Cushioning Systems

Applications, Properties And Uses
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Goal of Packaging
To get a product from one place to another without unacceptable loss or damage in an economic and practical manner.

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Packaging in Supply Chain

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Figure 7.1

Global Transportation Options

Major international transportation modes
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Sea Air Road Rail

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Dynamic forces in distribution
A package undergoes
Manhandling Warehousing handling equipment Vehicle impacts Vehicle vibrations
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Functions of cushioning
Protecting the product from shocks and vibrations. Protecting of delicate and highly finished surfaces against abrasion. Protecting small projections on an article. Filling the void space in the container.

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Properties of cushioning materials
Resilience Compression set Rate of recovery Creep Damping Corrosion Hygroscopicity
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contd…...

Properties of cushioning materials
Micro biological properties Dusting Abrasive characteristics Performance at low temperature Density

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Cushioning methods
Blocking and bracing Floatation/ stuffing Wrapping Suspension Molded enclosures

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Definition : Shock Pulse

Single Event High acceleration (Deceleration) Very short time duration (milliseconds)

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Definition : Vibration Pulse

Multiple Event Usually Low Acceleration Long time duration

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Classifications of cushioning materials

cushioning materials

space fillers

resilient

non-resilient

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Resilient cushioning materials
Bonded fiber mat Rubber-closed cell expanded rubber rubber open cell Springs and shock-mounds Plastic foams

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Resilient Foam Plastic Foams used in cushioning

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Resilient Foam Plastic Foams

Plastic foams Expanded Poly ethylene Expanded Poly styrene

Poly urethane

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Resilient Foam Expanded poly ethylene

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Polyethylene

Blowing Agent

Blending

Extrusion + Blowing

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Polyethylene Foam

Polyethylene

Cross-linking Agent

Blending

Blowing Agent

Cross-linking Blowing Cross-linked Polyethylene Foam

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Resilient Foam Properties of PE foams
It is resistant to common acid alkali and solvents non-hygroscopic and non-water absorbing non-corrosive and non-dusting stable to temperatures ranging between -20 o Celsius to +70 o Celsius It has fair resilience, good damping ,low creep and fair value of compressions set.
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Comparison between extruded and cross-linked PE Foams Chemical, Mechanical and thermal property of extruded and cross-linked PE foams are very similar. The cell size of cross-linked foams is generally smaller and more uniform. Thickness dimension is more uniform in crosslinked sheet as compare to extruded sheet. Cross-linked product posses a softer feel than the extruded product.
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Resilient Foam Uses of PE foams

Packing materials of
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various tiles, ceramic ware, glass ware, handicrafts, electronic goods

Packing materials for instruments.
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Cushioning material for export of goods

Uses of PE foams

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Uses of PE foams

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Uses of PE foams

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Uses of PE foams

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Uses of PE foams

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Resilient Foam Advantages of PE
Excellent cushioning to prevent scratching/bruising of item being packaged Lightweight - easy to handle Environmentally friendly Better protection against liquid spills, such as chemicals and water. 100% waterproof

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Resilient Foam Expanded poly styrene

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Resilient Foam Properties of EPS
non-hygroscopic, poor water absorbent low dusting stable to temperatures ranging from -30 o C to 70 o C resistant to acids and alkalis Fair resilience, good damping and low creep. EPS has a good insulation capability and a good first drop cushioning performance

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Resilient Foam Uses of EPS
EPS foam is commonly found in protective cushion pads like end caps

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Resilient Foam Advantages of EPS
Low cost Light weight Available in various colors Available in fire resistant variety Recyclable

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Resilient Foam Poly urethane

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Resilient Foam Properties of PU
Non hygroscopic Non corrosive Low dusting Stable to temperatures between -10 o C to 55 o C Good resilience and damping with low creep and low compression set.

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Resilient Foam Advantages of PU
It can be easily molded into custom shapes suitable for a variety of products, from extremely fragile to those with irregular shapes and contours.

