Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines

Paper ID 1214

Physical Laboratory Model of Typical Load Torque Characteristics for Teaching Electric Drives
Goran Rovišan, Tanja Vešić, Damir Žarko Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing Department of Electric Machines, Drives and Automation Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia Tel: (+385 1)-6129-613, fax: (+385 1)-6129-705 e-mail: :,,

Abstract-The realization of different load torque characteristics in the laboratory for the purpose of teaching electric drives is presented. The torque characteristics with linear and quadratic dependence on speed are achieved by mechanically coupling the induction motor with a DC generator connected to a resistor. By controlling the excitation current of the DC generator depending on the measured speed the desired torque characteristics can be achieved. This laboratory setup replaces the actual loads like centrifugal pumps, fans or brakes based on viscous friction.

Dasylab 7.0 software is used. The scheme of the laboratory setup is shown in Fig. 1, while Fig. 2 shows the actual laboratory setup.



The realization of various load torque characteristics in a laboratory for teaching electric drives is often a problem. Usually an abundance of electric machines of various types can be found in the laboratory, but common loads like fans or centrifugal pumps with torque characteristics dependent on speed are difficult to install and utilize. However, for the purpose of teaching students the basic principles of electric drives the torque characteristics can be simulated using a DC generator connected to a resistor and coupled to an induction motor powered from a frequency converter. Since torque produced by the DC generator is dependent on the armature and field current, and in turn the armature current is dependent on speed and the field current, it is possible simply by controlling the field current supplied from the regulated current source to achieve the desired torque characteristic dependent on speed. The drawback of this approach is limited dynamics since field current cannot be controlled rapidly, but this can be overcome by setting the sufficiently long acceleration or deceleration time of the drive. II. REALIZATION OF LOAD TORQUE CHARACTERISTICS An old elevator drive consisting of a 26 kW induction motor, 10 kW DC machine and 2.8 kW DC exciter, all coupled on the same shaft, has been used. The induction motor is powered from an ABB ACS 600 AC drive and the voltage from the DC exciter is used as a signal for speed measurement. The field current of the DC machine is supplied from controlled current source SIMOREG E300/22. For data acquisition and processing Iotech Personal Daq/3000 AD converter with

Fig. 1 Scheme of the laboratory setup

(a) Elevator drive

(b) Data acqusition Fig. 2 The actual laboratory setup

978-1-4244-1736-0/08/$25.00 ©2008 IEEE


The AC drive is set to operate in scalar mode using V/f regulation. Ia is the armature current. Ra is the armature winding resistance and Rd is the externally connected resistance. the induction motor and the DC generator. Load torque TL(Nm) 20 0 0 5 Time(s) 10 15 (a) linear 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 Time(s) 10 15 (b) quadratic Fig.Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines The field current of the DC generator required to produce the desired torque Tg at a given speed follows from the expressions which describe its static behaviour: ce ( I f . ct is the torque constant. III. I a ) I f ω = I a ( Ra + Rd ) Tg = ct ( I f . Therefore the required field current is calculated according to If = 80 60 ( Ra + Rd ) TL (ω ) ω ct ( I f . and estimated power output from the motor. The examples of the recorded linear and quadratic load torque characteristics displayed as a function of speed are shown in Fig. This can be illustrated by displaying measured voltage at motor terminals as a function of measured speed (Fig. 4). and phase voltage and current at the terminals of the AC drive and the terminals of the induction motor. If is the field current. The constants ce and ct are determined experimentally and their dependence on the currents If and Ia is taken into account so that the desired torque characteristic can be achieved more accurately. • carry out the wiring of the AC drive. • process the recorded data using MATLAB and obtain the RMS values of voltage and current. acceleration and deceleration times. • •write the report in which all the results are summarized and the appropriate comments and conclusions are made. • test the settings of the power converter by starting the motor without load torque. 3. which is easy to understand for students. • check out all connections prior to turning on the main switch. desired frequency). power input from the grid to the AC drive and from the drive to the motor. 3. current and frequency limits. I a ) I f I a (1) (2) where ce is the back-emf constant. Load torque characteristic as a function of speed during start-up of the induction motor 2 . I a ) (4) 40 In our case the load torque is either TL = kt1 ω or TL = kt2 ω2. I a ) ce ( I f . I a ) ω Ra + Rd I2 f The following signals are measured: • AC and DC motor phase voltage and current • DC motor field current • AC motor torque and speed. EXERCISE EXAMPLE The main tasks students need to carry out during exercise are the following: • read the data from the motor name plate. power factor at the terminals of the drive and the motor. • set the parameters of the frequency converter (motor data. 160 140 120 Load torque TL(Nm) (3) 100 The desired load torque TL can be given as a function of speed ω. Combining (1) and (2) results with generator torque given by Tg = ct ( I f . load torque estimate from the analog output of the AC drive. The acceleration time is set in the parameters of the AC drive to be slow enough (5-10 seconds) so that the field current can reach steady state fast enough to follow the change of motor speed. I a ) ce ( I f . The constants kt1 and kt2 are chosen so that the induction motor is loaded with rated torque at rated speed. control mode. • select the type of load (linear or quadratic) and during start-up record the speed.

