers with respect to benefit benefit of the reader, some explanation of the method

factors are carried back (and forth) and discounted may be needed before the findings in Table 1 are

assuming timing of plants as affected by size or sequence discussed further.

and/or benefit factors. As discussed further in Section V, In order to explain the method we show a simple

both the size (benefit factors) and the sequence should be example of a global optimization of the power plant

reevaluated, based on the marginal cost vectors, as shown in Figure 4, ref. [3]. Eqs. [1] - [4] are derived by

discussed in ref. [2] in an attempt to reach a global direct mathematical analysis and solved. A special

optimum with respect to size, sequence and design approximation formula was built for the powerhouse and

parameters. other construction elements shown in Figure 4. The

mathematical solution is compared to the findings of the

IV. UTILIZATION OF GENETIC ALGORITHMS FOR HYDRA program in Table 2. The main result is the NPV

OPTIMIZING HYDROPLANT DESIGN of the investment, for different number of individuals P,

In this section the optimization of design parameters generations G and mutation probability µ. As one can

see, the NPV´s found by the GA correspond very well to

using genetic algorithms (GA) will be discussed. The

the theoretical results (bold face in Table 2). Meanwhile,

solution to the optimization problem for each project is

very difficult analytically due to the nonlinear a short explanation of the parameters P, G and µ is

constraints, as discussed in [7]. called for, according to the theory of GA.

Therefore the program HYDRA has been developed The computer stores {ui} vectors as P individual

to solve the global optimization problem for each hydro strings in the memory. Profit and costs are calculated for

all of them and the best performing (highest profit)

individuals selected, these are the “parents”. By special

Table 1 PREMLIMINARY OPTIMIZATION 1997 mixing of the elements of the best vectors, a new set of P

(Optimized dimensions are bold faced. individuals is formed, this set is a new generation the

60 BIKR ≅ 1 billion $ in 1997) “children”. Now the process is repeated G times. To

prevent the process to get stuck in a local maximum,

Description PPR1 PPR2 O1150 O∞

brand new children that are unrelated to the parents are

Reservoir level m.a.s.l. 664.5 668.5 665.1 667.6 formed randomly by mutation. The mutation probability

Headrace tunnel di. m 5.0 5.0 4.3 4.8 µ decides how often this happens. When the process

Pressure shaft dia. m 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.7 stops after G generations, the optimum should be found.

Power MW 213 239 211 233 The trick in this computation is to select P, G and µ

Energy GWh/a 1159 1300 1150 1278 so the optimum is truly found, without spending

Investment BIKR 21.16 22.91 19.92 21.96 excessive computer time by selecting P, G and µ too

Profit BIKR 10.90 13.44 12.28 13.86 high.

When the results of the optimization are compared

∆Profit/∆Investm. %/% 0/0 +23/+8 +13/-6 +27/+4

with the mathematical solution, it is obvious that the runs

-5-

where the P, G and µ parameters are optimally tuned optimization assumes infinite demand. The solution is

reach results very close to the true optimum [4]. however not far from the PPR2 arrangement.

The result of the conventional local optimization The global optimization O1150, leads to a 0,7 m

method is also calculated and it gives an optimum narrower headrace tunnel compared to the PPR. Local

diameter, D, of 4.5 m, which is a 0.5 m difference in the optimization, considering only variable cost of the

diameter between methods. headrace, leads to the same result as in the PPR (5 m).

The conclusion of example in Fig. 4 is that genetic The power capacity reduction due to increased head

algorithm is a suitable tool for finding the optimal plant losses, is compensated with a slightly larger reservoir

arrangement. (increased discharge).

