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SAP is the leading Enterprise Information and Management Package worldwide. Use of this package makes it possible to track and manage, in real-time, sales, production, finance accounting and human resources in an enterprise. SAP takes a different approach. There is only one information system in an enterprise, SAP. All applications access common data. Real events in the business initiate transactions. Accounting is done automatically by events in sales and production. Sales can see when products can be delivered. Production schedules are driven by sales. SAP structure embodies what are considered the "best business practices". A company implementing SAP adapts it operations to it to achieve its efficiencies and power. In order to understand a system like SAP a thorough understanding of the events and relationships that take place in a business is required. It is not enough to just realize the Sales, Production, Finance and Accounting have jobs to do in a business. The exact details of each action, the timing of that action and its interrelationships with every other process must be understood. In many large operations there may be no person that has a complete grasp of the situation. Before an operation can be automated or computerized a thorough study of the business must be undertaken. This task is called Business Process Engineering.



1. Abstract 2. Introduction to Bhushan steel Ltd. 3. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) 4. SAP 5. Technical module i. ii. ABAP BASIS

6. Functional module i. ii. iii. iv. Material Management Finance and Controlling Sales and Distribution Production Planning

7. Plant Training 8. Conclusion
9. References


Bhushan Steel Limited COMPANY PROFILE

About the company “Our mission is to grow our company by providing innovative strong and high performance products and solutions to meet our global customer needs.” Bhushan Steel Ltd formerly known as Bhushan Steel & Strips Ltd. is a globally renowned one of the leading prominent player in Steel Industry. Backed by more than two decades, of experience in Steel making, Bhushan Steel is now India’s 3rd largest Secondary Steel Producer company with an existing steel production capacity of 2 million tones per annum’s (approx.). The company has three manufacturing units in the state of Uttar Pradesh (Sahibabad Unit), Maharashtra (Khopoli unit), and Orissa Plant (Meramandali unit) in India and sales network is across many countries.The company is a source for vivid variety of products such as Cold Rolled Closed Annealed, Galvanized Coil and Sheet, High Tensile Steel Strapping, Colour Coated Coils , Galume Sheets and Coils, Hardened & Tempered Steel Strips , Billets, Sponge Iron, Precision Tubes and Wire Rod. As one of the prime movers of the technological revolutions in Indian Cold Rolled Steel Industry, BSL has emerged as the country’s largest and the only Cold Rolled Steel Plant with an independent line for manufacturing Cold Rolled Coil and Sheet up to a width of 1700mm, as well as Galvanized Coil and Sheet up to a width of 1350 mm. Given a vibrant Steel industry dynamics in India, we are on a course to become a fully Integrated Steel & Power Company with market leading offerings in value added Steel in Automotive and White Good Segment with the quality been approved by ISO 9002 and QS 9000.[1]


[2] 4 . ” The key to Vision is to use rigorous conceptual framework and to understand how that framework connects to the underlying DNA of enduring great companies.Company’s vision and mission “The vision of evolving into a totally Integrated Steel Producer by committing to achieve the highest standards of Quality through Cutting-Edge Technology.

4. The primary reason an ERP solution is so vital to a company’s success is efficiency. An ERP solution makes it easier for employees at all levels to assess company performance and understand their impact on it. Accessing the status of the goods Transmit commodities through online transactions. Built on a centralized database and normally utilizing a common computing platform. Project Service industry- Fastens the compilation of reports. NEED OF ERP 1. it can dramatically reduce operating and overhead expenses. 5 . and human resources. Distribution and retail Stores3. ERP systems increase information consistency and accuracy. 2. Manufacturing Sector2. ERP solutions allow companies to achieve true business process automation.ENTERPRISE RESOUCE PLANNING (ERP) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is an integrated computer-based system used to manage internal and external resources. including tangible assets. materials. Its purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the connections to outside stakeholders. 4. Transport Sector- Speeding up the whole process. This can not only boost productivity and worker output. ADVANTAGES OF ERP SYSTEMS Industry wise advantages 1. 3. financial resources. ERP systems consolidate all business operations into a uniform and enterprise-wide system environment.

2. The accounts department personnel can act independently. Serving the customers efficiently by way of prompt response and follow up. 3.[3] 6 .Advantages in a corporate entity 1. Ensures quicker processing of information and reduces the burden of paperwork. Disposing queries immediately and facilitating the payments from customers with ease and well ahead of the stipulated deadline.