04 15. The load torque is calculated form (2) using measured values of Ia. 6 Motor voltage and current signals in steady state .04 15. known from previously conducted tests or from motor data.06 15.7 cos phi . CALCULATIONS BASED ON MEASURED VALUES Two tests are carried out: with linear and with quadratic load torque characteristic.03 15. To check if desired load torque characteristics are correctly realized. The second addend on the right-hand side of (5) is the acceleration torque which represents the difference between motor torque developed on the shaft and the load torque developed by the DC generator.08 Time (s) (b) current – quadratic load characteristic Fig.02 15. 5 RMS values of motor voltage and current.01 15.4 (5) 0.motor 0.motor (V) 200 150 100 Motor voltage -300 50 -400 -500 0 0 500 1000 1500 15 15.1 0 5 10 15 Time (s) (b) power factor Fig.2 0. simple calculation can be done.07 15. 5 together with motor power factor.quadratic load characteristic where J is the polar moment of inertia.5 Cos phi 0.8 IV.02 15. 400 20 20 Motor current Vrms-motor (V) Irms-motor (A) 300 15 10 0 -10 RMS values 200 10 -20 -30 15 100 5 15. The estimate of the motor torque is obtained using the analog output of the frequency converter.1 0 -0.3 0.08 Speed (rpm) Time (s) Fig.06 15.quadratic load characteristic 0 0 5 10 0 15 Time (s) (a) voltage and current 0.07 15.Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines 350 500 400 300 250 Vmotor (V) 300 200 100 0 -100 -200 Vrms . knowing equation for torque equilibrium in dynamic behaviour of rotating machines TM = TL + J dω dt 0. Using the 3 .quadratic load characteristic Imotor (A) 30 The RMS values of current and voltage during start-up are shown in Fig. The signals of AC motor voltage and current in steady state for quadratic load characteristic are shown in Fig.05 15. motor power factor during start-up .05 15. 6. 4 Voltage change during start-up of AC motor drive. scalar mode 40 (a) voltage.01 15. If and ct.03 15.6 0.

