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What is Differential Equation ? Types of Differential Equation Order & Degree of a Differential Equation General & Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation Formation of a Differential Equation (Whose General Solution is given) Methods of solving First Order – First Degree Differential Equations

Differential Equations

1

**What is Differential Equation?
**

We are already familiar with the equations of

the following type – x+y=7 ----------(i)

sin(x) + cos(x) = 0

----------(ii)

**Now, Let us consider the equation – x. dy/dx + y = 0 ----------(iii)
**

Differential Equations

2

Such type of equation is known as Differential Equation. Differential Equations 3 .What is Differential Equation ? We see that equations (i) and(ii) consist of independent and/or dependent variables only but equation (iii) consists of variables as well as the derivative of dependent variable(y) with respect to the independent variable(x).

Types of Differential Equations Ordinary Differential Equations – A differential equation involving derivative(s) of dependent variable with respect to only one independent variable is known as an Ordinary Differential Equation. Ex: 2x^2(d^2y/dx^2) – 3dy/dx + y = 0 Differential Equations 4 .

Types of Differential Equations Partial Differential Equation – A differential equation involving derivative(s) of dependent variable with respect to more than one independent variable is known as Partial Differentiation Equation. y. z) then δy/δx + δy/δy + δy/δz = 0 Differential Equations 5 . Ex: y = f(x.

Ex: (i) (d^2y/dx^2)^2 + cos(dy/dx) = 0 (ii) (d^3y/dx^3) + x(d^2y/dx^2)^3 = 0 Here the order of equations (i) & (ii) are 2 and 3 respectively. Differential Equations 6 .Order of a Differential Equation Order of a Differential Equation is defined as the order of the highest order derivative in the given Differential Equation.

While determining the degree of a Differential Equation. the key point is that the equation must be a polynomial in derivatives. Ex: (i) (dy//dx)^2 + dy/dx + (siny)^2 = 0 Differential Equations 7 .Degree of a Differential Equation Degree of a Differential Equation is defined as the highest power of the highest order derivative in the given Differential Equation.

Degree of a Differential Equation (ii) xy (d^2y/dx^2) + x (dy/dx)^2 –y dy/dx = 0 (iii) dy/dx + sin(dy/dx) = 0 Here the degree in the equations (i) and (ii) is 2 and 1 respectively. While the degree of the equation (iii) is not defined. NOTE – Order and Degree(if defined) of a differential equation are always positive integers. Because It is not a polynomial in terms of derivatives. Differential Equations 8 .

This is known as the General Solution of the Differential Equation. When this solution and its derivative are put into the given Differential Equation. Where a and b are arbitrary constants.sin(x+b) is the solution curve(integral curve) of the given Differential Equation. Differential Equations 9 . then it will satisfy the given equation.General & Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation Consider a Differential Equation – d^2y/dx^2 + y = 0 Let us say y = h(x) = a.

Then y = 3sin(x+π/6).General and Particular Solutions of a Differential Equation But if a and b are given some values say a=2 and b= π/6. then this solution is known as the particular solution of the differential equation. Differential Equations 10 .

The key Idea is that we have to eliminate the effective number of arbitrary constants by differentiating the given general solution as many times as the number of effective arbitrary constants. Differential Equations 11 .Formation of a Differential Equation When the General Solution of the Differential Equation is given and we have to form a Differential Equation.

sin(x + b) => d^2y/dx^2 + y = 0 This is the desired Differential Equation having Order 2. Differential Equations 12 .cos(x + b) => d^2y/dx^2 = -a.Formation of a Differential Equation Ex: y = a.sin(x + b) => dy/dx = a.

Differential Equations 13 .Formation of a Differential Equation NOTE – The order of a differential equation representing a family of curves is same as the number of effective arbitrary constants present in equation corresponding to family of curves.

First Degree Differential Equations Differential Equations with Variable Separable Suppose we are given Differential Equation of the form – dy/dx = F(x .h(y) => ∫dy/h(y) = ∫g(x)dx + c => H(y) = G(x) + c This gives us the solution of the differential equation. y) can be expressed as a product of g(x) .Methods of Solving First Order. Differential Equations 14 .h(y). dy/dx = g(x). y) If F(x . then the differential equation is known as Variable Separable type.

Methods of Solving First Order.First Degree Differential Equations Ex: dy/dx = x+1/2-y => (2-y)dy = (x+1)dx => ∫(2-y)dy = ∫(x+1)dx + c => 2y – y^2/2 = x^2/2 + x + c => x^2 + y^2 +2x – 4y + k = 0 (k = arbitrary constant) This is the solution of the above differential equation using variable separable method. Differential Equations 15 .

y) for any non zero constant λ. if F(λx.Methods of Solving first Order.λy) = (λy)^2 + (λx)(λy) => F(λx. Differential Equations 16 .λy) = λ^2 F(x .First Degree Differential Equations Homogeneous Differential Equations A function F(x .λy) = λ^n F(x . y) is a homogeneous function of degree 2. y) = y^2 + x y => F(λx. y) is said to be homogeneous function of degree of n . y) Thus F(x . Ex: F(x .

a function F(x . Differential Equations 17 .h(x/y) NOTE – A differential equation of form dy/dx = F(x . y) = x^n. y) is a homogeneous function of degree zero. F(x . y) is a homogeneous function of degree n if.g(y/x) or y^n.Methods of Solving First Order – First Degree Differential Equations Also . y) is said to be homogeneous if F(x .

Methods of Solving First Order.First Degree Differential Equations To solve a Differential Equation of the type – dy/dx = F(x . Differential Equations 18 . we make the substitution y/x=v dy/dx= v+ xdv/dx Now putting the value of dy/dx in given equation v+ xdv/dx = g(v) xdv/dx = g(v) – v => ∫dv/(g(v)-v)= ∫(1/x)dx + c This gives us the solution of the differential equation. y) = g(y/x) Now.

Differential Equations 19 . putting the value of dy/dx in equation v+ xdv/dx = 1+2v/1-v xdv/dx = 1+v^2+v/1-v ∫(1-v/v^2+v+1) dv = ∫(1/x) dx + c Now by solving this integration. we an get the desired solution of the differential equation.Methods of Soving First Order. y/x = v .First Degree Differential Equations Ex: (x-y) dy/dx = x+2y dy/dx = x+2y/x-y dy/dx = 1+2(y/x)/1-(y/x) let. =>dy/dx = v+xdv/dx Now .

Solution of Linear Differential Equation – y(I.First Degree Differential Equations Linear Differential Equations- A differential equation of the form dy/dx + Py = Q (where P and Q are the functions of x ) is known as the linear differential equation of first order.Methods of Solving First Order.F) = ∫(I.(Integrating Factor) = e^∫P dx thEquations 20 .F.) Q dx + c (c = arbitrary constant) Where I.F.

F.F) = ∫(I.F.First Degree Differential Equations If linear Differential Equation is of the form – dx/dy + px = Q (where P and Q are the functions of y).)Q dy + c where I. then solution of the differential equations is given by – x(I.Methods of Solving First Order.(Integrating Factor) = e^∫P dy Differential Equations 21 .

Methods of Solving First Order.F.x dx + c => yx^2 = x^4/4 + c (c= arbitrary constant) Differential Equations 22 .First Degree Differential Equations Ex: x dy/dx + 2y = x^2 dy/dx + 2y/x = x Since I. = e^∫2/x dx = x^2 Hence the Solution of the equation – y(x^2) = ∫(x^2).

Differential Equations Thank You !!! Differential Equations 23 .

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