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A Summer Training Project Report Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Award of degree of Master of Business Administration

2009 – 2011

Submitted by: Ashish Gupta

Guided by

: Shveta Chawla (Internal Guide)

BHARATI VIDYAPEETH DEEMED UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION Academic Study Center - BVIMR, New Delhi An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute NAAC Accredited Grade “A” University

Certificate from the Company/Organization

(On Company Letter head)

This is to certify that (Name of the student) son/daughter of (name of the father) pursuing MBA from Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University School of distance education, New Delhi has successfully completed Project Report in our organization on the topic titled, “Title of the Project” from ________to _______ 20XX. During his/ her project tenure in the organization/ company, we found him/ her hard working, sincere and diligent person and his/ her behavior and conduct was good during the project. We wish him/her all the best for his/ her future endeavors. Comments of Guide
1. 2. 3.

Name and Signature of the Mentor (Industrial Guide) Designation

Student Undertaking
This is to certify that I Ashish Gupta had completed the Project titled “Motivational Factors” in (ITC Maurya) under the guidance of Ms. Shveta Chawla in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of MBA from Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, SDE, Academic


Study Center BVIMR, New Delhi. This is an original piece of work and I had neither copied nor submitted it earlier elsewhere.

Student Name and Signature Course

Dated -

Certificate (On Academic Center Letter head)

This is to certify that the Summer Training Project titled “________________________________” is an academic work done by “________________________” submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of “Master of Business Administration” from “BVU, SDE, Academic Study Center BVIMR, New Delhi” under my guidance & direction. To the best of my knowledge and belief the data & information presented by her in the project has not been submitted earlier.


Sachin Vernekar (Director) 4 . SDE. Dr. Academic Study Center BVIMR. New Delhi”.Name of the Faculty Guide Certificate (On Academic Center Letter head) This is to certify that the is Summer an Training work Project done titled by “_________________________________” academic “________________________” submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of “Master of Business Administration” from “BVU.

So. assistance and kind cooperation of some people to make it possible. This work is a synergistic product of many minds. No work can be accomplished without taking guidance from the right people. Nothing concrete can be achieved without an optimal combination of inspiration and perspiration. Sandeep lakra for his expert guidance and co-operation from his busy schedule and extending all the required help time and again and providing me with valuable inputs from time to time.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Concentration. It gives me a great pleasure to express my deep felt gratitude to Mr. They need to be awarded by guidance. dedication and application are necessary but they are not the only sufficient tools to achieve any goal. It is only the critiques of the ingenious intellectual that helps transform a product into a quality product. I would like to thank Ms. Gagan Grover (Project Coordinator) without whom the successful completion of this project would not have been possible. Name & Signature of the student 5 . Shveta Chawla (my Faculty Guide) as well as Mr.

8-27 28-36 37-49 50-63 64-68 69-73 74-76 77-84 6 .TABLE OF CONTENTS S. Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Introduction Research Methodology Conceptual Discussion Data Analysis Finding and Recommendation Conclusions and Suggestions Bibliography Annexure Page No.No.


Agri-Business. Chairman Y C Deveshwar calls this source of inspiration "a commitment beyond the market". Stationery. Packaging. Branded Apparel. Personal Care and Stationery. the strategic forays into new businesses are expected to garner a significant share of these emerging high-growth markets in India. Packaging and AgriExports. Asia's 'Fab 50' and the World's Most Reputable Companies by Forbes magazine. ITC ranks among India's `10 Most Valuable (Company) Brands'.1 COMPANY PROFILE OF ITC ITC is one of India's foremost private sector companies with a market capitalization of nearly US $ 14 billion and a turnover of over US $ 5 billion. As one of India's most valuable and respected corporations. Branded Apparel.1.2 billion in the last decade). effective supply chain management and acknowledged service skills in hoteliering. in a study conducted by Brand Finance and published by the Economic Times. it is rapidly gaining market share even in its nascent businesses of Packaged Foods & Confectionery. Over time. superior brandbuilding capabilities. ITC has a diversified presence in Cigarettes. The Company's 'e8 . Hotels. ITC's Agri-Business is one of India's largest exporters of agricultural products. ITC is one of the country's biggest foreign exchange earners (US $ 3. Hotels. Personal Care. In his own words: "ITC believes that its aspiration to create enduring value for the nation provides the motive force to sustain growing shareholder value. Paperboards & Specialty Papers. Packaged Foods & Confectionery. Paperboards. ITC practices this philosophy by not only driving each of its businesses towards international competitiveness but by also consciously contributing to enhancing the competitiveness of the larger value chain of which it is a part. Information Technology. ITC is rated among the World's Best Big Companies. among India's Most Respected Companies by BusinessWorld and among India's Most Valuable Companies by Business Today. ITC also ranks among Asia's 50 best performing companies compiled by Business Week. ITC is widely perceived to be dedicatedly nation-oriented." ITC's diversified status originates from its corporate strategy aimed at creating multiple drivers of growth anchored on its time-tested core competencies: unmatched distribution reach. While ITC is an outstanding market leader in its traditional businesses of Cigarettes. Safety Matches and other FMCG products.

1926. Nehru Road) Kolkata.000. ITC was the first company in India to voluntarily seek a corporate governance rating." FORMATION AND EVOLUTION ITC was incorporated on August 24.60. was the centre of the Company's existence. for the nation. The Company's 9 .L. including e-enabled services and business process outsourcing. ITC's wholly owned Information Technology subsidiary. safety and environment management systems.000 shareholders.Choupal' initiative is enabling Indian agriculture significantly enhance its competitiveness by empowering Indian farmers through the power of the Internet. This over-arching vision of the company is expressively captured in its corporate positioning statement: "Enduring Value. ITC's production facilities and hotels have won numerous national and international awards for quality. by purchasing the plot of land situated at 37. The Company continuously endeavors to enhance its wealth generating capabilities in a globalizing environment to consistently reward more than 3. (now renamed J. This decision of the Company was historic in more ways than one. 310. for the sum of Rs. The Company celebrated its 16th birthday on August 24. It was to mark the beginning of a long and eventful journey into India's future. fulfill the aspirations of its stakeholders and meet societal expectations. productivity. Its beginnings were humble. A leased office on Radha Bazar Lane.000 people at more than 60 locations across India. This transformational strategy. is expected to progressively create for ITC a huge rural distribution infrastructure. for the Shareholder. Chowringhee. significantly enhancing the Company's marketing reach. is aggressively pursuing emerging opportunities in providing end-to-end IT solutions. 1910 under the name of 'Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited'. Kolkata. ITC Infotech India Limited. ITC employs over 25. which has already become the subject matter of a case study at Harvard Business School.

which came up on that plot of land two years later. In November 2002. Lifestyle Retailing and Greeting Gifting & Stationery . Though the first six decades of the Company's existence were primarily devoted to the growth and consolidation of the Cigarettes and Leaf Tobacco businesses. environmental protection and community development. In 1975 the Company launched its Hotels business with the acquisition of a hotel in Chennai which was rechristened 'ITC-Welcomgroup Hotel Chola'. ITC's Packaging & Printing Business was set up in 1925 as a strategic backward integration for ITC's Cigarettes business. Since then ITC's Hotels business has grown to occupy a position of leadership. It is directly involved in education. The Company now stands rechristened 'ITC Limited'. quality and manufacturing processes are comparable to the best in the world. productivity. It is today India's most sophisticated packaging house. Limited in 1974. Paperboards & Specialty Papers. ITC acquired the paperboard manufacturing 10 .T. and the name of the Company was changed to I. create tourism infrastructure and generate large scale direct and indirect employment. ITC chose the hotels business for its potential to earn high levels of foreign exchange.headquarter building. an economically backward area in the state of Andhra Pradesh. this division merged with the Company's Tribeni Tissues Division to form the Paperboards & Specialty Papers Division. would go on to become one of Kolkata's most venerated landmarks. Packaging. with over 100 owned and managed properties spread across India. Foods. Information Technology. 2001. The Company's ownership progressively Indianised. The objective of ITC's entry into the hotels business was rooted in the concept of creating value for the nation. In recognition of the Company's multi-business portfolio encompassing a wide range of businesses Cigarettes & Tobacco. In 2004. ITC's paperboards' technology. It has also made an immense contribution to the development of Sarapaka.the full stops in the Company's name were removed effective September 18. Bhadrachalam Paperboards amalgamated with the Company effective March 13. the Seventies witnessed the beginnings of a corporate transformation that would usher in momentous changes in the life of the Company. which today has become the market leader in India. Agri-Exports. Hotels. In 1979. 'Virginia House'. Bhadrachalam Paperboards Division.C. 2002 and became a Division of the Company. ITC entered the Paperboards business by promoting ITC Bhadrachalam Paperboards Limited.