There are many other vendor providing ERP solutions like BAAN. The database server handles the user's request for addition. When an application server is stopped. ERP is computer based system which is used to control all internal and external resources of the organization. they all shut down together.exe program is run on user’s system to start GUI. Database server: It maintains the complete data of the organization. It is a software architecture that facilitates the flow of information between different business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manages the connections outside with stakeholders. SAP is an ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) package of a German company SAP-AG. retrieval and modifications in the data. When an application server is started. the system has a 3–tier client/server architecture. these executables all start at the same time.[5] SAP is the largest selling ERP package in world market. In Bhushan Steel SAP R/3 is implemented i.e.[4] 3–tier client/server architecture means that it has 3 layers: 1. Application server: An application server is a excutables that collectively interpret the ABAP/4 programs and manage the input and output for them. It is because of the following features: 7 .SAP SAP stands for Sytems Applications and Products in Data Processing. Presentation server 2. It gives GUI to the user. Oracle. Application server 3. Database server Presentation server: It is installed on end user’s system. It covers 24% share of its target market. sapgui. JD Edwards.

Transparent system 2. Single data entry multiple records 6. Information flow with security 4.1. Provides flawless information 3. Multi lingual [4] SAP has mainly consists of: 1. Functional module 8 . Technical module 2. Avoids data redundancy 5.

It is a fourth generation language used to write programs in SAP. Any modification in SAP functionality is done using this language by ABAP team. In SAP following reports can be generated: i. It was developed by SAP. ABAP b.Technical module This part consists of two sub-modules: a. 9 . They are produced just by entering the whole data. Complete data exists in the table but user has to sort it according to his requirements. ABAP is an event driven programming. BASIS ABAP ABAP stands for Advanced Business Application Programming. ii. They do not allow user interaction. Its syntax is similar to COBOL. All ABAP programs reside in SAP database. Interactive reports Non-interactive reports Classical/non-interactive reports are the simplest reports.

BASIS also provides a layer of abstraction between the business applications and the operating system and database. now typically implemented in the framework of the SAP Web Application Server. It is a technological platform that supports all the applications written in SAP. Client server architecture and configuration Use of relational dbms GUI design for presentation [6] Functions of BASIS User authentication: 10 . So we can say that BASIS is a virtual machine on which SAP applications run.Interactive reports are the one which allow user interaction. It is a customized report and when user needs additional information on some particular part of it he clicks on it and another dialogue box opens containing required information. and the user feels that he needs some more specific data about that material. he can click on material number to direct him to details of that material number. iii. ii. Features of R/3 BASIS system enabling these abstractions are: i. This ensures that applications do not depend directly on a specific server and can be imported from one platform to another. For example. [4] BASIS BASIS stands for Business Application Software Integrated Solution. Column one of the report displays the material numbers.

HR etc. Like end user has less rights to access SAP’s features as compared to a developer.Everyone who uses SAP must have a login ID and password through which he can login the system. Monitoring: 11 . production server. Activity groups are formed in SAP. User authorization: On the basis of the work user has to do BASIS gives him the authorization to him. These user ids and passwords are maintained in BASIS. A request from quality server is sent to production server if developed application is working properly which is also processed by BASIS. and quality server which is used for testing the application developed by core team. on which all the development work is done by the core development team. which is for the end user on which he works. They are : development server. payroll. according to these activity groups authorization rights are given. Server side implementation: There are 3 servers in SAP. each of these groups has a different work to do and so will have different authorization levels which is decided by BASIS. Whenever a request is received from end user for some development members of the core team develop that application and then send a request to BASIS team which processes the request. Activity groups can be programming.

BASIS monitors the usage of SAP by every user. If a user has logged in and he is not doing anything for predefined time period then BASIS logs him out explicitly. 12 . This back-up data is managed by BASIS team. [4] Functional module: Modules in functional domain manage the complete functioning of an organization. Following figure shows all the modules in functional domain. In such way BASIS keeps track of the usage of the system. If a user is running a report again and again. Back-up: Everyday back-up is taken of complete data of production server in SAP. or if some report is taking very long time to get execute then BASIS stops it. This back-up is important because SAP server may have some problems some time. Also if user comes across any problem then it is also recorded in BASIS so that it can be solved/rectified as soon as it is encountered.

