Jallianwala Bagh massacre

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Jallianwala Bagh massacre
The Amritsar massacre, known alternately as the Jallianwala Bagh massacre (Punjabi: ਜਲ੍ਹਿਆਂਵਾਲਾ ਬਾਗ਼ ਹਤਿਆਕਾਂਡ, Hindi: जलियांवाला बाग़ हत्याकांड ‫ ڈناکايتہ غاب ہلاونايلج‬Jallianwala Bāġa Hatyākāṇḍ) for after the Jallianwala Bagh (Garden) in the northern Indian city of Amritsar where, on April 13, 1919 (which happened to be 'Baisakhi' one of Punjab's largest religious festivals) fifty British Indian Army soldiers, commanded by Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, began shooting at an unarmed gathering of men, women and children without warning. The shooting lasted for ten to fifteen minutes, until ammunition ran out. Narrow passage to Jalianwala Bagh Garden Dyer ordered soldiers to reload their rifles several times and they were through which the shooting was conducted ordered to shoot to kill.[1] Official British Raj sources estimated the fatalities at 379, and with 1,100 wounded.[2] Civil Surgeon Dr Smith indicated that there were 1,526 casualties.[3] However, the casualty number quoted by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500, with roughly 1,000 killed.[4]

Background
India during World War I
World War I began with loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from mainstream politicians of India, contrary to initial British fears of a revolt while they were committed militarily to a European war. British India contributed massively to the British war effort by providing men and resources. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian administration and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. However, Bengal and Punjab remained sources of anticolonial activities. Revolutionary attacks in Bengal, associated increasingly with disturbances in Punjab, were significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration.[5] [6] Also from the beginning of the war, the expatriate Indian population, notably in the United States, Canada, and Germany, managed by the Berlin Committee and the Ghadar Party, attempted to initiate insurrections in India, with Irish republican, German and Turkish help in a massive conspiracy that has since come to be termed the Hindu-German conspiracy[7] [8] [9] This conspiracy also attempted to rally Afghanistan against British India.[10] A number of failed attempts were made at mutiny, of which the February mutiny plan and the Singapore mutiny are the most notable. This movement was suppressed by means of a massive international counterintelligence operation and strict political acts (including the Defence of India act 1915) that lasted nearly ten years.[11] [12]

in India. The shooting set off a series of violent events. The legislation restricted a number of civil liberties. who had been earlier arrested by the government and removed to a secret location. At the time. During 1916.[16] James Houssemayne Du Boulay is said to have ascribed a direct relationship between the fear of a Ghadarite uprising in the midst of an increasingly tense situation in Punjab.Jallianwala Bagh massacre 2 After the war During the aftermath of World War I. There was retaliatory shooting at crowds from the military several times during the day. In Amritsar. In addition. including freedom of assembly. a large province in the northwestern part of the then unpartitioned India. and between eight and twenty people were killed. This situation deteriorated perceptibly during the next few days. Railway lines were cut.[18] .[17] On April 10. British Indian Army troops were returning from Europe and Mesopotamia to an economic depression in India. the city of Amritsar was quiet. contrary to being an isolated incident. government buildings burnt. was the end result of a concerted plan of response from the Punjab administration to suppress such a conspiracy. banning gatherings of more than four people. the Congress succeeded in establishing the Lucknow Pact. the British government had decided restrict most of the Punjab by martial law. telegraph and communication systems. and three Europeans were murdered. Indians were restless for independence. a city in Punjab. including government employees and civilians. but violence continued in other parts of the Punjab.000 people gathered at Jallianwala Bagh. The Russian Revolution had also begun to influence Indians. high casualty rates. Ominously. began to be known as a mass leader. with disruptions of rail. a widespread influenza epidemic. and the disruption of trade during the war escalated human suffering in India. For the next two days. Michael O'Dwyer is said to have believed that these were the early and ill-concealed signs of a conspiracy for a coordinated revolt around May.000 Indian soldiers had died fighting for Britain. during 1919. News of young Mohajirs who fought on behalf of the Turkish Caliphate and later fought in the ranks of the Red Army during the Russian Civil War was also beginning to reach India. increasing inflation compounded by heavy taxation. The situation especially in Punjab was deteriorating rapidly. as well as responses preceding and succeeding it. including the Town Hall and the railway station were attacked and set afire. until then relatively unknown to Indians. The Amritsar massacre. The violence continued to escalate. Both were proponents of the Satyagraha movement directed by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The pre-war Indian nationalist sentiment revived as moderate and extremist groups of the Indian National Congress ended their differences in order to unify. killing several protesters. at a time when British troops would have withdrawn to the hills for the summer. long the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire. culminating in the deaths of at least five Europeans. telegraph posts destroyed. the third Anglo-Afghan war began after Amir Habibullah Khan's assassination and institution of Amanullah Khan in a system influenced by the Kabul mission. Prelude to the massacre The events that ensued after the passage of the Rowlatt Act during 1919 were also influenced by the events associated with the Ghadar conspiracy. The crowd was shot at by a military picket. a temporary alliance with the All-India Muslim League. In India. 1919. and the British response that ended in the massacre. Gandhi's call for protest against the Rowlatt act achieved an unprecedented response of furious unrest and protests. Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew. more than 5.[15] It was at this time that Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The demonstration was to demand the release of two popular leaders of the Indian Independence Movement. Indian soldiers smuggled arms into India to fight British rule. several banks and other government buildings. Later the same day.[13] [14] The attempts at mutiny during 1915 and the Lahore conspiracy trials were still in public attention. More than 43. By April 13. there was a protest at the residence of the Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar. The costs of the protracted war in both money and manpower were great.

