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TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

q-zw(c-d- qz#-i*-dz#-i(]-f(rn-a- q^]-R#-[(]-zeCd^ -dX[* -


1 9 17

[beginning of alphabet-cycle]; beginningless {L}upakleŸa zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn-


cyclic existence; cycling from the beginning; secondary afflictive emotions (MSA)sarv›rtha-siddhi
cycling from the first letter of the alphabet, Comment: For divisions see nye nyon. accomplishing/achieving/establishing the
ka
qc-n-a-]- welfare of all
10

q-[e-
2

q-]n-[e-a- q^]-[ez-NIr# -a(- 18

k›r˝apa˚a
k›r˝apa˚a coin finandagarbha
[beginning-pure]; essential purity; pure from Comment: “Even though [pieces from a finandagarbha
the beginning; pure from ka, the first letter of Bodhisattva’s body] the size of a k›r˝apa˚a
the alphabet Comment: Three Indian scholars are
coin are cut, only a discrimination of bliss is
Comment: In the Great Completeness renowned especially for their works on Yoga
maintained.” (TT, 143)
(rdzogs chen) in Óying-ma, essential purity Tantra, whom New Translation Schools

qn-e[^en- consider the "Three People Expert/Proficient


11
(ka dag) is paired with breakthrough
(khregs chod; literally, "breaking through the in Yoga [Tantra]" (yoga la mi mkhas pa
hard") while spontaneity (lhun grub) is paired {C}chattra gsum): Buddhaguhya (sangs rgyas gsang ba;
with leap-over (thod rgal) in ka dag khregs {C}parachute fl. mid eighth century), Sh›kyamitra (sh›
chod lhun grub thod rgal. kya bshes gnyen), and finandagarbha (kun
q^]- 12

dga' snying po; fl. late ninth or early tenth


q-d- 3

q^]-[ez-c-d- 19
{C,MSA}sarva; {MSA}akhila; {MSA}k¸tsna;
{MSA}samagra; {TN}m›tra
pillar; column; pole; post
all; complete; entire; whole; total; entirety; ›r›ma
fh]-i#[! e[^r-z[*en-[(]-d*X[-]^n-a- thorough pleasure grove
Def.: That which can perform the function of n*fn-t]-q^]- q^]-[ez-c-d-s$]-n$f-h·en-a- 20

supporting a cross-piece/rafter.
all sentient beings {C}›r›ma-sampad
q-d$f-
4

q-d-[r-d$f-a- q^]-[qCn# - [q^]-]n-[qCn


# -a-]
13
excellent garden; marvelous garden; perfect
garden
pillar and pot, pillar-and-pot {C}gardens
q-d$f-ei#n-y(n-t]! [qC#- [qC-# [qC#n- [qC#n-
q^]-[ez#-N´-ç 21

{LCh}paryavasth›na
x#]-a-f#-nC#[-az#-b*n-dX-x#]-ac-pv! thorough entanglement; entanglement {MSA}›nanda-Ÿabda
It follows that the subject, the duo, a pillar and a sound of joy
q^]-f∑*]- 14

pot, is an object of knowledge the being of

q^]-zeC-(
22

which does not occur.


Comment: Although pillar-and-pot exists,
f∑*]- f∑*]- f∑*][- f∑*][- q^]-o^-zeC-( d-
{LCh,C}sarvajñ›; {C}sarvajñat›;
there is nothing that is both a pillar and a pot; {L,MSA}sarvatra-ga
{C}sarvajñatva; sarv›k›rajñ›na
hence, pillar-and-pot is an object of omnipresent; all-pervading; omnipresent
omniscient; all-knowing; omniscient one;
knowledge the being of which does not factor; omnipresent mental factor
all-knowing one; omniscience; omniscient
occur.
consciousness Comment: There are five omnipresent mental

q-d$f-ei#n- factors (kun 'gro lnga) that accompany all


5
{C}(state of) all-knowledge
consciousnesses. See kun 'gro lnga.
the two—pillar and pot q^]-f∑*]-zsen-a-z([-
Comment: See ka bum. the omniscient Pak-fla-ö

q-f-v-bΩ-# v- q^]-f∑*]-i#[-
6 15

kamalaŸıla f∑*]- f∑*]- f∑*][- f∑*][-


KamalaŸıla sarva-jñatva
Comment: The Tibetan translation of omniscience; all-knowingness
KamalaŸıla is padma'i ngang tshul {C}(state of) all-knowledge
(One Having the Nature of a Lotus).
q^]-f∑*]-d$-cf-b#r-a- 16

qΩ-x- 7

k›ya f∑*]- f∑*]- f∑*][- f∑*][-


body [transliteration of the Sanskrit k›ya] ik˝v›ku
The Omniscient Sugar-Cane One
qΩ-v-g-qC- 8

Comment: This is an epithet of Sh›kyamuni


Buddha. The lineage of Sh›kyamuni Buddha
k›lacakra
is traced back to a child born from an egg,
K›lacakra [transliteration of the Sanskrit];
which formed from semen that dripped onto a
Wheel of Time
sugarcane leaf from a man wrongly accused
Comment: There are outer (phyi), inner as a killer. The child, lineage, and
(nang), and alternative (gzhan) K›lacakras, Sh›kyamuni are known as “Sugar-Cane
these being the cosmology, the structure of One” (MED, 355).
mind and body, and the path-structure,
respectively.

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 1


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

q^]-zeC-( V®- q^]-i(]-f(rn-’f-ac-dXr- q^]-o^-‰X-^ d-


23 30 40

the 5 omnipresent [mental factors]; the 5 zdXr- zdXrn- dXr- zdX(rn- ‰X^- ‰X^- ‰X^- ‰X^-
omnipresent [mental] factors {MV}sa˙kleŸa-vyavad›na {C}parivr›jaka
q^]-zeC(-V®-[r-x$v-r*n-V®-! purify thorough afflictions wanderer; moving; wandering
{C}wanderer
[e*-d-dt$-et#e-Ì-i(]-[}^e q^]-o^- 31

q^]-o^-[rr-dc-zR^c-d- 41

i*-i(]-i#-b^-el]-zR^c-dl#! {MSA}sarvatra; samantatas; samanta


n*fn-dX^r-r-et#e-z[#-[e-e( in all ways; everywhere; always; at all times; [rr- [rr- [rrn- [rrn-
in every way; entirely; thoroughly;
Five omnipresent factors, five determining {C}sa˙tr›sam ›padyante
completely; wholly; totally
factors, eleven virtuous factors, six root become thoroughly terrified/fearful/paniced; is
{C}in every way
afflictive emotions, twenty secondary afflictive terrified/fearful/paniced
q^]-o^-Nœ[*≈ -ac-dX[* - 32
emotions, and four changeable factors are the {C}is terrified
fifty-one mental factors.
q^]-zeC(z#-[dX*-d-]#! h·c-d! z[^-b*n! n*fn-a! q^]-o^-dt(f-[qc-a(z-# y(n-’fn- 42

dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -


x#[-v-dX*[! c*e-a! {MSA}(sa˙ Ωv¸dh): sa˙vardhayati el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn-
Div.: feeling (vedan›), discrimination (samjñ›), thoroughly produce; thoroughly generate;
{MSA}samudgh›tita-Ÿukla-dharma
intention / attention (cetan›), mental thoroughly engender
engagement (manasik›ra), contact (sparŸa). all-conquering wholesome doctrines/practices
q^]-o^-Nœ-(≈ d- 33

Comment: The five omnipresent mental


q^]-o^-y[-a-[e*-dz#-Ì-d- 43

factors are one of six main groupings of {MV}sa˙vega


mental factors (sems byung, caitta): (1) five zy[- zy[- y[- y[-
thoroughly despondent; thoroughly sad;
omnipresent (kun 'gro, sarvatraga) mental
thoroughly depressed; pathetic; thoroughly {MSA}samucchinna-kuŸala-mÒla
factors; (2) five determining (yul nges,
disgusted roots of virtue completely severed/annihilated
vi˝aya-pratiniyama) mental factors; (3)
q^]-o^-Nœeç - q^]-o^-zu(fn-a-
34
eleven virtuous (dege ba, kuŸala) mental 44

factors; (4) six root afflictions (rtsa nyon,


mÒla-kleŸa); (5) twenty secondary afflictions Nœçe- Nœçe- Nœçen- Nœçen- el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn-
q^]-zeC-( d[e-i#[- 24
{MSA}(sa˙ Ωtras): sa˙tr›sayati {C}samudgh›ta
thoroughly fear; be terrified; be frightened thoroughly conquered; thoroughly destroyed;
{MSA}sarva-g›tmika thoroughly wrecked
q^]-o^-dNœ[*≈ -a- 35
that which has an omnipresent nature
q^]-o^-Ø(e-a- 45

q^]-zeCz( -# ‰X-^ 25

dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -


{MSA, MV, C}parikalpita; {MSA}parikalpana
sarvatraga-hetu {L}samutp›da
conceptuality; thorough conceptualization;
omnipresent cause production; arising; generation; engendering
imputed; imputational; imaginary; thoroughly
Comment: One of the six kinds of causes; for
q^]-o^-dNœ[(≈ - 36
[mentally] constructed; imagined
others see rgyu.
q^]-o^-Ø(e-a-gf- 46

dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ -


q^]-y$d-ac-dX-d- 26

{MSA}(sa˙ Ωkamp): sa˙kampayat {MSA}parikalpa-m›tra


{C}paryava-›pnoti thoroughly move; completely cause to go imputation-only; conceptualization-only
understand all; realize all
q^]-o^-w*dn-ac-fj[-]n- q^]-o^-Ø(e-a-vn-dXr^ -
37 47

{C}study; masters

q^]-y$d-ac-dX[* - 27
zw*d- zw*dn- w*d- w*dn- zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
{C}sa˙ch›dya arisen from conceptuality; arisen from
{C}paryava-›pnoti
having completely covered conceptualization; arisen from imputation
understand all; realize all
{C}having covered
q^]-o^-Ø(en-a- 48
{C}study; masters
q^]-o^-z„^en-a- 38

q^]-dË([-az#-y(-zsCv^ - 28

Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en-


dË([- Ë([- dË([- Ë([- z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- {MSA}sa˙kalpa
{MSA}sa˙k˝ubdha thorough realization; thoroughly realize
{C,MSA}›deŸan›-pr›tih›rya
thoroughly disturbed
q^]-o^-Ø(en-ac-dX-d- 49
{C}miraculous reading of thoughts
q^]-o^-‰X-^ Nø-* 39
Comment: More likely, this is the miraculous
ability to speak in all languages. Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en-
‰X^- ‰X^- ‰X^- ‰X^- {C}›vedhyate
q^]-i(]-f(rn-
29

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a- {C}sa˙dh›vati is to be thoroughly realized; that which is to be


move; wander; go thoroughly realized
{L}sa˙kleŸa {C}err about; run together
thoroughly afflicted; afflictive emotion;
thorough affliction; affliction

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 2


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

q^]-o^-Nø]( -a- q^]-o^-Nå[(≈ - q^]-o^-N∂c(≈ -dc-dX[* -


50 58 65

dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [- Nå≈[- Nå≈([- Nå≈[- Nå≈([- N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[-
{C}›darŸana; {C}avadarŸika; {C}›khy›na; {C}paric›rayati (k›magu˚ai¯) {C}sa˙yojayati
{MSA}darŸana; {MSA, MV}sa˙darŸana thoroughly enjoy; thoroughly make use of; thoroughly join together; unite; practice;
thoroughly teach; thoroughly show; thoroughly thoroughly partake of apply; affix; entanglement; thorough
demonstrate; thoroughly reveal; thoroughly {C}enjoys the (5) sense-pleasures enwrapment
disclose {C}unite
q^]-o^-Nå[(≈ -a-
59

{C}perceive; show up [in a mirror]; advise;


tale; communication q^]-Nå[(≈ - q^]-o^-f#-N∂c(≈ -dc-dX[* -a- 66

{C, MSA, MV}samud›c›ra;


q^]-o^-dNø]-a- 51

{MSA}sam›cara˚a; {C}samud›carati N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[-


enjoyment; usage; behavior; life-style; {C}visa˙yojayati
dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [- {C}disunite
partaking
{C}›darŸayati
{C}ideas; habits; befall; nurse; credit with;
q^]-o^-Ï(rn-a-
67

thoroughly teach; thoroughly show; thoroughly


demonstrate; thoroughly reveal; thoroughly
commit to q^]-Ï(rn! q^]-Ï(rn-a!
disclose
{C}show up (in a mirror)
Ï(r- Ï(r- Ï(rn- Ï(rn-
q^]-o^-Nå[(≈ -a-f*[-a- 60

{MSA,PP}sa˙moha; sa˙mÒ˜ha
q^]-o^-z[C]* -a- 52
thorough obscuration; ignorance; delusion
Nå≈[- Nå≈([- Nå≈[- Nå≈([-
q^]-o^-Ï(rn-az#-n-d(]- 68

[}r- z[}*]- [}rn- [}(rn!z[}*][- {C}asamud›c›ra


{MSA}›kar˝a˚a {C}habitual absence
thoroughly lead
Ï(r- Ï(r- Ï(rn- Ï(rn-
q^]-o^-zdX]# - 61

sa˙mohabıja
q^]-o^-z[}n* -a- 53
seeds of obscuration
[dX^r- zdX#]- sX^r- sX^rn-
q^]-o^-dgv- 69

z[}*n!z[}*- z[}*n!z[}* -z[}*n- z[}*n- {C}samud›carati


›kır˚a issue forth
thoroughly mixed/conflated/blended {C}nurse; commit to; befall; use; credits with dgv- zh·v- dgv[- h·v[-
{C}parye˝am›˚a

q^]-o^-zdXr^ -d-
62

q^]-o^-N“[^ -a- 54

q^]-zdXr^ - thoroughly seek/ search/ examine/ analyze/


investigate
dN“^- N“^[- dN“^n- N“^n- {C}searching
zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
sa˙graha
q^]-o^-h‹f-a-Nœ-*≈ 70
{L}samudaya; {MV}samud›c›ra
combined; comprised; combination; summary;
origination; origin; arising; source
thorough inclusion; thorough withdrawal; {C}sa˙har˝a-j›ta
assembling; attraction; comprising; collection;
q^]-o^-N∂c≈ - 63
generate thorough satisfaction
are summed up in
{C}thrilled
{C}means of conversion N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[
q^]-o^-zj‹]-a- 71

q^]-o^-N‘r- {LCh,MV}sa˙yojana; {C}sa˙yunakti


55

thoroughly join together; unite; practice;


apply; affix; entanglement; thorough e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn-
N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r-
enwrapment {MSA,C}›graha; {MSA}dh›ra˚a
{C}sa˙d¸Ÿyate
{C}deprivation; loss thorough grasping; thorough apprehension
appears; is beheld; appear bright; thoroughly
{C}acquisitiveness
illuminate
q^]-o^-N∂c(≈ -d- 64

q^]-o^-l^f- 72
{C}be equal to(?)
N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[-
q^]-o^-N‘r-d- 56

{LCh,MV}sa˙yojana; {C}sa˙yunakti zu$f- zu$fn- l^f- l^fn-


thoroughly join together; unite; practice; {C}avalıyate
N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r-
apply; affix; entanglement; thorough become thoroughly slack/weak/timid/cowardly
{C}samanta-avabh›so; {C}samanta-›loko
enwrapment {C}become cowed; be cast down; hide
thorough illumination
{C}deprivation; loss despondently (in)
{C}All-round Illumination; Illumination
All-round Nœ≈(]-f*[-enr-N®en-[(]-xr-el]-[dr-n(r-dn-el q^]-o^-l^f-a- 73

q^]-o^-N‘r-dc-dXn-]n- 57
]-[^-q^]-o^-N∂≈(c-dc-R^c! zu$f- zu$fn- l^f- l^fn-
Because with respect to the meaning of {C}›lına
N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- faultless secret mantra they had fallen under
become thoroughly slack/weak/timid/cowardly
{C}›bh›ya-avabh›sya the influence of others, they practiced it other
{C}cling(ing) to; hanging on to
having appeared everywhere; having than it was. {GZ 64b.4}
illuminated everywhere
{C}illuminate with their lustre

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 3


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

q^]-o^-l^f-ac-zR^c- q^]-o^-dne- q^]-doen-W#-fh]-i#[-


74 85 93

zu$f- zu$fn- l^f- l^fn- dne en(e dnen! en(en- e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
{C}sa˙lıyate thoroughly accumulate/collect parikalpitalak˝a˚a
become thoroughly slack/weak/timid/cowardly imputational character; imaginary character
q^]-o^-dnen- 86

{C}become stolid; despond; is cowed Comment: This is one of three characters: (1)
imputational characters (kun btags,
q^]-o^-d;r-a(- dne en(e dnen! en(en-
75

q^]-d;r- thoroughly accumulate/collect


parikalpita), other-powered characters
(gzhan dbang, paratantra), and thoroughly
samantabhadra established characters (yongs grub,
q^]-o^-dnen-a- 87

Samantabhadra [p.n. of a Bodhisattva]; parini˝panna).


thoroughly good; the thoroughly good [basic dne en(e dnen- en(en- q^]-doen-W#-cr-dl#]- 94

reality]
{C}acita
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
q^]-o^-d;([- 76
thoroughly accumulated/collected
{C}piled up parikalpitasvabh›va
d;([- d;([- d;([- d;([- imputational nature; imaginary nature
q^]-o^-dnCr^ -dc-dX[* -a- 88

{MSA}k˝›nti¯ sarvatra Comment: This is one of three natures: (1)


patience/forbearance/tolerance/endurance in imputational natures (kun btags, parikalpita),
dnC^r- nC^r- dnC^rn- nC^rn- other-powered natures (gzhan dbang,
all [situations]; thoroughly patient, etc.
{MSA}›rak˝a paratantra), and thoroughly established
q^]-o^-z([- 77
thoroughly natures (yongs grub, parini˝panna).
protect/guard/keep/safeguard/maintain/preser
q^]-doen-az#-y(n- 95
samantaprabh› ve [e.g., vows and pledges]
Completely Radiant
q^]-eo(r- 89
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
q^]-o^-b*n- 78

{ME} parikalpita-dharma
{C}sa˙jñ›ta (=sa˙khy›ta); j›n›ti; sa˙j›n›ti
eor- eo(r- dor- p(rn- imputed phenomenon; imaginary phenomenon
{C}sa˙ty›ga
thoroughly know/understand/comprehend
q^]-doen-az#-f-c#e-a- 96

give away all


{C}reckoned as; be called; knows; cognizes;
identifies; perceive; can cognize; holds to be {C}complete renunciation
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
true
q^]-eo(r-d- 90

parikalpit›vidy›
q^]-o^-b*n-a- 79
artificial ignorance; acquired ignorance;
eor- eo(r- dor- p(rn- imputed ignorance
{C}ajñ› {MSA}sarv›sti-d›na {N} artificial ignorance
thoroughly know/understand/comprehend giving away all Comment: Ignorance arisen due to a faulty
{C}non-knowledge; to know; perceive system of tenets, faulty scriptures, etc.
q^]-doen- 91

q^]-o^-b*n-ac-dX-d- 80

q^]-doen-az#-fh]-i#[- 97

e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-


{MSA}›jñey›
that which is to be thoroughly
{MSA}parikalpita e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
thoroughly imputed; imaginary; imputed; parikalpita-lak˝a˚a
known/understood/comprehended
imputational factor; imagined; artificial; imputational character; imaginary character
q^]-o^-b*n-ac-dX[* - 81
acquired; thoroughly [mentally] constructed; Comment: This is one of three characters: (1)
artificial [intellectually acquired]; imputational imputational characters (kun btags,
{C}sa˙j›n›ti [nature] parikalpita), other-powered characters
thoroughly know/understand/comprehend d[*]-zj‹]-q^]-doen- (gzhan dbang, paratantra), and thoroughly
{C}perceive; can cognize; holds to be true established characters (yongs grub,
artificial/ acquired conception of true existence
parini˝panna).
q^]-o^-n(r-
82
Comment: This is one of three natures: (1)
q^]-n(r-! q^]-o^-n(r-d! imputational natures (kun btags, parikalpita),
q^]-doen-az#-cr-dl#]- 98

other-powered natures (gzhan dbang,


n(r- n(r- n(r- n(r- paratantra), and thoroughly established e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
{MSA}sarvaga natures (yongs grub, parini˝panna). As
parikalpitasvabh›va
[all-to-go]; all-pervasive; omnipresent; go artificial (or acquired), it is opposed to innate
imputational nature; imaginary nature
everywhere (lhan skyes).
Comment: This is one of three natures: (1)
q^]-o^-en(e- q^]-doen-W#-r(-d(-i#[-
83 92
imputational natures (kun btags, parikalpita),
other-powered natures (gzhan dbang,
dne en(e dnen! en(en- e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- paratantra), and thoroughly established
parikalpitasvabh›va natures (yongs grub, parini˝panna).
thoroughly accumulate/collect
imputational nature; imaginary nature
q^]-o^-en(en- 84

Comment: This is one of three natures: (1)


imputational natures (kun btags, parikalpita),
dne en(e dnen! en(en- other-powered natures (gzhan dbang,
thoroughly accumulate/collect paratantra), and thoroughly established
natures (yongs grub, parini˝panna).

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 4


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

q^]-do^n- q^]-dØen-az#-er-;e-f*[-a- q^]-[^-


99 104 113

do^- zp%- do^n- zp%- e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- in all ways; [with negative] in any way
{LCh}samuccaya {MSA}parikalpita-pudgala-abh›va i(]-f(rn-a-pfn-t[-q^]-[^-f#-zdX^r-r(-
group; collect; summary; compendium; non-existence of the imputed person all afflictions do not arise in any way
[Asaºga's] Summary [of Manifest Knowledge]
q^]-dØen-az#-r(-d(-i#[- 105

q^]-z[^n- 114

fr(]-a-q^]-do^n-
Abhidharmasamuccaya [Asaºga's Summary of e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- z[^- z[^!z[^[- z[^n- z[^n-
Manifest Knowledge] {MSA}parikalpita-svabh›va [all-assemble]; compendium; composite
y(n-q^]-do^n- imputational nature; imaginary nature
q^]-z[}-# 115

q^]-dØen-az#-y(n-pfn-t[- 106
Dharmasa˙gıti [Compendium of Doctrine
SÒtra] {C}sampraŸna
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- question
q^]-Ø(en-a- 100

{MSA}sarva-dharm›˚›˙ parikalpit›n›˙ {C}questioning


Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- all imputational phenomena; all imaginary
q^]-dN“f^ n-a- 116

phenomena
{C}›vidhyate
q^]-dØen-az#-y(n-f*[-a- dN“^f- N“^f- dN“^f!dN“^fn- N“^fn-
107
thoroughly realize; realize all
{C}is pierced(?) putting all together; bring together; make
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- agree; conciliate
q^]-dØen- 101

{MSA}parikalpita-dharma-abh›va
q^]-dN“n^ -a- 117

non-existence of imputational phenomena;


e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- non-existence of imputed phenomena
{MSA, MV, LCh}parikalpita; dN“^- N“^[- dN“^n- N“^n-
q^]-dØen-az#-d[e-f*[- 108
{LCh}parikalpana; {C}sa˙kalpita; {MSA} sa˙graha
{MSA}kalpita; {MV}parik˘p; parikalpyate
summary; compendium
imputational [nature]; imputation; artificial; e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
q^]-]n- 118
acquired; imputational factor; thoroughly {MSA}parikalpita ›tma n›sti
[mentally] constructed; imagined; imaginary;
non-existence of the imputed self {C,MSA}samant›t; {C}sarvatas
imputed; thoroughly imputed; imputational
q^]-dØen-az#-fh]-i#[- [all-from]; completely; thoroughly; complete;
109
{C}represent what is not really there
in every way
fh]-i#[! e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- {C}from every direction; everywhere; at all
q^]-dØen-el]-[dr-x(rn-eC^d-en$f-a(-er-c$r- {MSA}parikalpita-lak˝a˚a times; in every direction

er-l#e imputational character; imaginary character ∑d-d[e-”(-Ë*-n*fn-[az-v!