In 1985. ITC acquired Tribeni Tissues Limited. Since inception. British American Tobacco and various independent shareholders in Nepal. ITC set up Surya Tobacco Co. In the same year. ITC also entered the Lifestyle Retailing business with the Wills Sport range of international quality relaxed wear for men and women in 2000. In 1990. in 2002. Now it extends to 10 states covering over 4 million farmers. 24 'Choupal Saagars' are now operational in the 3 states of Madhya Pradesh. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. ITC's first rural mall. Surya Tobacco became a subsidiary of ITC Limited and its name was changed to Surya Nepal Private Limited (Surya Nepal). ITC launched a line of high quality greeting cards under the brand name 'Expressions'. christened 'Choupal Saagar' was inaugurated in August 2004 at Sehore. John Players. ITC's unique and now widely acknowledged e-Choupal initiative began in 2000 with soya farmers in Madhya Pradesh. a range of notebooks in the school stationery segment. Autograph books and Slam books. In 2000. In 2003. In 2006. ITC also initiated a foray into the popular segment with its men's wear brand. the product range was enlarged with the introduction of Gift wrappers. a Specialty paper manufacturing company and a major supplier of tissue paper to the cigarette industry.facility of BILT Industrial Packaging Co. near Coimbatore. The Wills Lifestyle chain of exclusive stores later expanded its range to include Wills Classic formal wear (2002) and Wills Clublife evening wear (2003). ITC set up the Agri Business Division for export of agri-commodities. its shares have been held by ITC. leveraging its agri-sourcing competency. TTD was merged with the Bhadrachalam Paperboards Division to form the Paperboards & Specialty Papers Division in November 2002. The merged entity was named the Tribeni Tissues Division (TTD). Ltd (BIPCO). In 2002. In August 2002. in Nepal as an Indo-Nepal and British joint venture. Also in 1990. The Kovai Unit allows ITC to improve customer service with reduced lead time and a wider product range. the company rolled out 'Classmate'. a vernacular range of greeting cards in eight languages and 'Expressions Paperkraft'. ITC also launched 'Expressions Matrubhasha'. On the rural retail front.that has gained recognition from buyers and retailers as the 11 . The Division is today one of India's largest exporters. Tamil Nadu. To harness strategic and operational synergies. a range of premium stationery products. Wills Lifestyle became title partner of the country's most premier fashion event Wills Lifestyle India Fashion Week .

ITC's popular agarbattis brands include Spriha and Mangaldeep across a range of fragrances like Rose. Today ITC Infotech is one of India’s fastest growing global IT and IT-enabled services companies and has established itself as a key player in offshore outsourcing. Hospitality and Transportation) and Media & Entertainment. ITC's foray into the Foods business is an outstanding example of successfully blending multiple internal competencies to create a new driver of business growth. ITC introduced Essenza Di Wills.a fashion brand in the popular segment for the young woman. the signature range under Essenza Di Wills provides a comprehensive grooming regimen with distinct lines for men (Inizio Homme) and 12 . ITC launched a special 'Celebration Series'.single largest B-2-B platform for the Fashion Design industry. 2003 witnessed the introduction of Sunfeast as the Company entered the biscuits segment. Madhur. In just seven years. Aim Mega and Aim Metro. ITC's entered the fast growing branded snacks category with Bingo! in 2007. a rapidly growing market share and a solid market standing. CPG&R (Consumer Packaged Goods & Retail). In 2002. It began in August 2001 with the introduction of 'Kitchens of India' ready-to-eat Indian gourmet dishes. ITC entered the confectionery and staples segments with the launch of the brands mint-o and Candyman confectionery and Aashirvaad atta (wheat flour). To mark the occasion. taking the event forward to consumers. an exclusive range of fine fragrances and bath & body care products for men and women in July 2005. Financial Services & Insurance). Mangaldeep. Jasmine. the Foods business has grown to a significant size with over 200 differentiated products under six distinctive brands. the Company introduced 'Miss Players'. to more aggressively pursue emerging opportunities in this area. Inizio. Bouquet. In 2000. ITC's foray into the marketing of Agarbattis (incense sticks) in 2003 marked the manifestation of its partnership with the cottage sector. THT (Travel. ITC now markets popular safety matches brands like iKno.Manufacturing. BFSI (Banking. Sambrani and Nagchampa. In 2007. with an enviable distribution reach. Aim. Sandalwood. In 2002. ITC spun off its information technology business into a wholly owned subsidiary. providing outsourced IT solutions and services to leading global customers across key focus verticals . ITC Infotech India Limited. ITC's philosophy of contributing to enhancing the competitiveness of the entire value chain found yet another expression in the Safety Matches initiative.

multistakeholder international initiative to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines.women (Inizio Femme). It won the $100.000 Award for the year 2005 for its trailblazing ITC e-Choupal initiative which has achieved the scale of a movement in rural India. a UN-backed. services and processes to global standards. The 13 . featuring 400 of "the world's best big companies". October and December 2007 respectively. Continuing with its tradition of bringing world class products to Indian consumers the Company launched 'Fiama Di Wills'. ITC is one of the eight Indian companies to figure in Forbes A-List for 2004. ITC has several firsts to its credit: ITC is the first from India and among the first 10 companies in the world to publish its Sustainability Report in compliance (at the highest A+ level) with the latest G3 guidelines of the Netherlands-based Global Reporting Initiative (GRI). The Company also launched the 'Superia' range of Soaps and Shampoos in the mass-market segment at select markets in October 2007 and Vivel De Wills & Vivel range of soaps in February and Vivel range of shampoos in June 2008. a premium range of Shampoos. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF COMPANY AND INDUSTRY ITC constantly endeavours to benchmark its products. Forbes has also named ITC among Asia's'Fab 50' and the World's Most Reputable Companies. Shower Gels and Soaps in September. ITC is the first Indian company and the second in the world to win the prestigious Development Gateway Award. The Company's pursuit of excellence has earned it national and international honours.

sustainability and transparency. the worldwide business award recognising companies who have made significant efforts to create sustainable livelihood opportunities and enduring wealth in developing countries. The award has been instituted jointly by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). ITC Maurya in New Delhi is the first hotel in India to get the coveted ISO 14001 Environment Management Systems certification. ITC is the first Corporate to receive the Annual FICCI Outstanding Vision Corporate Triple Impact Award in 2007 for its invaluable contribution to the triple bottom line benchmarks of building economic. in association with the World Council for Corporate Governance and Centre for Corporate Governance. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the HRH Prince of Wales International Business Leaders Forum (IBLF). ITC has won the Golden Peacock Awards for 'Corporate Social Responsibility (Asia)' in 2007. its scale and replicability. ITC e-Choupal won the Award for the importance of its contribution to development priorities like poverty reduction. the Award for ‘CSR in Emerging Economies 2005’ and ‘Excellence in Corporate Governance' in the same year. New Delhi. social and natural capital for the nation. ITC has won the inaugural 'World Business Award'. These Awards have been instituted by the Institute of Directors. ITC's cigarette factory in Kolkata is the first such unit in India to get ISO 9000 quality certification and the first among cigarette factories in the world to be awarded the ISO 14001 certification. The Company's Green Leaf Threshing plants at Chirala and Anaparti in Andhra Pradesh are the first units of their kind in the world to get ISO 14001 environment management systems certification. 14 .Development Gateway Award recognizes ITC's e-Choupal as the most exemplary contribution in the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for development during the last 10 years.

This certification is awarded for "General requirement for the competence of Testing & Callibration Laboratories". ITC Chairman Y C Deveshwar has received several honours over the years. Zurich. the leading marketing magazine. ITC's R&D Centre at Peenya. Honoured with the Teacher's Lifetime Achievement Award. Delhi. Inducted into the `Hall of Pride' by the 93rd Indian Science Congress. Business Person of the Year from UK Trade & Investment. 2006 2005 2001 1998 1996 1994 15 . Marketing Man of the Year from A&M. by National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL). Notable among them are: Year 2010 2008 2007 2006 Hewit Best Employer Award Award Crystal Award to ‘Bukhara’ for best Indian Restaurant SAM/SPG Sustainability Leadership Award conferred at the International Sustainability Leadership Symposium.ITC Infotech finds pride of place among a select group of SEI CMM Level 5 companies in the world. the UK Government organisation that supports overseas businesses in that country. Manager Entrepreneur of the Year from Ernst & Young Retail Visionary of the Year from Images. Honorary Fellowship from the All India Management Association Distinguished Alumni Award from IIT. India's only fashion and retail trade magazine. The R&D Centre is also certified for the standard ISO/IEC17025:2005. Bengaluru has the distinction of being the first independent R&D centre in India to get ISO 9001 accreditation and certified with ISO 14001 for Environment Management Systems by DNV.