The HYDRA software is a shell that contains The O∞ optimization results in a slightly smaller

program objects that calculate the cost and benefit headrace diameter compared to the PPR. In O1150, there

functions and NPV of all construction elements (ref. [6]). is a market restriction so this optimization seeks a

Points that have geographical coordinates connect them smaller tunnel. This example clearly demonstrates that

and these can be included in the optimization if HYDRA is an efficient tool to fine tune the design of the

necessary. Thus tunnel lengths and position of plant. In order to stress this point further there is Table 3.

powerhouses can be found, see e.g. the tailrace tunnel in The O∞ optimization results in Table 1 have a larger

Fig. 4 Experience shows that running times are in the energy output than in the PPR1. This is because, this

vicinity of 2-4 minutes for very complicated hydropower optimization assumes plant stage, which means no

plants, depending on the size of population and number market restrictions and no extra benefit for the system.

of generations. G = 2P seems to be a suitable rule and in The extra benefit is that interactions between Fljótsdalur

most cases P = 30 is enough. The suitable m is highly Power Plant and the existing power system produces

dependent upon P see Fig. 4. substantial extra energy (estimated 250 GWh/a firm

HYDRA has performed very well on very energy in the PPR) through better utilization of the water

complicated project planning tasks (ref. [6] and , [7]) The resources.

program can handle very complex development schemes The project investment is 6% lower in optimization

with a large number of parameters. O1150 compared to the PPR1, resulting in a 13% higher

In the beginning, all the objects in HYDRA use profit, which is a significant improvement. The

approximation formulas to calculate the cost and benefit optimization O∞ on the other hand leads to a 4% higher

functions (NPV) of their respective construction investment and a 27% higher profit. When it is kept in

elements. Today cost estimates based on quantities and mind that the PPR1 plans a future raising of the dam to

locally adjusted unit prices for concrete, dam fills, reservoir level 668,5 m.a.s.l. (Fljótsdalur Engineering

tunnel-driving etc. are used. This is discussed closer in Joint Venture 1991), the result of O∞ is very close to the

the next section. PPR2 version.

To find the profit, the benefit function E has to be In order to ensure the best possible result in the

calculated. This could be the expected power output of global optimization the cost estimation of the whole

the station. This calculation is performed for each scheme is completely revised. The old construction cost

individual in each generation. The calculation is finished functions are removed and replaced with new PP (Project

when a sufficient number of generations has been Planning Stage) cost functions, specially prepared by the

calculated and a stable maximum is found as indicated engineering consultants

by the horizontal part of the curves in Figure 3. Then we Now similar runs as for the Plant Stage are

have an optimal design of the power plant, as the result performed. The results are presented in Table 3.

of the calculation and a definite value for each {ui}, it The O1150 optimization leads to a similar arrange-

being the height of a dam, the diameter of a tunnel, etc. ments as the plant stage optimization. The O∞ however

shows significant changes. This is because the new cost

V. CASE STUDY AND CONCLUSIONS FOR USING GA TO formulas do not represent the true variation of the costs

OPTIMIZE THE FLJOTSDALUR HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT

This case study and examples are from [3]. Lets now Table 2 Mathematical solution (bold)

discuss the results in Table 1. compared to optimization results

The PPR1, PPR2,, O1150, and O∞ represent different P 50 50 50 50 50 20 20

schemes, but the actual constraints are beyond the scope G 100 100 100 100 100 200 200

of this paper. It is sufficient to note that the O1150 µ 0.001 0.005 0.01 0.025 0.05 0.025 0.05

optimization seeks a slightly higher dam (increased D 4,0 4.0 4.0 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 3.9

discharge to the plant) to compensate for increased

H1 543,0 543 543 543 543 543 543 543

power losses in narrower conduits. The O∞ optimization

results in a significantly higher dam compared to the H2 48,2 44 49 49 48 42 50 44

PPR1. The explanation is that in the project planning H3 44,9 39 46 46 45 37 46 39

report, the size of the power plant and the size of NPV 28594 28580 28594 28594 28590 28569 28593 28576

reservoir is selected on basis of a power market scenario dNPV - -14 0 0 -4 -25 -1 -18

at the expected construction time of the plant, but the

-6-

the investment (optimized dimensions are bold faced).