’f-[e-e# q^]-dØen-az#-fh]-i#[-W#-e]n- q^]-]n-[rn-dn-sXe-zhv-o*!
Def.: that-[f# en-a-fpc-p%
is (1) anyeof
-a-f#
the]three:
-l#r-[(]-dX*[-f#- 110

which
imputational nature, other-powered nature, or Having paid homage with complete purity to the
thoroughly established nature and (2) not a final
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- Pervasive Sovereign Vajrasattva
object of observation of purification and not {L} parikalpitalak˝a˚›Ÿraya
q^]-]n-[qCn# -a-
119

able to perform a function


[dX*-d! 1 fh]-i#[-x(rn-n$-y[-az#-q^]-dØen! foundations of imputational characters q^]-[qCn# -
q^]-dØen-az#-e;$en- 111

2 ’f-eCrn-az#-q^]-dØen! [qC#- [qC-# [qC#n- [qC#n-


Div.: (1) imputational natures of which the e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- paryavasth›na
character is thoroughly nil; (2) enumerated parikalpita-rÒpa entanglement; thorough entanglement
imputational natures imputational form
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-
120

q^]-dØen-a- 102
Comment: One in the triad of imputational q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-
form (kun brtags pa'i gzugs), imputed form
(rnam par brtags pa'i gzugs), and form of {MV}sa˙kliŸyate; {MV}sa˙kli˝˛a
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
reality (chos nyid kyi gzugs), the last meaning thoroughly afflicted; thorough affliction
parikalpita
the reality of form in Ge-luk and noumenal
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-W#-y(n- 121
imputational [nature]; imputation; artificial; form in Jo-nang. These three correspond to
acquired; imputational factor; thoroughly the three natures of a form: imputational
[mentally] constructed; imagined; imaginary; thoroughly afflicted phenomena
nature, other-powered nature, and thoroughly
imputed; thoroughly imputed; imputational
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-W#-[f#en-a- 122
established nature of a form.

q^]-dØen-a-v-n(en-az#-r(-d(-i#[-en$f- 103

q^]-[- 112

[f#en- [f#en- [f#en- [f#en-


e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- kunda sa˙kleŸa-›lambana
{MSA}parikalpita-›di-svabh›va(tri-) kunda [transliteration of Sanskrit word for object of observation of a thorough affliction
the three natures—imputational and so forth jasmine]; jasmine

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-t]-
123

[i.e., other-powered and thoroughly q^]-[-Vø-d$-dXr-y$d-W#-n*fn-


established]
mind of enlightenment [that is, seminal fluid]
like a kunda flower q^]-]n-i(
]-f(rn-a-t]-
{MSA}sa˙kli˝˛a
Comment: Jasmine, as an example of that which has thoroughly affliction; that which
whiteness, is used to refer to seminal fluid. is thoroughly afflicted

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 5


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-ei*]-a(- q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-[r-’f-ac-dXr-d- q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-f*[-ac-f(n-a-


124 133 143

{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-pr›tipak˝ika zdXr- zdXrn- dXr- zdX(rn- f(n- f(n- f(n- f(n-


antidote to thorough afflictions {MSA}sa˙kleŸa-vyavad›na; {MSA}asa˙kleŸ›dhimok˝a
{MV}sa˙kleŸa-viŸuddhi;
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-
125
belief/interest/zeal in/being keen for the
{MV}sa˙kli˝˛a-vyavad›na; {MV}sa˙kleŸo absence of afflictions
vyavad›nam; {MV}sa˙kleŸika-vaiyavad›nika
the afflicted and the pure; afflictions and
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-f*[-ac-x(rn-n$-v(rn-Nå[(≈ - 144

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn- {N}sa˙kleŸika;
{L,MSA,MV}sa˙kleŸa;
{MSA}s›˙kleŸik›-dharm›¯; {C}sa˙kileŸa
purifications

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-[r-’f-ac-dXr-dz#-fh]- a- Nå≈[- Nå≈([- Nå≈[- Nå≈([-


134

thoroughly afflicted
{C}afflicted; made miserable
i#[- {MSA}asa˙kli˝˛a-paribhoga

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-t]-
126

zdXr- zdXrn- dXr- zdX(rn- unafflicted thorough enjoyment; partaking


{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-vyavad›na-lak˝a˚a without affliction

q^]-]n-i(
]-f(rn-t]-{MV}sa˙kli˝˛a(tva)
{C,MV}sa˙kli˝˛a; characters of the afflicted and the purified
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-xr-f*[- 145

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-[r-’f-ac-dXr-d-[e- 135
that which has thoroughly affliction; that which
{MSA}na sa˙kleŸa¯
is thoroughly afflicted
without affliction
{C}afflicted; polluted zdXr- zdXrn- dXr- zdX(rn-
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-vn-V“e( -an- 146
{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-vyavad›na-pak˝a
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-Ë*n-n$-dnCr^ -d- 127

spheres of the afflicted and the purified; the


dnC^r- nC^r- dnC^rn- nC^rn- afflicted and the purified V“(e- V“(e- V“(en- V“(en-
{MSA}sa˙kleŸ›n nirv¸ttita¯
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-[r-’f-ac-dXr-d-p-[[-a 136
{MSA}sa˙kleŸasy›nurak˝a˚›
due to turning away from afflictions
protect/guard/keep/maintain/preserve/safegua
rd against thorough afflictions c-r-‰Xv-f*[-a- q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-dnv- 147

zdXr- zdXrn- dXr- zdX(rn-


q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-dNø]-a- 128

{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-vyavad›na-bhede nirm›˚a¯ dnv- n*v- dnv[- n*v[-


dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [- without the pride/conceit [thinking] that the {MV}kleŸ›paŸama (=apagama?)
{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-nirdeŸa afflicted and the purified are different eradicate/remove/clear
away/eliminate/avoid/exclude affliction
indicating thorough affliction
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-Når-dc-dX-d- 137

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-az#-‰X-^ 148

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-[r-’f-ac-[e-a-f-x#]-a 129

Når- Nå(r- Nårn- Nå(rn- {MSA}sa˙kleŸa-hetu


z#-[(](MV)ni¯sa˙kleŸa-viŸuddhy-artha
- {MSA}sa˙kleŸa-prah›˚a
afflicted objects to be abandoned
cause of thorough affliction

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-az#-y(n- 149
object/meaning that is neither afflicted nor
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-Nårn-a- 138

purified
{MSA}kli˝˛o dharma¯
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-[r-’f-ac-dXr-d-x(rn-n$- Når- Nå(r- Nårn- Nå(rn-
130
thoroughly afflicted phenomenon
{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-varjita
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-az#-][-W#-ei*]-a(- 150

h·v-d- state of having abandoned afflictions


dgv- zh·v!zh°v- dgv- h·v[- {MSA}kleŸa-vy›dhi-pratipak˝atva
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-f-x#]-a- 139

{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-vyavad›na-parye˝˛i antidote to the disease of the afflictions


thorough investigation/examination/research of {C}asa˙kleŸa
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-az#-sXe( n- 151

the afflicted and the purified non-affliction


{C}without affliction; non-affliction
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-[r-’f-ac-dXr-d-f#-Vø-d- {MV}sa˙kleŸa-pak˝a
131

sphere of the afflicted; afflicted quarter; class


q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-f*[-a- 140

dVø- Vø- dVøn- Vø(n- of thorough afflictions


{MSA}asa˙kli˝˛a; {MSA}ni¯sa˙kleŸa;
{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-vyavad›n›darŸana
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-az#-sXe( n-zee-a- 152

{MSA,MV}asa˙kleŸa; {MV}sa˙kleŸa-abh›va
not viewing the afflicted and the purified
without affliction; non-afflicted
zee- zee- zeen- zeen-
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-[r-’f-ac-dXr-d-xr-[e- q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-f*[-az#-x]-ve-
132
141
{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-pak˝a-nirodha

ac-Nø]( -a- {MSA}asa˙kleŸ›ºga


ceasing the sphere of the afflicted; ceasing the
afflicted quarter; ceasing the class of thorough
dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [- unafflicted branch; branch of the unafflicted afflictions
{MSA}sa˙kleŸa-vyavad›na-sa˙deŸanat› Comment: See yan lag.
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-az#-fh]-i#[- 153
teaching the afflicted and the purified;
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a-f*[-ac-N´d&ç -az#-’f-a- 142

teaching on afflictions and purifications


{MSA,MV}sa˙kleŸa-lak˝a˚a
dN´d&ç - N´d&ç - dN´d&ç n- N´d&ç n- character of the afflicted
{MSA}ni¯kleŸatopasa˙h›r›k›ra
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-ac-zR^c-a- 154

aspect of achieving non-affliction; aspect of


achieving the absence of afflictions
zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
{MV}sa˙kliŸyate
will be afflicted

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 6


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-f*[-’f-[e- q^]-]n-vrn-a-i#[-vn-dXr^ -d- q^]-Nå[(≈ -


155 166 175

{MSA}ni¯sa˙kleŸa-viŸuddhit› zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- Nå≈[- Nå≈([- Nå≈[- Nå≈([-


unafflicted purity {C}samutthita {C}sam›c›ra

q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-e;$r-Ø(e- 156
{C}arisen from behavior; habit; life-style
{C}habits
q^]-]n-N√r( - 167

e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn-


q^]-zdXr^ - 176

conception of thoroughly afflicted objects dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn-


zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-b#]-o^-eCv( - {C}samutth›payati
157

motivate; ask; beg; collect; gather; raise; samudaya


zeC(v- zeC(v[- eC(v- eC(v[- cause to rise; inspire; excite; arouse; urge on source; origination
{MSA}suvimok˝›ya sa˙kles›t {C}raises
q^]-zdXr^ -e#-d[*]-a-
177

q^]-zdXr^ -d[*]-a-
complete freedom from afflictions; complete
q^]-]n-N√r( -d-
168

release from the afflictions q^]-N√r( -


zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
q^]-]n-V“r-d- 158

dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn- {MV}samudaya-satya


{C}samutth›na true sources/origins; truth of sources/origins
V“r- V“r- V“rn- V“rn-
motivation; ask; beg; collect; gather; raise; [the second of the four noble truths]
{C}paryutth›na
cause to rise; inspire; excite; arouse; urge on
q^]-zdXr^ -d[*]-a-
178
rise up; get up; flow; suffice
{C}obsession
{C}manifestation; arising q^]-zdXr^ -e#-d[*]-a-
q^]-]n-N√r( -d-[r-f#-V“]-a- 169

q^]-]n-f]c- 159
zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn- samudaya-satya
f]c- f]c- f]c[- f]c[- true sources/origins; truth of sources/origins
{C}asamutth›na-yoga
{L}›gh›ta [the second of the four noble truths]
{C}not joined up with the world of appearance
thoroughly harm/torture/torment

q^]-zdXr^ -d-
179

q^]-]n-N√r( -d-a(- 170

q^]-]n-f]c-n*fn-W#-n*fn- 160
q^]-zdXr^ -
dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn- zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
f]c- f]c- f]c[- f]c[- {C}samutth›paka
{L}›gh›ta-citta {C}samud›c›ra; samudaya
one who
attitude of harmful intent source; origin; origination
asks/begs/collects/gathers/raises/inspires/excite
{C}befall; use; credit with; ideas; habits; origin;
q^]-]n-f]c-n*fn-dX[* -[*- s/arouses/causes to rise/urges on
161

origination; source
{C}raiser
q^]-zdXr^ -dz#-[(]-’f-a-en$f- 180
f]c- f]c- f]c[- f]c[-
q^]-]n-N√r( -d-f*[-a-eo(en-a- 171

{C}›gh›tayati
have harmful intent dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn- zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
{C}cherish malice for; feel anger {MV}trividha¯ samudaya-artha
{C}asamutth›na-pary›panna
three aspects of the meaning of
q^]-]n-N‘r-d- {C}not included in the world of appearance
162

soure/origin/origination
q^]-]n-N√r( -dz#-pdn- 172

q^]-zdXr^ -dz#-d[*]-a-
181
N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r-
{C}sa˙drŸyate dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn-
thoroughly illuminate/appear/shine
{C}appears; is beheld; appears bright; be equal
{MSA}samutth›na-up›ya
means of raising up/motivating/urging on
q^]-zdXzdXr^ -d[* ]-a-
^r- zdX ^r- dX^rq^- ]dX-zdX
^r- r
^ -e#-d[*]-a-
to(?) {C,MV}samudaya-satya
q^]-]n-N√r( -dc-f#-dR#[-a- 173
true sources/origins; truth of sources/origins
q^]-]n-dXr^ -d-f-fy#n-a- 163

[the second of the four noble truths]


dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn-
zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- q^]-N∂r(≈ -d- 182

{C}asamutth›pika
asamutth›na does not
no arising; non-arising ask/beg/collect/gather/raise/inspire/excite/arou
N∂≈r- N∂≈(r- N∂≈rn- N∂≈(rn-
se/cause to rise/urge on {C}sa˙Ÿuddhi
q^]-]n-f#-V“r-d- 164

{C}which raises nothing thorough


purification/cleansing/washing/practicing/traini
V“r- V“r- V“rn- V“rn-
q^]-]n-dN√r-d- 174
ng/cleaning
{C}asamutth›na {C}thorough purification
rise up; get up; flow; suffice dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn-
q^]-N∂c(≈ - 183

{C}no arising; non-arising {C}samutth›pita


motivate; ask; beg; collect; gather; raise;
q^]-]n-fj°n-a- 165

cause to rise; inspire; excite; arouse; urge on


N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[-
{LCh}sa˙yojana
{C}samanta-pras›dika {C}raised
thorough enwrapment
beautiful in every way
Comment: For the sake of distinction, kun
{C}fair in every way
dkris is translated as "entanglement."

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 7


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

q^]-f-Nø[^ -a- q^]-Ô·d-W#-Ø(e-a- q^]-Ô·d-d[*]-a-


184 190 197

q^]-Ô·d-W#-d[*]-a-
{C}asa˙graha dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn-
{C}non-attachment
conventional conception; conventional
dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn-
{MSA}sa˙v¸ti-satya(ta); {LCh,ME}sa˙v¸tisatya
q^]-h·v-d- 185
conceptual consciousness; conceptual
consciousness of a conventionality conventional truth; truth-for-a-concealer;
concealer-truth; relative truth;
dgv- zh·v!zh°v- dgv- h·v[- Comment: An instance is an inferential
cognition which realizes that sound is truth-for-an-obscured-mind; obscured truth;
{C}parye˝a˚a
impermanent (sgra mi rtag rtogs kyi rjes truth-for-an-obscured-awareness; truth for a
thorough investigation/examination/search conventional [mind]; truth for an obscured
dpag). This is one of the seven types of
{C}search for
facsimiles of direct perception (mngon sum b*n-dX-[r-Øe-[r(n-ei#n-[r-z[^n-f-dXn-W#-]f-
q^]-zj‹]- 186
ltar snang): mistaken conceptions ('khrul
ba'i rtog pa), conventional conceptions (kun
fwz-q^]-Ô·d-d[*]-a-x#]!
e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn- rdzob kyi rtog pa), inferential conceptions object of knowledge; [the set of] the
(rjes dpag gi rtog pa), conceptions arisen two—permanent phenomenon and thing; and
{MV}sa˙parigraha
uncompounded space are conventional truths
q^]-Ô·d-W#-d[*]-a-i#[- 191
thoroughly holding onto; miserliness
fh[-i#[! [(]-[f-ac-[(]-dX*[-f#-]^n-az#-y(n!
q^]-zj‹]-az#-‰X-^ 187

dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn- Def. in the SÒtra School Following Reasoning:
{MV}sa˙v¸ti-satyatva a phenomenon that is not ultimately able to
e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn- perform a function
conventional truth itself; concealer-truth itself
{MV}parigraha-hetu Comment: In the SÒtra School Following
q^]-Ô·d-i#[- 192
cause of thoroughly holding onto; cause of Reasoning the following are equivalent:
miserliness conventional truth (kun rdzob bden pa);
dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn- permanent phenomenon (rtag pa); generally
q^]-Ô·en- 188

{MSA}sa˙v¸ti-satyat› characterized phenomenon (spyi mtshan);


just a conventionality phenomenon which is not a [functioning]
Ô·en- Ô·en- Ô·en- Ô·en- thing (dngos med kyi chos); uncompounded
q^]-Ô·d-o^- 193
{MSA}sa˙pÒr˚a phenomenon ('dus ma byas kyi chos);
thorough fulfillment/completion/finishing unproduced phenomenon (ma byas pa'i
dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn-
q^]-Ô·d- q^]-Ô·d-az#-y(n-t]-
189 198

{C}sa˙v¸ty›; sa˙v¸tita¯
conventionally
dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn- dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn-
{C}in a conventional sense
{LCh,C,MV,MSA,L}sa˙v¸ti; {MSA}sa˙v¸ta conventional subjects
q^]-Ô·d-o^-dË([- 194
conventional [truth]; concealer [truth];
q^]-Ô·d-dXr-y$d-W#-n*fn- 199

relative [truth]; concealer; conventional;


conventionality; fraudulence; concealing dË([- Ë([- dË([- Ë([-
[consciousness]; conventions; conventionalities dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn-
expressed as conventionalities; conventionally
sa˙v¸tibodhicitta
d$f-a-v-n(en-az#-q^]-Ô·d-’fn- express/verbalize
conventional mind of enlightenment;
conventionalities such as pots and so forth
q^]-Ô·d-o^-x([-a- 195
conventional mind [directed] toward
[dX*-d! 1 doen-az#-q^]-Ô·d! 2 b*n-az#-q^]-Ô·d! enlightenment
dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn- 1 Nƒ(]-n*fn- 2 zu$e-n*fn-
3 dË([-az#-q^]-Ô·d! {ME} sa˙v¸tisat
1 aspirational mind of enlightenment; 2
1 xr-[e-q^]-Ô·d! 2 v(e-az#-q^]-Ô·d! conventionally exist/existence/existent
practical mind of enlightenment
Divisions: (1) imputational conventionalities; {GD:115} relatively existent
Comment: This term can also be loosely
(2) mental conventionalities; (3) expressional
q^]-Ô·d-[r-[(]-[f-a- 196
translated as “altruistic intention to become
conventionalities. Also, (1) real/correct enlightened,” but as such cannot bear the
conventionalities; (2) unreal/incorrect dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn- discussion about how this is a mind (sems)
conventionalities and not a mental factor (sems byung).
Comment: kun rdzob is etymologized three {MSA}sa˙v¸ti-param›rtha

q^]-Ô·d-gf- 200
ways: as convention (tha snyad, vyavah›ra); conventional and ultimate
as mutual dependence (phan tshun brten pa,
parasparasa˙bhavana); and as concealer dÔd- Ô·d- dÔdn- Ô·dn-
(sgrib byed, samant›dvara˚a). In the context sa˙v¸tim›tra
of the two truths the third etymology is mere conventionalities
predominant in the Mind-Only and Middle
q^]-Ô·d-n*fn-dNœ[*≈ - 201
Way Schools in the sense that non-ultimate
phenomena seem to be truths for an ignorant
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
*sa˙v¸ticittotp›da
conventional mind generation; conventional
mind-generation

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 8


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

q^]-el#- q^]-vn-z[n- q*r-c$n-W#-e;$en-dÈ]-x#[-v-dX[* -a-


202 209 221

{LCh,L,ME}›laya passed beyond all; completely transcended; {MSA}pratibimba-sa˙kalik›˙ ca


basis-of-all passed beyond; is beyond all manasikurvata¯
storehouse; hang on to; settling place taking to mind the image of a skeleton

q^]-b*n-
210

Comment: Often to be distinguished from


kun gzhi rnam par shes pa (mind-basis-of-all,
q^]-b*n-a- q(-eC-^ 222

›layavijñ›na), in which case kun gzhi refers {LCh}›jñ›ta; {LCh}›jñ› leather boat
to the seeds themselves and not the mind in all-knowingness
q(r-Nåv&ç -D(-√ e(nC -fpz-xn- 223
which they reside.

q^]-b*n-a-
211

q^]-b*n-
q^]-el#-’f-ac-b*n-a-
203
‰ong-·rül Ío-drö-ta-yay [author of "the
Encyclopedia" (theg pa'i sgo kun...)]
{C}samajñ› (=vastu-sametam aham iti
complete
q^]-el#-’f-b*n-
{LCh,ME,MSA,MV}›laya-vijñ›na
jñ›nam); {MSA}parijñ›
all-knowingness
Wr- 224
mind-basis-of-all
(C)denomination; appellation
storehouse-consciousness;
{LCh}eva; api; {C}ki˙ c›pi; {C}punar;
q^]-b*n-a-[r-V“]-a- 212
foundation-consciousness
{C}yady›pi; {C}tu
Comment: Laya means "basis"; it is derived
from the Sanskrit verbal root li, which means {MSA}parijñ›t›vin but; even; also; however; nevertheless;
"providing support or basis." fi is taken as endowed with all-knowingness although
meaning "all." Vijñ›na means {C}but if; although; again; although; even if; of
q^]-b*n-a-c#e-az#-[dr-a(- 213

"consciousness." The verbal root jña means course


"know"; na is an ending that means "way" or {C}›jñ›t›vındriya t$r-;[-Wr-Nå(r-f#-]^n-az#-sX#c!
"means" — the means of understanding; vi
because one is not able to abandon even slightly
means "individually" or "in detail."
{C}the dominant faculty of one who has fully {PGP-85}
Candrakırti takes the term as referring to
understood
Wr-xr-zr-en$f-‰X]-N“^[-[*-
q^]-el#-’f-b*n-
204

q^]-el#-’f-ac-b*n-a- q^]-b*n-az#-[dr-a(- 214

the three—kyang, yang, and 'ang—are the


conjunction ornaments {Y}
{LCh,ME,MSA,MV}›laya-vijñ›na {C}›jñendriya
Comment: Translations like "but" would come
mind-basis-of-all {C}the dominant (faculty) of 'understanding'
after the clause to which it is affixed;
storehouse-consciousness;
q^]-b*n-ac-dXz-( l*n- 215
translations like "although" would come
foundation-consciousness before the clause to which it is affixed.
{C}›jñ›sy›mi-iti
q^]-d;r-
205

Wr-t#- 225

q^]-o^-d;r-a(- {C}I shall fully understand

q^]-b*n-b#r- {L}kim uta


216

samantabhadra
how much more?; how much less?
thoroughly good; Samantabhadra [name of {C}›jñ›yate
W#- 226
Bodhisattva; in Óying-ma, name of primordial
{C}is noticed
being]

q^]-n(r-
217
[as genitive particle] of; by; in; which
q^]-v- q^]-o^-n(r-! q^]-o^-n(r-d!
206

[as non-case particle] and; but; (semi-colon)


{C}sarvatra Comment: One of five genitive
to all; in all places; in every way; at all times
n(r- n(r- n(r- n(r- particles—gi, kyi, gyi, 'i, yi.
{MSA}sarva-gata
W#n- 227
{C}always; everywhere; at all times; in every
way gone everywhere; omnipresent; all-pervasive
[as instrumental particle] by; by means of;
q^]-N√r( - 218

q^]-vn- 207

with; because; through


[as non-case particle corruptly used in place of
from all; in all ways dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn- the non-case usage of genitive particles] but;
{LCh}samutth›na
q^]-vn-do^n-a- 208
and; (semi-colon)
motivation Comment: One of five instrumental
do^- zp%- do^n- zp%- db[-az#-q^]-N√(r- particles—gis, kyis, gyis, 'is, yis. Also used
adverbially.
samuccaya the motivation for explaining
W*- 228
group; collect; summary; compendium;
q^]-N√r( -d-[r-dtn-az#-re-e#n- 219

abbreviated title of Asaºga's Summary of


Manifest Knowledge (abhidharmasamuccaya) [vocative; form of address] O!; hey!
dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn-
‰X^[-N“*-q^]-do^n- {MV}samutth›nay› v›c› W*-‰Xv-dz#-nCn-[e-z[#-Vø-Nø-* 229

Compendium of Tantras [a voluminous through speech together with motivation O Conqueror Children, it is thus:
a-„ya-fla tantra cycle assembled under the
q*r-c$n- 220
direction of Jam-Âang-kyen-·zay-wang-flo
W*-f- 230

('jam dbyangs mkhyen rtse dbang po)]


{MSA}sa˙kalik›
alas!
skeleton
{S}Ah!

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 9


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

W*-fz(- Q√-^ N´d&ç - Q√e( -


231 244 258

alas! n›g›rjuna dQ√e Q√e( dQ√en Q√e( n


N›g›rjuna [expounder of the M›dhyamika
W*z-# ”(-Ë*-l*n-dX-d-‰X[^ -W#-‰Xv-a(- 232
read out loud; read out
school]
Comment: This does not mean "study" or
Hevajratantrar›ja fe(]-a(-Q√^-N´ç&d- "think over."
Hevajran›matantrar›ja [title of a Highest Yoga the Protector N›g›rjuna
Q√e( -o^-el^e-ac- 259

Tantra, P10, vol. 1]


Q√-^ d[e- 245

qC-# x-
233
{C}v›cayanti
qC-# xZ- {C}n›ga-pati cause to read out
{C}lord of n›gas {C}preach; speak
kriy›

Q√-^ d[^[- 246


transliteration of Sanskrit kriy› [action; Action
Q√e( -a- 260
Tantra]
n›ga demon; n›ga spirit
qC-# xZ-
234

qC-# x- Q√-^ [dr- 247 dQ√e Q√e( dQ√en Q√e( n


{C}v›cayanti; {MV}v›cana;
kriy› {C}bhujagendra {MV}v›cyam›na; {C}pa˛hi˝yanti; {C}likhati
transliteration of Sanskrit kriy› [action; Action {C}Lord of the Serpents read; read out
Tantra] {C}preach; speak; will recite; write; copy (out)
Q√-^ dg]- 248

Comment: This does not mean "study" or


Q√-Q√-( 235

"think over."
n›ga emperior; violent n›ga spirit; king spirit
mlecca
Q√r( - 261

Q√-^ x#-d[e-a(- 249


barbarian
expanse; sphere
Q√-Q√-( Nœ-*≈ d(- 236
{C}bhujag›dhipa
{C}Chief of Serpents y(n-i#[-W#-Q√(r-y*]-a(-et#e-
{C}mleccha-jana
Q√-^ nC]# - the one great expanse of reality; the one great
250
barbarian person
sphere of reality
{C}barbarous populations
serpent spirit; serpent vermin spirit ]f-fwz#-Q√(r-
Q√e-a-dX-d- 237

Q√r^ - 251
expanse of space; sphere of space
{C}v›cyate
Q√r( -y*]- 262
{L,MSA}nadı
{C}is recited
river
great expanse; great sphere
Q√e-ac-dX-d- 238

Q√r^ -e#-‰X]^ - 252

Q√r( -y*]-a-
263

{C}likhati
{C}write; copy out
{MSA}nadı-Ÿrotas Q√r( -y*]-a-[}-# f*[-z([-;*c-
current of a river; continuum of a river; river
Íong-chen-fla (1308-1363, a central Óying-ma
Q√[-a- 239

Q√r^ -v-’e- 253


[rnying ma] scholar-yogi)
brain
[qz- 264

pÒya-nadı
k-Nœ≈*n-W#-Q√[-a-fpz-[e-ze*fn-ac-fj[-a! pus-river {C}du˝kara; {MSA}k¸cchra; {MSA}g›˜ha
stunning the brains of all the sly foxes {Jang}
Q√d^ n-a- 254
difficult; hard

Q√]-q- {C}hard to understand; hard to express; to do


240

wear; adorn what is hard


{C,MSA}codya c#]-y*]-c$n-‰X]-N‘-h·en-[c-R#n-Q√^dn! [qz-zeCv* - 265

censure; fault; finding fault; objection


adorned with jewel and bone ornaments, and
{C}problem
various silks dqCv- zeC*v- dqCv[- zeC*v[-
Q√]-q-x(rn-n$-Når-dc-dX-dz#-sXc# - 241
{LCh}pañjik›
Q√z^ -# ‰Xv-a(-‰X-fh·n-l^n-az#-f[(- 255

commentary on the difficult points; difficult


Når- Nå(r- Nårn- Nå(rn- s›gara-n›gar›japarip¸cch›sÒtra points commentary
{MSA}codyasya parih›ra-artha˙ Questions of S›gara, King of the N›gas, SÒtra
dqz-e[fn-a- 266

in order to thoroughly overcome objections [P820, vol. 33]

