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Version 0.0.0 @ 03:55/08.07.2000 ISO OSI 7 Layer Model forced with TCP/IP The ISO (International Standards Organization) is a collection of people that ar e technicians, politicians, lawyers, and members of corporations representing th e political / economical / strategic / technical needs of their represented unit . They get together and hammer out standards (not to be confused with protocols) for consistent, international work. One of their web pages (http://www.iso.ch/iso/en/aboutiso/introduction/index.htm l)) describes them as: "The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a worldwide federat ion of national standards bodies from some 130 countries, one from each country. ISO is a non-governmental organization established in 1947. The mission of ISO i s to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the wo rld with a view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services , and to developing cooperation in the spheres of intellectual, scientific, tech nological and economic activity. ISO's work results in international agreements which are published as Internatio nal Standards. " The theory and idea behind having standards accepted, ratified, and agreed upon by nations around the world, is to ensure that the system from Country A will be easily integrated with the system from Country B with little effort. It also he lps to make specification for industries to create goods and services that confo rm to the standard and by providing competition to the same product, decrease pr ices for products that must match the minimum standards. Comparisons are made ea sier in this way for products made by competing groups that must meet or exceed the minimum accepted specified standards. A protocol is more like a language that can be shared by many people. A protocol may become a standard, if all of the players in the game that would like to use that protocol all politically agree that it shall be the protocol of choice for use in, and between nations. When the protocol is ratified by the governing bod ies as the shared and agreed upon system, it becomes an official standard. A protocol may also become a de-facto standard or an informal standard if all pl ayers in a game use it without all members officially ratifying the protocol. Often, a standard attempts to divest itself of being labeled as a protocol and t ries to use language to describe how a protocol may be created to conform to the standard, as in the case of the ISO OSI 7 Layer model. When two or more parties share a protocol, they have rules that conduct their co mmunications to allow them to share and exchange ideas. For a rough example, we can examine English (the language) and see that two people speaking English with each other must share certain rules. They must have an agreed syntax, speed of speech, and accepted definitions for conveyed words to understand meanings of wo rds stated within their context. Often languages also include systems to recover in the case of errors, and many languages like English also are capable of incl uding rules for correcting for errors. A person may say, "what?" or "could you r
Much time was spent in creating their model called "The ISO OSI Seven Layer Model for Netw orking". It is the presentation layer that is also able to exchange messages and often dy namically create a syntax that is shared by it and its peer layer service on the remote stack.) 5. Each layer would have a specific function. and requests the termin ation of sessions. you can see that a protocol is merely an agreed upon "language" wit h agreed upon syntaxes.) 4. HTTP is an example of an Application Layer protocol . In this way. 6. one layer upon the other. Also included within this layer is Security in the form of encryption (if used) and compression.) OSI Seven Layer Model ApplicationPresentation --Session---Transport---Network---Data Link---Physical-- Described: 7. Presentation. and wield it effective enough to squash or squ elch any opposition) then it may also become a standard. The ISO looked to create a simple model for networking.) 1. they have 7 layers. They took the approach o f defining layers that rest in a stack formation.) Presentation Layer: Other than data sent/accepted to/from the application la yer and Session Layer.) Application Layer: The Application Layer can include things like File Transf ers.epeat that?" or even.) 2. . and definitions used by two or more parties to communica te data or information. When a system or protocol is shared by everyone (or enou gh of the people that have power. so we see that the Appl ication Layer may be included. It is possible for something like a database translation system that could provi de a consistent presentation service for an application program performing datab ase queries to operate here. Translations could possibly be made between ASCII and Unicode or even EBCIDIC if hexadecimal values for letter were being transmitted.) 3. Commonly known protocols considered by many to be part of the application laye r actually may be considered to occupy the Session. and display formatting. There are some parts of OBDC that may fit into the presentation layer in this respect. and each layer has a special and spe cific function. and Applicatio n Layers. and deal with a specific task. For example an examination of an NFS file mount with files being copie d defies simple categorization within the ISO OSI 7 Layer Reference Model. It is this layer that requests the creation of sessions. Is NF S an Application Layer Protocol? Well.) 6. synchronization in file transfers takes place to some extent and session are created and torn down on demand as files ar e transferred. This suggests that it could also be part of the session layer or maybe presentation layer. this layer is reserved for certain kinds of data manipula tion or consistent data types being encapsulated for transmission. ISO 7. However. "do you mean this when you say that?" for some examples. files are copied. In this model.