Process flow in material management Determination of requirements Source determination Vendor selection and comparison of quotations Purchase order processing Purchase order follow up Goods receiving and inventory management Invoice verification 13 . inventory management and final payment to vendor using invoice verification. It supports all the phases of material management from material planning and control.MATERIAL MANAGEMENT (MM) MM is fully integrated with other modules of SAP. purchasing. goods receiving.

Vendor master Material master: It contains information about all the materials that a company procures. Then request is sent to different vendors for their quotations. It is the central source of retrieving all the material specific data. When quotations are received they are compared on the basis of price. quality and conditions put by the vendors. Material master has a hierarchical structure like an organization. Material master 2. It is decided what materials are needed and how much we need them i. Some of it may be valid at all levels while some of it will be valid at some levels only. 14 . produces. Finally payment is done using invoice verification. quotations and purchase orders in specified time to follow up the order.First of all requirements are determined in the process. and whichever quotation suits best is selected. [4] Masters in material management: 1. Then purchase order is made and sent to the vendor. quantity is determined.e. The system provides up-to-date status of requisitions. stores and sells. Goods receiving are confirmed by entering the PO number and then inventory is updated. Thus vendor is selected.

Code assigned to the material by the system contains numbers only but when user gives the code is usually alphanumeric which gives all the details of the material like its width. The integration of all material data in a single database object eliminates data redundancy. [7] Corporate structure of material master: client 001 company code 0001 0002 plants 0001 0002 0003 0004 000 1 000 2 000 3 ------ 15 .Each material in material master is given a code. source etc. It is used by all components. thickness. This number can either be implicit (given by the system) or explicitly given by the user.

Plants: an organizational unit working to sub-divide an enterprise. General 2. [7] Vendor master: It contains data of all vendors with which a company conducts business. You need this number to call up the record later or to enter the purchase order. Purchasing data [8] 16 . assigned by the system or user. Plants assigned to different company codes cannot have same codes. Company code: smallest organizational unit for which a complete self contained set of accounts can be drawn up. There are mainly 3 areas in vendor master. Each vendor master record has a unique no. A place where services are provided. Company code data 3. They are: 1. but storage location codes can be repeated for some different plants. It is a collective term for all vendor records.-----------------------------------------------------Storage locations [7] Client: a self contained unit with separate master records and a set of tables.

Special purpose ledger: It is used to define ledges for reporting purposes. Main sub-modules of FI are: i. With the help of this module all the managers of an organization can review the financial position of the company. ii. 17 . SD etc. iii. gains and losses. fixed assets. expenses. Account payables: it records all postings generated as a result of vendor purchasing activity.FINANCE AND CONTROLLING The SAP FI (finance) module is a module where all financial activities are tracked and managed. PM. Account receivables: it records all postings generated as a result of customer sales activity. It usually includes current assets. The FI module has the capability of meeting all the accounting and financial needs of an organization. General ledger: it is the main accounting record of a business which uses double entry book keeping (debit transaction in one account and credit to another). Asset accounting: it manages company’s fixed assets. FI module is integrated with other modules like MM. iv. Since SAP modules are having real time functionality they help in better decision making and strategic planning. v. liabilities.

Vendor master c. P&L accounts and Trial balance etc. [9] 18 . Then next level is Company which is an optional level. After that. Customer master e. ABST for Orissa plant. SBPW for Sahibabad power unit. Fixed asset master Accounting configurations have a hierarchy which starts from client. the next level of hierarchy is Chart of accounts which is defined for the entire group of companies. For example – we have 6 Business Areas . ABPW for Orissa power unit. Then GL accounts are defined. After that Business areas are assigned to company code. Company code is defined at the next level. The financial statements can be seen at any level of this hierarchy. KBST for Khapoli plant and KBPW for Khapoli power unit. These can further be used for reporting like Balance sheet. General ledger master d.There are 5 masters in FI: a. SBST for Sahibabad plant. Material master b.

as well as monitoring the operations of their business.Client Chart of Accounts GL Accounts Company Company Code Business area The Controlling Module provides supporting information to Management for the purpose of planning. reporting. Some of the components of the CO Module are as follows: Cost Element Accounting Cost Center Accounting Internal Orders Activity-Based Costing ( ABC) Product Cost Controlling Profitability Analysis 19 . Management decision-making can be achieved with the level of information provided by this module.