Q√]-qz#-Nœdn-fy#n-a- 242
e[f- z[(fn- e[fn- z[(fn-
Q√z^ -# ‰Xv-a(-f-[}n( -an-l^n-az#-f[(- 256

‰a-dam-fla [a Tibetan order, or person of that


provides an opportunity for assessment of anavataptan›gar›japarip¸cch›sÒtra order]
censure; provides an opportunity for finding Questions of Anavatapta, King of the N›gas,

[qz-Nå[≈ -
267
fault SÒtra [P823, vol. 33]

Q√-^ 243

Q√z^ -# [dr-a(z-# N´-ç 257

n›ga {MSA}n›gendra-rut›
[qz-d-Nå
[≈ ![qz-d-Nå[≈ -a![qz-d-Nå[(≈ -a!
{LCh}tapasy›
[difficult-deed] asceticism; austerities;
serpent; snake; dragon roar of the n›ga lord difficult deed; difficult act; performing
{C}snake; serpent
difficult deeds

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 10


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[qz-Nå[(≈ - [qc-w^r- [qc-x(v-


268 279 287

passage; window; chimney; a white/wholesome cup; chinaware


[qz-d-Nå
[(≈ -a![qz-Nå
{MSA}du˝kara; [≈ ![qz-d-Nå[≈ -a!
{MSA}du˝kara-cary› passage/window/opening
[q^- 288

[difficult-deed] performing difficult deeds; zeC(-d-x#-]#-[qc-w^r-[dX*-N√[-[^!


asceticism; austerities; difficult deed; difficult {C}kuk˝it›
for the sake of opening the passage [out] of
act side [of the body, above the hip]
transmigration {GZ 68b.5}
{C}belly
[qz-d- 269

[qc-ye- 280

ex(]-[}#v-d$-[q^c-dNø]-a-
{C,MSA}du˝kara; {C}dhandaka; {MSA}du¯kha
table of contents; catalogue the left [hand] displays a bell at the side
difficult; hard; hardship
fh]-dXr-el^r-h[-[r-dtn-a-v(-G˙-d-[av-dÌ°e
[q(]-
289
{C}hard to understand; hard to express; to do
what is hard; stupid n-W#n-[qc-ye-o^-dod-d(! [q(]-a(-
w-h·]-et([-[qz-dz#-e]n- the translator ‡el-·zek put the titles, along with durlabha
a point difficult to decide the length of the texts, in a catalogue {GZ rare; rarity; precious; scarce
70b.6/ 140.6} hard to get; hard to find; hard to reach
[qz-d-dR#[-a- 270

[qc-]e-e#-vn- [q(]-fy(e-
281 290

dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n-


wholesome and unwholesome actions; white {LCh,MSA,MV,C}ratna
{C}du˝kara-k›raka
and black actions; light and dark actions jewel; supreme rarity
{C}doer of what is hard
{C}precious jewel; precious substance; treasure
[qc-a(- 282

[qz-d-Nå[≈ -a-
271
Comment: As in the Three Jewels (Buddha,
{C,MSA}Ÿukla; {C}avad›ta; {C}sita his doctrine, and the spiritual community).
white [one of the four primary colors (rtsa
[qz-Nå
[≈ ![qz-Nå[(≈ {MSA}du˝kara;
![qz-d-Nå[(≈ -a! [q(]-fy(e-zu#en-f*[-[dr-a(- 291

{LCh}tapasy›; ba'i kha dog)]; wholesome; pure


{C}du˝kara-cary›
pure; bright; very white; {C}pure; {C,D1}bright ‰ön-chok-jik-may-Ûang-flo (1728-1791)
asceticism; austerities; performing difficult
deeds y(n-[^r-[qc-a(z#-w-[(e- Comment: He is the next incarnation of
{C}austerities the color of a white religious conch Jam-Âang-shay-fla Nga-Ûang-·zön-drü
('jam dbyangs bzhad pa ngag dbang brtson
[qc-a(-x#]-]-w-[(e-x#]-an-∑d-
[qz-d-Nå[(≈ -a-
272

’grus) of Ía-brang ‚ra-Ôhi-kyil (bla brang


whatever is white is necessarily a color bkra shis 'khyil).

[qz-Nå
[(≈ ![qz-Nå[≈ ![qz-d-Nå
{MSA}du˝kara-cara˚a;
{MSA}du˝kara-vy›y›ma
[≈ -a!
{MSA}du˝kara-cary›; [qc-a(-’f-ac-fp(r-dz#-n- 283

[q(]-fy(e-dNø]-az#-N´](ç -f*-
292

Ÿukla-vidarŸan›-bhÒmi;
[difficult-deed] asceticism; austerities;
difficult deed; difficult act; performing
{C}Ÿukla-vipaŸyan›-bhÒmi
ground of seeing pure [phenomena]; ground of
e^r‰ön-chok-·en-flay-drön-may
-pr-[q(]-fy(e-dNø]-az#-N´](ç (1762-1823)
-f*!e^r-pr-zu
[aka.
difficult deeds Gung-tang ‰ön-chok-·en-flay-drön-may and
seeing the wholesome Gung-tang Jam-flel-Âang]
[qz-d-dX[* -a-x#]-a- 273
{C}stage of bright insight
[q(]-fy(e-Nå]#ç -R#-f[(- 293
Comment: The first of the eight
{C}du˝kara-k›raka Lesser Vehicle grounds (dman pa
{C}doer of what is hard {LCh}ratnameghasÒtra
sa brgyad): (1) the ground of seeing
the wholesome, (2) the ground of Cloud of Jewels SÒtra [P897, vol. 35]
[qz-d-x#]- 274

lineage, (3) the ground of the eighth,


[q(]-fy(e-dÌ°en-a- 294

{C}du˝karatara; du˝kara (4) the ground of seeing, (5) the


is difficult; is hard ground of diminishment, (6) the {MV}ratnakÒ˛a
{C}extremely hard; difficult; (to do what is) ground of separation from desire, (7) pile of jewels; name of a Mah›y›na sÒtra and
hard the ground of realizing of a collection consisting of many sÒtras of

[qc-a(z-# y(n- different styles and doctrines [including some


284

[qz-d-x$]-c#r-a(n-f#-Nœ-(≈ d- 275

of the earliest Mah›y›na sÒtras]


{MSA}Ÿukla-dharma; {MSA}Ÿukla … dharma
[q(]-fy(e-en$f- 295
{MSA}dırgha-k›lika-du˝kar›kheda
wholesome/white
not fatigued/discouraged by lengthy asceticism
phenomenon/practice/attribute triratna; triŸara˚a
[qz-n- 276

[qc-a(z-# y(n-’fn-q^]-o^-dt(f- [rarity-supreme-three]; the Three Jewels


285

[q(]-a- 296
[difficult-place] difficult point
el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn-
[qc-
277
{MSA}durlabha
[qc-a(- {MSA}samudgh›tita-Ÿukla-dharma
completely destroy/overcome wholesome rare; precious; scarce
{C,MSA}Ÿukla; {C}sita phenomena/practices/attributes hard to get; hard to find; hard to reach
white; wholesome
[qc-a(z-# sXe( n- [q(]-a(-
286 297

{C}pure; bright
{MSA,MV}Ÿukla-pak˝a durlabha
[qc-Nœ-≈ 278

wholesome quarter/faction/part rare; rarity; precious; scarce


whitish; light gray; grayish hard to get; hard to find; hard to reach

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 11


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[W#v- [qCn# -nf-dt#rn-o*- dqe-b^v-


298 307 316

center; essence; middle {C}baddhv› [ee ze(e dqe w(en-


wound up or bound
[W#v-zw(c- 299
in place of the negation; left over after the
{C}bound negation
{LCh,L,C,MSA}ma˚˜ala;
[qCe^ - 308

dqr- 317
{C,MSA}par˝an-ma˚˜ala
[center-circle] ma˚˜ala; circle; sphere; disk; [qCe^ [qCe^ [qCe^ n! [qCe^ n! [er- ze*rn- dqr- ze*rn-
{C}(circle of the) assembly
disturb; agitate; stir up; trouble {C}prapÒr˚a
c√^r-e#-[W#v-zw(c-l*n-a-v-n(en-a-Vøc! p%en-[qC^e-a- fill; fulfill; satiate
Ø*]-zdX^r-d-dl#-[r-! disturb the mind {C}be filled
[One meaning of ma˚˜ala] is the four elements ”(-Ë*-N√(d-[a(]-R#-p%en-[qC^e-a- dqr-d- 318

which are foundational, as in the phrase


“ma˚˜ala of wind” and so forth {Dor 3b.5/ disturb the mind of the vajra master
[er- ze*rn- dqr- ze*rn-
190.5}
[qCe^ -ac-dX- 309
{MSA}paripÒr˚a
[*-v-[W#v-zw(c-]#-r*n-az#-h‹e-o^-]! fill; fulfill; satiate
{C}vikopayitavya
fä§-NI#r-a(-v-v*]-a-Nø*! dq]- 319
{C}should deflect from
Concerning that [ma˚˜ala rite], in terms of a
[qCe^ n- 310

creative etymology, ma˚˜a means “essence” dq]- dq]- dq][- dq][-


and la means “containing” {Dor 11b.3/ 206.3} turn/face upwards
Comment: There are a ma˚˜ala of the [qCe^ [qCe^ [qCe^ n! [qCe^ n!
residence and a ma˚˜ala of residents (rten disturb; agitate; stir up; trouble fp*z$-y$r-[r-fj$d-f(-ei#n-n(-n(c-N∂ç*v-v-dq]-o*-
dang brten pa’i dkyil ’khor).
hook together the two little fingers and index
[qCe^ n-]n- 311

[W#v-zw(c-R#-∑fn-]- 300
fingers individually and face [the mudr›]
upwards {Dor 37a.3/ 257.3}
{C}ma˚˜ala-m›˜a [qCe^ [qCe^ [qCe^ n! [qCe^ n!
dq]-o*-dle- 320
{C}circular hall with peaked roof {C}sam›kulik¸ta
having disturbed/agitated/troubled/stirred up
[W#v-zw(c-R#-y(-e-
301

dq]- dq]- dq][- dq][-


[W#v-y(e- {C}troubled
place facing upwards
[qCe^ n-a- 312

{LCh}ma˚˜alavidhi; ma˚˜alop›yik›
dq][- 321

ma˚˜ala rite
[qCe^ [qCe^ [qCe^ n! [qCe^ n!
[W#v-zw(c-‰Xv-fy(e- dq]- dq]- dq][- dq][-
302
{C}˜amara
disturb; agitate; stir up; trouble turn/face upwards
supreme king of ma˚˜alas {C}tumult
dqz- 322

[W#v-y(e-
303

[W#v-zw(c-R#-y(-e- [qCv( -d- 313

{LCh}v›c; {LCh}›jñ›; {MSA,PP}vacana;


Buddhavacana
{LCh}ma˚˜alavidhi; ma˚˜alop›yik› [qCv( - [qCv( - [qCv( [- [qCv( [-
word; saying; teaching; order; word [of
ma˚˜ala rite ring/sound [e.g., a bell]; play musical Buddha]
”(c-[dX#rn-[W#v-y(e- instrument
dt(f-V“]-z[n-W#-dqz-
rite of the vajradh›tu ma˚˜ala [}#v-d$-[qC(v-
sayings/word of the Supramundane Victor
ring the bell
[W#v-Nƒ[- 304

dqz-dNœ-( d- 323

dqe- 314

lower half
dNœ(- Nœ(- dNœ(n- Nœ(n-
n-d‰X[-az#-[W#v-Nƒ[-W#-dc-y[-f*[-vf- [ee ze(e dqe w(en-
order; command
uninterrupted path in the lower half of the stop; negate; refute; negation; negative; limit
eighth ground [dr-b*n-W#-N‘r-d-dNœ≈*[-c#f-R#n-[ee-a-f#]-](! D√-fz#-dqz-dNœ(-d-dte-a-
break the lama's commands
[qC-# 305
appearances to sense consciousnesses are not
dqz-‰X[^ - 324
stopped by the stage of generation
[qC#- [qC-# [qC#n- [qC#n- p(en-c*e-dqe-gf-R#-f*[-[ee- transmission of the word
{C}parıta; {C}ve˝˛ayati
a non-affirming negative which is the mere
dqz-d‰X[^ - 325
roll up; wind; wrap up; entangle negation/negative of obstructive contact
{C}overcome; wrap
dqe-a- 315
‰a-gyu Order [a sect of Tibetan Buddhism]
[qCn# - 306

dqz-fy#[- 326

[ee ze(e dqe w(en-


[qC#- [qC-# [qC#n- [qC#n- {C}nisiddha; {C}ni˝edha {C}kath›
{C}parıta; {C}ve˝˛ayati negation; stop; negate; refute; negative; limit {C}sermon; conversation; story; talk
roll up; wind; wrap up; entangle {C}has (learned to) refrain; has refrained;
{C}overcome; wrap inadmissible; refrain; repudiation

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 12


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

dqz-[r-dNø]-dt(n- dqc- dq([-


327 336 348

dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [- [ec- [ec- dqc- [ec[- [e([- ze([- dq([- ze([-
[Buddha’s] word and [Indian] treatises separate; segregate; isolate; tie down to; prati˝˛h›payati; {C}ropita
specify set; state; establish; arrange; register; make a
dqz-[r-dNø]-dt(n-el^r-v$en-Ø(en-a-x#n! record; place [on throne]; put [a signature];
dqc-doen- 337
through realizing the central systems of array; affix
[Buddha's] word and the treatises {C}get from
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
dqz-[}]# - [a*c-dq([-]n-
328

distinguish as [Buddha’s] word


having stated as an example
{LCh}parigraha; {LCh}pras›da Vø-d-dqc-doen-W#-sXe-‰X-dl#-
kindness (hon.); beneficence; beneficent
dq([-a- 349

four seals which distinguish/guarantee/seal as


force/might
the [Buddhist] view
[e([- ze([- dq([- ze([-
dqz-e[fn- 329

dqc-d- 338

{C}prati˝˛h›payati (=g¸hıt›n›˙ sthirıkara˚›t);


e[f- z[(fn- e[fn- z[(fn- {C}vyÒha (=samÒha¯)
[ec- [ec- dqc- [ec[- set; state; establish; arrange; register; make a
[word-advice]; the ‰a-dam school [name of
select; put aside; separate; tie down to; specify record; place [on throne]; put [a signature];
lineage traced to AtiŸa]; name of mansion;
array; affix
dq^e- 339
advice; instruction; counsel; preceptual
{C}mass; array; display; harmony; establishes;
instruction; advisory speech; exhortation
introduces to; transfers to; builds; places;
[e^e- ze^en- dq^e- w^en-
dqz-dN“-^ dl#-a- 330
deposits in; bestows
summon; draw in
The Great Calculation of the Doctrine, Which [aX[-el#c-dq([-a-x#]-R#-
dq^e-]n- 340

Has the Significance of a Fourth Council (bka' I stated this as a point to be analyzed, but
bsdu bzhi pa'i don bstan rtsis chen po) by
dq([-fz#-y$- 350

Dol-flo-fla hay-rap-gyel-tsen (dol po pa shes [e^e- ze^en- dq^e- w^en-


rab rgyal mtshan) {C}›nayitv› {C}prasravanodaka
having summoned; having drawn in
dqz-dd- 331
{C}fountain
{C}having summoned
dq(c-d[e-‰Xv-a(- 351

zdd- zddn- dd- ddn-


dq^c-
341

transmission; doctrine that has befallen one dq^c-Nø-# custodian of property


through transmission
dqC-d- 352
respect; respectful; service; honor
dqz-N©v- 332
{C}eulogy
{LCh}citra; {LCh,MSA}vicitra
dq^c-Nø-# 342

N©v- N(©v- N©v[- N(©v[- shining; beautiful; variegated


{C}bha˚ati
dqC-b#n- 353
{LCh,MV,MSA}satk›ra; seva;
[word-bestow]; say (hon.); prounounce; {MSA}sat-kriy›; sa˙m›na
explain; teach; speak; grant; order; respect; respectful; service {C}svastika
pronouncement good fortune; good luck; auspiciousness
dq^c-Nøc# -dR#n-ac-zR^c- 343

{C}preach; report; teach {C}svastika

dqz-N©v-d[^]- dqC-b#n-z∑#v-
333
dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n- 354

{C}satkaroti
N©v- N(©v- N©v[- N(©v[- {C}treat with respect; revere; honor ‚ra-Ôhi-kyil [name of Monastic University in
Am-do (a mdo) Province]
seven pronouncements [the mental and
dq^c-Nøc# -dX-d- 344

physical aggregates, sense-spheres,


dqC-b#n-Øen-d‰X[- 355

dependent-arising, foods, noble truths, {C}paryup›san›


constituents, and harmonies with eight good luck symbols; eight auspicious
{C}to honor
enlightenment] symbols
dq^c-Nøc# -dX[* - 345

dqz-N©v-d- 334

dqC-b#n-x#]-a- 356

{C}satkaroti
N©v- N(©v- N©v[- N(©v[- {C}treat with respect; honor; revere
{MSA}maºgalatva
[word-bestow]; say (hon.); prounounce; being auspicious
dq^c-dNø-# 346
explain; teach; speak; grant; order;
dqC-b#n-Vµ]^ -a(- 357

pronouncement
{C}gaurava
‚ra-Ôhi-hlün-flo [name of a monastery in
dqz-xr-[e-az#-h[-f- 335
respect; service
gtsang province, Tibet, seat of the Pa˚-chen
{C}respect; dignity; a title to be respected
[Jang-chup-dzü-trül's (byang chub rdzu 'phrul)] Ía-mas]
dq^c-d- 347
Validity of the True Word [P5839]

{C}stobha
{C}eulogy

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 13


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

dqCv-d- dQ√en- ŒXr-a-


358 369 384

dqCv- zeC*v- dqCv[- zeC*v[- dQ√e Q(e√ dQ√en! Q(e√ n! alone; only; mere
commentary; comment; elucidate read out loud; read out Nø(r-i#[-ŒXr-a-N´(f-a-v-f#-dX-Nø*-
f[(z#-[(]-dqCv-d-]#- dQ√en-an- 370 does not refer to meditation on emptiness
alone{TGP-8}
commenting on the meaning of the sÒtra
eC^d-y*]-h[-V“]-R#n-dqCv-d- dQ√e Q(e√ dQ√en! Q(e√ n! [ee-a-ŒXr-a-
{C}pa˛hita mere negation [non-affirming negation]
elucidated by a fully qualified great adept {C}recited
ŒXr-f- 385

dqCv-d-v-Vøn( -f*[-[^- 359

¤r-fR(en- 371

lalan›
dqCv- zeC*v- dqCv[- zeC*v[- swift-footedness [a tantric feat] left channel
without depending/relying on commentaries
¤r-a- 372

ŒX]* - 386

dqC-# dc-f#-do^d- 360

{MV,MSA,C}p›da {C,MSA,LCh,MV}pratyaya
{C}aneyat› foot; a line of poetry; leg condition; cause; minor cause; factor; reason
{C}one cannot be led astray Ô%-zsC^v-R#-¤r-a-dl#- {C}conditioned; reason

f„#n-a- 361
four legs of manifestation c√^r-]r-[^-e]n-az#-ŒX*]-dX*[-a-
act as conditions for the winds dwelling
¤r-a-Nœ[^ -a-[r-dCv-d- 373
bile
inside{TGP-26}
Comment: One of the three problematics
(nyes pa; doŸa), often translated as
{C}apagata-p›da-mrak˝a˚a p%]-f(r-f-x#]-az#-d[e-ŒX*]-
{C}frugal
"humours," but the "humours" are fluids as in uncommon proprietary condition/uncommon
the four elemental fluids of the body--blood,
¤r-a-Nœr( -h°-x#-zp(d-d(- 374
dominant condition
phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. In
Buddhist medicine the three problematics, fh]-i#[! eC(en-dX*[!
p(d!zp(d- zp(d- p(d- zp(dn-
which, when in balance, promote health and, Def.: assister
"Yi" obtains when filling out a line of poetry
when imbalanced, promote disease, are wind [dX*-d! 1 [f#en-ŒX*]! 2 d[e-ŒX*]! 3
(rlung), bile (mkhris pa), and phlegm (pad
¤r-a-ei#n-W#-fp#v- 375

[*-f-pe-ŒX*]! 4 ‰X^-ŒX*]!
dqC-^ 362

{C}p›da-tala Div.: (1) observed-object condition; (2)


soles of the two feet
dqC^! z„^[! dqC^n! „^n! proprietary condition/dominant condition; (3)
{C}sole of the foot immediately preceding condition; (4) causal
wash; cleanse; bathe
condition
¤r-az#-fpz-v- 376

dqC-^ d- 363

ŒX]* -R#-[dr-e#n-zu$e-a- 387

at the end of a line of poetry


dqC^! z„^[! dqC^n! „^n! {L}pratyay›dhınav¸ttitva
¤r-az#-fp#v- 377

wash; cleanse; bathe operating/working through the force of


{C}p›da-tala conditions
dqCn* - 364

sole of the foot


ŒX]* -zR^c-R#-c#en- 388

hunger {C}sole of the foot


zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
dqCn* -a- ¤r-az#-z(e-]-e]n-a-
365 378

developmental lineage
{C}bubhuk˝ita; {C}jighatsita; bubhÒk˝› {C}p›da-tala-sanniŸrita
ŒX]* -‰Xv- 389

hunger; hungry abiding under the foot


{C}famished; starving; hungry
¤^]-a(- 379
{C}pratyaya-jino

dqCn* -a-[r-Nœf( -a-d:√e( -a- 366


{C}Single Buddha
{MSA}dasyu
ŒX]* -dNø]-a- 390

{C}k˝ut-pip›s›-nirvartaka robber; thief


overcome hunger and thirst
¤^]-f- 380
dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [-
dqCv( -a- 367

{MSA}pratyaya-sa˙darŸana
robber; thief
indicating the condition
[eC(v! zeC(v! dqC(v! „(v[!
¤^d- 381

ŒX]* -[r-sC[- 391

{C}parimok˝a˚a
release; liberate; set free; loosen {LCh}p›yu
{MSA}pratyay›gama
{C}set free anus; rear end; the behind
meet with conditions; encounter conditions
¤^d-We- 382

dQ√e- 368

ŒX]* -[r-sC[-ac-z[([-a- 392

chair
dQ√e Q(e√ dQ√en! Q(e√ n! {MSA}pratyay›bhigam›bhil›˝a
ŒXr- 383
read out loud; read out wishing to meet with/encounter conditions

wild ass [a horse-like animal]

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 14


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

ŒX]* -[^-f-x#]-a- ŒXr( - Vœe( -f-


393 404 411

{C}apratyaya dŒXr- ŒXr( - dŒXrn- ŒXr( n- throat; adam's apple??


{C}non-condition(ed) {C}pras›rita; {MSA}nig¸hya (also: bag
brkyang = nig¸hya)
[*z#-Vœ(e-f-Nø*! feC#]-az#-sX(en-
ŒX]* -[*-[r-[*-v-dØ*]-]n-[r(n-a(-[*-[r-[*-[e-z 394

extend at your throat—the neck area {Dor 24a.7/


231.7}
dXr^ -r(-! ”(-Ë*-pv-f(-dt#rn-o*!
Nœ-d- 412

zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- ve-rc-dŒXr-v-v$n-pfn-t[-n-v-sd-Nø*!


{MSA}ta˙ ta˙ pratyaya˙ pratıtya te te bh›v›
construct the vajra-palms, extend the forearms, astringent
bhavanti
and lower your entire body to the ground {Dor
Nœ[- 413
in dependence on this and that condition this
40a.1263.1}
thing and that thing arise
{L}k˝a˚a; {MSA}bh›˝›; {MSA}vacana; {C}ruta
ŒXr( n- 405

ŒX]* -z[#-a-gf-i#[- 395

sound(s); language; voice


dŒXr- ŒXr( - dŒXrn- ŒXr( n- {C}vocal sounds
{ME}ida˙ pratyayat›; ida˙pratyayat›

Nœ[-t#e- 414
having just these conditions; conditionality {C}pras›rita; {MSA}nig¸hya (also: bag
brkyang = nig¸hya)
ŒX]* -’fn-eCd^ -a- 396

extend {C,MSA}k˝a˚a; {C}k˝a˚ika; {C}tat-k˝a˚u


moment; instant; period
Vœe^ -a- 406
zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- {C}that very instant
{MSA}pratyaya-siddhi
accomplishing/achieving/establishing conditions
{C}jada ei#n-n$-f*[-az#-Nœ[-t#e-N∂≈(c-
dumb; stupid; imbecile; idiot non-dual momentary training
ŒX]* -’fn-h·en-]n- 397
{C}idiot; stupid; stunned; senseless
Nœ[-t#e-Nœ[-t#e- 415

Vœe( - 407
{C}s›magri-pratyatu
the conditions having gathered {L}k˝a˚e k˝a˚e
obscure; hidden moment by moment
{C}full complement of conditions
Vœe( -R^c- {C}in every moment; moment by moment
408

ŒX]* -[dr-e#n-zu$e-a- 398

Nœ[-t#e-et#e- 416

{L}pratyay›dhınav¸ttitva Vœ(e-o^-R^c-a-
operating/working through the force of parok˝a {C}eka-k˝a˚a
conditions hidden phenomenon; obscure phenomenon single moment; single instant; single period
{C}one single moment
ŒX]* -f-hr-d-f*[-a- 399
fh]-i#[! 1 dN“^n-eC˚-vn!
Nœ[-t#e-et#e-e#-Ø(en-a- 417

{MV}pratyay›vaikalya cr-zj‹]-Ø(e-an-Vœ(e-o^-R^c-az#-h$v-R#n-Ø(en-ac-
non-incompleteness of conditions dX-d! Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en-
ŒX]* -f#-;[-a- {C}eka-k˝a˚a-avabodha
400
Def.: (from Collected Topics): Object to be
realized in a hidden manner by the conceptual {C}single-instantaneous understanding
{MSA}bh¸Ÿa...(tat-)pratyaya consciousness apprehending it{TCT}
Nœ[-t#e-et#e-fr(]-Ô·en-dXr-y$d-
418

non-exhaustion of conditions [dX*-d! 1 t$r-;[-Vœ(e-R^c! 2 b#]-o^-Vœ(e-R^c!