Agri Business and Information Technology. Continuously strengthen and refine Corporate Governance processes and systems to catalyze the entrepreneurial energies of management by striking the golden balance between executive freedom and the need for effective control and accountability. as trustee of shareholders. Flowing from the concept and principles of Corporate Governance adopted by the Company.ITC CORPORATE STRATEGIES ITC is a board-managed professional company. Paper. committed to creating enduring value for the shareholder and for the nation. The Board of Directors at the apex. carries the responsibility for strategic supervision of the Company. Ensure that each of its businesses is world class and internationally competitive. Continue to focus on the chosen portfolio of FMCG. Its philosophy of all-round value creation is backed by strong corporate governance policies and systems. leadership within ITC is exercised at three levels. Paperboards & Packaging. ITC’s corporate strategies are: Create multiple drivers of growth by developing a portfolio of world class businesses that best matches organizational capability with opportunities in domestic and export markets. Benchmark the health of each business comprehensively across the criteria of Market Standing. Profitability and Internal Vitality. It has a rich organizational culture rooted in its core values of respect for people and belief in empowerment. Hotels. Create distributed leadership within the organization by nurturing talented and focused top management teams for each of the businesses. Enhance the competitive power of the portfolio through synergies derived by blending the diverse skills and a capability residing in ITC’s various businesses. The strategic management of the Company rests with the Corporate Management Committee comprising the 16 .

whole time Directors and members drawn from senior management. headed by the Chief Executive. Each DMC is responsible for and totally focused on the management of its assigned business. This three-tiered interlinked leadership process creates a wholesome balance between the need for focus and executive freedom. The executive management of each business division is vested with the Divisional Management Committee (DMC). BOARD OF DIRECTORS CHAIRMAN Y C Deveshwar EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS Anup Singh K Vaidyanath NON-EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS Anil Baijal S B Mathur P B Ramanujam R K Kaul D K Mehrotra Anthony Ruys B Vijayaraghavan S H Khan H G Powell Basudeb Sen 17 . and the need for supervision and control.

delivering superior and sustainable stakeholder value. ITC MOTTO A WOW at every moment of truth THE WELCOM GROUP SLOGAN Nobody Gives You India The Way WE do. development of human resources and employment generation. CORPORATE MISSION Generating adequate economic surplus to meet expectation of all stakeholders.ITC MISSION To enhance the wealth generating capability of the enterprise in a globalizing environment. ITC VISION To sustain ITC’s position as one of India’s most valuable corporation through world class performance. LOGO 18 . NATIONAL MISSION Maximizing foreign exchange earnings. creating growing value for the Indian economy and the company’s stakeholders WELCOME MISSION To be recognized as a premier professional organization providing the finest tourism. hospitality and travel related consumer service in the country and there by contributing to the achievement of the following national and corporate priorities.

Add deep market insight. setting high performance standards for ourselves as individuals and teams. Innovation We will constantly pursue newer and better processes. In pursuit of our goals. We want individuals to dream. We will simultaneously respect and value people and uphold humanness and human dignity. quality and satisfaction. do it well and win. We will actualize stakeholder value and interest on a long term sustainable basis. high-performance organization which creates value for all its stakeholders: Trusteeship As professional managers. products. a pervasive culture of innovation. value differences. We acknowledge that every individual brings different perspectives and capabilities to the team and that a strong team is founded on a variety of perspectives.ITC CORE VALUES ITC's Core Values are aimed at developing a customer-focused. Customer Focus We are always customer focused and will deliver what the customer needs in terms of value. create and experiment in pursuit of opportunities and achieve leadership through teamwork. cutting-edge technology. Nation Orientation We are aware of our responsibility to generate economic value for the Nation. We will strive for excellence in whatever we do. we will make no compromise in complying with applicable laws and regulations at all levels PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Take an abiding commitment to world-class quality. Respect for People We are result oriented. Excellence We do what is right. we are conscious that ITC has been given to us in "trust" by all our stakeholders. services and management practices. And you have ITC brands that do India proud across a 19 .

Expressions. Cuisine. Classmate. Miss Players. Sunfeast. Mangaldeep. Paperkraft. ITC's Hotels business is one of India's finest and fastest growing hospitality chains. Since then the ITC-Welcomgroup brand has become synonymous with Indian hospitality. Expressions Aromatic Candles ABOUT ITC HOTELS ITC entered the hotels business in 1975 with the acquisition of a hotel in Chennai. ITC Hotels' commitment to delivering 20 .range of products and services: Aashirvaad. Wills Lifestyle. With over 100 hotels in more than 80 destinations. Vivel Portfolio. Bingo!. John Players. Essenza Di Wills. Superia. Fiama Di Wills. which was then rechristened ITC Chola. ITC-Welcomgroup has set new standards of excellence in the hotel industry in Accommodation. mint-o. ITC-Welcomgroup. Environment and Guest Safety. AIM. Kitchens of India. Candyman.

ITC Hotels was also instrumental in bringing the 'Sheraton' brand to India.globally benchmarked services. Dakshin and DumPukht are today powerful cuisine brands. ITC-Welcomgroup pioneered the holistic concept of 'branded accommodation' in the hospitality industry. customizing and branding hotel services like 'ITC One'. Heads of State and discerning guests from across the world and within. It was the first to launch the idea of a 'Hotel within a Hotel' by segmenting. ITC-Welcomgroup was the first to introduce branded cuisine. ITC has strategically customized its hotels and appropriately categorized them to fulfill the service and budgetary needs of travelers. 'Towers' and the 'Executive Club'. with which it enjoyed a three-decade exclusive partnership. Its restaurants Bukhara. ITC-Welcomgroup's properties are classified under four distinct brands: 21 . Each of these caters to specialized needs of the global business traveler with unmatched quality and a range of custom-made services. ITC-Welcomgroup has an exclusive tie-up with global partner Starwood for its top of the line premium brand. ITC Hotels have had the privilege of hosting world leaders. embedded in a culture deeply rooted in India's rich tradition of hospitality. gives it a unique and distinct identity. A leader in the premium hospitality segment. ITC-Welcomgroup also showcases international cuisine in its specialty restaurants West View and Pan Asian. the 'Luxury Collection'.

of Hotels 7 4 3 25 61 100 Rooms 2003 811 330 2039 1525 6708 ITC MAURYA. DELHI 22 .C HA IN SPREA D Brands ITC HotelLuxury Collection Sheraton WelcomHotel Fortune WelcomHeritage Grand Total No.

DI. and service standards and the ITC One – our premium room category – offers magnificent decor. Situated in the heart of the exclusive Diplomatic Enclave and surrounded by views of Delhi’s green belt – the forested ridge. space. This extraordinary hotel combines an historic aura with contemporary facilities to create an unrivalled luxury hotel experience. which created the golden era of Indian history.WILLS (BEAUTY PARLOU . and the latest in modern conveniences and amenities.Overview The ITC Maurya. which is a world renowned restaurant. ITC Maurya. SUPPORTING DEPARTMENTS HORTICULTURE HUMAN RESOURCES 23 SALON. One of the most popular dining destinations in the city. from the Executive Club which pioneers a tradition in corporate hospitality to the Towers’ eight luxurious floors of elegance and tranquility. including 29 uniquely-designed suites. The Luxury Room combines the best of opulence. our business hotel is a convenient 14 kilometers (25 minutes) from the International Airport. Behind the lavishness is a crisp efficiency and a deep understanding of the needs of the global traveler. impeccable service. 440 rooms. An imposing structure of timeless luxury boasts inspiring architecture and a majestic ambiance – a tribute to the age of the great Mauryan Dynasty. New Delhi additionally offers an assortment of internationally acclaimed cuisine including the Bukhara. are available in a bouquet of room categories. New Delhi has been the preferred residence of visiting heads of state and global business leaders for over 25 years.


STRENGTH WEAKNESS • • Based on Indian Value Different categories of room available like GPS (Especially for HOS) • Affordable only for high profile guests • Inflexibility in room rates • Special EVA floor for Single lady travelers OPPORTUNITY THREAT • • Close to Airport Good numbers of rooms as compared to the other hotels • Near by Competitors Like Taj • Diversified business. therefore can use ITC FMCG products in the hotel 25 .


T To study the extent of these factors present in the selected company ITC Maurya.3 MANAGERIAL USELFULNESS OF STUDY The project is based to study and identify the motivational factors in the employees working in ITC Maurya.  To study enlighten the area where motivation is needed the most. SECONDARY OBJECTIVE To study the importance of these factors for the employees. On the basis of study evaluation will be done to know different motivational factors with which employees are satisfied & engaged and which are the factors where Maurya is lacking the most. 2.” 2. under consideration of individual characteristics.2 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY PRIMARY OBJECTIVE  o find out the most critical factors for motivation and job satisfaction.“To investigate and analyze the factors which motivate employees. 27 .