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Resilient Foam Applications of PU Foams

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Resilient Foam Foam in Place
This packaging solution blocks the product and gives protection against shocks. The polyurethane foam is created through a chemical process, where two liquids react and expand rapidly. In a very short space of time, the foam expands more than 200 times
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Resilient Foam Foam in Place

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Resilient Foam Foam Profiles
Foam profiles are easy to convert which gives great possibilities in terms of customisation. Corner protection - normally L-shaped - Edge protection - normally U-shaped - Tubular protection profiles

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Resilient Foam Foam Profiles

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Air cushioning

Buffer
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Filler

Modes of air cushioning

Air cushioning Inflatable packaging Encapsulated Air cushioning

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Advantages of air cushioning
ease of handling no hygroscopic highly versatile largely insensitive to extreme climatic conditions (heat, cold) elevated recovery and ideal shock absorption characteristics
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Cushioning methods Air Pad
Air pad is an efficient filling solution that can also be used for blocking lightweight products. This packaging solution fills the empty spaces in the box, effectively protecting and stabilising the product. Air pads are suitable for regular shaped products without sharp edges and protruding parts.

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Cushioning methods Air Pad
Benefits include: - Reusable and recyclable - Strong with extremely low weight - Humidity insensitive - Clean and easy to handle - Very cheap solution for void filling

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Cushioning methods Air Pad
Since air pads can be formed at the point of use, there is not a need for costly storage. The low weight reduces shipping costs and make handling easier

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Cushioning methods Air Pad

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Air cushioning (Bubble wrap)
Increased cushioning properties reduced material cost labor savings lower shipping costs

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Bubble Wrap cushioning

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Cushioning methods Bubble wrap
Bubble wrap is a light and flexible packaging material made of low-density polyethylene ideal to protect fragile and irregularly shaped products. This gives a very good surface protection and prevention against shocks. Bubble wrap can also be used as void filling.
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Cushioning methods Bubble wrap
Advantages and characteristics: - Light and elastic - Transparent, impermeable insulation - Recyclable - Improved product presentation - Short packaging times - Extremely good humidity resistance

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Cushioning methods Bubble wrap

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Cushioning material- Corrugated Board
Used as pads separators and inserts (double faced) wrappers (single faced) Limitations limited shock absorption capability non resiliant
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absorbs moisture

Cushioning material- Corrugated Board

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Cushioning material- Corrugated Board

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Cushioning material- Corrugated Board
Applications filled glass packaging wrapping handicraft products wrap furniture's wrap machine parts

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Cushioning methods Honey Comb
Honeycomb is a material consisting of Kraftliner formed into continuous uniform hexagonal cells. Due to the wide range of applications, the honeycomb can be considered as both inner and outer packaging. Apart from blocking and filling, it can also be used as a shock-absorbing product, a product separator or even as a pallet.

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Cushioning methods Honey Comb
Low cost High strength - withstands top to bottom compression Flexible design Completely recyclable Thermal conductivity and insulation abilities

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Cushioning methods Honey Comb
It can be used to protect anything from small electronic components to large generators for shipment. Packaging can be designed for products as light as a cell phone or as heavy as several tons of automotive parts.

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Cushioning methods Honey Comb

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Miscellaneous methods adopted by packagers to provide extra cushioning

Loose fill cushioning materials
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100% recycled expanded poly styrene loose fill Starch based loose fills: ECOFOAM and NATURPACK ® Corrugated loose fills Loose fill molded paper pulp (fiber flow®) Wood shavings (Curl pack ®) Popped corn

Miscellaneous methods adopted by packagers to provide extra cushioning
Antistatic poly urethane (PU) foam Specialized custom reticulated foam (PU) Foam-in-Place Kraft paper Custom Wood Assemblies

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Cushioning methods
Blocking and bracing Floatation/ stuffing Wrapping Suspension Molded enclosures

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Cushioning methods
Blocking and bracing the main purpose of this solutions is to block and fixate the product inside.

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An Industrial application

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Custom wood assembly

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Packaging of Marble

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CFB as Cushioning Material

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Packaging in PS Foam Box

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Loose Fill Application

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Paddy Straw Application

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Blocking Application

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Blocking Application

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Molded Paper Pulp

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CUSHION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
1) PRODUCT FRAGILITY 2) CUSHION CHARACTERISTICS 3) HANDLING HAZARDS 4) STORAGE PERIOD 5) TEMP. & RELATIVE HUMIDITY

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STEPS TO CUSHION SELECTION
1)

ASSES DISTRIBUTION HAZARD

2) DECIDE ON NUMBER OF DROPS & DROP HEIGHT 3) ASSES PRODUCT FRAGILITY

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STEPS TO CUSHION SELECTION
4) CHOOSE CUSHIONING MATERIALS 5) MAKE PROTOTYPES 6) TEST PROTOTYPES

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