ŒX]* -v-dØ*]-]n- 401
Div.: (1) slightly hidden phenomenon [e.g.,

{MSA}pratyaya˙ pratıtya
impermanence}; (2) very hidden phenomenon Nœ[-t#{C}eka-k˝a˚a-abhisa˙bodha
e-f-et#e-e#n-fr(]-ac-Ô·en-ac-dXr-y$d
[e.g., the particular effects of karmas] {C}the single instantaneous full understanding
having depended upon conditions; in Comment: A definition from Awareness and
Nœ[-t#e-et#e-[r-V“]-a- 419
dependence upon conditions Knowledge is: a phenomenon that limited

ŒX]* -v-ce-vn-a- beings must realize definitively in


402
{C}eka-k˝a˚a-sam›yukta
dependence on a sign (tshur mthong rnams {C}associated with one single moment
{MSA}pratyay›dhınatva kyis thog mar rtags la brten nas nges par
Nœ[-t#e-y-f*[- 420
reliance on conditions rtogs dgos pa'i chos).

Vœe( -o^-f-R^c-az#-y(n- 409

ŒX]* -vn-zdXr^ -d- 403


temporally partless moment
aparok˝adharma
Nœ[-t#e-p-f- 421

zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- non-hidden phenomenon; non-obscure


{MV}pratyaya-prav¸tti phenomenon last moment; final moment; last period; final
arisen from conditions period; last instant; final instant
Vœe( -]-f(- 410

{GD:565} hidden [though in a different sense


than lkog gyur, referring to the manner in
which aspects are produced, as opposed to
hidden from ordinary perception]

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 15


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœ[-t#e-f- Nœ[-t#e-gf- Nœdn-


422 434 443

{MSA}k˝a˚ika {C}k˝a˚a-m›tra {LCh,L,MSA}adhik›ra; {LCh}avasara;


momentary phenomenon; momentary; only a moment; only an instant; a mere {C,MSA}avak›Ÿa; {C}m¸˝˛a
instantaneous moment; a mere instant occasion; time; context; chapter; with
reference to
[^n-fpz#-Nœ[-t#e-f- {C}a mere moment
{C}opportunity; occasion for; room; smooth
Nœ[-t#e-gf-xr- 435
shortest moment
Comment: That which is momentary (skad
Ô·en-c#f-fp(]-a(c-n(r-dz#-Nœdn-
{MSA}k˝a˚am api; {MSA}k˝a˚a-m›tram api on the occasion of having passed to a high
cig ma) is the definition of impermanent
phenomenon (mi rtag pa). even only a moment/instant/period [level of the] stage of completion

Nœ[-t#e-c*-c*-v- 436

Nœ[-t#e-f-et#e- Nœdn-fy#n-a-
423 444

{MSA}pratik˝a˚am
{MSA}eka-k˝a˚a Nœdn-fy#n-
one moment; one instant in each instant/moment/period
{L} sa-avak›Ÿa
Nœ[-t#e-c*-c*-v-dXr^ -d- 437

Nœ[-t#e-f-i#[- to afford an occasion


424

Comment: Jik-may-dam-chö-gya-tso (Port


{MSA}k˝a˚ikatva zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- of Entry, 290.2) explains that "affords an
momentariness; instantaneousness; jsut {MV}pratik˝a˚otp›da occasion" (skabs mchis pa) means "suitable
momentary; just instantaneous arising in each moment/instant/period for the assessment of censure" (klan ka 'jug
rung).
Nœ[-t#e-f-p-f-v- 425

Nœ[-t#e-v-zu#e-az#-[(]- 438

Nœdn-[r-a(z-# Nå-#≈ [(]- 445

{MSA}carame k˝a˚e {MSA}k˝a˚a-bhaºg›rtha


in the final moment; in the final instant; in the meaning disintegration in a moment general meaning of the first chapter
final period
Nœdn-z[#c- 446

Nœ[-[([- 439

Nœ[-t#e-f-[r-a(-[r-∑[-ac-f*[-a- 426

equivalent term; translation equivalent; on this occasion; in this context; at this point
{MSA}›di-k˝a˚a-nirviŸi˝˛atva equivalent in the [original] language; [Sanskrit]
Nœdn-z[#c-dNø]- 447

not different from the first original


moment/instant/period
f$-Nø*en-W#-Nœ[-[([-oΩ#-Á-‹q- dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [-
Nœ[-t#e-f-f-x#]-a- 427

the [Sanskrit] original of mu steg is indicated on this occasion; indicated in this


tırthika{LWT-14} context; indicated at this point
{MSA}ak˝a˚ika
Comment: Often used to refer to the Sanskrit
non-momentary; non-instantaneous
original of a Tibetan term or to the Tibetan
Nœ[-t#e-f-f-x#]-a-vn-Nœ[-t#e-f-zdXr^ -dc-]#- 428
translation equivalent of a Sanskrit term.

Nœ[-b*n- 440

z(n-a-f-x#]-
zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- {C}ruta-jñat›
{MSA}na tv ak˝a˚ik›t k˝a˚ika˙ bhavitum arhati {C}knowledge of speech
it is not suitable for the momentary to arise
Nœ[-n(c-dle-o^-dle- 441

from the non-momentary


the language was left as is
Nœ[-t#e-f-x#]-a- 429

fr(]-Nå≈([-W#-vn-h·en-Nø(]-a-’fn-f-dN´≈&c-dc-Nœ[-
{MSA}k˝a˚ikatva
momentary; instantaneous n(c-dle-o^-dle-
the parts that set forth the collection of fierce
Nœ[-t#e-f-c*-c*-v- 430

activities were left as is without being


{MSA}pratik˝a˚am translated{GZ 70a.5}
in each moment; in each instant
Nœ[-enc-dt[- 442

Nœ[-t#e-fz#-‰X-^ x#]-a- 431

new language/vocabulary; new translation


{MSA}k˝a˚ika-hetutva system
being a momentary cause sX#n-Ï-c#]-y*]-fy(e-e#n-Wr-Nœ[-enc-dt[-W#n-e
Nœ[-t#e-fz#-zdCn-d$-x#]-a- o]-v-sd-az(!
432

{MSA}k˝a˚ika-phalatva Later, Ïa Rin-chen-chok revised [the


translation] with a new translation system {GZ
being a momentary effect
70a.6}
Nœ[-t#e-fz#-N∂c(≈ -d- 433

N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[-


k˝a˚ikaprayoga
momentary training

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 16


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœdn-z[#c-dNø]-R#-x#[-fr(]- Nœdn-n$-ddn-a- Nœv-a-


448 454 466

Nœdn-n$-dd-a-
dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [- {MSA}bhavya

mental direct perception that is indicated on


zdd- zddn- dd- ddn- lot; share; fortune
{MSA}iti prak¸ta˙ (pra Ωk¸)
Nœv-a-t]- 467
this occasion [i.e., in Dharmakıriti's
Commentary on (Dign›ga's) “Compilation of appropriate; relevant; germane
Prime Cognition” (tshad ma rnam 'grel, Nœdn-n$-ddn-a-’v-zdX(c-‰X^[-W#-en$rn-h$v- {MSA}bh›gıya
pram›˚avarttika)] having the lot; having the share; having the
the mode of setting forth yoga tantras, which is
fh]-i#[! germane [to the topic of this text] {GZ 4a.5/
fortune

cr-e#-p%]-f(r-f-x#]-az#-d[e-ŒX*]-x#[-[dr-vn-dX^ Nœv-d- 468


7.6}

r-dz#-Nœdn-z[#c-dNø]-R#-Ø(e-dCv-f-z„^v-dz#-el] Nœf- 455

share; portion; share/portion of good or bad


fortune
-c# e! a non-conceptual non-mistaken
Def.: dNœf! Nœf! dNœfn! Nœfn!
Nœv-d-u#-dl#]- 469

other-knower indicated on this occasion that {C}upaŸu˝yati; {L}Ÿu˝


arises from its own uncommon empowering to dry up; wither; parch {C}yath›-bhavyam
condition, a mental sense power
Nœc-f[z- {C}which corresponds to the merit
456

[dX*-d!
Nœv-d-fif-a- 470

{C}ulka; {C}ulk›-p›ta
e;$en-zj‹]-x#[-fr(]-]n-c*e-dX-zj‹]-az#-x#[- {C}torch; meteor; shower of meteors {C}sabh›gat›
fr(]-R#-dc-V®!
Nœc-f[z-Vør^ -d- having equal lot
457

Div.: the five ranging from mental direct {C}companionship


perceptions apprehending forms through to {C}ulk›-p›ta
Nœv-d-f*[-a- 471
mental direct perceptions apprehending {C}shower of meteors
tangible objects [the other three are mental
Nœc-f- {C}abhavya
458
direct perceptions apprehending sounds, scents,
Comment: There are three assertions without the lot; without the fortune
concerning mental direct perceptions {C}t›raka; {C}nak˝atra (=pu˝ya-›daya¯) {C}impossible; unable; unfit; uncapable
indicated on this occasion (skabs 'dir bstan star
Nœ-^ 472

gyi yid mngon): rgyun mtha' kho nar skye ba {C}constellation


(production only at the end of a continuum);
Nœc-f-Vø-d$z-# dNœv-a- {C,LCh,MSA}k›ya; {C}mÒrti; tanus;
459

spel mar skye ba (alternating production); ›tm›-bh›va; ›Ÿraya; g›tra; g›trat›; g›tratva;
and 'gros gsum par skye ba (production in {C}t›rakopama-kalpa vigraha; {MSA}Ÿarıra
three types). body (hon.); image; statue
{C}star-like aeon (period of Tath›gata
{C}figurehead; personality; personal existence;
Nœdn-sX]# - Suvar˚a-pu˝pa)
449

extent; all they have and all they are;


Nœc-fz#-h·en- 460

{C}m¸˝˛a receptacle; physical (or bodily) basis; based on;


{C}smooth foundation; by resorting to (as a basis); limbs;
{C}t›raka-ga˚a
frame; shape
Nœdn-f-fy#n- collection of stars; group of stars; host of stars
450

{C}host of stars Vµ-Nœ^-N´(f-a-


does not afford an opportunity [for refutation] meditation on a divine body
Nœv- 461

Nœdn-f#-zdX[* - Nœ-^ wfn-


451 473

lot; share; fortune


{MSA}avak›Ÿasy›k¸ti¯ health (hon.); constitution
Nœv-fif-R#-‰X-^ 462

not opening up an opportunity


Nœ-^ „^n- 474

Nœdn-b*n-a- sabh›ga-hetu
452

cause of equal lot; cause of similar lot [body-wash]; bathing; washing; ablution (hon.)
{C}avasara-jñat› Comment: One of the six kinds of causes; for
Nœ-^ yn- 475

knowing the occassion others see rgyu.


{C}cognition of their circumstances;
Nœv-fif-a- 463
things; possessions (hon.)
knowledge of their circumstances
Nœ-^ y*-l#r-[}r-d- 476

Nœdn-n$-dd-a- {LCh}sabh›ga; {LCh}sabh›gat›


453

Nœdn-n$-ddn-a- those of equal lot/share/fortune {C}b¸had-¸ju-g›trat›

Nœv-[(]- 464
{C}his bodily frame is broad and straight
zdd- zddn- dd- ddn-
Nœ-^ fy*[- 477
{MSA}iti prak¸ta˙ (pra Ωk¸)
dNœv-[(]-
appropriate; relevant; germane
supersensory object sibling; brother; relation (hon.)
Nœdn-n$-dd-a-er-x#]-[*z#-r-‰Xv-R#n-
Nœv-V“]- 465
p(en-f*[-Nœ^-fy*[-
through the pride of being whichever of those is
relevant {Dor 47a.5/ 277.5} Asaºga and his [half-]brother [Vasubandhu]
[fortune-possessor]; one who has fortune; the
Nœ-^ i#[- 478
fortunate; a Bodhisattva; one who has the lot

{C}g›trat›
{C}body; limbs

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 17


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœ-^ [r-en$r-[r-p%en-Nåv&ç -a- Nœ-^ dnf-R#n-f#-∑d- Nœc^ -d-z[*dn-


479 494 505

{MSA}k›ya-v›k-citta-nirm›˚a {MSA}k›y›cintya e[d- z[*dn- dod p(dn-


emantions of exalted body, speech, and mind inconceivable exalted body {C}apav›da

Nœ-^ [f-ac- Nœz^ -# ∑[-ac-


480 495
deprecation; depreciation; denial
{C}negation; rejection; underestimation
{C}sat-k›ya {MSA}k›ya-viŸe˝a
Nœc^ -d-z[*dn-a- 506

{C}(true) individuality; (true) individual body attribute of exalted body; feature of exalted
body; physical attribute
Nœ-^ e[^r- 481
e[d- z[*dn- dod p(dn-
Nœz^ -# sC]# -vn- 496

apav›da; abhy›khy›na
{C}Ÿarıra
{MSA}k›ya-karman deprecation; depreciation; denial
relics
exalted physical activity
Nœc^ -dc-zR^c- 507
{C}relics; body; dead body

Nœ-^ f[^]- Nœc^ -


482 497

{C}abhy›cik˝ati
{C}calumniate; misrepresent
exalted presence; the presence [H.H. Dalai deprecate; depreciate; deny
fh]-i#[-en$f-v-xr-Nœ^c-d-dod-ac-zR^c-dc- Nœv^ - 508
Lama]

Nœ-^ f[(e- 483

pv! dN^vœ ! N^vœ ! dN^vœ [! N^vœ [!


[body-color]; color of the body; color (hon.) the three characters also would become rouse; arouse; entreat; urge on; incite; urge;
deprecated exhort
Nœ-^ z[}- 484

Nœc^ -dodn- 498


[*n-N´ç&d-a-v-]r-]n-dNœ^v-]n-
religious image having urged [one] on from within to
deprecate; depreciate; deny
practice{MSI-514}
Nœ-^ [a$r- 485

Nœc^ -z[*dn- 499

n*-e(v-R#-N´çn-dN√rn-o*-dNœ^v-]n-
[body-shoulder]; shoulder (hon.)
having urging him on upon having roused him
e[d- z[*dn- dod p(dn-
Nœ-^ f*[-a- 486
with the sound of snapping fingers
{MV}apav›da; abhy›khy›na
Nœv^ -t#r- 509
{MSA}ak›ya deprecation; depreciation; denial;
bodiless underestimation
{C}codayati
{GD:305} nihilism
Nœ-^ h°-c#r-d- 487
{C}exhort; warn against; make the charge
fh]-i#[!
Nœv^ -dc-dX[* -t#r- 510
{C}dırgha-›yu˝kat›
[body-life-long]; long life (hon.)
cr-e#-[f#en-x$v-R#-[(]-[*-vn-y[-ac-Vø-dz#-D√(!
Def.: an awareness that views that object {C}codye
{C}long life
which is its object of observation as less than {C}I am exhorted
Nœ-^ :√- 488
that [i.e., as less than it is]
Nœf* -b#r- 511

Nœc^ -a- 500


[body-equal]; spouse (hon.) {C}tapeti

Nœ-^ x#-w(-ve- 489


{C}apav›da {C}dry up
deprecation; depreciation; denial
Nœf* n-ac-dX[* -t#r- 512

{L}ma˚˜ala-paryanta {C}negation; rejection; underestimation


{C}boundary {C}tapeti
Nœc^ -a-dod-dXn- 501

Nœ-^ x(rn-n$-Ô·en-a- 490


{C}dry up
{C}apodya
Nœr( - 513

Ô·en- Ô·en- Ô·en- Ô·en- {C}go away from; withdraw from; negate
{MSA}paripÒr˚a-k›y› dNœr- Nœr( - dNœrn- Nœr( n-
Nœc^ -a-z[*dn- 502

fully developed/perfected body


fill; fulfill; complete
Nœ-^ v-[dr-zdXc( -d-i#[- 491
e[d- z[*dn- dod p(dn- ¤r-a-Nœ(r-h°-x#-zp(d-a(-
{C}apav›da
{MSA}k›ya-vibhutva yi obtains [i.e., is used] when filling [the
deprecation; depreciation; denial
attainment of mastery with respect to the body syllable count of] a line of poetry
{C}negation; rejection; underestimation
c*-d-Nœ(r-
Nœ-^ en$f- 492

Nœc^ -a-z[*dn-a- 503

to fulfill hopes
{MSA}trik›ya
the three exalted bodies [of a Buddha e[d- z[*dn- dod p(dn- Nœr( n- 514

{MSA,MV}apav›da
Nœ-^ en$f-v-dNø[( -a- 493

deprecation; depreciation; denial dNœr- Nœr( - dNœrn- Nœr( n-


fill; fulfill; complete
Nœc^ -d- 504
k›yatrayastotra
Praise of the Three Exalted Bodies [by
N›g›rjuna; P2015, vol. 46] {C}apav›da
deprecation; depreciation; denial
{C}negation; rejection; underestimation

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 18


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœf( - Nœd≈ n-D√-]-f*[-a-x#]-a- Nœv#≈ -f(-qCr^ -et#e-e#n-


515 527 540

Nœ(f-a- {MSA}Ÿara˚atv›nuttarya {C}eka-paryaºkena (=ekena-paryaºkena)


unurpassed refuge {C}during one single session of cross-legged
{C}pip›s›; {C}pip›sita
meditation
Nœd≈ n-f*[- 528
thirst
Nœ-&≈ ]-env- 541
{C}thirsty
{MSA}aŸara˚a
Nœf( -a- 516

without refuge; protectorless it is clear in the run of the text

Nœd≈ n-n$-zeC-( d- Nœ-&≈ c$-c-


529 542
pip›s›
thirst
{L}Ÿara˚a-gamana ›malakı
Nœf( -an-e[^rn-a- 517

go for refuge olive; sour medicinal fruit


Comment: The term is used for a sour
Nœd≈ n-n$-zeC-( dz#-Nœdn- 530
{C}pip›s›-tapta
medicinal fruit, Emblica officinalis Linn., said
tormented by thirst; pained by thirst
{MSA}Ÿara˚a-gaman›dhik›ra to cure diseases of phlegm, bile, and blood. It
{C}tormented by thirst; pained by thirst is used to indicate something that is perfectly
occassion of going for refuge
Nœf( -a(- clear in front of the eyes.
518

Nœd≈ n-n$-zeC-( dz#-∑[-ac- 531

Nœe&≈ -t#r- 543

a hybrid cow that is thin and gives a lot of milk


{MSA}Ÿara˚a-pratipatti-viŸe˝a˚a
{C}›gacchati
Nœc( - 519
features of going for refuge
{C}come (along); approach; comes to; spurts
Nœd≈ n-n$-zeC-( dc-r*n-a- 532

dN(œc! N(œc! dN(œc[! N(œc[! out of

Nœe&≈ -v(e-a- 544


preposition: around; about; surrounding; {MSA}Ÿara˚a-gamana-vyavas›ya
concerning. definite/certain to go for refuge
verb: to turn round; revolve; encircle; circle. [vomit-turn-out]; nausea
Nœd≈ n-n$-cd-o^-N√-^ d- 533
noun: topic; cycle
Nœr&≈ -q- 545

d[*]-zj‹]-Vµ]-Nœ≈*n-y$r-r$-Nœ(c-en$f- {MSA}Ÿara˚a-viprav›dana
a black bird with a red beak
the cycle of the three small innate conceptions deceived with respect to refuge
of true existence
Nœc&≈ -d- 546

Nœd≈ n-en$f- 534

fh]-fh·]-Nœ(c-
{LCh}triŸara˚a ›mla
concerning definition and definiendum
the three refuges [Buddha, his Doctinre, and sour

Nœc( -d- 520


the Spiritual Community]
Nœ-*≈ 547

Nœc≈ -f(- 535

dN(œc! N(œc! dN(œc[! N(œc[! N*≈œ! N*≈œ! N*≈œn! N*≈œn!


to turn round; revolve; encircle; circle heron {MV}jan; {C}upapadyati; {C}viruhati;
{C}upapatti; {C}janayati; {C}j›ti; {MV}utpatti;
Nœc( -d-dX-dc-z(n-ac-zR^c-o*- 521

Nœ[#≈ - 536

{MV}( Ωjan) j›yate; {MV}j›ta


{C}pradak˝i˚ıya be born; be produced; grow; generate;
{C}k˝ema
{C}worthy of being honored by production; birth
comfort; happiness
circumambulation {C}arise; produce; grows; (place of) rebirth;
{C}safety; secure from attack
genesis; generate; give birth to; birth; species;
Nœ-≈ e- 522

Nœ[#≈ -a- 537


kind; different varieties

Nœ-*≈ [ee-e]n-en$f- 548


magpie {C}saukhya
comfort; happiness
Nœ-≈ d- 523
the three: production, abiding, and cessation
{C}happiness
Nœ-*≈ [ee-e]n-en$f-f#-c^r-dz#-y(n- 549
paddle
Nœv#≈ -qCr^ -
538

Nœ-≈ dn-v*en-dnCdn- 524


Nœv#≈ -f(-qCr^ - a phenomenon of which the three—production,
abiding, and cessation—are not possible
churned well by a paddle cross-legged; cross-legged posture
Comment: Definition of uncompounded
”(-Ë*z#-Nœ≈#v-qC^r-
Nœ-≈ d(- phenomenon ('dus ma byas kyi chos).
525

vajra-posture [i.e., full-lotus posture]


Nœ-*≈ [ee-e]n-en$f-c$r-dz#-y(n- 550

greyish; whitish grey n*fn-[az#-Nœ≈#v-qC^r-


Nœd≈ n- a phenomenon of which the three—production,
526
sattva's posture [half-lotus posture, with the
abiding, and cessation—are suitable
right leg on the left]
{MSA}Ÿara˚a Comment: Definition of compounded
Nœv#≈ -f(-qCr^ - 539
refuge; protection; something like a dandelion phenomenon ('dus byas kyi chos).
which grows in the woods and has three
flowers to a stalk cross-legged; cross-legged posture

nrn-‰Xn-v-Nœ≈dn-n$-zy#z(!
[I] go for refuge to the Buddha.

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 19


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœ-*≈ [e^- Nœ-*≈ e]n- Nœ-*≈ d-r(-d(-i#[-f*[-a-i#[-


551 561 568

{MSA}praj› yoni utpattini¯svabh›vat›


[creatures-nine]; all beings birth-place; birth-situation production-non-nature;
Comment: A possible etymology is that there Comment: There are four birth-places: [self-]production-non-nature; naturelessness of
are nine levels of beings in cyclic existence, womb, egg, heat and moisture, and [self-]production; production naturelessness
and thus "nine-creatures" comes to mean all spontaneous. Comment: This is one of the three
beings in cyclic existence. non-natures: character-non-nature (mtshan
Nœ-*≈ d- 562

nyid ngo bo nyid med pa,


Nœ-*≈ [e^z-# [(]- 552

utpattini¯svabh›vat›); production-non-nature
N*≈œ! N*≈œ! N*≈œn! N*≈œn! (skye ba ngo bo nyid med pa,
for the benefit of [all] beings {C,MV}j›ti; {MV,MSA}janma; {MV}utpatti; utpattini¯svabh›vat›); ultimate-non-nature
{C,MSA}utp›da; {C}›tmopapatti; {C}utp›dika;
Nœ-*≈ [e^z-# d[e-a(-[r-dtn-az#-Vµ-’fn- (don dam pa ngo bo nyid med pa,
553

{C}upapatti; {C}upapadyate; {C}up›du param›rthani¯svabh›vat›).


{C}sapraj›patik› dev› (=utp›da); {C}janman; {C}j›yate;
birth; production; produce; grow; be born;
Nœ-*≈ d-et#e-e#n-p(en-a- 569

the gods together with Praj›pati arising


{C}the gods around Praj›pati {C}rebirth; place of rebirth; genesis; arising; in {C}eka-j›ti-pratibaddha
his rebirths; which produces; is reborn; gain impeded by one birth [i.e., removed from
Nœ-*≈ zR^c- 554

rebirth; appears; produced things; manner of enlightenment by only one more birth]
{C}upadyati birth; species; kind; different varieties; to be {C}bound to one more birth only
{C}arise; set up reborn
Nœ-*≈ d-et#e-e#n-p(en-az#-dXr-y$d-n*fn-[az- 570

Nœ-*≈ d-[qc-a(- 563

Nœ-*≈ ›-]-zy#- 555

Bodhisattva who is one lifetime away from


birth, aging, sickness, death {MSA}Ÿukla-janman [achieving Buddhahood]
wholesome birth
Nœ-*≈ fy*[- Nœ-*≈ d-[r-zee-a-
556 571

Nœ-*≈ d-∑[-ac-t]-p(d-]n- 564

{MSA,C,MV}›yatana zee- zee- zeen- zeen-


sense-sphere; sensory sphere; source [of p(d!zp(d- zp(d- p(d- zp(dn- {MSA}utp›da-nirodha
consciousness]; sphere {MSA}upapatti-viŸe˝a˙ pr›pya production and cessation; birth and cessation
{C}sense-field; occasion for having obtained/attained a special birth
Nœ-*≈ d-[r-fp%]-a- 572

e;$en-W#-Nœ≈*-fy*[-
Nœ-*≈ d-r(-d(-i#[- 565

form sense-sphere {MV}utpatty-anukÒla


production-nature; [self-]production-nature; concordant with birth; concordant with
]f-fwz-fpz-xn-W#-Nœ≈*-fy*[- nature of [self-]production production
sphere of limitless space
Nœ-*≈ d-r(-d(-i#[-f-fy#n-a- Nœ-*≈ d-[(]-f*[-a-
566 573

[dX*-d! 1 sX#z#-Nœ≈*-fy*[- 2 ]r-e#-Nœ≈*-fy*[-


Div: external sense-spheres (i.e., the six utpattini¯svabh›vat› {MSA}cay›p›rthya
sense-spheres of forms, sounds, odors, tastes, production-non-nature; purposeless production; pointless production
tangible objects, and [other] phenomena) and [self-]production-non-nature; naturelessness of Comment: Buddhists accuse the S›˙khyas of
internal sense-spheres (i.e., the six [self-]production purposeless production when the S›˙khyas
sense-spheres of the eye, ear, nose, tongue, assert the production (or manifestation) of
Nœ-*≈ d-r(-d(-i#[-f*[-a- 567

Comment: That which opens, or increases, what is already produced (or already exists in
the production of consciousness. utpattini¯svabh›vat› an unmanifest state).