The questionnaires were collected and a period of editing and analyzing the data started. based on the knowledge of the theoretical research. the quantitative and qualitative research. the research report was completed by adding the conclusion and the closing comments.4 TYPE OF RESEARCH AND RESEARCH DESIGN The following chapter provides the reader with information about the research process in order to enable him/her to understand and to evaluate the investigation and the results. reliability and validity as well as criticism towards the chosen methods are presented. Thereby. the data collection. Finally. positivism and hermeneutics. During the entire time between determining the methodology and the end of writing down the analysis the frames of reference was created. 28 . several decisions such as the form of the questions and the language used in the questionnaire had to be made. The first step in doing this research was the formulation of the problem and the creation of the research questions. The questionnaire about motivation and work was created. a reflection on objectivity.2. For these purposes a short overview about the research process. Secondary data was gathered in the form of books and articles in order to improve the understanding of the research problem.

A SHORT OVERVIEW Each research problem is in some way unique.4.1 THE RESEARCH PROCESS .1: Stages in the research process (own creation) 2. and therefore requires a tailored research procedure. Formulation of the Questionnaire Methodology Conclusion Analysis problem and the research Frames of questions Reference Figure 2.2. the research process of this study is shown.2 QUESTIONNAIRE ABOUT MOTIVATION AND WORK 29 . In the following.4.4.

it may consume a lot of time when waiting for answers. Furthermore. Moreover. 30 . non response rates may be high. Part three deals with certain kinds of benefits that are offered by the company. Finally. especially where response is slow. The questionnaire comprised of three pages. To sum up. the gender. The questionnaire about motivation and work was based on a job description questionnaire created by Hackman and Oldham (1980) and was addressed to a sample of employees of the company. and may answer the questions at times that are convenient (Bickman and Rog. respondents may be more willing to provide information about certain issues. 1983). the marital status. the respondents had the possibility to write down additional information about their job that could be helpful to understand that job. misinterpretations and misrepresentations are common with questionnaires. The second section included statements about certain job aspects. A scale from one ("less important") to eight ("very important") was used as well. On the other hand. there is no interviewer bias and the costs are relatively low. The persons had the opportunity to choose a figure out of a scale from one ("less important") to eight ("very important"). the first part was aimed to investigate the extent of the presence of certain job features as well as the employees' level of satisfaction with them.The primary advantage of questionnaires is the opportunity to reach a high number of respondents. Furthermore. 1998). For that purpose. whereas the second part was used to realize the strength of certain work motives. and certain types of questions cannot be asked (Douglas and Craig. and was divided in four parts. the years a person has been working in that company as well as the work area and the position within the company. This individual data comprised the subgroups that represent the basis for the analysis. the persons had to choose a number out of a scale from one ("little extent" or "dissatisfied") to eight ("much" or "satisfied"). which had to be evaluated by the respondents according to the extent of importance that they attach to them. The last part was dedicated to gather general information such as the current age range. have time to answer questions. existing bias due to non response. they had the opportunity to propose additional benefits. In addition. In the first part the respondents were asked to describe their job and to evaluate their extent of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the respective job feature. The respondents had to evaluate how important these benefits are for them.

the 31 The qualitative method. multiple tools are often needed to research a topic thoroughly and to provide results that can be used. Furthermore. The quantitative research approach focuses on questions such as "How many?" and "How often?” which is easily processed in the form of numbers. In other words. 1995). Therefore. analysis. data collection. context. Both of these types of research are considered in research design. which permit the respondents to choose an alternative out of several possible answers. and reporting (Bickman and Rog. the questions as well as the instructions have been designed in a clear and precise way so that different persons would not interpret them differently. the quantitative method allows the measurement of relationships between variables in a systematic and statistical way and is therefore best suited for the positivistic researcher.4. Thereby. 2. (Cassell and Symon.In order to minimize misinterpretations and misrepresentations. on the other hand. 1997). According to Bickman and Rog (1997). As mentioned before. there is no 'right way' or 'only way' to interpret the findings of the research. Cassell and Symon (1995) pointed out that a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods in the same study is called the pragmatic view.3 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Research methodology is often divided into the quantitative and qualitative research. The other fixed-alternative questions are questions. a researcher has to find the tools which best fit the research questions. Only a limited amount of open-ended questions allowed the respondents to answer in their own words. the structure of this questionnaire can be described as some kind of intermediate. is most appropriate for the hermeneutic researcher in order to gain a deeper understanding of a special research problem . However. Gordon and Langmaid (1988) argued that the results of quantitative and/or qualitative research might permit various interpretations. Predominantly fixed-alternative questions but also open-ended questions. In other words. Most of the fixed-alternative questions employed a scale from one to eight to capture the responses. according to Gordon and Langmaid (1988). albeit only to a minor extent. the collected material can be expressed and analyzed in numbers. and resources at hand. were used to gather information. That means tools that are available and appropriate to best serve the research problem should be used.

the researcher should first focus on secondary data in the process of data collection. it may also entail a large amount of flawed and/or inappropriate data (Bickman and Rog. the quantitative research offers the possibility to repeat the survey in the future and to compare the results. Moreover. 1997). 2. interviews. However.This secondary data was then used for writing the theoretical framework and the background. and participant observation. Thereby. and primary data consists of new material collected by the researcher for the purpose at hand by the use of questionnaires. It offers improved methods or data. 1999). articles and course literature with useful information for this study. According to the literature.5 DATA COLLECTION METHOD The collection of data represents a prerequisite for carrying out a research and can be derived from a number of different sources. 1995). These include books.5. 2.1 SECONDARY DATA Secondary data. Several forms of secondary data have been used in this research.quantitative research holds not only the advantage of statistical and numerical measurement. In this study quantitative as well as qualitative methods (triangulation) were employed. 2. McNeill (1985) pointed out that secondary data is material that has been gathered previously. it helped in gaining a deeper understanding of the presented research problem . it contributes to a better statement of the problem under investigation. The questionnaire provided predominantly quantitative data and to a minor extent qualitative data.5. Although a problem is not completely solved by secondary data. but also the advantages of sub-group sampling or comparisons. These sources are classified into secondary and primary data (Clarke and Dawson. in comparison with primary data holds the advantage that it is cheap and most of the time easy to access (Churchill.2 Primary data 32 .

and holds the advantage of versatility. according to Churchill. primary data can be selected by communication or observation. On the other hand. mood. may be difficult to observe. which is attached to certain job features by this person. The selection of primary data by communication is faster and cheaper than observation. According to Churchill.6 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY 33 . Communication involves the asking of questions to respondents in an oral or written form by the use of questionnaires. the questionnaire gathers data about issues. or reluctance to provide the desired data. or behaviors that may be of interest for solving the research problem. secondary data rarely solves a research problem completely. For instance. in such a short time span that was available to accomplish this study.As mentioned above. Once secondary data has been examined. which are a part of it. particularly. observational data is more objective and accurate due to the fact that the collected information is not influenced by a person's memory. actions. Observation means that the researcher observes particular situations in order to record facts. 2. The methodology employed in this research consisted of a questionnaire. additional information to the problem at hand primary data .is needed. The use of observations was not considered since the extent to which an individual perceives satisfaction with his/her job features as well as the importance. communication may be served by mail questionnaires and interviews conducted either in person or over the telephone. the combination of several methods allows the researcher to consider the units under study from several directions and to enhance the understanding. Therefore. As mentioned before.

• • Tool used to identify Motivational factor of the employee. Tool used to identify Motivational factor is Questionnaire. which sometimes doesn’t give fair idea and sometimes respondents hide their views. • 34 . Time frame of two months is very short for such type of study. doesn’t give any idea about De motivational factors which are existing in the employees.

CHAPTER 3 Conceptual Discussion 3.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 35 .