sometimes a specialized "token" or "speaking staff" may need to be passed an d relayed between the different members. but a translation of characters is made so that the destination may receive the intended content of the sender. or odd symbol. (The end user often does not see the escape cod es used to display an inverse letter. Deal with creating a session. but it shows how using a sys tem of synchronization with each part of the data being transferred can allow fo r interruptions to limit the problems associated with having to start the whole transmission over again. When this is an iss ue. it may not be EBCIDIC to ASCII. HTML and codes for translation of data to be presented. Part of the Session creation process includes dealing with cases of Half Duplex sessions where only a transmission or reception may take place and working out a turn sharing system to ensure both sides get opportunities to transmit as they need to relay data. It exists as a flow control mechanism in their gatherings. This is a form of error corr ection for transmitted data. A familiar form of checksums in use can be seen in Z-modem transfers as part of communications or terminal software. Another service that is offered as a part of the Session Layer might include dat a synchronization. in html. A job of the Session Layer includes helping to ensure communications within a se ssion be only permitted by one party at a time as necessary. a discovery process may be needed to allow this layer to know that bi-directional conversations make tak e place at the same time. Other examples of translation that might be made to "fit" in this layer include vt100. In examining what services are supposed to take place here according to the ISO in this OSI 7 Layer Reference model for Networking we can see a short list. the same can be said on compression and decompression.) Session Layer: This section is one of the most often misunderstood sections since it does not have an obvious separate protocol when people try to apply it to a common layered system that may use TCP/IP or IPX/SPX. encryption is a form of "translation" that is used. .Some may ask why encryption and compress could be considered part of this layer. layer boundaries are not so obvio us. The wonderful part of z-modem transfers is that it becomes possible for an interrupted z-modem download to be resumed where it left off with a minimal amount of retransmitted data. Checksums may also be included at the Session Layer as a part of data synchronization. Only members with this special "speakin g staff" or "token" may initiate these messages." can be used to represent "&" and this is effectively a modif ication of data being displayed. then the new data may be added to the lo cal machine being transferred from the remote site. Sessions are created and terminated at the request of the Present ation Layer as it has data needing to be passed on to a different location. A checksum is performed after each packet is transmitt ed to see if applying the data from the packet to the file or stream being moved or transmitted would cause it to have the same checksum as the file on the remo te location up to that point. or a ruled "symbolic reference" is allowed to speak. Certa inly. vt220. If it is. Also. This may not be a method used at this layer. Often with these prot ocols and protocols on top of these protocols. and then tear down of the cr eated session. transmission of data. they are forms of translation used at a common layer to allow the above layer (Application Layer) to get its data and have the presentation layer processing be transparent to the Applicatio n Layer.) 5. "&. When you think of it. FOr exampl e. In the case of Full Duplex support. An example of Flow Control with tokens or "speaking staffs": In some tribal groups. they have meetings where only the member of the tribe hol ding a ceremonial "speaking staff" other object.
) In this case. the speaker of the house is the flow control manager. T his flow control system works because all of the people agree that it is "illega l" to speak unless they have permission. In this tribe. (By Illegal.) Transport Layer: This layer is responsible for many things that individually may not seem exceptionally important but actually provide for some critical nee ds.) 4. It may use a form of multiplexing to allow each connection to be properly directed to its intended interface/location in the Session Layer. they pass a "symbolic referenc e" to the "floor" and give the "floor" to a member. we do not often have communications layers with control over the life and death of people..Hearing several people speak simultaneously. accept data from layer immediately above and bel ow it (except for layer 1.S. This shows how advanced we are in the western civilization. (Certainly. House of Representatives. . our trib al "elders" don't actually carry around "speaking staffs" in our tribe. This layer. In some of the worst cases.. and recognizes people that wish to be heard and grants them the floor as he/she sees fit. we refer to it being again st the "laws" or "rules" or "protocol" or "standard". and layer 7) as well as provide services for the laye rs above them (except for Layer 7. In cases where data being pushed down this model towa rds this layer is larger than the maximum allowed size of packets for this layer . a lack of flow control may lead to personal harm of feuding members or premature and untimely death as a result of uncontrolled emot ional and inflammatory outbursts between feuding members of a tribe. The peer level Session Layer then re-create s the larger sized data for its upper layer by connecting payloads of separate p ackets together in a "stream". Retransmitted data make mee tings longer than necessary. Unintelligible word s lead to required retransmissions of conveyed data. It does this b y breaking the larger sized data from the layer above into smaller sizes that ma y fit within packets for this layer.) Even the tribe of our U.. but the layers themselves do not possess control over life and death . An analogy is made in the Networking Layer section between data throughput rates and pipe sizes may be tter illustrate this and keep the amount of reading smaller if it is examined la ter. When you hear things like. The bulk of the work done by this layer includes keeping track of multiple conne ctions that may be taking place at any one time and keeping the incoming and out going packets properly addressed to be relayed to their respective desired locat ions. the data conveyed over channels might have life or death co nsequences. Just as you will read in some of the next layers below. just as all layers. it is up to this layer to re-size the incoming data from above. Luckily. If a higher layer requires that a connection be created that is "reliable" (able to notice an error and then correct for the error so that all data sent eventua lly arrives at its destination) and the above layer cannot provide its own metho .. Flow control provides a useful purpose of preventin g uncontrolled chatter of unauthorized sources from disrupting transmission of d ata from an authorized source via possession of the "speaking staff" to speak. House of Representatives has a "speaking staff" of so rts. the Transport Layer must creat e a connection of the type needed by the Session Layer for each connection reque sted by the Session Layer. especially in an argument.I m ean U. may hav e the effects of making the collective words unintelligible.S. this layer also looks to prevent a fast sender from over-running a slow receiver. In this example. "The speaker of the house recognizes House membe r Joe Schmoe from the state of Stupidity and yields the floor for 3 minutes" you hear a verbal exchange telling everyone to shut up while this guys blabs on for 3 minutes.