Nœ-*≈ fy*[-[}e^ - production-non-nature;


Nœ-*≈ d-’f-a-dt$-dl#-a(-
557 574

[self-]production-non-nature; naturelessness of
{MV}˝a˜›yatana [self-]production; production naturelessness {MSA}catur-daŸa-vidha utp›da¯
six sense-spheres; six sources Comment: This is one of the three fourteen types of birth
the six sense-fields non-natures: character-non-nature (mtshan
Nœ-*≈ d-a(- 575

Comment: see skye mched. nyid ngo bo nyid med pa,


utpattini¯svabh›vat›); production-non-nature
{C}jantu (=v¸Ÿcika-›di¯)
Nœ-*≈ fy*[-v-fwn- 558
(skye ba ngo bo nyid med pa,
utpattini¯svabh›vat›); ultimate-non-nature {C}vermin; creature
{MV}›yatana-kauŸalya (don dam pa ngo bo nyid med pa,
Nœ-*≈ d-zs(rn-b#r- 576

skill in the sense-spheres param›rthani¯svabh›vat›).


{C}j›ti-vyativ¸tta, (=sva-prak¸ti-parity›g›j =
Nœ-*≈ fy(e- 559

janma-antara-gata)
{C}puru˝ottama {C}(after they have) passed through this
supreme person; supreme creature present birth (life); after one has died
{C}supreme man
Nœ-*≈ d-f-fy#n-a-’f-ac-b*n-ac-dR#[-a 577

Nœ-*≈ [r-zy#- 560

dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n-


{MSA}janana-mara˚a {C}anutp›da-vijñ›panat›;
birth and death {C}anupapadyam›mana
{C}it is informed about non-production; without
ever being reborn

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 20


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœ-*≈ d-f-x#]-a- Nœ-*≈ d-xr-f*[-zee-a-xr-f*[- Nœ-*≈ dc-


578 590 602

{C}anupapatti zee- zee- zeen- zeen- {C}up›du (=utp›da)


{C}no rebirth {C}produced things; production
{MSA}notp›do na nirodha¯

Nœ-*≈ d-f*[- Nœ-*≈ dc-zR^c-


579 603
no production and also no cessation; neither
production nor cessation; both no production
N*≈œ! N*≈œ! N*≈œn! N*≈œn! and no cessation {C}upapadyay›ti; {C}up›day›ti; {MSA}(upa
Ωpad) upapatsyante; {MSA}upapadyate
{MSA}na j›yate; {MV}ajanma(tva);
Nœ-*≈ d-x(rn-n$-v*]-a- 591

{C}is reborn; produces


{MV}notpatti

fp(-c#n-n$-Nœ-*≈ dc-dX[* -a- 604


not born; not reborn; not produced {MSA}upapatti-parigraha
thoroughly taking birth
Nœ-*≈ d-f*[-[r-Nœ-*≈ d- 580

{MSA}svargopap›dana
Nœ-*≈ d-v-r*n-ac-zR^c-d- 592

be born in a lifetime of high status


{C}anup›du'p›du

Nœ-*≈ d(- 605


{C}non-production and production {MSA}upapatti-niyatip›ta
definite to be born/reborn
Nœ-*≈ d-f*[-a- 581

{C,MSA,MV}jana; {C,MSA}janat›; {C}janak›ya


Nœ-*≈ d-v-[(]-f*[-a- 593

being; creature; people


{C}asamutp›da; anutp›da
{C}men; crowd of people; beasts; audience
no production; non-production; birthless {MSA}cay›p›rthya

Nœ-*≈ d(-r]-a- 606


{N}no production; {C}what is not co-produced pointless production; purposeless production
Comment: Buddhists accuse the S›˙khyas of
Nœ-*≈ d-f*[-a-v-n(en-a- 582

purposeless production when the S›˙khyas {MSA}durjana


assert the production (or manifestation) of bad/evil being; bad/evil person
{MSA}anutpad›di
what is already produced (or already exists in
Nœ-*≈ d(-r]-a-[r-zeCe( n-a- 607
no production and so forth; non-production and
an unmanifest state).
so forth; birthless and so forth
{MV}kujana-v›sa
Nœ-*≈ dz#-q^]-]n-i(]-f(rn-a- 594

Nœ-*≈ d-f*[-a-b*n-a- 583

acquainting with bad beings; companying with


{MV}janma-sa˙kleŸa bad beings
{MV}jñ›n›j›ti
thorough afflictions of birth
Nœ-*≈ d(-i(]-f(rn-a-t]-v-Ë*n-n$-dÌ°-d- 608
knowledge of no more birth

Nœ-*≈ dz#-Nœ[-t#e-f-[r-a(-sX]# -y[- 595

Nœ-*≈ d-f*[-az#-y(n-v-d;([-a- 584

{MSA}kli˝˛ajan›nukamp›
{MSA}janma-k˝a˚›d Òrdhva˙ (prathama-) mercy/compassion for beings with afflictions;
d;([- d;([- d;([- d;([- from the first moment of birth onward mercy/compassion for afflicted beings
forbearance/patience/tolerance/endurance
Nœ-*≈ dz#-‰X-^ Nœ-*≈ d(-N“r-d-[r-zeCe( n-a-
596 609

with respect to the doctrine of non-production


Comment: A-ku Ío-drö-gya-tso {MSA}utp›da-hetu {MV}du˝˛a-jana-v›sa
(Precious Lamp, 223.2) takes this as acqainting with hateful beings; accompanying
cause of production; cause of birth
referring to attaining forbearance, that with hateful beings
is, facility, with respect to the Nœ-*≈ dz#-N´-( 597

meaning of the selflessness of Nœ-*≈ d(-sv-y*c- 610

phenomena. {MV,C}›ya-dv›ra
Jik-may-dam-chö-gya-tso (Port of door of production; door of biruth {C}jana
Entry, 505.6) adds that through (C)(acting as a) door of coming into being; door most beings
ascertaining the meaning of the of arrival {C}people; crowd of people; beings; beasts

Nœ-*≈ d-[f]-v-dØ*]- 585

Nœ-*≈ dz#-N´-( dt(f-a- Nœ-*≈ d(-sv-a(-y*-


598 611

{MSA}hınopapatti¯ Ÿrit› {L}mah›janak›ya


dependent on low birth
el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn-
a large crowd of people
{GD:532} destroying the possibility
Nœ-*≈ d-gf- 586

Nœ-*≈ d(-D√]^ -a- 612

Nœ-*≈ dz#-y(n-t]- 599

mere production {MV}mÒrkha-jana


{C}utp›da-dharmin
stupid being
Nœ-*≈ d-el]-[^- 587
{C}subject to production
Nœ-*≈ d(-fr-a(- 613

Nœ-*≈ dz#-Nåv&ç -Nœ-^ 600


in another birth; in another lifetime
{C}bahujana
Nœ-*≈ d-;[-a- 588
construction emanation body many beings
I think this is wrong?? {C}many people; the many
{MSA}janma-k˝aya
extinction of birth check MED
Nœ-*≈ d(-fr-a(-[ez-d- 614

Nœ-*≈ d-d;r-a(- Nœ-*≈ dz#-v$n-d(c-o*-Nåv&ç -az#-v$n-zj‹]-a-


589 601

{MSA}bahu-jana-supriya
{MSA}Ÿubha-janman; {MSA}Ÿobhana … janman liking many beings
e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn-
good birth; auspicious birth {MSA}janma-k›ya˙ tyaktv› nirm›˚a-k›ya˙
g¸h˚›ti
having given up the body of birth, taking an
emanation body

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 21


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœ-*≈ d(-Ï(rn-a- Nœ[*≈ -t#r- Nœ]*≈ -a-


615 627 637

Ï(r- Ï(r- Ï(rn- Ï(rn- dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {C}Ÿıghra(m)


{C}soon; hurry up with; quickly; speedily
{MSA}vimÒ˜ha … jana {C}upabandhati

Nœz*≈ -( 638
confused being {C}extend to

Nœ-*≈ d(-fjz-d-v-dXfn-a- Nœ[*≈ -a-


616 628

upapadyate
{C}is reborn; gain rebirth; appears
{MSA}priya-jana-preman dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
Nœv*≈ - 639
loving friendly beings {MV}ropa˚a; {MSA}›dh›na; {MSA}upapatti;
{L}prasavati; {C}utpadyate; {C}janayitrı
Nœ-*≈ d(z-# h·en- 617

(=›d›v utp›dan›d) {C}anugamana; {C}anuy›na


produce; generate; engender {C}follow; following
{C}jana-k›ya; {C}janapada-bala-k›ya
{C}is produced; appear; arises; genetrix;
Nœv*≈ -d- 640
group of beings; collection of beings
{C}crowd of people; body of people; folk creator; begettor
dNœv*≈ ! Nœv*≈ ! dNœv*≈ [! Nœv(≈ [!
Nœ[*≈ -ac-dX[* - 629

Nœ-*≈ f*[- 618

to conduct; accompany
{C}aj›tika dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
Nœv*≈ -d- 641

unborn; unproduced; birthless {MSA}avaropa˚a; {MSA}( Ωjan): janayanti


{C}unborn produce; generate; engender dNœ≈v! Nœ≈*v! dNœ≈v! Nœ≈(v!
Nœ-*≈ f*[-e]n-v- 619

Nœ[*≈ -ac-fj[-a- 630


take away; carry; send; risk; use; employ

{C}anup›dapade w-Nœ≈*v-
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
in the state of non-production kiss
{C}janayitrı (=›d›v utp›dan›d)
{C}to the track of non-production
Nœn*≈ - 642
producer; means of production/generation
Comment: As in having faith in the state of
{C}genetrix; begettor; creator
non-production.
N*≈œn! N*≈œ! N*≈œ! N*≈œn!
Nœ[*≈ -dX[* - 631

Nœ-*≈ f*[-D√-( V“]- 620

be born; be produced; be engendered


dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - Nœn*≈ -fy(e-q-v(-N´c&≈ -d- 643
{C}anup›dadhı
{C}his thought on non-production janaka; {C}up›day›ti; {C}janetrı; {C}jananı
(=janetrı) {C}puºgava
Nœ-*≈ h$v- 621

producer; generator; engenderer; that which {C}hero


produces
Nœn*≈ -]- 644
mode of production; mode of generation
{C}produces; creator; begettor; genetrix
Nœ-*≈ l#r- 622
Comment: That which produces is the {C}j›yam›na
definition of cause (rgyu). when generated; if generated
{C}j›yi; {C}j›yate
{C}has been generated
Nœ[*≈ -dX[* -t#r- 632
is born/produced/generated
Nœn*≈ -]n- 645
{C}is born
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
Nœ-*≈ l#r-zu#e-a- 623

{C}upadyati; {C}vık˝ati N*≈œ! N*≈œ! N*≈œn! N*≈œn!


{MV}utp›da-bhaºga; {MV}utp›da-vyaya; {C}arise; set up; behold {C}utpadya (=upapadya-parinirv›yin)
{MSA}›p›yika having been born; having been produced
Nœ[*≈ -dX[* -a- 633

is produced and disintegrates; is born and is {C}as soon as he has been reborn
destroyed dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
Nœn*≈ -a- 646

Nœ-*≈ l#r-zdC-# 624


{C}rohayati
{C}cause to grow N*≈œ! N*≈œ! N*≈œn! N*≈œn!
{MSA}udaya-vyaya
{MSA.MV}j›ta; {C}janman; {C}nirj›ta
Nœ[*≈ -f(n-hv- 634
be produced and diminish (=niry›ta); {C}jana; {C}pum›n; {C}puru˝a;
{MSA,MV}utpanna; {MV}utpatti;
Nœ-*≈ nC[# - 625
{C}udy›na
{MSA}upapatti; {MSA}upapanna;
grove; park created phenomenon; created; man; human
birth-state {C}park; (pleasure) grove being [synonymous with skyes bu]; produce;

Nœ[*≈ - grow; be born; persons; that which is created


626

Nœ[*≈ -f(n-hv-R#-n- 635

{C}to be unproduced from the very beginning;


dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {MSA}udy›na-bhÒmi (manner of) birth; come forth; issued; source;
place of a grove; location of a park creation; person; being
{C}upap›day›ti; {C}up›day›ti; {C}vahati;
{C}vardhayati d$[-f*[-[r-Nœ≈*n-a-en([-
Nœ[*≈ -h$v- 636

produce; generate; engender killing women and men{TGP 78}


{C}produces; harbors; transports; increase;
strengthen
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - Comment: That which is created is the
definition of product (byas pa).
mode of production/generation/engendering

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 22


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœn*≈ -a-d$[-f*[- Nœn*≈ -d$-y$r-zdCr# -p%]-f(r-e#-vf- Nœn*≈ -d$-[f-az#-vn-dX[* -a-


647 657 665

{C}puru˝estri a path that is common to beings of small and {MSA}satpuru˝a-karma-kara˚at›


man or woman; man and woman; men and middling capacity performing the actions of a holy/excellent/true
women being
fh]-i#[! Nœ≈*n-d$-en$f-qz#-ifn-n$-D√r-dX-
Nœn*≈ -a-gf-R#n-zu#e-ac-f#-zR^c- Nœn*≈ -d$-dX[* -az#-zdCn-d$-
648 666

xr-x#]!
N*≈œ! N*≈œ! N*≈œn! N*≈œn! zdC#r-e#-vf-cr-‰X^[-v-Nœ≈*-d-v-cr-i#[-v-p(e-fc-D√(- {MSA,MV}puru˝a-k›ra-phala
personally made effect
{MSA}utpanna-m›tra˙ vinaŸyet (na-) N∂Def.:
≈(r-[e(ann-az# -dnf-a!
attitude (1) which is an object of
Nœn*≈ -d$-D√]^ -a(- 667
due to merely having been produced it is not
practice of the three [types of] beings and (2)
destroyed
in which it is necessary initially to train the mind {C}mohapuru˝a
Nœn*≈ -az#-cdn- 649
in order to produce a path of [a being of] stupid being/person
middling capacity in one's continuum
Nœn*≈ -d$-y*-zdCr# -p%]-f(r-e#-vf- {C}deluded person
658
{C}j›taka
life stories; discourses on [Buddha's previous]
Nœn*≈ -d$-zdCr# - 668

births a path that is common to beings of great and


middling capacity madhyamapuru˝a
{C}birth-story
fh]-i#[! being of middling capacity; being of medium
Nœn*≈ -az#-cdn-W#-N“-* 650

capacity
Nœ≈*n-d$-y*-zdC#r-ei#n-qz#-ifn-n$-D√r-dX-xr-x#]!
{C}j›taka
Nœn*≈ -d$-zdCr# -e#-vf- 669

life stories; discourses on [Buddha's previous] y*]-a(z#-vf-cr-‰X^[-v-Nœ≈*-d-v-cr-i#[-v-p(e-fc-D√(-


births N∂Def.:
≈(r-[e(ann-az# -dnf-a!
attitude (1) which is an object of
path of a being of middling capacity
{C}birth-story
practice of both beings of great and middling fh]-i#[!
Nœn*≈ -d$- 651
capacities and (2) in which it is necessary zw(c-dz#-s$]-h·en-v-D√(-v(e-az#-N´(-]n-cr-w(-]z#-[(
initially to train the mind in order to produce a
{MSA,MV,C}puru˝a; {C}jana; {C}pum›n; path of a being of great capacity in one's ]-[^-pc-a-eg·-d(c-[(]-[^-ei*c-dz#-y-]n-dle-az#-
Nœn*≈ -d$-y*]-a(- 659
{C}pu˙s
being; creature; person dnf-a!
Def.: an attitude that is posited from the
{C}mah›puru˝a
{C}person; personality; (some)one; men standpoint of mainly seeking liberation for the
being of great capacity sake of oneself alone, from the viewpoint of
Comment: puru˝a is etymologized as one who
has capacity (nus ldan). {C}great man; great person; superman having turned the mind away from the marvels
of cyclic existence
Nœn*≈ -d$-y*]-a(z-# fh]- 660

Nœn*≈ -d$-er-;e- Nœn*≈ -d$-h[-f-


652 670

{L}puru˝apudgala {MV}mah›puru˝a-lak˝a˚a pram›˚abhÒta


person characteristic of a being of great capacity valid person/being

Nœn*≈ -d$-y*]-a(z-# vf- 661

Nœn*≈ -d$-y$r-r$- 653

Comment: For example, the Teacher Buddha


adhamapuru˝a a path of a being of great capacity (ston pa sangs rgyas).
being of small capacity fh]-i#[! Nœn*≈ -d$-en$f- 671

Nœn*≈ -d$-y$r-r$-∑[-ac-t]- NI#r-Ë*-y*]-a(z#-el]-[dr-[^-R^c-az#-N´(-]n-n*fn-t


654

beings of the three capacities [i.e., small,


special being of small capacity ]-el]-R#n-nrn-‰Xn-p(d-sX#c-[^-’f-f∑*]-[(]-[^-e middling, and great]

i*Def.:
c-dz#an-y-]n-dle-az#
attitude that is-dnf-a! Nœn*≈ -d$z-# ‰X[^ -W#n-dN“n^ -az#-”^v-[^-eCd^ -a- 672

Nœn*≈ -d$-y$r-r$-∑[-ac-t]-R#-vf- 655


posited from the
standpoint of having come under the influence
a path of a special being of small capacity of great compassion seeking [to attain] an
zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn-
fh]-i#[! exalted knower-of-all-aspects for the sake of that which is atomically established and is
other sentient beings' attaining Buddhahood 6 6 2 included within the continuum of a being
cr-w(-]z#-[(]-[^-h°-sX#-fz#-zw(c-dz#-fr(]-fp(-gf-e Nœn*≈ -d$-eo#-f$e-t]- Comment: This is the definition of internal
matter (nang gi bem po).
g·-d(c-[(]-[^-ei*c-dz#-y-]n-dle-az#-dnf-a! {C}mohapuru˝a
Nœn*≈ -d$z-# ‰X[^ -W#n-f-dN“n^ -az#-”^v-[^-eCd^ -a- 673
Def.: an attitude that is posited from the beclouded/ignorant/confused/befuddled person
standpoint of seeking mainly mere high status {C}deluded person
within a future cyclic existence for one's own zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn-
Nœn*≈ -d$-[f-a- 663

sake alone that which is atomically established and is not


included within the continuum of a being
Nœn*≈ -d$-y$r-r$-[r-p%]-f(r-az#-vf- {C,MSA}satpuru˝a; {MSA}satpauru˝ya
656

excellent being; holy being; true being Comment: This is the definition of external
path in common with those of lesser capacity {C}worthy person; real man; true man matter (phyi'i bem po), which is one of two
divisions of matter (bem po, kanth›); the
Nœn*≈ -d$-[f-a-v-dØ*]-a- 664
other is internal matter (nang gi bem po).
There are five divisions of external matter
{MSA}satpuru˝a-sa˙sev›; (phyi'i bem po): form (gzugs); sound (sgra);
{MSA}satpuru˝›y›Ÿraya˙ smell (dri); taste (ro); tangible object (reg
relying/acquainting with on a bya).
holy/excellent/true being

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 23


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœn*≈ -d$z-# fp%- Nœn*≈ -cdn- Nœ-(≈ dc-dX[* -a-


674 684 696

{C}puru˝ak›ra Nœ≈*n-az#-cdn! {C}sa˙vegam ›padyate


{C}(manly) doing; work develop disregard for; develop weariness
j›taka
toward
Nœn*≈ -d$z-# z[([-a-gf-R#n-dle-az#-zd*vC -d- 675
life stories; discourses on [Buddha's previous]
{C}it is a source of anxiety
births
{GD:785} a relation established by the mere
Nœ-(≈ dc-dX[* -ac-zR^c-]- 697
{C}birth-stories
intention of the speaker
Nœ-(≈ 685

sa˙vegam ›padyate{C}
Nœn*≈ -d$z-# b*n-‰X[^ - 676

when/if one has become weary


{MSA}sa˙vigna
mental continuum of a being {C}it is a source of anxiety
grief; sorrow; weariness; pathetic; poor

Nœ-(≈ dc-f#-zR^c- 698

Nœn*≈ -d$z-# b*n-‰X[^ -W#n-dN“n^ -az#-e;$en- Nœ-(≈ dtn-n*fn-t]-Nƒ]# -ac-dX[* -


677 686

{MSA}na khedam ›padyate; {MSA}nodvegam


dN“^- N“^[- dN“^n- N“^n- {MSA}sodveg› sattva-p›can›
›y›ti
ripening poor sentient beings
form included within the mental continuum of not become weary/fatigued/discouraged
a being
Nœ-(≈ d- 687

Nœ-(≈ f*[- 699

Comment: This is the definition of internal


form (nang gi gzugs). {C,MSA,MV}udvega; {C}nirvinna;
{MSA}akhinna
{C}nirveda; {C}udvigna (-cittena);
Nœn*≈ -d$z-# b*n-‰X[^ -W#n-f-dN“n^ -az#-e;$en- 678
{C}khidyati; {C,MSA}kheda; {C}nirvartate; without fatigue/weariness/discouragement
{MSA}nirvid; {MV,MSA}parikheda;
Nœr(≈ - 700
discouragement; sorrow; grief; weariness
dN“^- N“^[- dN“^n- N“^n-
{C}agitation; depressed; meek; disregard for
form not included within the mental continuum Nœr(≈ -d-! dNœr≈ ! N(r≈œ ! dNœr≈ n! N(r≈œ n!
worldly things; sorrow; repentance;
of a being indifference; disgust; anxious; feel exhausted; p›
Comment: This is the definition of external fatigue; turns back; recedes; is made to desist; is keep; sustain; maintain; protect; guard
form (phyi'i gzugs). worn down; tribulation
’v-zdX(c-Nœ≈(r-[e(n-az#-sX#c-
Nœn*≈ -d$z-# b*n-‰X[^ -dN“n^ -a- 679

Nœ-(≈ d-t]- 688

because it is necessary to maintain/sustain the


yoga
dN“^- N“^[- dN“^n- N“^n- {MSA}khedavat
contained/included within the mental discouraged; weary d[e-Nœ≈(rn-b#e-
continuum of a being sustain/protect me
Nœ-(≈ d-[r-V“]-a- 689

Nœn*≈ -d$z-# b*n-‰X[^ -f-dN“n^ -a- Nœr(≈ n-


680 701

{MSA}nirvit-sahagata
discouraged; weary
dN“^- N“^[- dN“^n- N“^n- dNœr≈ ! N(r≈œ ! dNœr≈ n! N(r≈œ n!
Nœ-(≈ d-Nårn-a- 690
not contained within the mental continuum of a p›
being keep; sustain; maintain; protect; guard
Når- Nå(r- Nårn- Nå(rn-
Nœn*≈ -d$n-dX[* -az#-zdCn-d$- Nœ[(≈ -a-
681 702

{MSA}kheda-vivarjita
personally made effect abandoned disregard for dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ -
Comment: One of the five types of effects;
Nœ-(≈ d-f*[-a- 691
arouse; stir; move; cause to go
for example, a harvest achieved through the
Nœ](≈ - 703
exertions of a farmer (zhing pas rtson pas akheda{MSA}; akheditva{MSA};
sgrub pa'i lo tog); for other effects see 'bras khed›bh›va{MSA}
bu. non-discouragement {MSA,C,MV}do˝a; apak˝›la
fault; disadvantage; fallacy; defect; flaw
Nœn*≈ -f-pe-o^- Nœ-(≈ d-f*[-a-x#[-v-dX[* -a-
682 692

{C}defect; hatred; fault

Nœ](≈ -[r-x(]-o]- 704


N*≈œ! N*≈œ! N*≈œn! N*≈œn! akheda-manask›ra{MSA}
{C}j›tam›tra; {MSA}sahodaya taking to mind an absence of
immediately/right/just after being fatigue/discouragement/weariness Nœ≈(]-x(]-
born/produced
Nœ-(≈ dc-zR^c-d- 693
gu˚a-do˝a
{C}when just born faults/defects and good qualities; disadvantages
{C}khedam ›padyate and advantages
Nœn*≈ -;#]-a-xr-Nœ-*≈ d-]#-f-x#]- 683

become discouraged/weary/fatigued
Nœ](≈ -[r-x(]-o]-[e-[dX-* d- 705

{C}to feel fatigue


N*≈œ! N*≈œ! N*≈œn! N*≈œn!
Nœ-(≈ dc-z[^-b*n-an- {MSA}gu˚a-do˝a-bheda
694
{MSA}utpanna˙ punar utpadyate (na-)
differentiating faults and good
what has already been produced is not
{C}nirvit-samjñin qualities/disadvantages and advantages
produced again (=m›yopama-nirv›˚a-dharma-avagam›n)
Nœ](≈ -[r-x(]-o]-[^-n(-n(-xr-[e-ac-c#e-a- 706

{C}with disgust

Nœ-(≈ dc-dX[* - 695


{MSA}do˝a-gu˚a-pratisa˙vedana
thorough knowledge individually of faults and
become discouraged; develop aversion; be good qualities/disadvantages and advantages
averse{S 52.3}

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 24


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœ](≈ -[^-f#-dXz-( Nœd(≈ -t#r- Nœ-ç db[-zj‹rn-a-


707 718 730

{C}anapar›d(d)ha dNœd≈ ! Nœd(≈ ! dNœd≈ n! Nœd(≈ n! keŸo˚˜uka


not take as a fault/defect/disadvantage hair-net
{C}paritr›˚an› (=tr›˚abhÒta)
{C}free from guilt
Nœeç - 731
protecting; defending; sheltering

Nœ](≈ -zs*]-a- 708


{C}sheltering
Nύe- Nύe- Nύen- Nύen-
Nœd(≈ -a- 719

casting faults; critique; critic bhaya; tr›sa

Nœ](≈ -f-fy#n-a- fear; fright; terror; horror; panic; alarm;