MW

60 BIKR ≅ 1 billion $

demand

S

S3 Description PPR1 PPR2 O1150 O∞

S4 Reservoir level m.a.s.l. 664.5 668.5 665.1 669.6

S2 S Headrace tunnel dia. m 5.0 5.0 4.3 5.3

S1 Pressure shaft dia. m 2.9 2.9 2.6 2.8

Power MW 212 239 210 242

Demand curve Energy GWh/a 1159 1300 1149 1325

Time, years Investment BIKR 22.78 24.40 22.18 24.91

Profit BIKR 9.36 11.78 9.72 11.97

Figure 5. - One-Shot sequential arrangement ∆Profit/∆Investment %/% 0/0 +26/+7 +4/-3 +28/+9

except in a narrow region around the PPR1 values. would arrange our schemes in a sequential order for

Therefore the results of the O∞ optimization are hardly instance according to a the optimal sequencing methods

applicable. However a comparison of the columns O∞ in discussed in reference [11]. We would for instance get a

Tables 1 and 3, shows how important it is that the cost sequence that can be presented in Figure 5.

formulas in the optimization are accurate. It may The result is seen to be S1, S2, S4 and S3 in that

therefore be concluded that it is worth the effort to sequence. The preliminary commission times of the

improve the cost formulas in Hydra with formulas schemes can be found on the horizontal axis in Figure 5.

specially designed in order to improve the accuracy of It is a result of how many years of demand increase the

optimizations performed. previous schemes cover. Using the commission times the

The economical result is dominated by the overall individual discounts (di’s) and optimal plant parameters

increase in the construction cost, compared to the plant and design can be reevaluated and the process repeated

stage, which leads to a considerable decrease in the backwards with the marginal cost vectors (β) (See Figure

profit, probably meaning considerable decrease in the 2). The capacities will change somewhat and may change

profit margin of venture capital. This shows how the optimal commission times and the sequence. In

important it is that the cost calculations of individual cost Figure 6 we can see that the optimal sequence S1, S2, S4

items are for the same planning stage. This is particularly and S3 has changed to S1, S4, S2 and S3. Therefore the

true when a series, or sequence, of schemes is iteration back and forth in Figure 2 can and should result

considered. in an adjustment of the following quantities:

Consider finally how the above optimization process 1. Commissioning time for plant

using GA, for individual plants can be transferred to a 2. Individual plant parameters

sequence of plants using a one-shot or an iterative 3. Plant benefit factors, such as FEPC or MW

approach For instance, we can build 5 different hydro 4. Expansion sequence

plants (S1, S2, S3 and S4), and our market increases These quantities can be recalculated and so the

annually with q megawatts in a (almost) linear fashion. process of Figure 2 can be repeated until a final solution

In what order and with how many MW are we to is found. At this stage of development of the iterative

construct and commission the 5 schemes? Using the method, it is not possible to say if the process is always

previously discussed one shot process, we would stable, but plans for extension of the current research are

optimize all 5 plants for the same LRMC (λ) as the to test both the one shot and the iterative process

Lagrange multiplier but with the appropriate discount approach with the GA optimization and link it together

factor di depending on the timing of the plants. Then we successfully in a single process. The objective of such

research and expected benefits to this approach are as

follows:

Size adjustments 1. The marginal cost signals are derived from the

MW Time adjustments

demand expansion process as a whole and not from a myopic

S

S3 look at the present system conditions. Therefore it is

possible to compare individual projects to each other

S2

in this respect and allocate resources in an optimal

S4 S Demand curve manner among projects. For instance by this

S1 method, installed capacity and reserve margin

should be constructed in the project or projects,

Sequence adjustments where conditions lead to it being least expensive.

2. The approach discussed in this paper allow for the

Time, years simultaneous coherent optimization of project

sequence, size, timing and plant parameters for

Figure 6. Arrangement after 1st iteration several projects.

-7-

3. The whole process of optimizing an expansion [5] Eliasson, J., Jensson, P., Ludvigsson, G.,

sequence is decomposed using specific marginal Tomasson H. & Bjarnason H.; A proposal to

cost signals (See Figures 1 and 2) that are passed exploit optimally the hydropower potential of

between stages. It is the opinion of these authors that Skagafjoerdur Iceland; Hydrovision '98, Reno,

these signals, along with the methodology of GA, Nevada USA; 1998.