If the package is t oo large to fit into the box. An "unreliable" connection may just discard packets that arrive out of se quence and continue passing on the payload of packets in a sequential order that may skip occasional packets arriving out of order. but the most common is to use special checksums ( explained in a lower layer below this. then it is up to this layer to ensure that the packets arriving are the same as the packets that were sent. Some peopl e in his organization are just sending out bulk advertisements and if the little junk mail cards get munged in the postal system to the point they cannot be rea d. and the shipping su . If the checksums do not match. This helps to ensure pay loads do not get re-ordered from transmitted sequence. Some people in his organizatio n may care if the package arrives. and want to know who picked it up. so they ma y asked for the supervisor to send the package "Registered Mail" with "Return Re ceipt Requested" to know the package did arrive and who picked it up. tha t may effect the Physical Layer and the Data Link. upper layers are not impacted by changes made to layers below. As a final requirement. The supervisor must k now the source of a package needing to be sent out as well as the destination. If the interface for the data link layer is coded to offer the same services to the Layer above. If any order processing of data is needed to ensure packets coming in are assemb led in the right sequence. In the above analogy. This allows for advancements to be made in any layer to replace previous implementations without causing seri ous impacts requiring the whole stack of layers to be recoded. This supervisor also may date or time stamp th e boxes holding the packages so the receiver will know in what order the package s inside the boxes were shipped. If a recipient needs to reply to the original s ender they send their package back to the company where we have our trusty super visor. T he supervisor must find a box in which the package will fit.d of ensuring a "reliable" connection. this layer is supposed to insulate th e other layers from changes made to it. or else they are discarded. like other layers. then it is up to this layer to create a " reliable connection" that ensures all data sent eventually arrives. but instead an "unreliable" connection is desired. Regardless of which method (reliable or unreliable) is used. then it is at this layer that this occurs. then the packet may be considered vali d. it is up to this la yer to provide enough information in the packets to ensure the order is known an d packets are free of errors. A "reliable" connection would wait for packets missing in a sequence before conti nuing. the supervisor must break the package into smaller parts that may fit into the box. If a "reliable" service is not required. Say for example a new media is used. and have its payload passed on up to a higher layer. the organization is the Session Layer. A special sequence number of sorts may be included in each packet transmitted by the sende r. This layer acts much like a shipping warehouse supervisor. This supervisor examines the package to see who sent it. This can be performed by a number of ways. If after our supervisor notices packages are piling up and not leavi ng fast enough to certain destinations only served by "Cheap & Slow Mail Service " he may decide to hold off on trying to send too many boxed packages through th at system too quickly for fear of them being lost. and who in the o rganization should be getting the return package.) (Described Later: Brief summary) Both reliable and unreliable connections may us e something called a checksum (explained later in this page) If a packets comput ed checksum matches its carried checksum. This sequence identifier allows the receiver to know what order to send paylo ads of incoming packets on up to the next higher layer. A "reliable" connection looks to get new copies of damaged packets while an "unreliable" connection looks to discard the errors. then the packet may be discarded. oh well.
Other issues that are resolved by this layer include dealing with packet sized i n the case of dissimilar settings. If the superv isor is told that the packages needed to be shipped to a destination are done fo r now. Most importantly: routing. it does often provide statistical data for making charges to parties. Though it is not an absolute nece ssity to the function of this layer. 3. Even in the cas e where two networks both have the same sized pipes.) Networking Layer: It is the opinion of one of my associates that this layer is potentially the most complex of all the layers due to the issues that it must address. and if it gets lost along the way. (Part of another document goes to better d escribe this using the often used "carrier pigeon" lesson to convey the problems of packet fragmentation by using symbolism and allowing the reader to draw some parallels.pervisor is the Transport layer. and extend it to also include the special case of fragme ntation. or smaller cheaper pipes. this layer also must address p roblems that may exist when a stream of packets coming form a network with unuse d big pipes encounters a possibly busy network with small pipes. but the supervisor must keep track of each transaction (creating con nections as needed by the Session Layer.) The supervisor keeps track of who in t heir organization is sending out a package with source addresses so as to know w ho a response on that package should be sent for each person in the organization that is presently sending packages outside the organization (multiplexing). and incoming connection requ ests from outside organizations. . I do not promote the slaughter of innocent birds here. the supervisor can then forget about that connection between a member of the supervisor's organization and the outside world and focus on the other conne ctions being made by members of their organization. bytes.) Each member of his company may send multiple packages and notices to anyone in the world that can get mail and strike up conversations as needed. optimizing links and arguing for bigger more expensiv e pipes. or protocols between networks