709
dNœd≈ ! Nœd(≈ ! dNœd≈ n! Nœd(≈ n!
dread; fearfulness; trepidation [and
tr›; {C}t›yin; {C}tr›˚a; {MSA}paritr›˚a
{C}nirdo˝a corresponding verbs]
protect; guard; defend; shelter; protector;
flawless; faultless
Nœeç -t#r- 732
guardian; defender; shelter
{C}faultless
protector; shelter; protection
Nœ](≈ -f#-zdXr^ - 710
Nύe- Nύe- Nύen- Nύen-
Nœd(≈ -a-a(- 720

{C}uttrayayati
zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- dNœd≈ ! Nœd(≈ ! dNœd≈ n! Nœd(≈ n! be afraid; be fearful; dread
fault will not arise {C}tremble
protector; guardian; shelter
Nœ](≈ -f*[- Nœeç -Nø-*
711 733

Nœd(≈ -ac-dX[* -t#r- 721

{C}niy›mata; {C}ny›ma; nirdo˝a Nœçe- Nœçe- Nœçen- Nœçen-


faultless; flawless; flawlessness dNœd≈ ! Nœd(≈ ! dNœd≈ n! Nœd(≈ n! {C}trasati
{C}certainly; (lit.: re-drawing); the way of {C}trayate
be afraid; be fearful; dread
salvation (of ⁄r›vakas and Pratyekabuddhas); protect; guard; defend; shelter
{C}be afraid; be alarmed
the fixed condition (of Bodhisattvas); ripening; {C}protects
Nœeç -[r-[rr- 734
(distinctive) way of salvation (of Bodhisattvas);
Nœc(≈ - 722

definite way of certain salvation


Nύe- Nύe- Nύen- Nύen-
Nœ](≈ -f*[-a- 712
Nœ≈(c-d- {MV}tr›sat›-m›na
recite; repeat; support; hold
{C}acchidra; {C}niyama fear and dread; fear and panic
faultless; flawless; flawlessness zj‹]-Nœ≈(c-[r-dnf-N´(f-R#n-rv-d-d‰X-
Nœeç -a- 735

{C}flawless; certainly; destined; definitely; hundreds of tiring tasks by way of getting hold
established [of the teaching], repeating it, and thinking and Nύe- Nύe- Nύen- Nύen-
meditating on it
Nœ](≈ -f*[-a-v-zu$e-i#[- 713
{C}tr›su (bhavate); {C}tr›so;
Nœ-ç {C,MV,MSA}tr›sa; {MSA}( Ωtras): trasanti;
723

{MSA}niy›m›vakr›nti {C}paritr›sa˚a; {MSA}bhaya; {MV}uttr›sa;


entry into flawlessness {C}keŸa {MV}trasana
fear; fright; afraid; frightened; dread
hair
Nœ](≈ -f*[-ac-zu$e-a-xr-[e-ac-zeCd^ -a 714
{C}terrified; trembling; worry
{C}hair
Nœeç -a-[ee-a- 736

zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- Nœ-ç wr- 724

{MV}niy›m›vakr›nti-samud›gama {MSA}tr›sa-prati˝edha
thorough barber-shop stopping fright; ceasing fear
establishment/accomplishing/achieving of entry
Nœ-ç ie-f- 725

Nœeç -a-f*[-a- 737


into flawlessness
{C}v›la
Nœ](≈ -x(rn-n$-b*n- 715

{C}hair Nύe- Nύe- Nύen- Nύen-


{MSA}do˝a-parijñ›na {MV}atr›sa
Nœ-ç [r-N∂rç -d$-v-n(en-a- 726

thorough knolwedge of without fear/fright/dread


faults/flaws/disadvantages
Nœeç -az#-‰X-^ 738
keŸa-bhramara-›di
hair, bees, and so forth
Nœ](≈ -x(]- 716

Nύe- Nύe- Nύen- Nύen-


Nœ-ç dCe* n- 727

Nœ≈(]-[r-x(]-o]- {MSA}tr›sa-k›ra˚a
{C}mu˚˜a cause of fear/fright/dread
faults and good qualities; disadvantages and
{C}shaven head
Nœeç -az#-e]n- 739
advantages

Nœ-ç :√-v-n(en-a-f*[-a- 728

Nœ](≈ -n*v-f#-]^n-a- 717

Nύe- Nύe- Nύen- Nύen-


asat-keŸa-candra-›di
dnv- n*v- dnv[- n*v[- {MSA}uttr›sa-pada; {MSA}tr›sa-sth›na
non-existent hairs, moons, and so forth state of fear/fright/dread
[you are] not able to
Nœ-ç v-s(e-ac- 729

avoid/eradicate/remove/clear
away/eliminate/exclude the fault that...
{C}b›lavedha; {C}b›lavedhan›
{C}split a hair; splitting a hair

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 25


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

Nœeç -az#-el#z-# e]n-f-x#]-a-i#[- dŒXr- dNœv-a-er-eΩz-# Q√r^ -e#-dX-* f-NI[* -


740 751 761

Nœçe- Nœçe- Nœçen- Nœçen- dŒXr- ŒXr( - dŒXrn- ŒXr( n- {MSA}gaºg›-nadı-v›lik›-sama … kalpa
as many eons as there are grains of sand in the
{MSA}atr›sa-pada-sth›natva {C}pras›rita; {MSA}nig¸hya (also: bag
brkyang = nig¸hya) Ganges
not a foundation of fear/fright/dread
extend
dNœv-a-eCrn-f-fy#n-a- 762

Nœeç -az#-x#[-W#n- 741

”(-Ë*-pv-f(-dt#rn-o*! {C}asa˙khyeya-kalpa
Nœçe- Nœçe- Nœçen- Nœçen- ve-rc-dŒXr-v-v$n-pfn-t[-n-v-sd-Nø*! innumerable/incalculable eons
{C}trasta-manas› {C}incalculable number of aeons
construct the vajra-palms, extend the forearms,
with a mind of fear/fright/dread and lower your entire body to the ground {Dor
dNœv-a-eCrn-f*[- 763

{C}trembling in mind 40a.1263.1}

Nœeç -ac-z[^-b*n-an- {MSA}kalp›sa˙khyeya


742

dŒXr-f- 752

innumerable/incalculable eons
Nœçe- Nœçe- Nœçen- Nœçen- lalan›
dNœv-a-eCrn-f*[-z[z-d- 764

{C}sa˙jñin left channel


{C}one who perceives; has a notion of passage of countless/innumerable eons
dŒXrn- 753

Nœeç -ac-dX- dNœv-a-eCrn-f*[-a-en$f-


743 765

dŒXr- ŒXr( - dŒXrn- ŒXr( n-


Nœçe- Nœçe- Nœçen- Nœçen- {C}pras›rita; {MSA}nig¸hya (also: bag {MV}trikalp›sa˙khyeya
brkyang = nig¸hya) three periods of innumerable/incalculable eons
{MV}uttrastavya; {MV}tr›sya
extend
dNœv-a-y*]-a(- 766
be afraid; be fearful; dread

dNœ-d- 754

Nœeç -ac-dX-d- 744

mah›kalpa
{C}kasava; {C}kas›ya; ka˝›ya great eon
Nύe- Nύe- Nύen- Nύen- astringent
dNœv-a-Nør( -sCe-[^-f- 767

{MSA}uttr›sa; {MSA}( Ωtras): trasitavya {C}bitter; astringent


that which is to be feared; object of {MSA}naikasahasra … kalpa
dNœr- 755
fear/fright/dread
many thousands of eons
Nœeç -ac-dX[* - 745

dNœr- Nœr( - dNœrn- Nœr( n- dNœv-a-[ae-f*[- 768

fill; fulfill; complete


Nœçe- Nœçe- Nœçen- Nœçen- {MSA}ameya … kalpa
dNœrn- 756
{MSA}( Ωtras): tr›syate; {MSA}sa˙tr›saka immeasurable/uncalculable eons
cause fear/fright/dread; frighten
dNœv-a-dX-* d-Nør( - 769

dNœr- Nœr( - dNœrn- Nœr( n-


Nœ[ç - 746

fill; fulfill; complete {MSA}kalpa-sahasra-ko˛i


dNœ[ç ! Nœ[(ç ! dNœ[ç ! Nœ[(ç ! thousand ten million eons
dNœf- 757

dNœv-a-fr-a(- 770
expel
dNœf! Nœf! dNœfn! Nœfn!
Nœ]ç - 747

{C}upaŸu˝yati; {L}Ÿu˝ {MSA}bahu-kalpa


dry; dry up; wither many eons
tumor
{C}shrivel up
dNœv-az#-f*-zdc-d- 771
Comment: see also gnyan
xv-e-[r-v(-f-[r-xv-e-sC-f(-pfn-t[-dNœfn-a
Nœzç -# Ì°-f(- 748
{C}kalpodd›ha

{C}v›l›grako˛i
c-R^c- blazing fire [at the end] of an eon
all the branches, leaves, and twigs dried {C}universal conflagration (raging) at the end
tip of a hair
of an aeon
{C}the fine point of the tip of the hair
dNœv-fy(e- 758

dNœv-d;r-‰X-fh(- 772

Nœ]&ç - 749

{MSA}uttama-kalpa
supreme eon ‰el-sang-gya-tso [1708-1757, the Seventh Dalai
Nœ]&ç -a-! dN&]œç ! N&]œç ! dN&]œç [! N&]œç [! Lama]
dNœv-[(]- 759

make; form; produce


dNœf^ - 773

d¤f-a- 750
supersensory object
b-;-dNœv-[(]-[^-n(r-dz#-er-;e- dNœ^f! Nœ^f! dNœ^fn! Nœ^fn!
desire; greed {C}samiñjita
a person for whom flesh-eaters are
to contract; draw in; withdraw; bend [as in
supersensory objects
bending limbs]
dNœv-a- 760
{C}bending

{C,MV}kalpa
eon; age

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 26


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

dNœf^ n- dNœ-( d- dNœd≈ -


774 786 795

dNœ^f! Nœ^f! dNœ^fn! Nœ^fn! dNœ(- Nœ(- dNœ(n- Nœ(n- dNœd≈ ! Nœd(≈ ! dNœd≈ n! Nœd(≈ n!
{MSA}kucitaka (=sa˙kucitaka) order; command {L}rak˝ita
to contract; draw in; withdraw; bend [as in protect; defend; guard
dNœc( - 787

bending limbs]
dNœd≈ -ac-dX-dz#-n*fn-t]-xv-dc-d(c- 796

dNœc^ - 775
dN(œc- N(œc- dN(œc[- N(œc[-
{MSA}tr›tavya-sattvopek˝›
pravartate
dNœ^c! Nœ^c! dNœ^c[! Nœ^c[! abandon/neglect sentient beings who are to be
encircle; surround; revolve; circumambulate;
protected
{MSA}abhi˝ikta; {MSA}abhi˝eka turn round; turn [a wheel]
dNœ[&≈ -a- 797
bestow; make someone carry; send
dNœc( -a- 788

[dr-dNœ^c-d- {L}pramo˝a
bestow initiation; bestowal of initiation dN(œc- N(œc- dN(œc[- N(œc[- loss; forgetfulness
{L}pravartate deluded
dNœc^ -d- 776

encircle; surround; revolve; circumambulate; Comment: ‚zong-ka-fla {DK 5.9} glosses


{C}netavya turn round; turn [a wheel] mi bskyud pa (asa˙pramo˝at› [Lamotte, 67,
{C}should be guided turn; spread; proceeds; takes place; moves n. 26]) with mi brjed pa (non-forgetfulness).
forward
dNœc^ -dXn- dNœ[*≈ -
777 798

dNœc( -d- 789

satk¸tya (=Ÿrı-pa˛˛a-bandhdin›viŸe˝apada dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -


sth›pan›t = ma˚˜ala-›di-kara˚›t) dN(œc- N(œc- dN(œc[- N(œc[- {C}avaropa˚a; upadyati; kurute; sa˙janayati;
{C}having honored {C}parivarta; {C}nirdeŸa; {MSA}(pra Ωv¸t): janeti (=janayati); janita; up›day›ti;
pravartayati; {C}pravartan› {MSA}adhi (=adhy›ropa); {MSA}›dhi;
dNœv^ - 778

encircle; surround; revolve; circumambulate; utp›da; utp›dayanti; prabhava¯; v¸ddhi;


generate; produce; engender
turn round; turn [a wheel]
dN^vœ ! N^vœ ! dN^vœ [! N^vœ ! {C}arise; set up; planting; suffers; create;
{C}chapter; revolution; exposition; book;
rouse; arouse; entreat; urge on; incite; urge; engender; generated; produced
section; revolving; turning
exhort dNœ≈*[-dX-
dNœc( -d-dXn-]n- 790

dNœv^ -t#r- 779


that which is produced [definition of effect
('bras bu)]
{C}codayati dN(œc- N(œc- dN(œc[- N(œc[-
dNœ[*≈ -t#r- 799
arouse; entreat; urge on; incite; urge; exhort {C}pradak˝i˚ık¸tya
{C}exhort; warn against; make the charge having circumambulated/ encircled/
surrounded/ revolved/turned dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
dNœv^ -]- 780

{C}circulate around; circumambulate {C}upabandhati; {C}upapadyat


generate; produce; engender
dNœc( -dc-dX- 791
{L}pre˝ita
if/when dispatched/aroused/entreated/urged {C}extend to
on/incited/urged/exhorted dN(œc- N(œc- dN(œc[- N(œc[- dNœ[*≈ -t#r-x(rn-n$-dN®-( d- 800

{C}pravartayati; {C}utp›dayi˝yati
dNœv^ -d- 781

encircle; surround; revolve; circumambulate; {C}avaropa˚at›


turn round; turn [a wheel] generate and thoroughly dedicate; produce and
dN^vœ ! N^vœ ! dN^vœ [! N^vœ [! thoroughly dedicate; engender and thoroughly
{C}spread; turn
{MSA}prerita; {MSA}sam›d›pana dedicate
dNœc( -dXn-]n- 792
rouse; arouse; entreat; urge on; incite; urge; {C}planting
exhort
dNœ[*≈ -[*- 801

dN(œc- N(œc- dN(œc[- N(œc[-


dNœv^ -dc-dX[* - 782

{C}vartitva
{C}codayati having circumambulated/ encircled/
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
arouse; entreat; urge on; incite; urge; exhort; surrounded/ revolved/turned {C}m›payitv›
cause to arouse {C}having turned produce; generate; engender
{C}exhort {C}having planted
dNœr≈ - 793

dNœ[*≈ -]n- 802

dNœv^ -f- 783

dNœr≈ ! N(r≈œ ! dNœr≈ n! N(r≈œ n!


exhortation; entreaty; urging on; inciting;
keep; sustain; maintain; protect; guard
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
urging {C}m›payitv›; {C}up›day›ti
dNœr≈ n- 794
produce; generate; engender
dNœv^ -f-fj[-a-dl#]- 784

{C}having planted; produces


in accordance with the exhortation/urging dNœr≈ ! N(r≈œ ! dNœr≈ n! N(r≈œ n!
dNœ[*≈ -]n-d;$r-Nø-* 803

keep; sustain; maintain; protect; guard


dNœv^ [- 785

dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -


dNœ^v[! Nœ^v! dNœ^v! Nœ^v[! {C}up›du (=up›d›ya)
rouse; arouse; entreat; urge on; incite; urge; {C}beginning with
exhort

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 27


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

dNœ[*≈ -a- dNœ[*≈ -ac-dX[* -[*- dNœ[(≈ -ac-dR#[-ven-


804 812 822

dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ -
{C}sa˙janayati; {C}prasavanti; {C}vardhayati {C}ucc›layati
{C,MV}avaropita; {MSA,MV}›dh›na; increase {C}free oneself from
{MSA}›vaha; {MSA}›v›haka; {MV}›ropita; {C}increase; strengthen
dNœ[(≈ -ac-f#-]^n- 823
{MV,C}utpatti; {MV}utp›da; {C}utp›dayati;
produce; generate; engender
dNœ[*≈ -ac-dX[* -a- 813

{C}having planted; beget(s); create; generate; dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ -


genesis; arise; raise; give rise to; cause to be dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {C}asamprakampyo
produced; bring forth; produces; creator;
{C}janetrı unmovable; unshakeable
begettor; genetrix; drew their strength from;
brought about (from); brought forth; derives its producer; generator; engenderer; creator {C}unshakeable
dignity; one discerns; discerned; exalted; {C}genetrix; begettor; creator
dNœ[(≈ -f#-]^n-n(- 824

derived from; come forth; plant


dNœ[*≈ -ac-fj[-a- 814

dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ -


dNœ[*≈ -a-]n- 805

dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {C}c›layati


dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {MSA}janaka cannot be moved; cannot be shaken; cannot be
{C}up›du producer; generator; engenderer; creator deflected; cannot move
{C}beginning with {C}shake off; deflect
dNœ[*≈ -dX- 815

dNœ[ç - 825

dNœ[*≈ -az#-zdCn-d$- 806

dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -


expel
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - janya
object produced; that which is produced get tenses
effects that are produced
Comment: That which is produced is the
dNœ]&ç - 826

dNœ[*≈ -ac-dR#[- 807

definition of effect ('bras bu).

dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ -dX[* - 816


dN&]ύ [! N&]ύ ! dN&]ύ ! N&]ύ [!
{C}janayati {C}sam›gamati (=pr›durbhavanti); {C}upta
produce; generate; engender dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - make; form; produce
{C}generate {C}utpadyate {C}are brought along; are assembled; come
producer forth; sown
dNœ[*≈ -ac-zR^c- 808

{C}is produced; appear; arises


dNœ]&ç -a- 827

dNœ[*≈ -zdCn- 817


dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
{C}janayati
dN&]ύ ! N&]ύ ! dN&]ύ [! N&]ύ [!
produce; generate; engender dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - make; form; produce
{C}generate effect of production

w- 828

dNœ[*≈ -c#f- 818

dNœ[*≈ -ac-dX-d- 809

{C,MSA}mukha; {C}raŸmi-mukha; {C}da˙Ÿana


dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - mouth; opening; face; area; verb + kha or ka
{MV}utp›danıyatva; {MV}utp›dayitavya; {ME} utpattikrama = about to (do something)
{MV}utp›ditavya stage of generation; generation stage {C}face; door; marvellous power(?); so also(?)
that which is/is to be
dNœ[(≈ - p(d-w-
819

produced/generated/engendered
about to attain
dNœ[*≈ -ac-dXz-( dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ -
810

{C}c›layati; k˝obhya; ırita (=prerita); zy#-w-


dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {MSA}kampana about to die; point of death
{C}avaropitavya arouse; stir; move; cause to go
w-Nœr( -d- 829

will produce/generate/engender; should {C}shake off; deflect


produce/generate/engender; that which is/is to
dNœ[(≈ -]- 820

be produced/generated/engendered dNœr- Nœr( - dNœrn- Nœr( n-


{C}must plant fill out [as in replacing a missing syllable in a
dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - line of poetry with an extra syllable]
dNœ[*≈ -ac-dXn-v- 811
{C}ve˝˛ate (adhi m›tram)
w-t#e- 830

{C}is (all) twisted


dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
dNœ[(≈ -a- 821
someone; some; a certain [person]
{C}sa˙janayati
w-t#e-o^- 831
produce; generate; engender
dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ -
{C}create; generate
{C}k˝obhya; {C}ırita (=prerita); {C}c›layati; in some
{MSA}kampana
arouse; stir; move; cause to go
[a*-w-t#e-o^-
{C}agitated; angry; stirred; said to be; driven in a certain/some edition/editions
along; shake off; deflect

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 28


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

w-t#e-]-c*- w-[(e-N®]( -a(- w-]-f-p(-d-[r-dtn-a-


832 844 856

someone; some; a certain [person] {MSA}nıla-var˚a {MSA,C} s›vadya


Comment: Standard formula for introducing blue color; color blue involving unseemliness; faulty
another party's opinion in debate texts. Comment: The scope of blue usually includes {C}has blemishes; faulty
green.
w-y*- w-]-f-p(-d-sC-cd-gf-
833 857

w-[(e-et#e-o^- 845

ka˝mır {MSA}anu-m›tra … avadya


Ka˝mır is dot under correct? {C}eka-var˚a even/just a slight unseemliness/fault
as one color; in one color
slash in next item;
item Moslems;
w-]-f-p(-d-f#-frz-d- 858

{C}of one color


Kashmiri
w-[(e-[r-[}-# [r-c(-[r-c*e-dX- frz- frz- frz- frz-
846

w-y*-dX-* dCe-Nƒ-ç d- 834

{C}anavadya
{MSA}var˚a-gandha-rasa-sparŸa
kaŸmıri vaibh›˝ika without unseemliness; faultless; not involving
color, odor, taste, and tangible object
KaŸmıri Vaibh›˝ika; Ka˝mıri Proponent(s) of unseemliness

w-[(e-[^-f- 847
the Great Exposition {C}faultless

w-o(]-[^- w-]-f-p(-d-f*[-a-
835 859

{C}aneka-var˚a
many colors; many colored; multi-colored
{C}sv›dhy›yati; s what is this "s"? {MSA,C}anavadya; {MSA}niravadya
{C}many-colored
{C}v›dhy›yanti without unseemliness; faultless; not involving

w-[(e-N‘-h·en-a- unseemliness
848
in recitation
{C}repeat {C}faultless
{C}n›n›var˚a
w-]-f-p(-d-f*[-az#-vn-t]-x#]-a- 860

w-o(]-[^-dX- 836
variegated in color; having various colors
{C}various-colored {MSA}anavadya-karmatva
{C}sv›dhy›yati
w-[(e-s$]-n$f-h·en-a- having acitivities that are without
849
recite
{C}repeat unseemliness/fault
{MSA}var˚a-sa˙panna
w-]-f-p(-f*[-x$v- 861

w-o(]-[^zr-dX[* - 837
excellent color; fulfilment of color
{MSA}anavadya-vi˝aya
w-[(e-x#]-]- 850
{C}sv›dhy›yanti
do also in recitation objects without unseemliness; areas without
if [something] is a color; whatever is a color unseemliness
{C}repeat

w-[(e-v-n(en-a-’f-ac-zR^c-d- w-]r-
851 862

w-o(]-dXr-dc-dXn- 838

antarmukha
zdXr- zdXrn- dXr- zdX(rn- zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
inwards; internal; inside
{C}vacas› paricita {MSA}var˚›di-vipari˚›ma
w-]r-Vøz-# y- 863

learned recitation changes/transformations in color and so forth


{C}religious texts (?)
w-[(e-vn-b#]-o^-z[n-a- 852

dVø- Vø- dVøn- Vø(n-


w-o(]-dX[* -a- 839

{C}abhikr›nta-abhikr›nta-var˚› factor directed inwards


{MV}sv›dhy›ya; {MV}sv›dhy›yana {C}who have quite passed beyond materiality {GD:603} an internal cognition [which
of any kind perceives the objectal aspect of an external
perform recitation
object]
w-[(e-b#]-o^-zuf-a- 853

w-zp(c-d- 840

w-]r-Vøn-W#-zeCn( - 864

{C}Ÿlak˝˚a-cchavit›
scattered
Comment: One of the two divisions of animals
{C}his skin is smooth dVø- Vø- dVøn- Vø(n-
w-[(e-n*c-a(- 854
(dud 'gro), the other being those living in the type which is directed inwards
depths (bying na gnas pa).
w-]r-dNø]- 865

{MSA}pıta-var˚a
w-[(e- 841

yellow color
w-]r-[^-dNø]-a-
var˚a
w-]-f-p(-d- 855

facing inwards; directed inwards


color
{MSA}avadya
w-]r-[^-dNø]-a- 866

w-[(e-w(-cr- 842

unseemliness; fault; blemish; blame


color itself c*-l#e-z[(c-d-v-w-]-f-p(-d-f*[-[(! w-]r-dNø]-
{GD:253} hypothetical color in general there is no unseemliness in temporarily putting facing inwards; directed inwards
this aside
w-[(e-e#-e;$en- 843

Comment: The Tibetan may literally mean


color-form; form that is a color “not high in the mouth” even though the term
uses tho in stead of mtho.

