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Tuition Test Papers / chem.

/ Atomic structure
2011
Theory Questions:

1. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 are two isotopes of uranium. The table below shows the number of the particles in
one atom of uranium-235.

particle number
Electron 92
Neutron 143
proton 92
a. Suggest a reason why this is known as uranium-235.
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b. In the table below, give the number of particles found in an atom of uranium-238.

particle number
Electron
Neutron
proton
c. Uranium-235 is radioactive. It is used in the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Give one other use of uranium-235.
Answer: Uranium-235 is used as a nuclear fuel i.e. in the production of nuclear energy.
[3 marks]
2. How many protons, electrons and neutrons are present in one atom of the chlorine isotope 3717CL? [3 marks]
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3. The table gives some information about the noble gases.
Name Symbol Proton Relative b.p. /K Density at r.t.p.
number atomic in g/dm3
mass
Helium He 2 4 4 0.167
Neon Ne 20 27 0.833
Argon Ar 18 40 87
Kr 36 84 121 3.50
Xenon Xe 54 131 165 5.46
radon Rn 86 222 9.25
a. Name the gas with the symbol Kr.
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b. What is the proton (atomic) number of neon?
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c. Calculate the density of argon at r.t.p.
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d. Predict the boiling point of radon.
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e. How are these gases obtained commercially?
Answer: by fractional distillation
f. Suggest why argon costs less to produce than any of the other noble gases.
Answer: It exists in larger quantity (1%) than the other noble gases.
[8 marks]
4. Give the number of protons, neutrons and electrons for the ion N3-.
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Tuition Test Papers / chem. / Atomic structure
2011
5. Hydrogen, H, deuterium, D, and tritium, T, are isotopes of one another. Their atomic structures are shown below.

Hydrogen deuterium tritium

a. Use the information above to complete the table.


Symbol Particle Charge mass
o proton 1

 -1
b. Explain why the three atoms are isotopes of each other.
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c. What is the relative molecular mass of a molecule of tritium, T 2?
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d. Hydrogen can form a hydride ion, H-.
i. What is the formula of calcium hydride?
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ii. Draw a diagram, similar to the ones above, to show the arrangement of particles in a hydride ion.

[6 marks]
6. Hydrogen bromide has a melting point of -870C and a boiling point of -670C.
a. In what state is hydrogen bromide at room temperature and pressure?
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b. Construct a ‘dot and cross’ diagram to show the bonding in hydrogen bromide. Your diagram only need to show
outer electrons.

c. Hydrogen bromide dissolves in water to form an acidic solution.


i. Give the formula of the ion which causes the acidity.
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Tuition Test Papers / chem. / Atomic structure
2011
ii. Describe what is seen when chlorine is bubbled through the solution.
Answer: the colourless solution of HBr turns reddish brown.
iii. Construct an ionic equation for the reaction you have described in ii.
- -
Answer: Cl2 + 2Br  2Cl + Br2 [7 marks]

7. The diagram below shows the outer shell electrons of an atom of element X.

a. To which group of the periodic table does X belong? Give a reason for your answer?
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b. Draw a ‘dot and cross’ diagram to show the bonding in the compound of X with carbon. Your diagram should
show outer electrons only.

c.
i. Write the formula for the compound of element X with sodium.
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ii. Predict the type of bonding present in the compound of X with sodium.
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8. .
a. Complete the table.
Ion Formula No .of No. of No. of
protons neutrons electrons
39 +
Potassium 19K
16 2-
Oxide 8O
39 41
b. In a sample of 100 atoms of potassium there are 94 atoms of K and 6 atoms of K.
i. Explain why these two forms of potassium are isotopes.
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ii. Find the total mass of 100 atoms of potassium. Hence find the average mass of one atom.
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Tuition Test Papers / chem. / Atomic structure
2011
9. Helium-6 and Helium-7 are isotopes. The nucleon (mass) number of helium-6 is 6 and of helium-7 is 7.
a. What is the meaning of the term Isotopes?
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b. Compare the number of electrons, neutrons and protons in one atom of helium-6 and one atom of helium-7.
i. Electrons: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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ii. Protons: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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iii. Neutrons: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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c. Explain why helium does not react with other elements to form compounds.
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10. Magnesium reacts with chlorine to form the ionic compound magnesium chloride.
a. Draw a ‘dot and cross’ diagram to show the bonding in magnesium chloride. You only need to draw the outer
(valence) electrons of magnesium and of chlorine

b.
The physical properties of a compound are related to its structure and bonding. Magnesium chloride has an ionic
lattice structure. Suggest two physical properties of magnesium chloride.
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11. The table shows the atomic structure of six particles, represented by the letters L to Q. The particles are atoms or
ions. The letters are not the symbol of the elements

Particle Electrons Protons Neutrons


L 6 6 6
M 2 2 2
N 12 12 12
O 10 12 12
P 6 6 8
Q 10 13 14

Use the letters L to Q to answer the following questions.


a. Which two particles are ions?
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b. Which particle is an atom of a noble gas?
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c. Which two particles are an atom and an ion of the same element?
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Tuition Test Papers / chem. / Atomic structure
2011
d. Which two particles are isotopes of the same element?
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e. Which particle has the highest atomic mass?
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12. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen.


An ion of tritium has the following structure.

a. Complete the following table to show the names and charges of the particles in this tritium ion.
Symbol Name Charge
neutron
+1
-1
b. Using the symbol T to represent tritium, give the formulae of
i. The ion shown above
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ii. The compound formed between tritium and sodium
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c. Would you expect the oxide of tritium to be a solid, a liquid or a gas? Explain your reasoning.
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13. Sodium is stored under oil because it rapidly oxidises to form sodium oxide, Na 2O. Draw a ‘dot and cross’ diagram to
show the bonding in sodium oxide, Na2O. You need only show outer shell electrons.

[2 marks]

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Tuition Test Papers / chem. / Atomic structure
2011
14. Phosphorus is a non-metal. The following diagram shows the structure of one molecule of phosphorus (III) oxide.

P
O

a.
Give the molecular formula of phosphorus(III) oxide.
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b. Give the empirical formula of phosphorus(III) oxide.
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15. MCQ section
a. Which ion has the most shells that contain electrons?
A Al3+
2+
B Be
3-
C N
D S2-
b. Which electron arrangement is that of a metallic element?
A 2,1
B 2,4
C 2,5
D 2,7
c. Which molecules have the same number of protons?
A O2 and N2
B Cl2 and Br2
C CO2 and SO2
D CH4 and NH3
d. Metals have positive ions in a ‘sea of electrons’. Which metal atom provides most electrons for the sea.
A aluminium
B magnesium
C sodium
D zinc
e. Which atom has the same electronic configuration as the strontium ion?
A calcium
B krypton
C rubidium
D selenium
f. What do both an atom and an ion of the isotope of sodium, 2311Na, contain?
A 11 electrons
B 12 neutrons
C 23 protons
D 23 neutrons
g. Which of the following is a compound?
A air
B carbon
C oxygen
D steam
GOOD LUCK!!  [7 marks]

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