forcing the siz e of a packet to become smaller before being passed on (called fragmentation in IP of the TCP/IP suite of protocols). and various numbers of diff erent sized packets may have been transmitted. This layer is responsible primarily with ro uting of data from the layer above (Transport Layer) to a remote location that m ay or may not share the same Physical Layer-direct-link. It can be one thing to tell your boss you need a bigger pipe.) If suddenly. The supervisor chops packages that are too large into smaller pieces that fit in th e boxes the supervisor has on hand (packetizing of payload in sizes allowed by T ransport layer protocol. I use the often-used "carrier pig eon" scenario to describe TCP/IP based transmissions of data but extend it to in clude packet fragmentation.) Reliable tra nsport is effected by use of registered mail and return receipt requested. are also address here at this layer.) Often some sort of accounting mechanisms are included at this layer to allow a n etwork administrator to see how many packets. It can be found here at /networking/integrated. or bigger slower pipes. "Unre liable" mail is sent out in bulk. becomes bro ken.html#pigeon. a network with a pipe that is almost full may have difficulties in passing on incoming packets from a netwo rk with a pipe that is nearly empty. the people at the org anization need not do anything differently (Session Layer is insulated and not i nconvenienced by changes made in hardware at layers lower than it. or no longer valid. Just as the Data Link Layer below must ensure that a fast sender does not flood-out a slower receiver and possibly lead to lost data. the shipping system went over to using personal Jets to fly things to destinations. or even Data Link Layer protocol. The idea is to use a pre-exiting model for teaching that the user may know. The supervisor decreases the sending of package s to slower mail carriers (flow control. Issues in differences in the commonly referenced name "bandwidth" to describe the size of an imaginary pipe for pushing data from one point to anothe r as if it were liquid in a real pipe. or smaller faster pip es. it may be discarded and nobody is blamed. and it is enti rely another to show your boss you need a bigger pipe.
Some may elect to use a system where each device transmits their intention to transmit. or damaged packets being received. and if there is . Often this is done by packaging bits into cells. it looks in the agreed upon lo cation of the packet for the checksum value. cell or generically a packet being sent to the original sender anyway. and stops. One solution may be to just drop the frame. but instead may include an acknowledgment as part of a frame.) This layer needs to address problems that may exist where a fast transmitter fro m inundating the slower receiver with too many bits. then bits needing to be packaged and sent out o n the transmit circuit must compete with the data needing to be packaged and sen t on its way from the Network Layer. or header of the pa cket. and removes it from the packet. cells or generically packets. A checksum is a special mathematical check performed o n the data being transmitted by the sender's Data Link Layer. When the receiving machine gets the packet. Many Data Link Layer p rotocols do not use this solution. The consequences of not addressing this could lead to dropped bi ts and data lost by the receiver. too fast for the receiver t o analyze them. such as the beginning. c ells. The sender examine s the payload it will be encapsulating in a packet and performs a special mathem atical equation on the payload (or complete packet depending on the defined Data Link Layer protocol). a packet should be expected every second wi th a 1 second pause after each packet (synchronous). Often this is a checksum. and it up to the defi ned protocol to address this as a solution if it is used. and it may be disc arded. With either system it is possible for the sender and receiver to both kno w when a packet starts.) Data Link Layer: This layer is responsible for creating what appears to the layer above (Network Layer) as a channel that is free of detected errors. depending upon the protocol's agreed upon method) and compares it s result with that of the transmitted packet's checksum value. The n the receiver performs the same mathematical equation on the payload (or remain der of packet. or frames. This layer resolves problems that may arise in the cases of duplicated frames. Another example may include using a special sequence of bits that act as a signature for the beginning of a packet and another special signature that acts as the end of a packet (asynchro nous). frame or generically packet. Some may elect to use a form of Time Delimited Multiplexing where each device gets a time window to use the shared media. or generically "packets" w ith a predictable beginning and end and special calculations performed on the da ta known as checksums.2. and knowing how to deal with them as we ll as the above mentioned checksum for finding bad frames. It is necessary for the sender and receiver to agree upon the beginning and ends of packets so their transmission may be synchronized. this layer must also deal with problem associated with multiple senders wishing to use the shared media. If an in band acknowledgement requires the use of the Transmit circuit. then there is something wrong with the received packet. b ut this would be a Data Link Layer solution to this issue. The beginning of the pack et may be known by both the sender and receiver based on a shared timing. Contention for the transmission-channel may be an issue for the Data Link Layer when support for Full Duplex is enabled. In the case of a non Point-To-Point network like a Broadcast network. Then it includes the results of that equation in a part o f the packet that is not the payload. For ex ample (this one is not a real-case). a system is devised and used by the sender and re ceiver to allow the receiver to detect a bad cell. (A case could exist where an acknowledgment band as a separate circuit may exist for the purpose of acknowledgments only. However the bits are packaged. If both are diffe rent.