many more died during the night. number of rounds shot and period of shooting. Officials were tasked with finding who had been killed during July "The Martyrs' Well" at Jallianwala Bagh. most of which were kept permanently locked. Baisakhi is a Sikh festival . 1919. thousands of Sikh people along with few hindus and muslims gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh (garden) near the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar. He continued the shooting.000-20. the politically-interested Indian National Congress instituted a separate inquiry of its own. on Baisakhi. months after the massacre.000). it was on this day that Guru Gobind Singh founded the Khalsa Panth in 1699 'Birth of Khalsa' during this time people celebrate by congregating in religious and community fairs. General Dyer ordered troops to begin shooting without warning or any order to disperse. set up after independence. fifty of whom were armed with rifles. a senior civil servant in the Punjab interviewed by the members of the committee admitted that the actual figure could be higher. The Jallianwala Bagh was bounded on all sides by houses and buildings and had few narrow entrances. says that 120 bodies were pulled out of the well. and there may have been a large number who were unaware of the political meeting. a number of people died in stampedes at the narrow gates or by jumping into the solitary well on the compound to escape the shooting. but was guarded by the troops backed by the armoured vehicles. Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer marched a group of sixty-five Gurkha and twenty-five Baluchi soldiers into the Bagh. An hour after the meeting began as scheduled at 4:30 pm.[20] This information was likely incomplete due to fear that those who participated would be identified as having been present at the meeting. until ammunition was almost exhausted. three months after the massacre. The number of deaths caused by the shooting is disputed. with conclusions that The Jallianwalla Bagh during 1919. and to direct shooting towards the densest sections of the crowd. however the method used by the inquiry is subject to criticism. and some of the dead may not have had close relations in the area. however the vehicles were stationed outside the main gate as they were unable to enter the Bagh through the narrow entrance.[22] Since the official figures were likely flawed considering the size of the crowd (15. A plaque in the monument at the site. The main entrance was relatively wider. approximately 1. as a curfew had been declared . .[21] Additionally. Apart from the many deaths directly from the shooting.[19] Dyer had also brought two armoured cars armed with machine guns. The wounded could not be moved from where they had fallen. The official figure given by the British inquiry into the massacre is 379 deaths.Jallianwala Bagh massacre 3 The massacre On April 13.650 rounds in all. by inviting inhabitants of the city to volunteer information about those who had died.