These accounts can be reconciled with FI(Financial Accounting). divisions. Profit Centers can be set-up to identify product lines. cost and revenue element accounts are used.Profitability Analysis: It allows Management the ability to review information with respect to the company’s profit or contribution margin by business segment. Cost-Based Analysis: uses a costing based valuation approach as defined by the User. Profitability Analysis can be obtained by the following methods: Account-based analysis which uses an account-based valuation approach. production sites or by functions. In this analysis. offices. The difference between a Cost Center and a Profit Center is that the Cost Center represents individual costs incurred during a given period and Profit Centers contain the balances of costs and revenues. Profit Centers are used for Internal Control purposes enabling management the ability to review areas of responsibility within their organization. geographical regions. Profit Center Accounting: It provides visibility of an organization’s profit and losses by profit center. [10] SALES AND DISTRIBUTION 20 . The methods which can be utilized for EC-PCA (Profit Center Accounting) are period accounting or by the cost-of-sales approach.

The SD module is made up of multiple components. Here is a brief list of these: MD = Master Data BF = Basic Functions subdivided into multiple components. packing and shipping. and so on. 1. picking. such as pricing. Trade sales cycle Trade sales cycle follows following steps: 21 . SLS = Sales SHP = Shipping TBA = Transportation FTT = Foreign Trade BIL = Billing CAS = Sales support EDI = Electronic Data Interchange IS = Information System [11] There are three sales organizations in SD module: 1. CO. sales order.SD module is used to manage customer focused activities. pricing. output etc. Trade 2. OEM (original equipment manufacturer) 3. Export Sales cycles of these organizations are explained below. MM. SD module integrates with every other R/3 application including FI. PP. from selling to delivery including RFQ.

j1iiN) . d) Approval 3 (Tcode – ZCOMMAPPROVE) .ZTECHAPPROVE2) .ZTECHAPPROVE1) .The loading slip is made for transportation of the goods. 22 .VL01N) – Outbound delivery is made to support all shipping activities like picking.VL02N) – PGI means Post goods Issue. transport and goods issue. OEM sales cycle OEM sales cycle follows following steps: a) Create quotation (Tcode .ZS001 for SBST plant) .Commercial approval is done by the concerned person. stocks are updated in inventory and the ownership of the goods is changed.VA01) – Order is created with reference to quotation made.QA32) – Usage decision is made by the quality department and the approval is given if the material is found ok.Technical approval is done by the concerned department.a) Create sales order (Tcode – ZGMSSALES) . b) Create outbound delivery (Tcode . When PGI is done. c) Loading slip (Tcode .VF01) – Commercial invoice is made using this transaction. g) Create Excise invoice (Tcode .VA21) – Quotation is created for the customer using this code. b) Approval 1 (Tcode . e) PGI – (Tcode . f) Create billing Document (Tcode .Technical approval is done by the concerned department. d) Inspection lot selection (Tcode . c) Approval 2 (Tcode . e) Create sales order (Tcode . packing.This is a customized transaction to select the material for which the sales is to be done and includes the standard transaction for order creation (Tcode . The material entered should be assigned to sales organization ‘OEM’.Excise invoice is made through this transaction 2.va01). Pricing details are also added in this step.

Export sales cycle Export sales cycle follows following steps: a) Create quotation (Tcode .VL02N) – PGI means Post goods Issue. i) PGI – (Tcode .VF01) – This bill is mandatory step and is a bridge for further transaction.VL02N) –Post goods Issue is done for the outbound delivery created.VF01) – Commercial invoice is made using this transaction. q) Create Excise invoice (Tcode . the details of this invoice are not entered anywhere.f) Goods receipt (done by plant people) – Goods are received in the store after their production is complete.QA32) – Usage decision is made by the quality department and the approval is given if the material is found ok.The loading slip is made for transportation of goods.Excise invoice is made through this transaction 3. p) Create billing Document (Tcode . o) PGI – (Tcode . Pricing conditions are also added in this step. k) Create release order (Tcode . However. n) Inspection lot selection (Tcode .ZS001 for SBST plant) . h) Create outbound delivery with order reference (Tcode .VL01N) – Outbound delivery can be created by specifying the order number. However.VA21) – Quotation is created for the customer using this code.MB52) – Stock entered can be checked through this transaction. When PGI is done.j1iiN) . l) Create outbound delivery (Tcode .VL01N) – Logistics delivery is created in this step m) Loading slip (Tcode . The material entered should be assigned to sales organization ‘Export’. stocks are updated in inventory and the ownership of the goods is changed. j) Create dummy bill (Tcode .VA01) – Release order is created with the order type ‘zror’. g) Check stock (Tcode . this step is optional and can be skipped. 23 .