are important key elements to ensure the global [6] Eliasson, J., Ludvigsson, G., Doujak, E., Ólsen,

optimum to be reached. A. and Matthias, H. – B.; A proposal to exploit

optimally the hydropower of Fljotsdalur

VI. APPENDIX A - DEFINITIONS AND NOTATION Iceland, Waterpower 99 Conference, Las

x, y Measures or factors, such as FEPC or megawatts, describing Vegas, Nevada, USA, July 7 – 9, 1999,

the benefit derived from hydroelectric plants in the sequence (Published by ASCE on a CD-ROM ISBN 0-

considered. 7844-0440-2)

ui , vi Design parameter # i in a plant (# j.) [7] Eliasson, J., Ludvigsson, G., Doujak,; Global

E (.), E1 (.) , E2 (.) Benefit factor functions indicating how benefits, Optimisation of Hydropower Plants;

depend on design parameters for hydroelectric plants International Hydropower & Dams Conference:

Hydropower into the next century, Gmunden,

n,m Number of design parameters for a hydro-plant

Austria 18th-20th October, 1999

Cd (.) . A cost function describing how total cost for an individual

[8] Hreinsson, E.B.; Incremental Cost and

plant depends on design parameters. This includes

construction and operations cost either discounted or annual Allocation of Hydro-Resources for Energy

levellized value. Intensive Industry, A paper presented at the

C , C ( x ), C ( x, y ) . A cost (function) for a project describing how IEEE IAS 35th Annual Meeting and World

total optimal cost depends on benefit factors Conference on Industrial Application of

Electrical Energy, Rome, Italy, October 8th -

P , P ( x ), P ( x, y ) . A total discounted cost (function) for an expansion 12th, 2000

sequence, describing the dependence on benefit factors.

[9] Hreinsson, E.B.; Economies of Scale and

N The number of projects in a expansion sequence of

hydroelectric projects

Optimal Selection of Hydroelectric Projects, A

proceedings paper presented at the IEEE/IEE

di Discount factor for project # i.

DRPT2000 Conference, (International

NPV Net present value or discounting of quantities Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and

IKR The monetary unit Icelandic kronur. 105.00 IKR is Restructuring, and Power Technologies 2000),

approximately equal to 1 US $ as of 2002. (MIKR = Mkr =

Million IKR, BIKR = Billion IKR or 1000 MIKR)

City University, London, U.K. April 4th -7th,

2000

m.a.s.l. Meters above sea level

LRMC Long Range Marginal Cost

[10] Energiforsyning og energibruk i Norge (Energy

delivery and energy consumption in Norway),

FEPC Firm Energy Production Capacity

Norges Vassdrags og Energivæsen (Energy an

River Authority of Norway), Nov. 12 1984 (In

VII. REFERENCES Norwegian);

[1] Goldberg, D. E. (1989); Genetic Algorithms in [11] Hreinsson, E.B.; Hydro-electric project

Search Optimization & Machine Learning. sequencing using heuristic techniques and

Addison-Wesley. dynamic programming; Power Systems

[2] Hreinsson, E.B.; Optimal Sizing of Projects in a Computation Conference, Cascais, Portugal

Hydro-based System. IEEE Transactions on 1987.

Energy Conversion, Vol 5, number 1, March

1990, pp 32-38.

[3] Eliasson, J., Jensson, P. and Ludvigsson, G.;

Optimal design of Hydropower plants; in

Hydropower 97, Broch, Lysne, Flatabo and

Helland - Hansen (eds), Balkema, Rotterdam.;

1997.

[4] Eliasson, J., Jensson, P. and Ludvigsson, G.;

Software to optimise of Hydropower Plants

Design; Daniel J. Mahony (ed)

WATERPOWER '97, Proceedings of the

International Conference on Hydropower,

Georgia World Congress Center Atlanta,

Georgia Aug. 5 – 8. 1997 pp. 1673 - 1683,

ASCE N.Y. 1; 1997.