[23] Despite the government's best efforts to suppress information of the massacre. a commission of inquiry into the massacre that was ordered to convene by Secretary of State for India. British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab. Dyer was messaged to appear before the Hunter Commission. on the occasion of Montagu labelling as "frightful" General Dyer for his role in the Amritsar massacre O'Dwyer requested that martial law be imposed upon Amritsar and other areas. news spread elsewhere in India and widespread outrage ensued. with approximately 1. He said he did not stop the shooting when the crowd began to disperse because he thought it was his duty to keep shooting until the crowd dispersed. the details of the massacre did not become known in Britain until December 1919. Edwin Montagu. but these were mounted on armoured cars. a fool of myself.Jallianwala Bagh massacre 4 differed considerably from the Government's. . Back in his headquarters. Lieutenant Governor approves. "Certainly not. He stated that he had gone to the Bagh with the deliberate intention of opening fire if he found a crowd assembled there. Sir Michael O'Dwyer wrote: "Your action is correct. The casualty number quoted by the INC was more than 1."[24] Cartoon in Punch 14 July 1920.[26] The Hunter Commission did not award any penal nor disciplinary action because Dyer's actions were condoned by various superiors (later upheld by the Army Council). and I would have made.[28] He stated that he did not make any effort to tend to the wounded after the shooting. Dyer said before the commission that he came to know about the meeting at the Jallianwala Bagh at 12:40 hours that day but did not attempt to prevent it.000 killed. General Dyer reported to his superiors that he had been "confronted by a revolutionary army". "I think it quite possible that I could have dispersed the crowd without firing but they would have come back again and laughed. after the massacre. It was not my job. what I consider. during late 1919. however. and that a little shooting would not do any good. he was finally found guilty of a mistaken notion of duty and relieved of his command. Hospitals were open and they could have gone there. In a telegram sent to Dyer. this was granted by the Viceroy. The "crawling order" [25] was posted on Aug 19 under the auspices of martial law." was his response.[26] [27] Dyer said he would have used his machine guns if he could have got them into the enclosure.500." — Dyer's response to the Hunter Commission Enquiry.[29] However. Lord Chelmsford. In fact he continued the shooting till the ammunition was almost exhausted.

The Officer Commanding the Royal Air Force in India. • 1984: The story of the massacre also occurs in the 7th episode of Granada TV's 1984 series The Jewel in the Crown. where the crowd when looking at its nastiest was absolutely dispersed by a machine using bombs and Lewis guns. Shortly after."[30] Monument and legacy A trust was formed later 1920 to build a memorial at the site after a resolution passed by the Indian National Congress. A memorial. The well into which many people jumped and drowned attempting to save themselves from the bullets is also a protected monument inside the park. The bullet holes can be seen on the walls and adjoining buildings to this day. During 1923. Police and aircraft were used against the demonstrators. . 1920 to manage and reform Sikh shrines. the trust purchased land for the project.Jallianwala Bagh massacre 5 Demonstration at Gujranwala Two days later on April 15.[31] On October 12. humanity). The film depicts most of the details of the massacre as well as the subsequent inquiry by the Montague commission. designed by American architect Benjamin Polk. Entrance to the present-day Jallianwala Bagh. Dr Rajendra Prasad on April 13. A flame was later added to the site. Formation of Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee The most glaring incident followed the massacre. Brigadier General N D K MacEwen stated later that: "I think we can fairly claim to have been of great use in the late riots. resulting in 12 deaths and 27 injuries.[32] Jallianwala Bagh memorial Artistic portrayals • 1982: The massacre is depicted in Richard Attenborough's film Gandhi with the role of General Dyer played by Edward Fox. sending shock waves smong the Sikh masses. The natural result of this action was the formation of Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee on November 15. the official Sikh clergy of Golden Temple conferred upon General Dyer the "Saropa" (the mark of distinguished service to the Sikh faith or. 1961. was built on the site and inaugurated by the President of India. demonstrations occurred in Gujranwala protesting the killings at Amritsar. particularly at Gujranwala. in the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders. recounted by the fictional widow of a British officer who is haunted by the inhumanity of it and who tells how she came to be reviled because she defied the honoring of Dyer and instead donated money to the Indian victims. in general. 1920 students and faculty of the Amritsar Khalsa College called a meeting to immediately liberate the Gurudwaras from the control of corrupt Mahants.