Employees are a valuable resource that may contribute in several different ways to a company's activities. it is important that those employees experience positive feelings towards their tasks. the work may provide a source of social differentiation. extrinsic (such as money) or intrinsic (satisfaction coming from the work). 1991). but it is also an important and highly central aspect in the lives of individuals (Hall. and a feeling of meaninglessness. in the society in general (Steers. Thereby. a company needs employees who act toward the goals of the organization and have a 36 .Work provides products and services. which represent the basis for a company's success (Steers. Moreover. and Snyderman (1999) pointed out that an employee. for many others it is the reason for dissatisfaction. provided that the company gives them an appropriate chance (Morgan. In other words. will experience his/her tasks. as well as the workday totally differently if the attitudes toward the job are good or if they are bad. during hard times the level of morale within the work force may determine whether a company will survive. they argued that the employees' feelings toward their work have a significant influence on the success and failure of the company. In other words. First. the job is often a source of rank. which he/she should receive for the provided service. This can range from a source of identity and self-esteem. 1997). Regarding the fact that employees spend a large part of a day at work for 40 to 45 years. Fourth. 1994) due to several reasons. the workplace presents opportunities for socialization with other people (Hall. irrespective of if he/she is working in an office or on a bench. motivated employees contribute to a company's survival. for some people work is a source of great satisfaction. caused by the nature of the task and the characteristics of the person. Otherwise. Steers and Porter (1991) pointed out that work has an individual meaning for each person. In order to be successful. Mausner. to a source of frustration. Second. in exchange for their performance (Steers and Porters. For instance. As mentioned before. 1991). Herzberg. it would be a long time to be frustrated. In addition. persons receive some kind of reward. 1991). 1994). the performance of a person as well as the decision to remain in the company is influenced by the extent to which such expectations are met. Third. these negative feelings may affect the family or social life as well as the physical and emotional health of an individual. or status. The individual holds certain personal expectations in terms of form and amount of reward. dissatisfied and unhappy. boredom.

the accumulated research evidence suggests that the relation between job satisfaction and performance is quite weak. the structure of the work and the employees' degree of satisfaction with the job are important in order to increase the actual motivation and satisfaction with their work. 3. 1999) that influences and is influenced by a large number of factors in the organizational environment (Porter and Steers.. according to Wiley (1997). 1991). Such loyalty and commitment may be generated by motivation. Furthermore. The study 37 . Thereby.1. Highly motivated persons tend to work harder and perform more effectively in their jobs than less motivated individuals.1 MOTIVATION Motivation is a highly complex phenomenon (Bent. in order to increase an employee's motivation and satisfaction. et al. In addition. 1999). 1998). Particularly. the impacts of motivation on the work performance and productivity attracted attention towards motivation in the work environment (Huddleston and Good. The knowledge about needs and expectations of employees at work represents the basis for their motivation. The strongest motivator is.strong desire to remain in the company. The knowledge about those strong motivators is of great value and may serve as a starting point for the re-design of work. the differences regarding what people want and actually perceive from their job are of significance. However. motivation is aimed to achieve increases in work productivity and job satisfaction (Schultz and Schultz. several studies showed that job satisfaction leads to a better performance as well as to more customer orientation. Moreover. according to Molander (1996) and Westerman and Donoghue (1989). something that people value. but lack.

or discourages the individual to pursue his/her course of action and redirects his/her efforts. Vignali point’s out that motivation is a process that triggers individuals to act as they do.g. 1999. 1991).. 1964.. 1999. 1992. e. motivation focuses. on an individual's willingness to put efforts into his/her work. in terms of the organizational aspect. direct and sustain behavior towards the attainment of certain goals (Bent et al. A great amount of definitions are presented by literature. which are made in order to obtain incentives or a special form of incentives. which initiate. and (3) The maintenance and sustain of this behavior (Bent et al. That. according to Steers and Porter (1991). and on the amount of efforts. according to Molander (1996). 1999). 1999). and with environmental forces that often cause these drives (Porter and Steers." . The second feature involves the direction of behavior towards a goal (Wagner. Moreover. Wagner. or put more simply getting people to do willingly and well those things which have to be done. 1999). Atkinson et al. This feedback either reinforces the individual to intensify his/her drive and the direction of his/her energy.. 1999). Porter and Steers (1991) refer to the third matter as forces within the individual and environmental forces that provide the individual with feedback. Weiner. Westerman and Donoghue refer to motivation as "…a set of processes which energize a person's behavior and direct him or her towards attaining some goal. Particularly. The first issue deals with driving forces inherent in the individual that leads to a certain behavior. 1975). Wagner. Generally.of motivation is concerned with why individuals think and behave as they do (Mullin. Thereby. the individual will be provided with feedback about the impact of his/her behavior. Furthermore. The discussion of motivation in the literature (recent and less recent) refers to three aspects: (1) What is the arousal or energizing source of the individual behavior? (2) What directs or channels such behavior (Vroom. in turn may induce the individual to alter his/her 38 . motivation deals with forces.

(1975). (1975). These five reasons are: (1) Several motives may be expressed through any single action.1 : A simplified illustration of the basic motivational model The motivational process is not as simple and straightforward as it seems. (2) Motives may occur in disguised forms. It is.1. The first aspect refers to the fact that motives cannot directly be observed and therefore a need to deduce them exists (Baron. or may reassure the individual that his/her current way of acting is correct and may confirm the person in pursuing this course of action. However. a far more complex study. (3) Similar or identical actions may represent several motives.present behavior. Figure 3. the inference of motives from observed behavior is associated with difficulties traced back to at least five reasons mentioned by Atkinson et al. which complicate the simplicity of the model. 39 . according to Atkinson et al. 1983). Porter and Steers (1991) refer to Dunnette and Kirchner (1965) and others who identified four aspects.

Intrinsic motives can be satisfied by the work itself. stimulation. 1975). according to Mak and Sockel (2001). an individual performs a task in order to achieve certain types of internal states. 1999).2 NEEDS AND EXPECTATIONS AT WORK Individuals are different and therefore also have different needs and expectations. and so on. In other words. External rewards such as food. whereas external motivators are considered as environmental factors brought by the company to the individual. desires and expectations may prompt a person to direct his/her attention to other motives. may be classified in several ways. they refer to the fourth complication.(4) Different behavior may embody similar motives. which he/she experiences as rewarding. These needs and expectations. personal and cultural 3. These motives may change over time and conflict with each other (Baron. In addition.1. concerned with intrinsic needs that satisfy a person. the task itself is the main source of motivation. Intrinsic motivation relates to psychological rewards such as the recognition of a task completed (Mullins. Two out of the variety of classifications will be explained more detailed in the following. and opportunities for personal growth and achievement to the individual (Molander. the fact that an attainment of certain needs. 1983). Porter and Steers (1991) point out that the selection of certain motives over others. challenges. in order to achieve the satisfaction of intrinsic needs. Intrinsic motivation is the desire of an individual to perform his/her work well. since it provides interest. The second complication of the model deals with the fact that any person has a host of motives. are not the main reason for a person to engage in activities (Deci. praise. altering and often conflicting with each other over time. as well as the intensity with which such motives are pursued. 40 . Internal motivators are. which they attempt to fulfill in many different ways. or to intensify the pursuit of these motives. may differ from person to person. money. In other words. Third. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Needs and expectations (motivators) are often considered in terms of being internal or external to an individual. and (5) The modes of expression of certain motives may be mitigated by variations.

and the need for affiliation are part of the social relationship that constitutes the relational orientation to work. intrinsic satisfaction. The relative strength of all these categories of needs and expectations together with the extent to which they are satisfied determines an individual’s motivation. some persons may prefer economic rewards. a person will seek out challenges that allow him/her to behave in ways that provide him/her with a sense of competence and self-determination. needs and expectations can be distinguished in economic rewards. 1998).1. Friendships. such as money. whereas other individuals will favor intrinsic satisfaction and/or social relationships. whereas negative attitudes represent job dissatisfaction. Job satisfaction is the positive and negative feelings and attitudes which an individual holds about his/her work (Schultz and Schultz. fringe benefits. the work is seen as a means to pursue other motives. e.4 JOB SATISFACTION Satisfaction is an internal state (Mullins. Positive attitudes toward the job are equivalent to job satisfaction. job satisfaction and job performance. In other words. That means pleasure comes from something the task leads to. work environment. On the other hand. refers to tangible rewards such as pay. Various authors define it as the outcome of a motivational process. According to Jung (1997.1996). Economic rewards such as pay. work conditions. Extrinsic motivation. Job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon and depends on many work41 . teamwork.3 BROAD CLASSIFICATION FOR MOTIVATION TO WORK According to Mullins (1999). These preferences may change over time. on the other hand. fringe benefits. Intrinsic satisfaction is provided by the work itself and represents a personal orientation to work. and material goods are an instrumental orientation to work. On the one hand.g. Thereby. 3. 3. 1999). Deci (1975) refers to intrinsically motivated behavior as behavior that is determined by an individual's need for feeling competent and self determining.1.) the effects of work as well as its contributing factors are also of importance for the need satisfaction. an individual is engaged in a process of conquering challenges. and social relationships. People differ in their preferences. and job security (Mullins. Extrinsic motives cannot only be satisfied by the work itself. 1999). it is the extent to which an individual favors his/her job.