. Some may look to just allowing every device to transmit whenever they have data to transmit. or identified special devices (Demand Priority: 100VG-AnyLAN). or (possibly?) Simplex. but inst ead a wireless system. and frequency/amplitude/cycle-offsets in the case of wireless media for mapping Receiving and Transmission. Collision Avoidance): LocalTalk). Half Duplex. ATM. If not a wired physical media. and decode the signal back into the bits transmitted by the sender. they transmit their packet (CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Media Access. Some may chose to have a central hub that acts as a gate keeper to which devices must ask permission before transmitt ing and special priority may be given to servers. Agreed upon specification by both parties involved (or a ll parties involved) on how (1) bit and off (0) bit should be signaled.no complaint. Technically Ethernet i s a Data Link Layer protocol. An example of a wired system could be 10 Base T Ethernet. we will use a numbering system specified below: ASCII Art drawing of a 10 Base T RJ45 Jack: END -----------O --O --O ----O --O --O ----O --O ---------TOP ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 BOTTOM -----------------------------. This layer also deals with conductor mapping in the case of wired media. then it would be this layer that specified what frequency of light or sound would be used and if luminous intensity or amplitude changed meanings of bits. they always check for "collisions " (when two device try to use the same shared media at the same time) and when c ollisions are found.. This layer also specifies how the channel may be used: Full Du plex. Taking an ASCII Art drawing from my small online EtherNet cabling docume nt. eac h for a randomly different amount of time before trying to transmit again (CSMS/ CD (Carrier Sense Media Access Collision Detection: Ethernet). Some may use other systems not mentioned above. how a voltage signature proceeds in order for the sender to the receiver foor it to "hear" the signal. TokenRing.. Some examples of some protocols that operate mostly in the Data Link Layer inclu de Ethernet.) Physical Layer: This layer is responsible for moving bits across a shared me dia between two points... 1. but the wiring for Ethernet is a Physical Layer pr otocol. ````````` SIDE ------------------------------ . For what duration should an amperage.. Some may use a sp ecial "token" passed from machine to machine where by which only machines with a token are permitted to speak (TokenRing).. and PPP.. both offending Data Link Layer devices take a time out.
RJ45 cable with one RJ45 jack on e (TOP VIEW POINTING RIGHT) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- WIRE-WIRE WIRE-WIRE WIRE-WIRE WIRE-WIRE WIRE-WIRE WIRE-WIRE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Assume that the numbering scheme listed above holds true for this document... Pin 1 is used for the positive charge (+) and pin 2 is used for the negative charge (-).. In the case of an 8 conductor RJ-style jack used by the telephon e company for phone service (though most residential U. Quick review of similarities between layers: Layers of the 7.------------------------------ -----------------------------/// //////// ASCII Art drawing of two ends of ach end of the cable: (TOP VIEW POINTING LEFT) -----------------------------8 ---------7 ---------6 ---------5 ---------4 ---------3 ---------2 ---------1 --------------------------------------- a 10 Base T. Pins number 1 and 2 are used for Transmission. (The reason for 10 Base T Ethernet over RJ45 jack to skip pins number 4 and 5 is for phone service. use 2 conductors. They start using the center two co nductors. Pins 4 and 5 were t herefore skipped so that previous wiring for phones could possibly continue to e xist in buildings while still offering EtherNet service..+ ..M. Pin 3 is used for the positive charge and pin 6 is used for the negative charge.. Pins 3 and 6 would be used for the next phone li ne.Data and Signals for Lower Layer .. *2 .Offers Error Correction (not just error detection) + + + + .Deals with application issues like screen formatting and di splaying content visible tot he user. +/. and res erved for the first phone line.Offer error detection for transmitted data (Not to be con fused with error correction..+ + Protocol may deal with arbitrating signaling when using a H alf Duplex system to signal turns for "speaking" + .+ + + . 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Described Item *1 + + + + + + Service For Higher Layer + + + + + + .L.. RJ-style jacks are 4 o r 6 conductor RJ-style jacks) pins 4 and 5 would be the center two pins.+ .S...+ + + Chained: which means they may need to communicate through o ther stacks' peer layers in a chained sequence before their conversation may eve ntually be passed to the remote stack's peer layer protocol. and strip off this layers header information and perform any necessary analysis of the payload inte grity if necessary and then hand the payload up to the next higher layer assumin g data flows from the Physical Layer up towards the Application Layer..End to End layer: Conversation take place between peer leve l services on remote stacks .+/..Prevent Fast Sender from Overrunning a slow receiver *1 + + + + + + Take data handed from the higher layers.Take data handed from the lower layers.) +/. then the next outer center pairs are used. Pins number 3 and 6 are used for Reception... and pins 2 and 7 would be used for the third phone line..+ . . Standard analog telephones (POTS) using the RJ-style jacks in the U. and package it as the payload of this layer for data running down from the Application layer towar ds the Physical Layer *1 + + + + + . and when extra lines are needed and added..S..+/...