” On October 14. stating that the Queen herself had played no part in the events and should not be required to apologize. is a distressing example.526 casualties. (Official British Raj sources estimated the fatalities at 379. and with 1. Having observed a plaque present-day Jallianwala Bagh.[3] which might account for the Prince's opinion. the massacre is reconstructed with the child Bhagat Singh as a witness. Prince Philip said "I was told about the killings by General Dyer's son. which was of religious significance to Hindus and Sikhs.[34] She removed her shoes while visiting the monument and laid a wreath at the monument. It has its moments of sadness.". "That's a bit exaggerated.[34] . others criticised it for being less than an apology. as well as [34] gladness. 1997:[34] “ It is no secret that there have been some difficult episodes in our past -.Jallianwala Bagh. it must include the wounded". provoked Bullet marks.[34] The then-Prime Minister of India Inder Kumar Gujral defended the Queen. During the visit. Sikhs and Muslims who were martyred in a non-violent struggle. • 2006: Portions of the Hindi movie Rang De Basanti nonlinearly depict the massacre and the influence it had on the freedom fighters. 1997 Queen Elizabeth II visited Jallianwala Bagh and paid her respects with a 30-second moment of silence. participating with an already controversial British visit to the Monument. however much we might sometimes wish otherwise. But history cannot be rewritten. which I shall visit tomorrow.Jallianwala Bagh massacre • 2002: In the Hindi movie The Legend of Bhagat Singh directed by Rajkumar Santoshi. Prince Philip observed. claiming "This place is saturated with the blood of about two thousand Hindus. I'd met him while I was in the Navy. We must learn from the sadness and build on the gladness. the Duke of Edinburgh.[2] Civil Surgeon Dr Smith indicated that there were 1.[34] While some Indians welcomed the expression of regret and sadness in the Queen's statement. at outrage in India with an offhand comment." [33] Apology Although she had not made any comments on the incident during her state visits later 1961 and 1983. Prince Philip. she wore a dress of a color described as pink apricot or saffron. visible on a preserved wall.) When asked how he had concluded this.100 wounded. Queen Elizabeth II spoke about the events at a state banquet in India on October 13. eventually inspiring him to become a revolutionary in the Indian independence movement. 6 Prince Philip Controversy During 1997.

published in large scale from Rome at that time.[37] Fortnightly reports of the political situation in Bihar mentioned: "It is true that we had no love lost for Sir Michael. 1940 issue. a name given to someone who has attained martyrdom or done something heroic on behalf of their country or religion. I am not scared of death.) The action by Singh was condemned generally. like nationalist newspaper Amrita Bazar Patrika. I have protested against this. German radio reportedly broadcast: "The cry of tormented people spoke with shots.Jallianwala Bagh massacre 7 Assassination of Michael O'Dwyer On March 13. the British Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab at the time of the massacre. Prime Minister) honored Udham Singh with the following statement which had appeared in the daily Partap: "I salute Shaheed-i-Azam Udham Singh with reverence who had kissed the noose so that we may be free. He was the real culprit. He deserved it. The indignities he heaped upon our countrymen in Punjab have not been forgotten. while commenting upon the Caxton Hall assassination. a spokesman had stated that "at last an insult and humiliation of the nation had been avenged". at Caxton Hall in London. ascribed the greatest significance to the circumstance and praised the action of Udham Singh as courageous. Amrita Bazar Patrika wrote: "O'Dwyer's name is connected with Punjab incidents which India will never forget.[35] In Fascist countries. At that time. who had approved Dyer's action and was believed to be the main planner. Singh was termed a "fighter for freedom" and his action was referred to in the Times newspaper as "an expression of the pent-up fury of the down-trodden Indian People". The common people and revolutionaries glorified the action of Udham Singh. 1940. . I have seen my people starving in India under the British rule. He wanted to crush the spirit of my people. What a greater honour could be bestowed on me than death for the sake of my motherland?"[38] Singh was hanged for the murder on July 31. Udham Singh received the title of Shaheed." Soon after this recognition by the Prime Minister. it was my duty. Similar sentiments were expressed in numerous other places countrywide. (Dyer himself had died in 1927. In 1952. I am dying for my country. Will the historians of the future have to record that it was not the Nazis but the British ruling class which destroyed the British Empire?" Singh had told the court at his trial: "I did it because I had a grudge against him. but some press. Similar comment may be made on British rule in India. condemned the action of Udham as senseless but courageous. so I have crushed him. Much of the press worldwide recalled the story of Jallianwala Bagh and alleged Michael O'Dwyer to have been responsible for the massacre. I have been trying to wreak vengeance. For full 21 years. including Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi. also made positive statements. I am happy that I have done the job. 1912 At a public meeting in Kanpur. 1940. Nehru (by then. many." In its March Wide view of Jallianwala Bagh memorial 18." The New Statesman observed: "British conservativism has not discovered how to deal with Ireland after two centuries of rule. Udham Singh. shot and killed Michael O'Dwyer. an Indian revolutionary from Sunam who had witnessed the events in Amritsar and was himself wounded.[36] The Berliner Börsen Zeitung termed the event "The torch of Indian freedom"."<ref name= Sir Michael O'Dwyer ca. the incident was used for anti-British propaganda: Bergeret.