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 29


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

w-Nån( - w-zdX[* - w-v(-dN´c&≈ -d-


867 880 893

move over [dX*! zdX*[! sX* !sX*n! dN´≈&c- N´≈&c- dN´≈&c[- N´≈&c[-
N®c-db[-az#-c#en-a-w-Nå(n-]n-ze(e-a-]#- open; blossom {C}s›rathi
refutation upon moving over the reasoning {C}charioteer
w-zdXn* - 881

explained earlier
w-b- 894

[dX*! zdX*[! sX* !sX*n!


w-s#cX -dNø]- 868

spotted deer
open; blossom
w-s#Xc-dNø]-a- w-ben- 895

w-N∂c(≈ - 882

facing outwards; directed outwards


dispute; argue; use rough language
N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[-
w-sXc- 869

w-n- 896

face to face in [sexual] union


{C}pragalbha
w-N∂c(≈ -R#-v$n- 883
{C}arrogant yesterday

wK-o- 897

w-sXc# - 870

N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[-


outwards; directed outwards bodies [of god and goddess] face to face [in magpie
sexual union]
ex(]-cr-cr-e#-sXe-fh]-zj‹]-a-w-sX#c-dVøn-an- wr- 898

w-f- 884

the left [hand of each deity] holding its house; building; dwelling; abode; domicile;
respective hand-symbol facing outward {Dor one who is about [to do something] habitation; structure; edifice; institute
29b.4/ 242.4}
n-en$f-a-n(en-p(d-w-fz#-dXr-n*fn-zsen-az#-‰X^ wr-∑#f- 899

w-sXc# -Vøz-# y- 871

[-W#-fif-dle-x*-b*n- [house-home]; house; home; residence


dVø- Vø- dVøn- Vø(n- exalted wisdom of meditative equipoise in the
wr-a- 900

factor directed outwards continuum of a Bodhisattva Superior who is


{GD:603} an external cognition [which about to attain the third ground, and so forth
{C}pr›s›da
perceives an external object]
w-h·]-et([- 885
house; building; dwelling; abode; domicile;
habitation; structure; edifice; institute
w-sXc# -Vøn-W#-zeCn( - 872

make a decision; limit {C}palatial building; palace


dVø- Vø- dVøn- Vø(n- w-h·]-et([-[qz-dn-[aX[( -az#-N´-( gf-dq([-[(- w[-a-886 901

type which is directed outwards


[e([- ze([- dq([- ze([- verb + la + khad pa = on the verge of (verb)
w-sXc# -dNø]-a- 873

Since it is difficult to make a decision, [I] have [dr-dNœ^c-v-w[-a-


stated just the beginnings of analysis
dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [- on the verge of bestowing
w-h·]-y([-a- 887
directed outwards; facing outwards initiation/empowerment

wf-R#-;n- 902

limited; decided

w-l*-f#-fp%]-a- 888
morsels of food [i.e., ordinary food]
w-d- 874

Comment: One of the four foods, which


tikta discordance of mouth and heart{TGP-77} according to (1) morsel food (kham gyi zas,
kava˜a˙k›ra-›h›ra), (2) contact food (reg
bitter
w-;n- 889

pa’i zas, sparŸa-›h›ra) which is contaminated


w-dz#-c(- 875

{MSA}bhojana; {MSA}bhojya; {C}bhakt›gra touch that increases the great elements


associated with the sense powers, (3)
food; fare; foodstuff; provisions
bitter taste intention food (sems pa’i zas,
{C}refectory
mana¯sa˙cetan›h›ra) which is intention (or
w-dX-* 876

w-;n-y$r-r$-zhv-dc-zR^c- 890
attention) that involves hope for a desired
[mouth-open]; to blossom
dgv- zh·v- dgv[- h·v[-
w-dX-* d- 877

{C}alpa-›h›ra
seek a litte food
zdX*-! zdX*-! dX*-! zdX*n! {C}takes little food
to blossom
w-;n-l#f-a(- 891

w-zd$n-a- 878

{MSA}m¸˝˛a … aŸana
{C} saºıbhÒta (?) delicious food
{C}open out his blossoms
w-ve- 892

w-zdX-* 879

food
zdX*-! zdX*-! dX*-! zdX*n!
to blossom

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 30


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

wfn- wfn-dØn-dX[* - wfn-en$f-


903 911 918

{MSA,MV,C}dh›tu {MV}dh›tu-pu˝˛i wfn-en$f-a-


realm; constituent; element; basic/essential that which increases/improves the {C}tridh›tu; {C}traidh›tuka
constituent; disposition; type; constitution [as constituents; that which improves health
the three realms [i.e., desire realm ('dod
in health]
wfn-p-[[-a- 912
khams, k›madh›tu), form realm (gzugs khams,
e;$en-wfn- rÒpadh›tu), and formless realm (gzugs med
{L}dh›tu n›n›tva khams, arÒpyadh›tu)]
form realm (rÒpadh›tu)
various constituents {C}the triple world; what is in (or: what belongs
[dX*-d! 1 z[([-wfn! 2 e;$en-wfn! 3 [dX*-d! x$v-[}^e [dr-a(-[}^e to) the triple world
e;$en-f*[-wfn!
wfn-en$f-pfn-t[-W#-[dr-a(- 919

’f-b*n-[}^e-[r-dt(-d‰X[!!
[dX*-d! x$v-[}^e [dr-a(-[}^e Div.: the eighteen consisting of the six objects, {C}sarva-traidh›tuka-adhipati
’f-b*
Div.: n(1)-[}desire
^e-[r-dt( -d‰X[(2)
realm; !! form realm; (3) the six sense powers, and the six lord of all three realms
formless realm consciousnesses {C}sarva-traidh›tuka-adhipati [name of a
Div.: the eighteen consisting of the six objects, Comment: See also khams; khams du ma; Buddha]
the six sense powers, and the six khams sna tshogs pa.
wfn-en$f-[e-v- 920

consciousnesses
wfn-[r-Nœ-*≈ fy*[- 913

Comment: For other divisions see khams du


{C}traidh›tuka
ma and khams tha dad pa. {MV}dh›tv-›yatana in the three realms
wfn-W#-‰Xv-a(- constituents and sense spheres; [eighteen]
904
{C}the triple world; what is in (or: what belongs
constituents and [twelve] sense spheres to) the triple world
{C}ko˛˛a-r›jan
wfn-[^-f- 914

wfn-en$f-z[^n-dXn- 921
{C}commander of a fort
{L}dh›tv anekatva
wfn-e(r-f- 905

manifold constituents
z[^- z[^!z[^[- z[^n- z[^n-
{MSA}traidh›tu-k›tma-sa˙sk›ra
upper realm [dX*-d! 1 n! 2 y$! 3 f*! 4 c√^r-! 5 compounded phenomena of the three realms
Comment: Usually, the form and formless
]f-fwz! 6 ’f-ac-b*n-a!
realms.
wfn-en$f-a-a(- 922

Div.: (1) earth; (2) water; (3) fire; (4) wind; (5)
wfn-‰Xn-a- 906

space; (6) consciousness {C}traidh›tuka


{MSA}dh›tu-pu˝˛i Comment: These six are frequently cited as {C}the triple world; what is in (or: what belongs
the main bases of designation of a person. In to) the triple world
increase the constitution [as in increasing
the seventh chapter of the SÒtra Unraveling
health]
wfn-en$f-az#-i(]-f(rn-a-Når( -d- 923

the Thought “manifold constituents” (khams


wfn-ei#n-Øn-a- 907
du ma) refers to the six constituents, and
“various constituents” (khams sna tshogs pa)
Når- Nå(r- Nårn- Nå(rn-
dØz- dØ- dØn- Øn- refers to the eighteen constituents. See also {MSA}tridh›tu-kleŸa-prah›˚a
{MSA}dvaya-dh›tu-pu˝˛at› khams; khams tha dad pa; khams sna tshogs abandon the afflictions/afflictive emotions of
pa. the three realms
increase/improve the two constituents;
improve health
wfn-N‘-h·en-a- wfn-en$f-a(-
915 924

wfn-Øn-a- 908

{L}dh›tu n›n›tva traidh›tuka


various constituents all three realms
dØz! dØ! dØn! Øn!
wfn-en$f-f-v$n-a-vn- 925
{MSA}dh›tu-pu˝˛at›; {MSA}dh›tu-pu˝˛i
increase/improve the two constituents;
[dX*-d! x$v-[}^e [dr-a(-[}^e ’f-b*n-
{C}traidh›tuk›nta
improve health [}^e-[r-dt(-d‰X[!! from the entirety of the three realms
wfn-Øn-ac-dX[* -a- 909
Div.: the eighteen consisting of the six objects, {C}the triple world
the six senses, and the six consciousnesses
wfn-en$f-v-dt#rn-ac-R^c-a- 926

dØz! dØ! dØn! Øn! Comment: In the seventh chapter of the


{MSA}dh›tu-pu˝˛i SÒtra Unraveling the Thought “various
{C}traidh›tuka-bandhana-gata
constituents” (sna tshogs pa) refers to the
increase the constituents; improve the bound in the three realms
eighteen constituents and “manifold
constituents; improve health {C}imprisoned in the triple world
constituents” (khams du ma) refers to the six
wfn-dØn-a- 910
constituents. See also khams; khams tha dad
wfn-en$f-n-[e^- 927

pa; khams du ma.


dØz! dØ! dØn! Øn! three realms and nine levels/grounds
wfn-el]- 916

{MV}dh›tu-pu˝˛i Comment: The Desire Realm, the Four


increase the constituents; improve the {MSA}anya-dh›tu Concentrations of the Form Realm, and the
constituents; improve health other constituents Four Formless Absorptions of the Formless
Realm are the nine levels.
wfn-v-fwn- 917

{MV}dh›tu-kauŸalya
skill in the constituents

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 31


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

wc-et([-a-v- wn-v*]- w^f-


928 937 949

{C}nigraha D√r! v*]! D√rn! v*][! w^f! zw^fn! w^fn! w^fn!


{C}refutation {JH}abhyupagam; {C}upaiti; i˝yate listen; hear; understand; realize
wn-zy*-d- 929
[by-mouth-take]; assert; accept; promise
as noun: assertion; acceptance; promise
zuf-[av-[r-]#-f$-o#-o-v-zw^fn!
pratijñ› {C}approach; come to; run through; implies; listened to Mañjushrı and Muti[ta] {GZ/BG
claim undergo; bear 69a.3}

[*-vn-el]-[d$-f-ac-wn-zy*-d-[e-]#- w^fn- 950

wn-v*]-a- 938

Those other than them who claim to be


M›dhyamikas D√r! v*]! D√rn! v*][! w^f! zw^fn! w^fn! w^fn!
{C}upagata; {MSA}(abhi Ωi): abhyeti; listen; hear; understand; realize
wn-D√r- 930

{MSA}abhyupagama; {MSA}abhyupeta; i˝yate


w^c- 951

[by-mouth-take]; assert; accept; promise


D√r! v*]! D√rn! v*][! as noun: assertion; acceptance; promise {MSA}bh›ra
i˝yate; abhyupagama {C}takes place; can be approached; has burden; load
[by-mouth-take]; assert; accept; promise admitted into himself
w^c-∑*c-d- 952

wn-D√r-dc-dX-d 931

wn-v*]-a-f*[-t#r- 939

{MSA}bh›rah›ra; {MSA}bh›rad›na
wn-D√r-dX- D√r! v*]! D√rn! v*][! {C}anupagata carry a burden/load
{MSA}abhyupagantavya without assertion/acceptance/promise
w^c-z[(c-d- 953

that which is to be asserted/accepted/promised {C}unapproachable

wn-D√rn- wn-v*]-dX[* - 940


932
{MSA}bh›ra-nik˝epa˚a
forsake a burden/load
{MSA}samupeta
D√r! v*]! D√rn! v*][!
w^c-d(c-d- 954

make assertion/acceptance/promise
i˝yate; abhyupagama
w^-„e- 941
[by-mouth-take]; assert; accept; promise {C}apah¸ta; {C}apah¸ta-bh›ra
leave/pur down a burden
wn-D√rn-W#-dnv-d- 933
rasarakta {C}put down (a burden); their burden laid down
[semen-blood]; semen and blood; initial embryo
dnv- n*v- dnv[- n*v[- w^c-fr- 955

w^-d- 942

{GD:791} contradiction of opinion


dandelion
{LCh}rasa ; Ÿukra
wn-D√rn-a- 934

w^c-f#-∑*c-d- 956
regenerative fluid; semen
D√r! v*]! D√rn! v*][! Comment: Both males and females have this
{C}an›ropa˚at›
essential fluid.
{MSA}abhyupagata; {C}upagata; i˝yate not carry a burden/load
w^-dXe^ - 943
[by-mouth-take]; assert; accept; promise {C}not put on (of a burden)
{C}takes place; can be approached; has
w*en- 957

admitted into himself cuckoo


Øen-wn-D√rn-a-c*[- w^-h$c- 944
ityama
[you] have accepted the reason negate; refute; cease; stop
{C}mu˝˛i
cr-e#-fh]-i#[-W#n-eC^d-a-w*en-az#-h°-
wn-f#-v*]- 935
fist
when establishment by way of its own
w^e-N‘- 945

D√r! v*]! D√rn! v*][! character is negated


{MV}anupagama {MSA}nih›ra
w*en-a- 958

[by-mouth-not-take]; not assert; not accept; mist


not promise ityama
w^r- 946

negate; refute; cease; stop


wn-f#-v*]-a- 936

f$]-w^r- w*r-a(- 959

D√r! v*]! D√rn! v*][! {MSA}tamas


{C}ananujñ›na stale
darkness; obscurity; gloom
[by-mouth-not-take]; not assert; not accept; Comment: In general, it is said that after
Comment: mun pa also translates tamas. twenty-four hours any food is "stale." Even
not promise
in a refrigerator, the cold causes it to come
w^r-d$- 947
{C}no consent
into this class.
[hole-small]; small hole
w*rn-a- 960

w^rn- 948

{C}stambha; {JH}m›na; {C}˝˛ambha;


{MSA}unnata
source; source quote
haughtiness; arrogance; puffed up
[r-a(-w^rn-dNø]-a-]#- {C}rigidity; arrogance; support
the first, an indication of the source,

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 32


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

w*rn-a-[r-dCv-d- w(-d(n-N®]( -a(-fp(r-rf-f-fp(r-NIf-az#-p*-h·f- w(r-„(-d-f*[-a-


961 974 982

{MSA}kharatvap›gama
free of haughtiness; free of arrogance; free of
z[}]* -ac-dX[* -az#-N®]( -zj‹]-[dr-a(-fr(]-n$f- not{C}angry;
apratihata
non-anger; without anger
being puffed up
[}r- z[}*]- [}rn- [}(rn!z[}*][- {C}unobstructed; free from aversion;
a sense direct perception apprehending blue non-obstruction; not hostile
w*rn-a-f*[-a- 962
which induces a doubting consciousness that
w(r-„(-dc-zR^c- 983
thinks, "Was blue seen or not?"
{MV}anunnati
Comment: This is an instance of a prime/valid
without haugtiness; without arrogance; zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
cognition when ascertainment of even the
without being puffed up mere appearance is induced by another {C}pratihanyate
w*dn- (snang ba nyid kyang gzhan las nges kyi
963
become angry
tshad ma). {C}is obstructed; is frustrated; beat back; be
zw*d- zw*dn- w*d- w*dn- upset
w(-d(n-dCn# -a-vn-b*n-ac-dXz!( 975

{L}chadana; {MSA}channa
w(r-[^-y$[- 984

covering; veil; lid; affliction These are to be known through/from my own


writings {C}samanubuddha
w*dn-a- 964

[inside-to-enter]; understand; internalize;


w(-d(n-db[-ac-dX- 976

realize; penetrate
zw*d- zw*dn- w*d- w*dn-
I will explain [this] {C}fully understood
{MSA}upakleŸa
w(e-a- w(r-[^-y$[-t#r-
977 985
covering; veil; lid; affliction

w*f-a- 965
{MV}Ÿarıra {C}avag›hate
the inside; the trunk (of the body); the [inside-to-enter]; understand; internalize;
a brief period realize; penetrate
container

w*f-a-et#e-vn-f*[-a-f#]-o*- {C}plunge (into)


966

w(r- 978

w(r-[^-y$[-a- 986

it is not the case that it is not be more than one he (hon.); she (hon.)
brief period{TGP-64} adhigam; {MV}adhigama; {C}adhigata;
w(r-„(- 979
{N}avagacchati; avabudh; {MV}avabodha;
w(- 967

{C}avabodhanat›; {C}avaboddhu;
{MSA}pratigha; {C}ka˛uka {C}anubuddha; {C}avabudhyate;
he; she; it [inside-to-enter]; understand; internalize;
anger
Comment: Generally a masculine pronoun but realize; penetrate
{C}sharp; bitter
can also be used for the feminine or for both {C}penetrates to; is penetrated; has been
in the plural. pierced; look through to; appreciate; (one who
Comment: This is one of the six root
has) understood; thoroughly understood;
w(-te- 968
afflictions (rtsa nyon, mÒlakleŸa): desire
('dod chogs, r›ga); (2) anger (khong khro, entrance; recognize; understanding; sharp;
we pratigha); (3) pride (nga rgyal, m›na); (4) penetration; penetrating
ignorance (ma rig pa, avidy›); (5) doubt [(]-w(r-[^-y$[-a-
w(-]- 969

(the tshom, vicikits›); (6) afflicted view (lta


understand the meaning
ba nyon mongs can, kli˝˛a-d¸˝˛i). Compare
{MV,C}eva; tattva
w(r-[^-y$[-a-f-x#]- 987
zhe sdang (hatred) and khro ba
only; just; sole
(belligerence).
{C}exactly; truly real {C}ananubuddha
w(r-„(-[r-xv-dc-z[(c-[r-r-‰Xv- 980

cr-w(-]z#-[(]-[^- [inside-to-enter-not]; not understand; not


{MSA}pratighopek˝›-m›na understand fully; not penetrate; not realize;
for one's own sake
anger, neglect, and pride not internalize
w(-]-l*n-dX-dz#-N´nç -r*n-ac-e;$r-d- 970
{C}not understood
w(r-„(-d- 981

w(r-[^-y$[-ac-[qz-d- 988

e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn- {MSA}pratigh›ta; {C,MV}pratigha


{MSA}eva-Ÿabden›vadh›ra˚a˙ {C}duranubodha
anger
delimited by the term “only” hard to
understand/penetrate/internalize/realize
w(-]-c*----;*c-]- 971
{C}resisting; impact; aversion
Comment: This is one of the six root {C}hard to understand
if someone says... afflictions (rtsa nyon, mÒlakleŸa): desire
w(r-[^-y$[-ac-dR#-d- 989

('dod chogs, r›ga); (2) anger (khong khro,


w(-]z#-f-z[}n* - 972

pratigha); (3) pride (nga rgyal, m›na); (4) {C} avatara˚a


ignorance (ma rig pa, avidy›); (5) doubt [inside-to-enter-do]; understand; internalize;
z[}*n!z[}*- z[}*n!z[}* -z[}*n- z[}*n- (the tshom, vicikits›); (6) afflicted view (lta realize; penetrate
{C}›ve˚ika ba nyon mongs can, kli˝˛a-d¸˝˛i). Compare {C}introducing
{C}peculiar to; special zhe sdang (hatred) and khro ba
(belligerence).
w(-d(- 973

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 33


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

w(r-[^-y$[-ac-zR^c- w(r-]-zj‹]-ac-dX[* - ∑[-


990 1001 1014

{C}avatarati e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn- distinguishing feature; feature; distinctive


[inside-to-enter]; understand; internalize; feature; attribute; particular; distinction
{MSA}garbhe˚a dh›rayati
realize; penetrate
∑[-y(n- 1015
hold within
{C}enter on; go into; enters (into); descend;
w(r-]n- 1002
alight; come back to; plunge into; introduces;
take off; fathoms ∑[-ac-R#-y(n-
{MSA}gata distinguishing feature; feature; distinctive
w(r-[^-y$[-ac-z[([-a- 991

from within feature; attribute; particular; distinction;


quality
w(rn-n$- 1003
{C} avaboddhu-k›m›
wish/desrie/want to understand/penetrate D√-f*[-w(-]z#-∑[-y(n-
{C}(wants to) look through to in middle; within distinguishing feature of only Highest [Yoga
Tantra]
w(rn-n$-eo(en- 1004

w(r-[^-y$[-ac-dX-Nø-* 992

v$en-z[#z#-∑[-y(n-
{C}anugantavya included within
distinctive feature of this system
that which is to be understood/penetrated;
w(]- 1005

∑[-y(n-et#e-a$- 1016
should be understood/penetrated
{C}one should follow; one should know {MSA,L} vaira
unique distinguishing feature
enmity
w(r-[^-y$[-ac-dX-d- 993

∑[-y(n-dË([-az#-N´-ç 1017
{C}hatred; anger; emnity
{MV}anugantavya
w(]-f*[- 1006

that which is to be understood/penetrated dË([- Ë([- dË([- Ë([-


{L} avaira term expressing an attribute
w(r-[^-y$[-ac-dXz!( 994

non-enmity
∑[-[^-zsen-an- 1018

{C}pratiboddhavya; {C}prativedhayati; {C}non-emnity; lack of hostility


{C}avaboddhavya {C}viŸi˝yate
w(f- 1007

it should be understood/penetrated is distinguished; is elevated; is superior to


{C}should be observed; should penetrate; must {MSA}k˝a˚a {C}is distinguished
see through; should be understood; one should condition of leisure; leisure
∑[-[^-en([-a- 1019
look through to; should understand
Comment: See mi khom pa.
w(r-[^-y$[-ac-dX[* -a- 995
{C}atimananat›; {C}kutsayati; {MSA}(vi
w(f-a- 1008

Ωman): vim›nayati
{C}nir-vidhyate
{LCh,MSA}k˝a˚a despise; contemn
penetrate; understand; means of penetration;
condition of leisure; leisure {C}contemptuousness; contemns
means of understanding
w(fn- ∑[-[^-dn[-
1009 1020
{C}penetrates

w(r-[^-y$[-ac-dX[* -v- 996

familiar; familiarize; condition to; despise; not care about


familiarization
∑[-ac- 1021
{C}bodhayati
w(fn-az#-vf- 1010
cause to understand/penetrate
{MSA,MV,C}viŸe˝a; {MV}viŸi˝˛a;
{C}make aware of
path of familiarization {GD:264}bheda
w(r-[^-f-y$[-a- 997
attribute; feature; qualification; particular;
w(c-x$e- 1011
distinction; distinguishing feature; distinctive
{C}anavabudhyam›na feature; in particular; particularly;
not understand/penetrate/realize/understand {C}paris›manta; {C}paris›mantaka difference; feature
{C}without understanding; not understanding surrounding area {C}distinction; difference; distinctive (goal)
{C}neighborhood; circumference
w(r-[^-zj‹]- 998

Comment: Used presently to mean ∑[-ac-xr-b#]-o^-y*-dc-en$rn-n(!


“environment.” there is said to be also a very great difference
e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn-
{C}anuŸaya˙-vahati w(c-x$e-o^- 1012
∑[-ac-l#d-o^-b*n-ac-dX!
{C}harbor a latent bias towards you should know the differences in detail
{C}paris›mantaka
∑[-ac-R#-[ez-d- 1022

w(r-[^-d;$r-]n-z[^e-]- in the surrounding area


999

{C}circumference
{C}anuŸayabaddho viharati virm›nanda
w(v-sXr^ - 1013

{C}dwells tied to a basis special joy

∑[-ac-R#-‰X-^ f*[-a- 1023

w(r-[^-n(r-d- 1000
[dX^r- zdX#]- sX^r- sX^rn-
extract; excerpt [from a text] {MSA}viŸe˝a-k›ra˚›bh›va
n(r- n(r- n(r- n(r-
{C} ko˝˛hagatu
w(v-sX^r-’f-ei#n- without a distinguishing cause

gone within two extracts


{C}(got into the) stomach

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 34


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

∑[-ac-R#-y(n- ∑[-ac-[e-a-az#-cr-dl#]-R#-Øen-xr-[e- ∑[-ac-z[(en-a-x(rn-n$-h·v-d-


1024 1034 1044

attribute; feature; qualification; particular; correct nature sign free of qualification dgv- zh·v!zh°v- dgv- h·v[-
distinction; distinguishing feature; distinctive Comment: Nature signs are divided according {MSA}viŸe˝a-prajñapti-parye˝a˚›
feature to whether or not the terms expressing them thorough investigation/examination/research of
specify an agent. If an agent is specified, it is
∑[-ac-R#-h$v-t]- 1025
the designation of attributes
a sign involving a qualification (or
∑[-ac-sX-# f-sX-# f- 1045

{C}viŸe˝a-bh›gıya specification) of a cause; if not, it is a sign


free of qualification (or specification of a
having a distinctive mode
cause. See khyad par ltos pa pa'i rang bzhin {MSA}uttarottara-viŸe˝a

∑[-ac-zeC-( 1026
gyi rtags yang dag. latter features/distinctions/differences

∑[-ac-[^- ∑[-ac-zsen-
1035 1046

{MSA}viŸe˝a-gatva
enhance; become distinguished/distinctive
{L}viŸi˝˛a ∑[-ac-[^-zsen-a-
∑[-ac-t]- 1027
in particular; especially {MV,C}viŸi˝˛at›
{C}distinguished; more distinguished; distinction superior; exalted; enhanced; distinguished;
{MSA,MV}viŸi˝˛a; {C}viŸe˝a;
more distinguished
∑[-ac-[^-zR^c-d- 1036
{MSA,MV}vaiŸe˝ika; {MSA}vaiŸe˝ikat›
[particular-possessing]; special; distinctive; {C}distinctive superiority
extraordinary zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
∑[-ac-zsen-a- 1047

{C}difference; distinction; distinctive (goal) {MV}viŸe˝a


]^n-a-∑[-ac-t]-enc-[^-p(d-a- become distinctive ∑[-ac-[^-zsen-a-
{MSA}udagra
∑[-ac-[^-zeC-( 1037
the new attainnment of a special capacity
superior; exalted; enhanced; distinguished;
∑[-ac-t]-R#-N‘r-dn- 1028

enhance; become distinguished more distinguished

∑[-ac-[^-zeC-( d- ∑[-ac-N∂c≈ -d-


1038 1048

N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r-


by means of a special appearance {MSA}viŸe˝a-gamana; {MSA}viŸe˝a-g›mitva; N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[
{MV}viŸe˝a-gati
∑[-ac-y-fp%]- 1029
affix a qualification
enhance; become distinguished
∑[-ac-f#-z[}-d-sX-* 1049
viŸe˝abh›gıya
∑[-ac-[^-Ø(en-a- 1039

concordant with enhancement


distinguish the different features
∑[-ac-Ø(en-a- 1030
Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en-
∑[-ac-f*[- 1050

viŸe˝›dhigama
Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- special realization {MSA,MV}aviŸi˝˛a
{MSA}viŸe˝›dhigama
∑[-ac-[^-zsen- 1040
without difference; without distinction
special realization
∑[-ac-f*[-a-i#[- 1051

∑[-ac-Vøn( -a-a- 1031


∑[-ac-[^-zsen-a-
{MV,L}viŸi˝˛a; {MV}viŸi˝˛at›; {MV}viŸi˝˛atva {MSA}nirviŸi˝˛at›
involving a qualification superior; exalted; enhanced; distinguished; non-difference; non-distinction
more distinguished; elevated
∑[-ac-Vøn( -a-az#-cr-dl#]-R#-Øen-xr-[e- 1032

∑[-ac-f*[-ac- 1052

{C}distinguished; more distinguished; distinction


correct nature sign involving a qualification {MSA}aviŸe˝e˚a
∑[-ac-[^-zsen-a- 1041