Deals with routing of packets from source to destination... If unreliable is use d.This layer provides synchronization of transferred data so as to make effects of transmission interruptions less significant by allowing on ly unsuccessfully transmitted data to be transmitted. then nu mbers should only be passed in increasing value over these three values..> DL < .... strings. .. or Simplex. it may be possibl e for these transmitted values to arrive out of order. and line resistance etc. +/. Chained table diagram to better understand this. this layer may be required to never re-order payload data for higher layers: Say remote Point A first transmits a 1.> PH < = > > > > > > > ApplicationPresentation --Session---Transport---Network---Data Link---Physical-- . and reliable connection oriented.+ .Even though this layer does not explicitly allow for this to take place. Half Duplex.> PH < == > PH < . frequency.< . amplitude.> DL < = > PH < ..+ . or wireless or?).< -.. Also speci fies how media may be used: Full Duplex.> DL < . *1 Since there are no layers above the application layer within the 7-layer mode l standard. However. it often does even if the standard does not require it. unreliable connection-oriented.+ . . but never re-sequenced.> DL < -.M. 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Described Item Layers of the 7... .Creates a channel free from detected errors.> --Network-. deals with dup licate packets/frames/etc and contention for a shared media with other nodes in the case of a broadcast network. accounting. In this way. or small pip e receivers. then a value may be lost. Key + This layer is specified to have this .Responsible for multiplexing. the user's action s and users themselves could be viewed as and unofficial layer.. then here is where they are specified. de-multiplexing. If the protocol dictates the data should only be passed in order of transmission but not receipt.. and session tear down.. and possibly arrays. If the connection is reliable all numbers will be sent eventually. Uses the above to send and receive raw bits fr om source to destination over a shared media (wore. .> --Network-. this layer should i nsulate all higher layers from changes made to hardware and hardware drivers... then a 2 and finally a 3.Deals with issues of translation that may take place at the character level. duration.. a mperage. .. Chained Communications 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ApplicationPresentation --Session---Transport---Network---Data Link---Physical-< < < < < < < -------End--------to--------End-------------End--------to--------End-------------End--------to--------End-------------End--------to--------End------. p acket size negotiation or fragmentation/de-fragmentation.. or even be at a higher level of abstraction like floating poin t numbers.+ .. *2 See the End-to-end vs. Also.+ Sets information on signaling: how both systems should agre e on what a "bit" looks like to them. Two common types of connections i nclude. data transmission over session. flow-contr ol to prevent unfilled large pipe senders from over-running filled.. voltage..+ .. inverse mult iplexing of connections. there technically are no layers above it.. encryption and character set conversions like Unicode/ASCII /EBCIDIC conversion as well.L. Common forms of translation include compression. ISO OSI 7 Layer Reference Model: End-to-end vs.. Lastly. If types of service are to be made available for layers above. Also deal with Session cre ation. we do not officially state these items as a "+" but instead offer this explanation.This layer is not specified to have this.. long ints.
and packages it in such a way t hat the peer layer protocol on the far right stack will understand it and also k now what to do with it. If the packet is ok. At the Physical Layer the data is passed on a media like a wire. In this case. then the payload is passed up to the Network Layer. it should be noted that data actually flows in two logical loca tions. DL Another way for referring to the Data Link layer. This is meant to show that data does not physically pass w ithin the stack shown across this path. even though the data "virtually" passes through this point when viewing the peer layer stacks from an "End-to-end" vs. After this process repeats with each layer stripp ing off the header information letting that respective layer know how to deal wi th its payload. F ollow the GREEN colored layers. The application layer encodes it in such a way that its peer layer protocol on the far right han d stack can understand it. This process of re-encapsulation of higher level data co ntinues all of the way down the left-hand stack until it gets to the physical la yer. and across the physical layer wire to the next router. R E D Shows the numbered layers where a chained communications for peer level p rotocols on original source to final destination take place. and determines that the pack et is fine to be passed on up. Before it sends it on.) Before going on. and across a third physical link to the destination.L Stack Num 1 Link Stack Num 2 Link Stack Num 3 Link Stack Num 4 Key: < == > This is a physical wire or media connecting devices < -. then it is ready to be processed by the destination host. The seco nd locations include the physical links between peer Physical Layer nodes that a re connected over a wire or other media. The first locations include interfaces between different layers. in a trip down the layers. brings it up the Data Link Layer verifying t he bits being received are the transmitted bits from the far left machine by exa mining the checksums. Then the Application Layer on the left-hand stack pas ses it down to the Presentation Layer. and is passed on down again. and pack ets them into a packet or frame or cell to examine the packet. it decides to pas s it onto another router to its right. and over through the same layers. alone in a cell specia l meaning is implied. layered protocol communications. the packet must no w travel back down this router's stack to the physical layer so the next router can also use the same procedure. up and down any touching green stacks. The Presentation Layer then follows suit with the data handed to it from the layer above. ---. and acros s physical links. Eventually. After the packet makes its way down the first r outer's stack. Their request enters in to the Application Layer from just above the Application Layer. up its sta ck. The Network layer examin es the header added by the original far left stack. Then the Data Link Layer passes its payload up to the Netw ork Layer. (By chained communi cation. and back down again to the far right stack. " chained" perspective. and up its layers. The destination host takes the incoming bits. If this device was a router. you see that peer layer protocols must communicate through partial stack s for network devices before getting to final destination. then that router acce pts the data at the physical layer. the original request made by the user at the top of .Where two or more "-" characters exist in a string. A user makes a request that needs to go out the network. or over a wirel ess medium to another device. up to the RED colored layer where it is analyzed and sent on down to another physical layer. The Network Layer examines the header information of the packet it re ceived from the Data Link Layer and determines what to do with it based on the d estination address and other header information.> This is a virtual path for peer level. PH Another way for referring to the PHysical Layer GREEN or follow the ajacent cells with "links" This identifies the path that da ta actually flows. across the physical layers.