Blackburn (2007). Delhi. [35] The Times. March 16. [15] Sarkar 1983. 67 [17] Brown 1973. p. msn. p117 [23] "Amritsar Massacre . 12 [6] Popplewell 1995. • Brown. No. Queen Bows Her Head Over a Massacre in 1919". 522-523. University of California Press. Amritsar and our duty to India (http:/ / books. p40 [38] CRIM 1/1177. com/ ?id=yQgt5SYepi8C& pg=PA173) (illustrated ed. ltd. com/ ?id=cNpOAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA118& dq="disperse+ the+ crowd"). 1973). 201 [7] Strachan 2001. 119. com/ fl1422/ 14220460.ninemsn Encarta" (http:/ / www. 1914-1917. spring 2008. [28] Benjamin Guy Horniman (1920). New Delhi. pp. ltd. Giles (1948). London. com. Britains Civil Wars. p. 1997).19 [32] Indian critiques of Gandhi . National Archives of India. [29] Winston Churchill (8 July 1920). "Jallianwala Bagh revisited" (http:/ / www. p.The Pacific Historical Review. New Delhi. National Archives of India. . Caxton Hall outrage. Amritsar and our duty to India (http:/ / books. p. . .. Archived from the original (http:/ / au. . [26] Terence R. John W (2002). webcitation. webcitation. 788 [11] Hopkirk 2001." pp. pp. ISBN 9788131301692. Retrieved 2011-02-01. 3. raf. Public Record Office. Hambledon and London. 118. . (May. A miscellany of mutinies and massacres in India (http:/ / books. encarta. 173. • Cell. htm). Vol. Hailey: A Study in British Imperialism. p. 299-310.ninemsn Encarta" (http:/ / www. Vol 1. India Office Library and Records. (Hereafter referred to as the "Hunter Report". p. 1920.. 1940 [36] Public and Judicial Department. com/ ?id=cNpOAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA119& dq="without+ firing+ but+ they+ would+ have+ come+ back+ again"). Home Department. Retrieved 2007-10-07. Unwin.wikipedia. 1872-1969. html) on 2009-10-31. "Report of the committee appointed by the government of India to investigate the disturbances in the Punjab. T. F. (in Book Reviews. University of British Columbia. p29 [20] Hunter Report.) [2] Home Political Deposit. Vol II. No. 17. Report of Commissioners. . mod. pdf). T. 177 [16] Cell 2002. p. Pacific Affairs. uk/ rafcms/ mediafiles/ BC18F893_1143_EC82_2E16AC19F19FE2D2. New York Times. 32. ISSN 0030851X. F. New Delhi. APH Publishing. 523 [18] Townshend. Cambridge University Press..).google. Retrieved 24 October 2010. the free encyclopedia" (http:/ / simple. 234 [13] Sarkar 1983. September. [33] The Queen in Amritsar (http:/ / www. South Asia). p. p. Books. encarta. etc.Jallianwala Bagh massacre 8 References [1] 1920 [Cmd. hinduonnet. p 64 • Brown. Vol 1. p. htm) [34] "In India. New Delhi [3] Report of Commissioners. p 105 [4] "Amritsar Massacre . 111-112.Google Books (http:/ / books. ISSN 0030-8684. 1. com/ fline/ fl1422/ 14220500. 1948). google. p. org/ 5kwriIrvt). 41 [12] Popplewell 1995. org/ 5kwriIrvt). [31] Ajit Singh Sarhadi. pp 13-14 [37] Government of India. pp. com/ encyclopedia_761579959/ amritsar_massacre. 3. [30] Royal Air Force Power Review (http:/ / www. [24] Disorder Inquiry Committee Report. 798 [8] Hoover 1985. frontlineonnet. p.com. Unwin. html) on 2009-10-31. 1970. The Hindu Conspiracy. London. Simple. bluehaze. ISBN 0521521173. 681] East India (disturbances in the Punjab. google. p116-117.176 [14] Swami P (November 1. Emily (1973). Retrieved 2011-02-01. "Punjabi Suba: The Story of the Struggle". Retrieved on 14 Sep 2010. wikipedia.). etc. org/ wiki/ Reginald_Dyer#Crawling_Order). 300 [10] Strachan 2001. .Simple English Wikipedia. Vol. The Journal of Asian Studies. [27] Benjamin Guy Horniman (1920). au/ churchill/ amritsar. p. 263 [22] Hunter Report. google.org. No 23. [5] Gupta 1997. p. p. (Aug. Winston Churchill's speech in the House of Commons (http:/ / lachlan. p. msn. Kapur Printing Press. [21] Nigel Collett (2007). 252 [9] Brown 1948. p 197 [25] "Reginald Dyer . Archived from the original (http:/ / au. London. com/ books?id=GGGudMuE4PIC& pg=PA173& dq=sgpc+ saropa+ general+ dyer& hl=en& ei=IZQ8TbKwI4n0tgO88LCrAw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1& ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=sgpc saropa general dyer& f=false). File No L/P + J/7/3822. Political File No 18/3/1940. google. htm). com/ encyclopedia_761579959/ amritsar_massacre. 169–172. The Hindu. p137 [19] Hunter Report. 1997-10-15. The Butcher of Amritsar: General Reginald Dyer.