VL01N) – Outbound delivery can be created by specifying the order number.Technical approval is done by the concerned department. n) Inspection lot selection (Tcode . g) Goods receipt (done by plant people) – Goods are received in the store after their production is complete.VL01N) – Logistics delivery is created in this step m) Loading slip (Tcode .j1iiN) .VA01) – Order is created with reference to quotation made.ZS001 for SBST plant) .Excise invoice is made through this transaction r) Transfer to port (Tcode – ZPORTN) – This transaction is for shipping the material to the port.Technical approval is done by the concerned department.The loading slip is made for transportation of the goods. h) Create outbound delivery with order reference (Tcode .VL02N) –Post goods Issue is done for the outbound delivery created.ZTECHAPPROVE2) .QA32) – Usage decision is made by the quality department and the approval is given if the material is found ok. the details of this invoice are not entered anywhere. e) Approval 3 (Tcode – ZCOMMAPPROVE) .VA01) – Release order is created with the order type ‘zero’. l) Create outbound delivery (Tcode .VF01) – This bill is mandatory step and is a bridge for further transaction. o) PGI – (Tcode . f) Create sales order (Tcode .Commercial approval is done by the concerned person. q) Create Excise invoice (Tcode .ZTECHAPPROVE1) . k) Create release order (Tcode . p) Create billing Document (Tcode .VF01) – Invoice for customs is made in this step.VL02N) –Post goods Issue is done for the outbound delivery created. 24 . i) PGI – (Tcode .b) Create Pro forma invoice (Tcode -VA21) – Pro forma invoice is generated in this step. However. c) Approval 1 (Tcode . j) Create dummy bill (Tcode . d) Approval 2 (Tcode .

VL02N) . Activities in PP • • • • • • • • Processing material master Processing material BOM Displaying work center and routing Maintaining planning calendar Maintaining production lot Maintaining quota file Defining range of coverage profile and period profile for safety time Defining MRP views PP is highly integrated with SD. Work center 25 . u) PGI (Tcode . t) Create outbound delivery (Tcode – VL01N) – Outbound delivery for shipping from port is created. There are 4 masters in PP: 1. It is used to minimize cost and production time. The changes in demand and/or supply are reflected immediately so that user can controller can react fast to the changes. FI/CO and HR modules.s) Port release order (Tcode – ZPOR) – This transaction makes an order to release the material from the port. efficiently organize the use of resource and maximize efficiency. [4] PRODUCTION PLANNING Production planning takes care of the production activities taking place in an organization. It is a real time system. v) VF01 – Create Billing Document – Commercial invoice is made using this transaction.Post goods Issue is done for the outbound delivery created.

This type of storage location will store material which has passed that is to be transferred for next process. 2.Work in progress. width. all the stages of production and is now ready to be delivered. 2. PP CYCLE: Every time a new material is to be manufactured certain steps are followed like 'material creation' which will be done at IT department. There are following types of storage locations in which the material is stored. WIP . This type of storage location will store the material Finished . will contain the details of raw materials to be consumed during the process of production of that material.Annealing. 26 . Work center: Work center means a place allocated for a set of Routing: routing means the route which raw material will BOM: Bill of material will be generated for all the materials. thickness and grade etc. For ex . 1. 4. Routing 3. Bill of material Following Data is maintained in production planning module: 1. Material type will also have to be entered in the SAP system. Create material: Material will be created in SAP mentions all the details about that material which will include its length. It activities to be performed by specific group of people. pickling etc. Material requirement planning 4.2. follow before it becomes the finish or Semi Finish goods would be delivered. 3. 1. MRP: Material requirement planning will be done for each raw material based on the time at which that particular material is consumed in the production process.

the status of that order is updated at the work center. 3. BOM creation: Bill of material for that material will be created. Now. Quality check of the material is performed. Following PP cycle steps are followed after sales order creation in the case of MTO and before sales order creation in the case of MTS 1. Quality check: After the last work center completes its activities. Route creation: the route that material will follow during the process of production. Goods issues of components: Raw material will be issued against the production order whenever specified in production schedule. routing.MTO (Make to order) and MTS (make to stock). Goods receipts of the finished goods: After quality check. 4. 3. 5.2. [4] 27 . Creation and release of production order: Production order is made which will specify production order type. 2. BOM etc. Confirmation of production activity: After each work center completes its activities. the material is received at the storage location. there are two types of orders .