> --Session--4 -Transport-. in a trip down the lay ers. R E D This identifies the layer at which the operation discussed is taking plac e.< == > -PHY. a packet does not even get passed t o the Network Layer on these intermediate partial stacks.> Application6 Presentation < -------End--------to--------End------. since the switch does not have this layer. even though the data "virtually" passes through this point when viewing the peer layer stacks from an "End-to-end" vs. alone in a cell specia l meaning is implied.< == > -PHY.< == > --Physical-L Stack Num 1 Link Stack Num 2 Link Stack Num 3 Link Stack Num 4 Key: < == > This is a physical wire or media connecting devices. If a response is sent the pro cedure happens once again.-.> --Network--2 -Data Link-.Another way for referring to the Data Link Layer . Here you can see that with a Layer 2 Switch.< ## > -Data Link-1 --Physical-. ISO OSI Seven Layer Model: Routed/Filtered Transmissions 7 Application.< -------End--------to--------End------. " chained" perspective.< == > --Physical-- .< == > -PHY.> -DLL. layered protocol communications. At this layer. This is meant to show that data does not physically pass w ithin the stack shown across this path.< ## > -Data Link-.-DLL. and across a third physical link to the destination .< -.> Application6 Presentation < -------End--------to--------End------.-.< -------End--------to--------End------. F ollow the GREEN colored layers. -PHY.< ## > --Network--2 -Data Link-.-PHY.< ## > --Network--.> -Transport-3 --Network--.> This is a virtual path for peer level.< -------End--------to--------End------. -DLL.-. but this time starts from the right hand side. up to the RED colored layer where it is analyze d and sent on down to another physical layer.Where two or more "-" characters exist in a string.> Presentation 5 --Session--. The switch only examines the Data Link Layer information to try and figure out what to do with the packet.-.< -.Another way for referring to the PHYsical Layer < -. and up its layers. ---.< -------End--------to--------End------.< -------End--------to--------End------. its user.-. < ## > This is the layer were the peer level devices are communicating for the o peration being discussed.-PHY.< -------End--------to--------End------.< -. and th e response makes its way back to the left hand stack's Application Layer and in the end.-PHY.< -------End--------to--------End------. and over through the same layers.the Application Layer of the left hand stack makes its way to the top Applicatio n Layer of the remote machine.> -DLL. or remote pr ogram acts upon the incoming data and may respond. either a remote user. and acros s physical links.-.-PHY. across the physical layers. GREEN This identifies the path that data actually flows.> Presentation 5 --Session--.< ## > -Data Link-.> -Data Link-1 --Physical-.-DLL.< ## > --Network--. and is passed on down again.< == > -PHY.> -Transport-3 --Network--. up and down any touching green stacks. ISO OSI Seven Layer Model: Data Link Layer Switching 7 Application.> --Session--4 -Transport-. Here you can see boxes colored in RED that show at what layer a router operates.
and acros s physical links.Where two or more "-" characters exist in a string. and is passed on down again. " chained" perspective. R E D This identifies the layer at which the operation discussed is taking plac e. In this example. layered protocol communications. and across a third physical link to the destination .< ## > --Physical-. and up its layers. across the physical layers.> -Transport-3 --Network--. and across a third physical link to the destination .> --Network--2 -Data Link-. layered protocol communications. up to the RED colored layer where it is analyze d and sent on down to another physical layer.> -Data Link-1 --Physical-.< -------End--------to--------End------. < ## > This is the layer were the peer level devices are communicating for the o peration being discussed. alone in a cell specia l meaning is implied. -DLL.< ## > --Physical-L Stack Num 1 Link Stack Num 2 Link Stack Num 3 Link Stack Num 4 Key: < == > This is a physical wire or media connecting devices. across the physical layers.Another way for referring to the Data Link Layer . and over through the same layers. If bad bits come in.L Stack Num 1 Link Stack Num 2 Link Stack Num 3 Link Stack Num 4 Key: < == > This is a physical wire or media connecting devices.> This is a virtual path for peer level. and up its layers. up to the RED colored layer where it is analyze d and sent on down to another physical layer. It is possible for a mixture of different network devices to exist. A simple repeater does not even examine the Data Link Layer information. This is meant to show that data does not physically pass w ithin the stack shown across this path. and over through the same layers.< -------End--------to--------End------.Another way for referring to the PHYsical Layer GREEN This identifies the path that data actually flows. ISO OSI Seven Layer Model: Simple Repeated Bits 7 Application. -PHY. up and down any touching green stacks.< ## > --Physical-. you may see that Layer 3 on the left hand side speaks virtually . F ollow the GREEN colored layers. in a trip down the lay ers. F ollow the GREEN colored layers. < -.> Application6 Presentation < -------End--------to--------End------. GREEN This identifies the path that data actually flows.> This is a virtual path for peer level. Here we can see an example where a Data Link Layer Switch is connected to a router which ope rates at layer 3. even though the data "virtually" passes through this point when viewing the peer layer stacks from an "End-to-end" vs.> --Session--4 -Transport-. and is passed on down again. All tha t a repeater does is read in bits. < -. and the re-transmit the bits in the same sequ ence it receives them. ---. < ## > This is the layer were the peer level devices are communicating for the o peration being discussed. and acros s physical links.> Presentation 5 --Session--. R E D This identifies the layer at which the operation discussed is taking plac e. in a trip down the lay ers. up and down any touching green stacks.< -------End--------to--------End------.< -------End--------to--------End------.< -------End--------to--------End------. bad bits get relayed on.