Social Scientist. Routledge. ISBN 1568361270. 1913-1918. ISBN 01497952.org/templates/story/story. ISBN 9780333904251. Hugh (1968)..com/jallianwallabagh.asp?sku=& isbn=071464580X&parent_id=&pc=). 4.. Political Science Quarterly. 1885-1947. 136-138. 1. B.britishempirehistory. ISBN 0199261911. • Hopkirk. Vol.com/Jallian Wala Bagh.bluehaze.amritsar. The Acedemy of Political Science. 3.com/shopping_cart/products/product_detail. 9 External links • An NPR interview (http://www.the last known surviving witness. ISSN: 00323195. (http://www. 1968). . No. Like Hidden Fire: The Plot to Bring Down the British Empire. pp. 9/10. ISSN: 00220094.npr. Vol. India in the First World War and after. • Sarkar. German Studies Review. Journal of Contemporary History.php?storyId=6687085) with Bapu Shingara Singh . Peter (1997). 2.shtml) Listen to the Shaheed song of the Amritsar Massacre at Jallian Wala Bagh. (1985). Intelligence and Imperial Defence: British Intelligence and the Defence of the Indian Empire 1904-1924. Volume I: To Arms. (Oct. Sumit (1983).. • Strachan.html) Description and analysis of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Oxford University Press.K.com/pages/7. 36. • Popplewell. (1921). No.htm) after the incident. The Hindu Conspiracy in California. Sage Publications. • Tinker. (May. ISBN 071464580X. . USA. 245-261.au/churchill/amritsar.. 1997). 89-107. Defying Death: Nationalist Revolutionism in India.com. No. ISSN: 09700293. Kodansha Globe. 25. Amit K (1997). Vol. • Sarkar. pp. Modern India. Delhi:Macmillan. The First World War. (Sep. pp.html) • Amritsar Massacre as a turning point in the British Raj (http://www. Richard J (1995). Hew (2001).Jallianwala Bagh massacre • Gupta. 8. Karl.routledge. (Mar.Oct.freeservers. No. pp. Vol. • Hoover. 1921). 3-27. • A description of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (http://kabira. 1918-19: From War to Peace. 1897-1938. • Amritsar Massacre at Jallianwala Bagh (http://www. German Studies Association. • Churchill's speech (http://lachlan. 1985). Social Scientist.

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CJLL Wright.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Abhishekjoshi. Anilkumarav. Richard Arthur Norton (1958.php?title=File:Massacre_memorial_in_Amritsar. Modify. Idleguy.php?title=File:Jallianwala_Bagh_Entrance. Anupam.jpg  Source: http://en. Derekbd. Timrollpickering. Burntsauce. Anne97432. Davidsteinberg. Michal Nebyla. Koavf. Jimaginator. DemolitionMan. Freedom skies. Nograpes. Bryan Derksen. Malamockq. Ground Zero. VeryVerily. Sze cavalry01.sunshine. Mvc. AlfaPiKapa. Jamdav86. Masrudin. Spliffy. Moncrief. Giorgiomonteforti. Rupankar.org/w/index. Infrogmation.png  Source: http://en. John Smith's. Dpv. Eog1916. Travelbird. Net negi. Bobblehead. Ww2censor. HanzoHattori. Turnstep.JPG  Source: http://en. LilHelpa. Hmains. Ipsingh. Kaurkuri. Jobe6. Patstuart. Quuxplusone.php?title=File:Jalian_Wala_Bagh_Memorial_311. ArglebargleIV.JPG  Source: http://en. Dimadick. Keegan. Rak3sh. Lofor. Simon Harley. 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