After the treatment of roll with HCl solution roll is washed with water thoroughly to remove HCl solution from its surface completely and then it is dried. other plants of Bhushan Steel etc. This process of removing rust is called Pickling. In this process ductility of coil is reduced and 28 . Coil is passed through the rollers and high pressure is applied to the roll. [12] Rolling In the process of rolling the thickness of CR coil is made according to the customer’s specifications. Pickling It is the first step of production. Jindal Steels. Process flow of CRCA (Cold Roll Closed Annealing) HR Slitting In this process the coil is cutted from both sides according to the customer’s requirement. This hot roll is used as a raw material in the plant to produce the galvanized steels finished product. HR coils get rusted from the time they are manufactured to the time they enter the plant for further production process. So first rust is removed. Due to pickling thickness of HR coil is reduced slightly.PLANT TRAINING Hot roll is imported to Sahibabad plant from Tata Steels. HR coils’ breadth is maintained by this process. In the process of making galvanized steel hot roll goes through many processes. It is necessary to remove rust completely because even if little rust is left it would decay the steel from that area very easily. As the thickness goes beyond the accepted level blades are changed. Due to heavy weight of rollers and high pressure applied to the coil it stretches and the thickness is reduced. To cut HR coils blades of specific thickness are used and their thickness is checked regularly. In pickling roll is treated with HCl solution of three different concentrations in three different tanks.

[13] Kathabar (Cooling) After annealing coil is cooled using air and water both one by one. iron or aluminum with thin zinc layer. Then again coil is cooled gradually. This is done so that rusting cannot be caused by moisture in the air. After that coil is dried in furnaces. So to remove them coil is passed through the Sodium ortho silicate solution. In the process of rolling when coolants are used their particles stick to the surface of coil. Coil is heated from room temperature to very high temperature gradually. Galvanization is the process of coating steel. First coil is cooled using air and then water is used to bring the coil temperature to room temperature. To bring down the increased temperature coolants are used. Skin pass: Skin pass is used to produce smooth surface. Output of this process is CR coil. For annealing process coil is is heated in vacuumed chambers using hydrogen gas.heat is also produced. Each coil is cooled for 30 hours atleast. uniform thickness and also to break the spangles in galvanized steel. By passing the roll through this solution all unwanted particles from the surface of the coil are removed. To 29 . soften the material. Air is passed in the furnaces after removing all the moisture from it. In this process the metal is heated above a certain temperature so as to induce re-crystallization which in turn affects the properties of the metal. It is done to induce ductility. Electro Cleaning Line In ECL CR is passed through the solution of sodium ortho silicate. This high temperature removes defects from the metal and causes it to recrystallize. Annealing Annealing is a process in which properties of a material are changed by heating.

[4] 30 . Cut to length: In this step CR coil is cut into sheets according to customer’s requirement. CR slitting: It is the same process as HR slitting.coat metal with zinc metal is passed from molten bath of zinc at a temperature near about 450 c. Coil is cut from sides to maintain breadth. Picking and Packing This is the final step in which the finished good is packed and transported to the customer as per the conditions already decided when the order was received.

SAP gives a holistic view of the company by considering both the financial data and non. With SAP it is possible to upload data of different planning tools. 31 . In SAP automatic assimilation and analysis of information is possible. the need for efficient management support systems is also increasing. However for this it is not enough to place a company strategically and give guidelines for its further development. Instead it is essential to have real time analysis and graphical visualization of the key performance indicators.CONCLUSION With the growing network of processes and systems. turnover plan in a sales system and cost center plan in excel) studying interdependencies and coordination among them has become even more tedious. As corporate planning is often not done in one common planning tool (e. Thus the strategic management system must establish a planning process through all levels of planning in the company to make the data available for all responsible persons in one assets of the company.g. SAP can also be used as early warning system to inform the responsible persons about critical indicators on the basis of already defined thresholds of these indicators. manipulate planning data and write back changed data to the operational system.

com/introto/ http://en.thespot4sap. http://help.htm 9. Text and lessons provided by Bhushan Steel 8322d00/content. 13.asp 2. http://www. http://help.wikipedia. http://en. SAP R/3 handbook by Jose Antonio Hernandez 7.thespot4sap. 5.asp http://en.p df http://en. 32 . http://www.asp 3. http://www.wikipedia.asp 6. http://www.bhushan-group.wikipedia.REFERENCES 1.bhushan-group.