some versions of LYNX still manage to munge the tables. The sender speaks through this in termediate partial stack that relays on the packets to the final destination in this eaxmple. ---. layered protocol communications. Layer 2 on the second stack speaks via chained communications throu gh the third partial stack's 2nd Layer.com Attempts have been made to make the tables appear as they should for LYNX users by forcing a common field width for fields being used by padding them with other printable characters.-. ISO OSI Seven Layer Model: Mixed (Router + Data Link Switch) 7 Application.Another way for referring to the PHYsical Layer GREEN This identifies the path that data actually flows.to Layer 3 on the intermediate partial stack.> -Data Link-1 --Physical-. Also. -DLL. LYNX users benefit from this.) Comments and/or suggestions for this?: Email me at: dugan@passwall. After being routed by the Layer 3 of the third partial stack. and is passed on down again. This is meant to show that data does not physically pass w ithin the stack shown across this path.-PHY. and across a third physical link to the destination .> This is a virtual path for peer level. and up its layers.< ## > --Network--2 -Data Link-.< == > -PHY.. up to the RED colored layer where it is analyze d and sent on down to another physical layer.> -Transport-3 --Network--. (Still expanding upon the ISO OSI 7 Layer Model. F ollow the GREEN colored layers. -PHY. < ## > This is the layer were the peer level devices are communicating for the o peration being discussed..-PHY. . This section may be broken up into multiple sections since this monolithic review is a bit t oo large for a single page for most people.-.> Presentation 5 --Session--. even though the data "virtually" passes through this point when viewing the peer layer stacks from an "End-to-end" vs. alone in a cell specia l meaning is implied.< -------End--------to--------End------.< ## > -DLL. in a trip down the lay ers. To be continued. This is meant to allow for LYNX users to see the tables m uch like the Netscape and other web browser worlds might show them. However. You do not come here to look at my pictures. fro m personal experience. R E D This identifies the layer at which the operation discussed is taking plac e. Many of these pages are smaller t han some pictures on many commercial web sites. You come here to read content. but the problem has not been entirely isolated.< -------End--------to--------End------.< == > --Physical-L Stack Num 1 Link Stack Num 2 Link Stack Num 3 Link Stack Num 4 Key: < == > This is a physical wire or media connecting devices.< ## > -Data Link-.< == > -PHY. up and down any touching green stacks. It seems to be a problem with how earlier versi ons of LYNX dealt with tables. and over through the same layers.-. across the physical layers. m aking them use up several pages.< #####Chained##### > --Network--. Some have asked why this collection of on-line documents is so lacking of graphi c content.< -------End--------to--------End------. < -.< -. data comes back down to go out the same interface on a med ia shared by the final destination. and acros s physical links.> --Session--4 -Transport-.> Application6 Presentation < -------End--------to--------End------.-DLL.Where two or more "-" characters exist in a string. This allows Layer 2 on the sender to speak virtually to Layer 2 on the second pa rtial stack. " chained" perspective. To them I answer: faster downloads.Another way for referring to the Data Link Layer. You notice that the second partial stack only goes up to Layer 2.
and by using ALL text. . Copyright (C) 1999. A Special License: No part of this document may be used for profit without the c onsent of the author Michael Egan in writing. How depressing it would be to find your work publish ed in book form without your permission. It is also meant to exist to prevent people from publishing this work as their own and receiving profit from this process on research they did not perform. Content may be duplicated for retr ansmission for non-profit purposes as long as the copyright and license remain i ncluded in their entirety. or by duplicating the content to place advertisements over it and generate income. people with ADA issues are able to use speech recognition software on the text to hear the words. Eventually. In plan English this is meant to do many things: This copyright is meant to exis t so that others may not profit from this work as published in paper form. 2001. Another reason for thi s Copyright is to limit the effect of the mistakes I have made within this docum ent before I was able to complete it. When notified o f errors or inconsistencies. I may retain copyright. It is not meant to stop a professor from running off copies to use in their classes fo r their students. or compensation. It is also not meant to stop the student from printing up copi es for their own education. It would be even sadder to notice my mista kes in print and criticized before I could resolve them. but acting upon these errors is left up to the reader to verify by a third party that will take responsibility for fact verification. The content is provided "as-is" and I take no respons ibility on the content's truthfulness or consistency. attempts will be made to rectify the errors. but eliminate the license. Errors may exist in these documents. 2002 by Michael Egan: All rights reserved. after I fin ish this work. 2000.
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