all attitudes are not measured by the overall job satisfaction. since the overall job satisfaction does not measure all positive and negative attitudes of a person toward his/her work. are very motivated and do not prefer to leave their job. They assumed that good performance leads to rewards either in the form of extrinsic or intrinsic rewards. into attitudes held toward single facets of the job such as pay. with an average of 0. 1967). may lead to increases in job satisfaction and productivity (Schultz and Schultz. they can be used for predictions of satisfaction among groups of employees. According to Vroom (1964). For example. which in turn will cause satisfaction. 1996). The relationship between job satisfaction and work performance is not explicit. 1998). Vroom (1964) pointed out that there exists no simple relationship between job satisfaction and performance. it might be of use to break down an individual’s attitude toward his/her work as a whole. However. as well as of the work environment. 42 . Even though personal characteristics are unchangeable by the company. Lawler and Porter (1967). a redesign of work may provide an employee with the opportunity for personal growth and development. the accumulated research evidence only suggests a quite weak correlation between job satisfaction and performance (Molander.rewards. 1999). However. Individuals may be satisfied with some aspects of their work and dissatisfied with others. individuals who are satisfied with their job to a high extent. this figure is too low to be of theoretical or practical relevance. and so on . social conditions. Some theorists think that job satisfaction leads to a better performance. Therefore. for instance. Job satisfaction is a main factor for the motivation of employees and is closely related to customer-orientation. described the fact that increased performance leads to satisfaction with the help of a third variable . That means personal factors such as age. The redesign of the work. In other words.related as well as personal factors. the opinions of theorists differ in terms of whether job satisfaction leads to improved productivity or the reverse (Mullins. Correlation between these two variables varies to a large extent. gender. According to Blankertz and Robinson. security. it would be of avail to measure single facets of job satisfaction. Moreover.14. and job experience as well as the characteristics of the job influences a person's degree of job satisfaction (Lawler and Porter.

and feedback. there are a lot of important variables. and social factors such as group work. the higher the job satisfaction seems to be. The more satisfied an individual is with his/her work. These sets of variables were considered in the Steers study as well. These variables can be distinguished in three groups: characteristics of the individual. 3. In addition. an explicit relationship can only be identified in some concrete situations. 43 . and the state of the labor market. That means a person with positive feelings about his/her family and personal life will be likely to develop positive attitudes toward his/her job and vice versa (Schultz and Schultz. there are a lot of other factors such as the organizational commitment of an employee. 1983). 1998). job satisfaction and life satisfaction are related positively and reciprocally to each other. Verhaegen argued that turnover and absenteeism are related to satisfaction in some way. but since many other factors influence these variables as well. job characteristics. However. job characteristics like autonomy. variety. according to Schultz and Schultz (1998). which have an influence on the turnover behavior as well. for instance Vroom (1964). have shown that a negative relation between job satisfaction and labor turnover exists. The relation between job satisfaction and absenteeism inclines to be negative and less consistent. stimulation. the more a person identifies himself/herself psychologically with the job.1.5 WORK MOTIVATION THEORIES Since motivation deals with factors that energies direct and sustain behavior. which shows the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment. job involvement depends on personal factors such as age and growth needs. which may influence an individual’s motivation at work. Thereby. the less likely he/she will change the employer. several studies. Finally. and work environment characteristics (Steers and Porter. However. Steers developed a model.Furthermore.

the attitudinal and behavioral commitment. has to be willing to expend efforts for the enterprise. Payment and benefits are.Figure 3. age and education). the antecedents of organizational commitment are personal characteristics (need for achievement. According to Steers and Porter (1983). means to commit people to the company. but there is no personal identification with the company goals and values (Schultz and Schultz. According to Steers (1977). Schultz and Schultz (1998) mentioned that organizational commitment includes the fact that a person has to accept the goals and values of the company. deals with the aspect that a person feels bound to the company. 1998). two types of commitment can be found in the literature . The behavioral commitment. mentioned in Dessler (1986). on the other hand.1. according to Torrington and Hall (1995). job 44 .5: Hypothesized antecedents and outcomes of organizational commitment Organizational commitment can be described as the extent to which an individual identifies himself/herself with and is involved in the company (Mak and Sockel. 2001). The attitudinal commitment contains an individual's identification with the company and his/ her wish to remain in the organization. but will not necessarily lead to high levels of performance. and has the desire to remain in the company.

among others.2 CURRENT ISSUES – FOR COMPANY AND INDUSTRY 45 . is dependable. or where it fails to provide employees with challenging and meaningful tasks.). skills.g. Where the organization provides such opportunities (e. interesting and meaningful work).. All antecedents together determine a person's organizational commitment. a person's job performance and the desire to stay in membership with the company. the likelihood of increasing commitment is apparently enhanced. which in turn influences. desires. Steers and Porter (1983) pointed out that "Individuals enter organizations with certain needs.characteristics (feedback. where the organization is not dependable." 3. etc. and so forth and expect to find a work environment where they can utilize their abilities and satisfy many of their basic needs. where it makes effective use of its employees. commitment levels tend to diminish. However. and work attitudes (for instance group attitudes). Moreover.

46 .

47 .


✔ The factor environment includes the relationship to co-workers. the results of the interviews are presented in order to provide a better understanding of the questionnaire findings. task identity. Environment. job security. and the evaluation of the benefits offered by the company. autonomy and feedback are job characteristics according to the model by Hackman and Oldham. they are related to the hygiene factors in Herzberg's theory and the lower level needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs. to use a number of skills and talents to perform the work. and free work clothes including the washing (work). These benefits are the profit-sharing (referred in the tables and figures as benefit). Skills. Moreover. as well as the benefits offered by the company. These needs have. which concern the work context according to Hackman and Oldham (1980). ✔ Feedback can be received directly from the work itself as well as from superiors. according to the 49 . and compensation are factors. subsidized lunch price and free coffee (food). and to have challenges in the work. ✔ Autonomy refers to an individual’s freedom and independence to schedule and organize his/her work. how much importance employees attach toward certain job features. First. They represent intrinsic motivation factors and can be related to the motivators in Herzberg's theory and the higher level needs in Maslow's hierarchy of needs. and customers. Additionally. ✔ Task identity means that a person does an entire piece of work from beginning to end. task significance. The factor skills contain to do many different things. These motivators influence an employee's internal motivation and satisfaction with the job. sport activities paid by the company (sport). Moreover. and the work condition. ✔ The last factor compensation considers the salary and wages. the examined factors are explained in order to make it easier for the reader to understand the meaning of those terms.This part of the project deals with the results of the questionnaire – the evaluation of the job situation and the satisfaction with certain job features. ✔ Task significance deals with the importance and meaningfulness of the work and its effects on other people's life. the empirical findings are analyzed in connection to the theoretical background. co-workers. the co-operation with other persons. ✔ Job security deals with the fear to lose the job.

Furthermore. the importance of the environment was emphasized by the Hawthorne studies. 4. but decrease the level of dissatisfaction of an employee and influence a person's willingness to take advantage of challenges in the work.2 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS 50 .before mentioned theories. they do not lead to satisfaction with the work. Likewise. to be fulfilled to a certain degree before higher level needs may occur to a higher extent. which identified social relations as the source of motivation. The link among the Hawthorne studies. Maslow's. Herzberg's.

age. gender.3 MARRIED .The factors examined in this study are analyzed according to individual characteristics of the sample .1 36 15 12 36 27 24 9 9 21 39 43 38 14 14 33.33 62 24 33 38 52. SUBGROUPS SAMPLE In numbers < = 30 years AGE 31-45 years >=46 years MALE GENDER FEMALE < 2 years YEARS IN THE COMPANY 2-5 years >5-10 years >10 years FOTH WORK AREA BOTH MARITAL STATUS 51 in % 57 24 19 57. blue-collar/white-collar worker. marital status. and the years in the company. leading/non-leading position.

8 0.6 AGE <=30 31-45 >=46 SKILLS 2.1 2. That leads in turn to a higher internal work motivation and satisfaction with the work.82 TASK IDENTITY 1. task identity) when their age is between 31-45 years.2 1.UNMARRIED 30 47.43 JOB SECURITY 0.2 52 SPORTS 6.3 FOOD 5. which increases in the age.56 1.4 FEEDBAC K 1.8 0.4 AGE (MEAN) INTRINSIC FACTORS It can be stated that people experience their work as more meaningful (skill variety. Older people experience more responsibility for the outcomes of the work.54 1.3 WORK 7 . EXTRINSIC FACTORS AGE <=30 BENEFITS 7.6 0. and have a higher knowledge of the actual results of the work activities (feedback) with increasing age.5 2.9 COMPENSATIO N 1.36 1.485 3.

There are no significant differences in terms of job security and task identity.4 7.3 5.41 1.61 1.8 6.8 6.2 6.65 1.48 FEEDBACK 1.31-45 >=46 7. 53 .35 TASK IDENTITY 1.16 Men evaluated the job factors higher than women. GENDER (Mean) INTRINSIC FACTORS GENDER MALE FEMALE SKILLS 2.8 COMPENSATION 1.5 5.88 0.9 The evaluation of the importance of the benefits (compensation) offered by the company showed little differences among the age groups.94 2.32 JOB SECURITY 0.6 6.

slight differences in the work motivation and satisfaction can be noticed in reference to the gender. there seem to be a slight difference in the motivation and satisfaction with the work regarding the gender. In addition. extrinsic satisfaction. and the extent to which they are fulfilled. and social relationships. However.4 WORK 7 6. it can be stated that men and women perceive their work as meaningful to the same extent. MARITAL STATUS (Mean) INTRINSIC FACTORS MARITIAL STATUS SKILLS TASK IDENTITY FEEDBACK JOB SECURITY COMPENSATIO N 54 . Men always attached more importance to the respective job features than women. in view of autonomy and feedback it can be said that men give more importance to feedback than women.3 7.Therefore. EXTRINSIC FACTORS GENDER MALE FEMALE BENEFITS 7. Taking into consideration the comparative strength of the economic rewards. Hence.7 FOOD 5. Women attach more importance to extrinsic factors than men.3 6 SPORTS 6.3 Women always attached more importance to the respective benefits than men do. weak differences can be seen between men and women.1 6.