- Gas lift 2Uploaded byMaryam Rezaei
- solving inverse problem by genetic algorithmUploaded bygirish_smash
- Dea 2012 ProceedingsUploaded byShiva Pokharel
- MSc Dissertation - Matthew SparkesUploaded byMatthew Sparkes
- 1005.0340Uploaded byyohnnis
- A multiple-population evolutionary approach to gate matrix layoutUploaded byal9028
- Genetic AlgorithmUploaded bydivya2020
- A New Algorithm for Stope Boundary OptimizationUploaded byMartin Pavez Kent
- Design Optimization print.pdfUploaded bykarthipriya
- The Automatic Production of SpaceUploaded byΑλέξανδρος Γεωργίου
- Oil Tanker Cargo Hold Structural Optimization Using Ultimate Limit StatesUploaded byFrancesco Cauz
- Computer-Aided Project Organization & ManagementUploaded byAref Malkawi
- opt-2010-v2Uploaded byHà Nguyễn
- Genetic AlgorithmsUploaded byala.sidig
- convex problemsUploaded byAdrian Green
- ECON 100A Math HandoutUploaded byJennyEncarnacion
- Minimization and MaximizationUploaded byCarlos Gorian
- Linear ProgrammingUploaded byইমরান এইচ শিশির
- main projectUploaded byIndra Neel
- A2 Intro to GA pptUploaded bySayali Ketkar
- A coevolutionary algorithm for a facility layout problem..docUploaded bylenojerin3486
- ijmerr_v3n2_10Uploaded byKRCE GANESH
- The Extreme of a Function Subject to Restraint ConditionsUploaded byCatalin
- Limit Properties of Evolutionary AlgorithmsUploaded byrachmat99
- 50I16-IJAET0916810_v6_iss4_1886to1889.pdfUploaded byshahin85
- Rapid Modeling and Discovery of Priority Dispatching Rules- An Autonomous Learning ApproachUploaded byLim Chee Keong
- Dmpc SlidesUploaded byikorishor amba
- A Genetic Approach to Automate Preliminary Design of Gear DrivesUploaded byimran_chaudhry
- FREIGHTUploaded byImran Khan
- C8-ISITES13182Uploaded byAlys Alys

- A Stochastic Programming Approach to Electric Energy Procurement for Large ConsumersUploaded byjeffguitar
- 02 - What is Prescriptive AnalyticsUploaded byHéctor Miguel Vera Tovar
- A Unified View on Planning Scheduling and Dispatching Production SystemUploaded bynamtienus
- The Trigonometric FunctionsUploaded byMohsan Bilal
- HeraguUploaded bySelvi Ananda
- Notes310_08Uploaded byTarik Ahmed
- Optimization Guides Similar Gas Plants to Different StrategiesUploaded byNirmal Subudhi
- Advances in Principal Component Analysis Research and Development - Ganesh R. NaikUploaded byJhon Guerrero Salinas
- Eric Chi's CV (Updated 4/30/19)Uploaded byjocelyntchi
- WaterGEMS V8i User's GuideUploaded byilie_alex
- Genetic algorithmUploaded bySoumen Kanrar
- Ch01 - IntroductionUploaded byasma246
- ECEN 5007 - Lecture 10Uploaded bymsilva50
- Tutorials in OrUploaded byHendraAndrian
- LAO, A Heuristic Search Algorithm That Finds Solutions With LoopsUploaded byAriesta Zain Febriana
- MANOJ_KUMAR_MURLIDHARAN.C.V.Uploaded bymanojkumarmurlidhara
- 05_innovative_concepts_s2_b_ilot(1).pdfUploaded byewiontko
- Aircraft Perfromance Modelling for ATMUploaded bySri Sai
- quadratic prgmUploaded byDebjit Banerjee
- 1009335Uploaded byMurad89
- econ 415 chapter 2.pptUploaded byKlausRêveur
- IFEM.Ch09Uploaded byysnky
- Surface Production Targeting and BlendingUploaded byNasser Bragança
- CFD Based Optimization of the High-Lift Devices Using a Mesh Morphing TechniqueUploaded bylucasprati
- Chapter 7 One-Dimensional Search MethodsUploaded byjairoo1234
- Calculation of Local Iron Loss in Electrical MachinesUploaded bygurunathan14
- Transformer ModelUploaded bymspd2003
- AGM17_EUploaded bychayanpathak
- Rsi-r2 Super Rsi FaqUploaded bySapta Wirman
- Mining Panel OptimisationUploaded byBisto Masilo