During start-up there are variations of polar moment of inertia J between 0. Only values for speed higher then 200 rpm are considered. 7 and in Fig. To determine the polar moment of inertia experimentally. 7 Measured and calculated torques compared with polynomial approximations 4 .13 kgm2 respectively.Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines value of load and motor torque it is possible to calculate the acceleration torque and polar moment of inertia.polynomial fit Accelerating . the acceleration torque is to be divided by a derivative of the 160 drive’s angular speed.polynomial fit 20 120 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Speed (rpm) (a) linear Torque (Nm) 100 180 80 160 60 Motor Load Accelerating 140 40 120 20 Torque (Nm) 100 0 0 5 10 15 80 Time(s) (a) linear 160 60 40 140 120 Motor Load Accelerating Motor .polynomial fit Accelerating . All torque characteristics are approximated by polynomials of degree 7 or higher resulting with smooth curves (Fig.polynomial fit Load . Calculating the mean value of J from both experiments gives the average value of 1.polynomial fit Load .51 and 1.75 and 1. and between 0. Thus the same error is present for speed near zero as in the motor torque. The acceleration torque is calculated according to (5) as a difference between the motor torque and the load torque. which is 27 % higher then 0. which is expected since acceleration torque drops down to zero once the steady state speed is reached. Fig. 9 shows a time graph of rotational speed and angular acceleration. This error will be neglected in further procedure and the calculus is made for all speeds higher then 200 rpm until reaching the steady state near 1455 rpm.91 kgm2 determinate from the slowdown test at no-load. This can be explained by frequency converter error when estimating motor torque for speed near zero which could be attributed to static friction. The result of calculation is shown in Fig.19 kgm2 and 1.polynomial fit 20 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Speed (rpm) Torque (Nm) 100 (b) quadratic Fig.94 kgm2 for quadratic load torque characteristic.16 kgm2.75 kgm2 for linear. 7) which are needed for further differentiation. In the signal of motor torque there is an unexpected “hump” for speed below 200 rpm which is not present in load torque. 10. 180 160 Motor Load Accelerating 140 120 Torque (Nm) 100 80 60 40 140 Motor Load Accelerating Motor . It can be noticed in Fig. Calculating the average of J from these two tests gives 1. 8 Measured and calculated torques as function of speed 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 Time(s) (b) quadratic Fig. 8 that at steady state the motor and load torque are the same.

At zero speed there is no voltage induced in the DC machine to drive the armature current and hence the load torque cannot be produced. 10 Graph of polar moment of inertia during start-up V. The only noticeable problem is at speed near zero where frequency converter fails to correctly estimate the motor torque. Its main advantage over virtual laboratories based on simulations is the opportunity for the students to work with real electric machines. Li Junjie.5 J (kg m2) 500 5 1 0 0 0. 6-8 Sept. Vol 2. ABB Industry Oy.Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Electrical Machines 2000 20 2.5 J (kg m 2) 1 500 10 0. REFERENCES [1] Chen Yongjun. [2] 5 .5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 16 0 900 1000 1100 Time (s) 1200 Speed (rpm) 1300 1400 (b) quadratic Fig. This indicates that a good estimate of motor and load torque has been achieved. Two tests with different load torque characteristics (quadratic and linear) have been carried out showing similar behaviour of calculated polar moment of inertia.5 J (kg m 2) 10 Time (s) 11 12 13 14 15 Speed (rpm) dw/dt (rpm/s 2 Speed (rpm) and dw/dt (rpm) 1000 1. The torque developed on its shaft is proportional to the product of its armature current. “Models and Developing of Load Torque Simulator with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for Ship Electric Propulsion”. 724-728. 1998. AC drives and equipment for measurement and data acquisition. 9 Speed and angular speed derivation (b) quadratic load torque characteristic Fig. Yang Xiongping. Huang Shenghua. field current and the backemf constant.5 -500 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 -5 16 0 Time (s) 5 6 7 8 9 (a) linear 1500 20 (a) linear load torque characteristic 2.5 J (kg m2 Speed (rpm) dw/dt (rpm/s 1500 15 2 Speed (rpm) and dw/dt (rpm) 1000 10 1. This principle cannot be used to realize load torque characteristics where torque is present at speed near zero. pp. 2006 Standard Application Program 5. CONCLUSION This paper shows how various load torque characteristics can be generated by controlling the field current of a DC generator for the purpose of teaching students the fundamentals of electric drives. It is confirmed that it is possible to simulate various load torque characteristics using basic static behaviour of a DC machine. This laboratory model is simple in its implementation and is suitable for educational purposes. Proceedings of UPEC '06.x for ACS 600 Frequency Converters.

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