07 2. and social relationships. Furthermore.52 1.72 The responses in terms of the situation at work and the satisfaction with work.MARRIED UNMARRIED 3.8 7 Given the comparative strength of economic rewards.27 1. and therefore it may be noted here that unmarried persons experience all factors similar to married people. these differences are less than 1. intrinsic satisfaction.9 0. and the significance of the tasks in their job to a higher extent than unmarried people.3 FOOD 5. 55 . Referring to Hackman and Oldham's model.84 0.9 5.69 1. Nevertheless. it is interesting to note that married people perceive the use of a variety of skills. even if only to a minor extent. analyzed regarding the marital status.6 7. as well as the satisfaction of those needs.4 6 WORK 6. showed that married people evaluated the job factors. EXTRINSIC FACTORS MARITAL STATUS Married Unmarried BENEFITS 7. higher than unmarried.82 0. married and unmarried persons evaluated the extent to which feedback is present at work as similar.54 1. slight differences in the work motivation and satisfaction regarding the marital status can be identified.2 SPORTS 6.51 0. task identity.

07 2. In addition.76 *FOTH – FRONT OF THE HOUSE *BOTH – BACK OF THE HOUSE The received data shows a clear tendency that FOTH workers are more satisfied and perceive all investigated job factors to a higher extent than BOTH workers. BOTH workers evaluated the extent to which they can decide how and when to perform the work as lower.51 1.65 1.79 0.27 TASK IDENTITY 1. perceived as lower by the BOTH workers than by the FOTH workers. There are no differences between both the workers regarding the feedback. Comparing the intrinsic job factors according to the actual work situation. weak differences can be noticed in skills. task identity and task significance. are to a weak extent.79 COMPENSATION 0. That means the responsibility for work outcomes is experienced to a lower degree as well. the following can be stated.54 JOB SECURITY 0. EXTRINSIC FACTORS 56 . which influences a person's knowledge of the actual work results. WORK AREA (Mean) INTRINSIC FACTORS WORK AREA FOTH BOTH SKILLS 3. Skill variety. which contribute to the feeling of doing a meaningful job.48 FEEDBACK 1. and task significance.91 0. In particular. task identity.Married people always attached more importance to the respective benefits than unmarried people.

3 FOOD 5.54 1. intrinsic satisfaction factors. some interesting findings can be seen.4 SPORTS 6. Furthermore.4 5.9 0.8 0.3 5.7 FEEDBACK 1.2 1. YEARS IN A COMPANY (Mean) INTRINSIC FACTORS YEARS IN COMPANY <2 years 2-5 years 5-10 years >10 years SKILLS 2.49 3.4 2.9 COMPENSATION 1.36 1.3 7. and social relationships .1 2.2 TASK IDENTITY 1. After more than 10 years a sharp increase in the satisfaction of 57 .8 WORK 7.4 2 When the responses were analyzed with regard to the years people have been working in the company.WORK AREA FOTH BOTH BENEFITS 7.5 2.1 6.82 3. it may be noted here that there is very little difference on how the workers perceive the benefits and other extrinsic factors.8 0.3 *FOTH – FRONT OF THE HOUSE *BOTH – BACK OF THE HOUSE Taking into consideration the comparative strength of all factors – economic rewards.6 0.43 2 JOB SECURITY 0.56 1.and their degree of fulfillment. a comparison of the data concerning the job situation and the job satisfaction with the importance attributed to the job factors suggests a very slight difference.

6 7. no differences can be recognized. 58 .9 5.3 6.9 6. they experienced their jobs as more meaningful.4 SPORTS 6. and social relationships .and their degree of fulfillment. and task significance regarding the years in the company. to a weak extent. intrinsic satisfaction factors.8 6.7 7 FOOD 5 6. which in turn contributes to the extent of the internal motivation and job satisfaction. EXTRINSIC FACTORS YEARS IN COMPANY <2 years 2-5 years 5-10 years >10 years BENEFIT 7. In other words. similarly.3 6. higher than the other employees did. Persons who have been working in the company more than 10 years experienced these three dimensions. The feedback suggests no major differences from up to 2 years to 10 years.6 6 WORK 7.5 Taking into consideration the comparative strength of all factors – economic rewards. Those employees experienced the meaningfulness of the work.3 4.employees can be recognized in terms of using a variety of skills.2 7. That means they experienced the responsibility for the work results to nearly the same extent. Considering the aspect of job security in the range from up to 2 years to 10 years and more. Comparing the variety of skills. task identity. task identity. and the meaningfulness and interest of the job. a comparison of the data concerning the job situation and the job satisfaction with the importance attributed to the job factors suggests a very slight difference. Furthermore.5 5. it may be noticed that these three dimensions show major differences in the range from up to 2 years to 10 years. it may be noted here that there is very little difference on how the workers perceive the benefits and other extrinsic factors.


It is organized on quarterly basis. • Good morning Maurya It is sent to everyone in Maurya in the morning.1 FINDINGS • General Manager’s tea. photographs and write up’s of the month. Photographs of these employees along with a write up about his/her contribution are placed on the notice board. They are also facilitated at the general manager’s tea. • Buddy system A buddy is assigned to a new employee who would be there to guide them.5. • Retirement ceremony 60 . platinum standard of the day etc. Finally one staff member is chosen from FOTH and BOTH. • Meet the manager Periodic feedback sessions of new employees with their respective head of departments are conducted after one to three months. monthly WOW ratio. • Maurya Gazette It is published on monthly basis and contains the general manager’s important activities of the previous month. Employees who are appreciated by the guests are given due recognition by giving the appreciation letter and a gift by the general manager • Employee of the month Departmental heads nominate one staff member from their respective departments. Welcomcafe menu. A brief note along with their photographs is placed on the notice board. • Instant Recognition Any staff member whose name features in the guest comments are called to the daily morning meeting and are appreciated. • Welcome on board Welcome letter by the general manager is given to the new employees. etc. It contains the birthday list of the employees.

• Long service awards. The employees at the time of retirement are given a lot of respect from the overall staff along with a shawl and some gifts by the general manager. This ceremony gives the retired employees a sense of pride. These problems are discussed in the morning meeting in front of heads of various departments and various remedies are taken by the HR manager in consultation with various other heads of the department. The Employees who have been working in the organization since a long period and have always performed well in their jobs are rewarded and given some gifts. The lucky draw is organized at the New Year function where the employees are presented with various gifts. 5. • Annual day The annual day is celebrated where all the employees with their families are invited and a function is organized to celebrate it. Tambola game is organized for the employees and prizes are distributed to the winners. which creates an excitement in the minds of employees and boots their morale. • Open forum This is a practice in the organization where the employees of different departments address their problems they are facing. • New year celebration The New Year is celebrated with a couple of games for the entertainment of employees and various gifts are rewarded to them. • Diwali Tambola Every year on Diwali. achievement and accomplishment which again motivates the existing employees.The hotel follows a ceremony for the retired employees which makes them feel happy and increases the level of engagement for the other employees in the organization.2 RECOMMENDATION 61 . • Yoga and meditation camps The organization also organizes yoga and meditation camps for the fitness for employees. T his practice really benefits the employees and gives them an opportunity to remain fit and healthy.

Otherwise. Keeping employees informed is a prerequisite. and holding people accountable for their performance. then start moving away from their job. Associates are much more willing to accept increased risk if they perceive they also have control over decisions relating to that risk — as well as relevant information and tools to make good decisions. 62 . and to present both good and bad news with sufficient context for the news. To the extent a company consistently keeps employees fully informed.• Build sufficient flexibility into the employment cycle and emphasize different rewards and cultural elements to motivate them emotionally and intellectually. It requires adherence to a consistent set of messages about the organization and its vision for growth. and frequency in getting those messages out across multiple channels. this comes down to two-way communication. coaching and developing people’s skills. and gradually become an disengaged and de motivated employee. it provides the necessary foundation for employees to behave responsibly and accept accountability for making their own decisions. tolerating uncertainty. Communication on this level requires a willingness to listen as well as inform. share ideas and give input. this comes down to an employer’s responsibility to provide employees with information. It can be developed by the employer by encouraging associates to take initiative. Employees want from management is their concern and focus. • Challenging work – Associate should find his / her job challenging.If the associates start feeling that within in the company there is no scope of growth and they will not get better opportunities in their future. associate start feeling being underestimated at work place. Essentially. • Put mechanisms in place to ensure that all employees can see and understand senior management’s concern for them collectively and its vision for the future of the organization. being open to change. • Career advancement opportunities . Essentially. ability to comment. • Decision-making authority – Associates should have appropriate amount of decision making authority related to their job description.

• A collaborative work environment where team members work well in teams.• The company’s reputation as a good employer also motivates the associate to remain in the organization and actively work for the success of the company. form friendly environment and compensate each others deficiencies in a team gives successful team and work also get accomplished within stipulated time period. CHAPTER 6 63 .


According to the literature research, skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback, environment, job security, and compensation are the most critical factors for the motivation of employees and their satisfaction with the job. These factors represented the basis for the empirical research.

Factors, which may cause a higher motivation and job satisfaction in the company Since the strongest motivators seem to be things that people value but lack, the following motivators can be identified in order to increase the internal motivation and job satisfaction for the respective subgroups. The motivators are listed according to their motivating strength. Age < = 30: (1) feedback, (2) skills, task significance, and (3) compensation 31 - 45: (1) feedback, (2) skills, and (3) compensation > = 46: (1) feedback

Gender Male: (1) feedback, (2) skills, task significance, and (3) compensation

Female: (1) feedback and (2) compensation.

Marital status Married: (1) feedback, (2) task significance, (3) skills, and (4) compensation

Unmarried: (1) feedback, (2) skills, and (3) compensation Work area Blue-collar worker: (1) feedback, (2) skills, and (3) compensation


White-collar worker: (1) feedback, and (2) environment

Years in the company < = 2 years: 2 - 5 years: (1) feedback, (2) skills, and (3) compensation (1) feedback, (2) skills, and (3) compensation

> 5 - 10 years: (1) feedback, (2) skills, (3) compensation, and (4) task identity > 10 years: (1) feedback, and (2) compensation

(1)The strongest motivator regarding all subgroups is the feedback. Therefore, special attention should be given to that factor in order to increase the internal motivation and job satisfaction.

(2) One should have in mind that the environment and compensation do not actually present motivators. However, their fulfillment to a certain extent provides the basis for taking advantage of challenges in the job and to reduce job dissatisfaction. (3)In addition, special attention should be given to the skill aspect and the compensation, since they make a contribution to the well being of humans and provide the basis for the use of challenges offered by the job. (4) Furthermore, all factors examined in this study contribute to the organizational commitment of employees. The intrinsic factors, on the one hand, may influence a person's willingness to expend considerable efforts toward the goals of the company and to remain in the company (attitudinal commitment). The extrinsic factors, on the other hand, may contribute to the behavioral commitment. Factors external to the work situation such as the economic situation, mobility, and other employers may influence an individual's desire to stay in the company as well

ITC is a board-managed professional company, committed to creating enduring value for the shareholder and for the nation. It has a rich organizational culture rooted in its core values of respect for people and belief in empowerment. Its philosophy of all-round value creation is backed by strong corporate governance policies and systems. The results of this research offer a starting point to think about the actual work conditions and their changes in order to provide a basis for a higher motivation of employees. Not only differences and similarities in the work motivation and satisfaction of employees regarding certain individual characteristics, but also the reasons for that are examined in this study. Moreover, factors that have to be enhanced at work in order to increase the motivation and therefore the commitment toward the company are figured out and presented. Similarities and differences regarding certain individual characteristics are shown and this knowledge can be used to motivate a group of employees, sharing the same individual characteristic, in the same way. The use of quantitative as well as qualitative methods enabled me to investigate the problem under research in more depth and to increase the quality and the value of the research and its results.

E. (1975): Introduction to psychology. Atkins. & Hilgard.. R. R. the collection of the quantitative data and their analysis by the use of the mean count ensured objectivity and reliability of the research. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Atkins. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc. 6th edition. L.. New York 68 .Thereby.. R. C.

S. Sage Publications. Englewood Cliffs Douglas.. Prentice Hall. R. L. Plenum Press. New York Dessler. Sage Publications. E. (1994): Qualitative Methods in Organizational Research: A Practical Guide. and Symon.Baron. (1975): Intrinsic Motivation. (1986): Organization Theory: Integrating Structure and Behavior. (1999): Evaluation Research: An introduction to Principles. Jr. D. (1983): Behavior in Organizations: Understanding and Managing the Human Side of Work. A. Second edition.. The Dryden Press. Allyn and Bacon Inc. P. (1995): Marketing Research . A. London Churchill. G. and Craig.Methodological Foundations.. Thousand Oaks Cassell. A. (1983): International Marketing Research. (1998): Handbook of applied social research methods. 69 . sixth edition. Fort Worth Clarke. L. J. G. Newton Bickman. London Deci. G. Methods and Practice. S. C. & Dawson. R. and Rog. C. Sage Publications.

cms 70 . and Langmaid. Newbury Park Hackman. Gower Publishing Company.indiatimes. and Oldham. W.Prentice Hall.prtpage-1.itcportal. R. E. Reading http://www. Qualitative Methods in Management Research. Revised Edition.htm http://economictimes.cms http://economictimes. (1988): Qualitative Market Research: A Practitioner's and Buyer's Guide.html http://www. G. http://www. Englewood Cliffs Gordon. Addison -Wesley Publishing Company.htm R. (1980): Work redesign. (1991).indiatimes.. Aldershot Sage Publications.

aspx http://www.itcwelcomgroup.itcwelcomgroup.aspx 71 .aspx?CS ANNEXURE QUESTIONNAIRE Motivation and job description questionnaire Part One In this part you are asked to describe your job and to evaluate how satisfied or dissatisfied you are with the respective job feature.

circle the number.Please. which is the most accurate description of your job or your level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction. 1) To what extent does your job require you to perform various tasks? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 2) To what extent do you feel motivated to use your personal qualification? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 3) To what extent are your talents utilized by the company? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much How satisfied are you with this situation? 72 .

"Much" means that you are doing the whole work from beginning to end) 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 6) To what extent is your work interesting for you? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much 73 .1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 4) To what extent do you experience your job as stimulating? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 5) To what extent do you perform an entire piece of work from beginning to end? ("Little" means that you are doing only a small part of the overall piece of work. which is finished by other people or by automatic machines.

How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 7) To what extent do you feel your work is important for other people? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 8) To what extent is your job meaningful for you? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 9) To what extend do you receive feedback about your work performance from other persons (co-workers. superiors)? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much 74 .

are sufficient? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much 75 . which you receive.How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 10) To what extent do you have to work co-operatively with other people? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 11) To what extent do you feel paid fairly? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Little Moderate Much How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied 12) To what extent do you feel that the benefits. e.g. free food.

____ 6) It is important to have a good relationship to co-workers. Write a number in the blank beside the statement. ____ 4) It is important to receive praise for the work performance. timely feedback about one's work performance. ____ 7) It is important to have good work conditions.How satisfied are you with this situation? 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Dissatisfied Satisfied Part Two In this section you are asked to evaluate the importance of the following statements. ____ 8) It is important to experience job security. ____ 9) It is important to change the company (or work place) not too often. based on the following scale: 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Less important Moderate Important Very ____ 1) It is important to determine oneself how and when to carry out the work. ____ 3) It is important to receive regular. ____ 5) It is important to receive recognition for a good work performance. 76 . ____ 2) It is important to receive more responsibility (not necessarily more tasks). ____ 10) It is important to improve the financial compensation.

A) Your age: Under 20 41-45 21-25 46-50 77 . Write a number in the blank beside the statement.Part Three In this section you are asked to evaluate how important the fringe benefits are for you. based on the following scale: 1--------2--------3--------4--------5--------6--------7--------8 Less Moderate Important Very important ____ 1) Picnic allowance ____ 2) Festival allowance ____ 3) Welcome achievers ____ 4) Medical allowance ____ 5) Children’s education allowance ____ 6) free Welcomcafe food ____7) Crèche 8) Which other types of benefits do you like to have? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Part Four In this part I would like to gather some general information.

Health club j). Sales PR g). F and B service f). Finance b). Laundry d). Reservation c). Production e). F and B Support f). Security h).26-30 51-55 31-35 56-65 36-40 66 or over B) Sex: Male Female C) Marital status: Married D) Work area: FOTH a). House keeping d). Engineering g). i). Horticulture Bindiya b). Front office e). Training Unmarried BOTH a). Laboratory E) How long have you been working in this company? 78 . Personnel c). WelcomCafe h).

……………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………….Up to 2 years 2 . 79 . ……………………………………………………………………………………………. Thank you for your co-operation. …………………………………………………………………………………………….5 years 5 .10 years More than 10 years In the space below. please write down any additional information about your job that you feel might be helpful for me to understand your work situation.