Comment: Nature signs are divided according without difference; without distinction
to whether or not the terms expressing them {MSA}(vi ΩŸi˝): viŸi˝yate; {MSA,MV,C}viŸi˝˛a;
∑[-ac-el]-Når( n- 1053
specify an agent. If an agent is specified, it is {MV}viŸi˝˛at›; {C}viŸi˝˛atara; {MV}viŸi˝˛atva;
a sign involving a qualification (or {MSA}vaiŸe˝ya
specification) of a cause; if not, it is a sign superior; exalted; enhanced; distinguished; Når- Nå(r- Nårn- Nå(rn-
free of qualification (or specification of a more distinguished; elevated eliminate other
cause). See khyad par dag pa pa'i rang {C}distinguished; more distinguished; distinction features/distinctions/characteristics
bzhin gyi rtags yang dag.
[dX*-dz#-N´(-]n-∑[-ac-[^-zsen-az#-sX#c! ∑[-ac-v-’f-ac-Ø(e-a- 1054

∑[-ac-[e-a-a- 1033

because ... is superior by way of divisions


{MSA}viŸe˝a-vikalpa
∑[-ac-[^-dXn-a- 1042
free of qualification conceptualization of
differences/features/distinctiveness
qualified/enhanced [by]
∑[-zsen- 1055

∑[-ac-e[en-a-x(rn-n$-h·v-d- 1043

∑[-ac-[^-zsen-a-
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- {MSA}viŸi˝˛a
{MSA}viŸe˝a-prajñapti-parye˝a˚› superior; exalted; enhanced; distinguished
thorough investigation/examination/research of
the designation of attributes

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 35


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

∑[-ac-v-q^]-doen-az#-q^]-doen-n$-R^c-az# ∑d-y*-y$r- ∑d-a-z[^-dX[* -W#-N“e^ -dN®v-


1056 1066 1077

-dX-* dCe-v-q^]-doen-a- greater or smaller/entailment pervasion;


extent of entailment/pervasion
sa˙sk›radu¯kat›
pervasive suffering of conditioning; suffering
e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- of pervasive conditioning; pervasive suffering
imputation of a particular that is an imputation ∑d-y*-dz#-Nœ]
(≈ - 1067

of composition
of attribute Comment: One of the three types of
fallacy of a entailment/pervasion that is too
Comment: As in "Form is produced suffering—suffering of pain (sdug bsngal
extensive
momentarily" (gzugs skad cig la skye'o); see gyi sdug bsngal), suffering of change (’gyur
MO, 105.
∑d-y*n-d- 1068
ba’i sdug bsngal); and pervasive suffering of
conditioning.
∑[-dc-v-q^]-doen-az#-q^]-doen-n$-R^c-az# 1057

{GD:692} ativy›pti
∑d-a-’v-f- 1078

overly broad; too broad; too inclusive


-r(-d(-i#[-v-q^]-doen-a-
∑d-zu$e- 1069

e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en- normative entailment/pervasion; natural


entailment/pervasion;
imputation of just the entity that is an vi˝˚u correct/entailment/pervasion
imputation of attribute Vi˝˚u
Comment: As in "Form is produced " (gzugs Comment: Some followers of Vi˝˚u say that
[dX*-d! 1 Ë*n-∑d-’v-f! 2 V“(e-∑d-’v-f! 3
skye'o); see MO, 105. ⁄›kyamuni is the tenth incarnation of him. p%c-∑d-’v-f! 4 zev-∑d-’v-f!
∑[-f*[- 1058

∑d-zu$e-a- Div.: (1) normative forward


1070

entailment/pervasion; (2) normative reverse


{MV}aviŸi˝˛a vai˝˚ava entailment/pervasion; (3) normative downward
without difference/distinction Vai˝˚ava; follower of Vi˝˚u entailment/pervasion; (4) normative negative
entailment/pervasion
∑[-l^en- 1059

∑d-Nø-* 1071
Comment: See khyab pa phyin ci log
{C, L}viŸi˝˛a; {C}viŸi˝˛atara (perverse pervasion). c h e c k K a t h y
there is entailment/pervasion [because...]
superior; more distinguished; superiority
∑d-a-sX]# -t#-v(e- 1079

∑d-fpz- 1072
{C}distinguished; more distinguished
perverse entailment/pervasion; mistaken
∑[-l^en-ac-dX[* -a- 1060
boundaries of entailment/pervasion
entailment/pervasion
∑d-d[e- 1073
enhance; make more distinguished; make [dX*-d! Ë*n-∑d-sX#]-t#-v(e V“(e-∑d-sX#]-t#-v(e
superior
pdn-W#-y-’fn-W#n-Nø(r-i#[-Ø(en-az#-b*n-cd-∑[- [pervade-master]; pervasive sovereign p%c-∑d-sX#]-t#-v(e zev-∑d-sX#]-t#-v(e
∑d-d[e-”(-Ë*-n*fn-[az-v! Div.: (1) perverse forward
l^en-ac-dX*[-a- entailment/pervasion; (2) perverse reverse
q^]-]n-[r-dn-sXe-zhv-o*! entailment/pervasion; (3) perverse downward
the factors of method enhance the wisdom
realizing emptiness Having paid homage with complete purity to the entailment/pervasion; (4) perverse negative
Pervasive Sovereign Vajrasattva entailment/pervasion
∑[-el#- 1061
Comment: For example, whatever is a
∑d-a- 1074

definiendum is pervaded by not being


[attribute-basis]; substratum; basis of qualities permanent (mtshon bya yin na / rtag pa ma
Comment: See khyad chos (attribute). ∑d- ∑d- ∑d- ∑d- yin pas khyab pa).
{MSA,C}vy›pti; {MSA,MV}vy›pana;
∑[-el#-∑[-y(n-N∂c≈ -d- ∑d-a-f-dXr^ -
1062 1080
{MV,C}vy›pin; {MSA}vy›pta; {MSA}pÒra˚a;
{MSA}pras¸t›; {C}parisphÒ˛a; {MSA}sphura˚a
N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[ pervasion; entailment; fill; pervade; zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
aassociate substratum and attribute; penetrate; cover over vy›ptir na bhavati
predication {C}all-pervading; filled with the pervasion/entailment does not exist; there

∑[-el#-dË([-az#-N´-ç 1063
[dX*-d! 1 Ë*n-∑d! 2 V“(e-∑d! is no pervasion/entailment

∑d-az#-[f#en-a- 1081
Div.: (1) forward pervasion; (2) reverse
dË([- Ë([- dË([- Ë([- pervasion
term expressing a substratum check Kathy's thesis to see [f#en- [f#en- [f#en- [f#en-
if division trans is final vy›py›lambana
∑d- 1064

pervasive objects of observation


∑d-a-wn- 1075

∑d- ∑d- ∑d- ∑d- ∑d-ac- 1082

{MSA,MV}vy›pin; {MV}vy›pana; ∑d-a-wn-D√rn-a-c*[-


{L}vy›pada; {MSA}(Ωsphur): sphurati {C}vy›pin; parisphÒ˛a
[you] have asserted entailment/pervasion; the {C}all-pervading; filled with
entail; pervade; fill; embrace; cover over
entailment/pervasion has been asserted
∑d-ac-dXn-]n- 1083

∑d-y$rn-a- 1065

∑d-a-wn-D√rn-a-c*[- 1076

{GD:692} avy›pti {C}sph›ritv›


too little pervasion; insufficinet entailment; too ∑d-a-wn- having pervaded/filled/penetrated/covered over
limited; too narrow [you] have asserted entailment/pervasion; the {C}diffused; irradiated
{GD:692} insufficient extension; entailment/pervasion has been asserted
under-inclusion

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 36


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

∑d-ac-dX[* - ∑#f-Nør( -[^- ∑^r-c#]-y*]-eCen-


1084 1096 1107

{C}spharati {C}ŸÒnya-›g›ra Kyung-rin-chen-drak [c.1150 - 1200; a disciple


pervade/fill/penetrate/cover over {C}empty shed of Cha-fla Chö-„yi-Ôeng-gay (phya pa chos kyi
{C}radiates over seng ge)]
∑#f-pd-f*[-a- 1097

∑d-dX- ∑*[-
1085 1108

{C}apuru˝a
that which is pervaded {C}without a husband you (hon.)
Comment: That which is pervaded is the
∑#f-[^- ∑*[-cr-
1098 1109

definition of instance/particular (bye brag).


See also khyab byed du 'jug pa'i rang gi rigs at home you (hon.)
yod pa can gyi chos; khyab byed.
∑#f-z[}n# -dX[* -V“]-l#r- ∑*[-cr-h·-
1099 1110

∑d-dX[* - 1086

{C} kula-sa˙stava-sa˙prayukta you (hon. pl.)


pervader {C}intent on familiarity with the families (of the
∑*z-$ 1111
Comment: Pervader is a definition of faithful)
generality (spyi).
∑#f-a- m›nava; ŸiŸya
1100

∑d-dX[* -W#-c√r^ - 1087


boy; youth; children
{C}kula; {C}g¸hin; g¸hasta
∑*c-zw(n- 1112
pervasive wind householder
Comment: One of the five winds. {C}family
Comment: One of the two types of Buddhists
∑*c! z∑*c! ∑*c[! z∑*c[!
∑d-dX[* -[r-zev-dz#-cr-dl#]- 1088

(nang pa; lit.: insider), the other being those ability to bear; capacity to do so
who have left the householder state (rab tu
nature contradictory with a pervader
∑*c-d- 1113

byung ba), i.e., monastics.


∑d-dX[* -[^-zu$e-az#-cr-e#-c#en-x([-a-t]-R#-y( 1089

∑*c! z∑*c! ∑*c[! z∑*c[!


n- phenomenon which has a type engaging it as a ∑#f-a-[r-cd-o^-dXr^ -d-
1101
{MSA}vahana; vik˝ipta; vinihita
carry; bear; bring
pervader zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
∑*c-dc-R^c-a- 1114

Comment: This is the definition of {MSA}g¸hi-pravrajita-pak˝a


instance/particular (bye brag). See also householders and those who have left the {C}uhyam›na (=preryam›˚a)
khyab bya; khyab byed. household (i.e., monastics) {C}borne along

∑d-dX[* -f-[f#en-a- ∑#f-ac-R^c-


1090 1102

∑([- 1115

{C}g¸hi-bhÒta
[f#en- [f#en- [f#en- [f#en- you; it
became a householder; householder
vy›paka-anupalabdhi
{C}householder ∑([-el#-eC^d! ∑([-∑([-cr-f-x#]! ∑([-f-x#]-a-
non-observation of a pervader
∑([-x#]!
∑#f-dX- 1103
Comment: A type of non-observation of a
related object suitable to appear which itself ∑([-W#-V“(e-a-V“(e-y(n-s$r-n$f-gf-a(-d-[r-f#-zev-
is a division of non-observation signs of the house bird
suitable to appear. d-xr-x#]-az#-el#-fp%]-ac-[f#en-a!
∑#f-f*[-a- 1104

that which is observed as a common locus such


∑d-zdCv* - 1091

homelessness; homeless that (1) it is an established base, (2) it is not


itself, (3) non-it is it, (3) its isolate is not
related pervasion ∑#f-]n-∑#f-f*[-ac-cd-o^-dX^r-d- mutually exclusive with
∑fn- 1092
went forth from home to homelessness [i.e., isolate-phenomenon-of-the-third-type
became a monastic
w-[(e-y(n-t]! ∑([-∑([-W#-V“(e-a-x#]-ac-pv!
courtyard; hall Comment: Compare rang khyim. ∑([-el#-eC^d-az#-sX#c!
∑#- 1093
it follows with respect to the subject, color, that
∑^-fy(e- 1105

it is its own self-isolate because of being an


{C}kukkura; Ÿva; Ÿv›n {C}gopati; {C}v¸˝abhi established base
Comment: A subject marker in logical texts.
dog supreme bull; king bull [used also to refer to a The first example given above is the
leader of humans]
∑#-f- 1094
definition of ldog chos phung sum tsam po
{C}lordly bull; majestic man ba (isolate-phenomenon-of-the-third-type),
western channel at the heart illustrations of which are dgag pa (negative
∑^-fy(e-o^-zR^c-d- 1106

phenomenon), dngos po'i spyi


∑#f- 1095

(generality-of-functioning-thing), etc.
zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
{C}g¸ha; {C}geha {C}v¸˝abhit›
home; house supreme bull; king bull [used also to refer to a
{C}house; home; residence; reside leader of humans]
{C}manliness

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 37


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

∑([-W#-x#]-a-f*[-a- ∑([-p-[[-Wr-x#]! el#-fp%]-f#-nC[# -az#-y(n- „-f-


1116 1123 1131

being it does not exist; its occurrence does not phenomena (1) that are different and (2) a type of grain; quick "60 day" barley
exist common locus is impossible
„e- 1132

Comment: This is the definition of yin pa mi Comment: This is the definition of 'gal ba
srid pa (something of which being it does not (mutually exclusive phenomena). {LCh,C}rudhira
occur); in other words, it is impossible for
∑([-[*-[r-p-[[-er-l#e ∑([-[*-vn-dXr^ -d- blood
1124

anything to be it even though it exists. For


instance, ka bum (pillar and pot) exists, but w^-„e-
there is nothing that is both pillar and pot; zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- [semen-blood]; semen and blood; initial embryo
even pillar and pot are not pillar and pot since (1) it is different from that and (2) it has arisen
„e-qCn# - 1133
they are not both. Put another way, Dick and from that
Jane are not Dick and Jane. Comment: This is the definition of de byung
{L}nayuta
'brel (causal relationship/ relationship of
∑([-W#-x#]-a-f*[-a-xr-x#]-D√z( -# x$v-[^-dX-c$r-d- 1117

{C}one hundred thousand million; an


provenance).
incalculably large number
xr-x#]-az#-el#-fp%]-ac-[f#en-a- ∑([-[*-[r-p-[[-er-l#e 1125

„e-zp%r- 1134

[f#en- [f#en- [f#en- [f#en-


that observed as a common locus which is (1) [*-[r-d[e-i# [-et#e-az#-N´-( ]n-zdCv* -d-eCd^ -a- drinking blood
(1) it is different from that and (2) relation is
something of which being it does not exist and
„e-[r-w^-d-[r-c√r^ - 1135

(2) also is suitable as an object of an awareness established from the viewpoint of being one
Comment: This is the definition of yin pa mi nature/essence with that
Comment:This is the definition of de dang blood, semen, and wind
srid pa'i shes bya (object of knowledge of
bdag gcig 'brel (related as one nature with
„e-V∂- 1136
which being it is impossible).
that).
∑([-W#-x#]-a-x([-a- 1118

∑([-[(]-[f-a-xr-x#]-y(n-d[e-f*[-an-cd-o^- blood goiter


1126

„#- 1137
being it exists; its occurrence exists
Comment: This is the definition of yin pa srid
pa (something of which being it occurs).
sX-* d-(1) it is ultimate and (2) it is thoroughly {C}›sana
distinguished by [being] the selflessness of throne; ten thousand
∑([-W#-x#]-a-x([-a-xr-x#]-D√z( -# x$v-[^-dX-c$r-d- 1119

phenomena {C}seat(s); pulpit; many; multitude


Comment: In the Mind-Only system, this is
xr-x#]-az#-el#-fp%]-ac-[f#en-a- „#-nCr( -V“-* dg]- 1138

given as the reason why the thoroughly


[f#en- [f#en- [f#en- [f#en- established nature is called the Tri-Ôong-day-·zen (king of Tibet, r. 755-797)
that observed as a common locus which is (1) "ultimate-non-nature" (don dam pa ngo bo
„#[- 1139
something of which being it exists and (2) also is nyid med pa, param›rthani¯svabh›vat›).
suitable as an object of an awareness
∑([-Nåd( n-ac-R#n-b#e- 1127

Comment: This is the definition of yin pa srid „#[! z„#[! „#[! „#[!
pa'i shes bya (object of knowledge of which {MSA}(Ωnı): nıyate
dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n-
being it is possible). lead; lead through; guide
{C} pratibh›ti
as noun: leader; instruction
∑([-W#n- 1120
{C}may you make clear; flashes into my mind;
inspire; it is clear; it becomes clear; lighten up z(e-f#]-[^-„#[-[*-
by you; you (the mind); intelligibly; make clear; appears having led him to a Highest [Pure] Land

∑([-y(n-[r-p-[[-er-l#e 1121

∑([-f#r-[r-d”n-dle-a-gf-x#]-R#-cr-e#-fh „#[-a- 1128 1140

[*-V“e( -Nød( n-W#n-∑([-V“e( -[e(n- ]-i#they


[-W#[i.e.,
n-f-eCimputational
d^ -a- natures] are only „#[! z„#[! „#[! „#[!
V“(e- V“(e- V“(en- V“(en- {MSA,MV}nayana
(1) it!is different from phenomenon and (2) it posited by names and terminology and are not lead; lead through; guide
must cease through the power of that ceasing established by way of their own character as noun: leader; instruction
Comment: This is the definition of 'brel ba Comment: This is the reason given in the
„#[-x#e- 1141

(related phenonenon). Mind-Only system for saying that


imputational natures are
∑([-p-NI[-W#-[dr-e#n-dle-a-f-x#]-ac-cr-e#- 1122
"character-non-natures" (mtshan nyid ngo [lead-letter]; manual of instruction(s)
bo nyid med pa, lak˝a˚ani¯svabh›vat›).
„#fn- 1142

fh]-i# [-W#n-eCd^ -az#-[r(n-a(-


they are things established by way of their own „- 1129

law; rule; ethics


character without being posited through the
force of verbal conventions
sparrow hawk N∂≈#]-an-v(rn-Nå≈([-„#fn-∑#n-d[*-
„-d(- 1130
Comment: In the Mind-Only system, this is from giving, resources; from ethics, happiness
given as a reason why other-powered natures Comment: Used as an abbreviation for tshul
exist ultimately. {MSA}citra khrims (ethics).
mottled; variegated
Comment: Used to refer to the mottle of
colors on the wings of a butterfly.

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 38


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

„#fn-zyv- „*v-f*[-a- „(-d-;#v-e](]-


1143 1153 1160

{C}du¯Ÿıla anapatr›pya {MSA}krodh›bhibhÒti


deviant ethics; non-ethical; immoral; ethically non-embarassment overwhlem belligerence; overwhelm
disordered Comment: This is one of the twenty wrathfulness
{C}immoral secondary afflictions (nye nyon nyi shu,
„(-d-d;([-a- 1161

Comment: shes rab 'chal ba refers to one upakleŸa): (1) belligerence (khro ba,
whose mind is disordered and runs from topic krodha); (2) resentment ('khon 'dzin,
to topic. Similary, 'chal pa means a lecher. upan›ha); (3) concealment ('chab pa, d;([- d;([- d;([- d;([-
mrak˝a); (4) spite ('tshig pa, prad›sa); (5) {MSA}k˝aya¯ (=k˝ama¯) kruddhe¯
„#fn-V“]- 1144

jealousy (ır˝y›); (6) miserliness (m›tsarya); withstand/bear/forbear/endure/tolerate


(7) deceit (sgyu, m›y›); (8) dissimulation belligerence/wrath
{C}Ÿılavat
(g.yo, Ÿ›˛hya); (9) haughtiness (rgyags pa,
„(-dc-dX[* - 1162
endowed with ethics
„*v-x([-a- 1154

{C}gifted with ethics; endowed with ethics (or


{C}›kruŸati
good conduct)
{LCh,C}apatr›pya {C}insults, abuses
„^r-„^r- 1145
embarrasment
„(-d(- 1163

{C}dread of blame
crane Comment: This is one of the eleven virtuous krodha
mental factors (sems byung dge ba,
„^n- 1146
wrathful
kuŸalacaitta): (1) faith (dad pa, Ÿraddh›); (2)
dqC^! z„^[! dqC^n! „^n! z„^! z„^! „^n! „^n! shame (ngo tsha shes pa, hrı); (3) en$r-]#! ”(-Ë*-[r-! „(-d(-[r-! y(n-[r-!
embarrassment (khrel yod pa, apatr›pya); (4)
bathing; ablution; wash; cleanse; ablute; non-attachment (ma chags pa, alobha); (5)
env-dz#-[dX*-d-Nø*! dl#z(!
become clean; be washed non-hatred (zhe sdang med pa, adve˝a); (6) Exalted speech is fourfold: vajra, wrathful,
non-ignorance (gti mug med pa, amoha); (7) doctrine, and clarity {Dor 3a.2/ 189.2}
„^n-dX[* -a- 1147

effort (brtson 'grus, vırya); (8) pliancy (shin „(-ei*c-[r-dtn-l#r-„(-d(-”(-Ë*-Vø-dn-e;#en-az(!


[wash-perform]; perform ablution; wash;
„*v-x([-a-[r-r(-h- 1155
He has a wrathful frown, and he looks with the
ablute wrathful-vajra gaze {Dor 25a.6/ 233.6}
{C}hrır-apatr›pya
„*en- 1148

„(f- 1164
embarassment and shame; sense of
embarassment and sense of shame
hardness
{C}sense of shame and dread of blame marketplace; market [in outdoor area]

„*en-y([- 1149
Comment: To be distinguished from tshong
„(- 1156
khang (store).
break-through
„(n-a- 1165
{MSA}krodhana
Comment: In the Great Completeness
belligerence
(rdzogs chen) in Óying-ma, essential purity {C}ru˝˛a; kopa
(ka dag) is paired with breakthrough Comment: See khro ba.
enraged; angered; wrathful; belligerent;
(khregs chod; literally, "breaking through the
„(-ei*c- 1157
hatred
hard") while spontaneity (lhun grub) is paired
{C}angry
with leap-over (thod rgal) in ka dag khregs {C}bhrÒku˛ı
„(n-f-]e-f(- 1166
chod lhun grub thod rgal. frown
{C}frown
„*v- 1150

Fierce Black Goddess


„(-d- 1158

fw]- 1167
embarassment; shame; bashfulness
Comment: See khrel yod pa.It is an avoidance {LCh,MSA,C}krodha; {MSA}kruddhi;
of faults from the viewpoint of another's {C}›kruŸati; {C}›kroŸyate {MV}k›ra
disapproval and thus involves a concern for belligerence; wrathful; fierce [marker for agent]
others' opinions, whereas ngo tsha (shame) is {C}wrath; anger; frenzy; insults; abuses; is c#en-b*n-[*-dgv-fw]-x#]-v-
an avoidance of faults from the viewpoint of abused
one's own disapproval (i.e., self-image) or of that reasoning consciousness is an investigator
Comment: This is one of the twenty
religious prohibition.
fw]-a(- 1168
secondary afflictions (nye nyon nyi shu,
upakleŸa): (1) belligerence (khro ba,
„*v-[r-V“]- 1151

krodha); (2) resentment ('khon 'dzin, {C}up›dhy›ya


{MSA}hrı-yukta upan›ha); (3) concealment ('chab pa, preceptor; abbot; professor; scholar
endowed with a sense of embarassment/shame mrak˝a); (4) spite ('tshig pa, prad›sa); (5) {C}preceptor
jealousy (ır˝y›); (6) miserliness (m›tsarya);
Comment: See khrel yod pa.
(7) deceit (sgyu, m›y›); (8) dissimulation
fw]-a(-y*]-a(-Dµ-dX-v*en-V“]-zdX*[-v-cd-o^-dX^r-Nø*!
„*v-f*[- 1152
(g.yo, Ÿ›˛hya); (9) haughtiness (rgyags pa, [Mañjushrıkırti] became a monstic in the
presence of the great preceptor Bhavya,
„(-d-t]- 1159

anapatr›pya Bh›vaviveka {GZ 66b.2}


non-embarrassment; unabashedness Comment: This word often means "abbot," but
{MSA}krodhana
Comment: See next entry. it also refers to someone versed in a topic.
belligerent; wrathful

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 39


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

fw]-a(-z[}-d- fwn-a- fwn-az#-cr-dl#]-t]-


1169 1177 1187

{MSA}up›dhy›ya-kalpa {MV,MSA}pa˚˜ita; {MSA}kuŸala; {C}pa˚˜ita-j›tıya


like a preceptor/abbot/professor {MSA,C}kauŸala; {MV,MSA}kauŸalya; having the nature of a wise person/scholar
{C}dak˝a; {MSA}budha; {MSA}vicak˝a˚a; {C}intelligent
fwz- 1170
{MSA,C}vijña; {C}vidu; {MSA}vidus; pa˚˜i˛a
adjective: skillful; wise; skilled; proficient
fwn-ac- 1188

ambara; {MSA}›k›Ÿa; {C}vyoma noun: scholar; the wise; wise person


space; sky {C}circumspect; beneficial; skill; clever; proficiently; skillfully
expert; discerning; experienced
]f-fwz- ‰X^[-[dr-f]-re-[r-dtn-a-v-fwc-ac-N∂≈rn-n(!
space
’v-zdX(c-‰X^[-v-fwn-az#-f#-en$f! [He] trained proficiently in the tantras and
z[^n-f-dXn-W#-]f-fwz- [(]-v-fwn-a-nrn-‰Xn-enr-d! initiations together with their quintessential
instructions.{GZ 64a.1}
uncompounded space h‹e-v-fwn-a-bZW-eb**n-ei*]!
fwn-ac-V“]- 1189

fwz-zeC-( 1171
h‹e-[(]-ei#n-q-v-fwn-a-q^]-[ez-NI#r-a(!
The three people proficient in Yoga Tantra are {MSA}kauŸalya-yukta
˜›ka
Buddhaguhya, proficient in the meaning; endowed with skill/wisdom
[sky-goer]; ˜›ka [realized beings who in male Sh›kyamitra, proficient in the words; and
fwn-ac-dX-d- 1190
form provide help to Tantric meditators]; finandagarbha, proficient in both the meaning
male sky-travellers; male sky-goers and the words {GZ 65a.4} {C}kauŸalya
fwn-a-[r-V“]-a- 1178

fwz-zeC-( f- 1172
object/topic of scholarship/skill
{MSA}kauŸalya-yukta {C}skill
˜›kı˚ı
endowed with skilfulness; endowed with wisdom
fwn-ac-dXn-]n- 1191
[sky-goer-female]; ˜›ki˚ı [realized beings who
fwn-a-[r-zjrn-an-c#e-ac-dR#-d- 1179
in female form provide help to Tantric
meditators]; female sky-travellers; female having become skilled/proficient
sky-goers dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n-
fwn-ac-dX[* -az#-[f#en-a- 1192

{C} pa˚˜ita-vijñ›-vedanıya
fwz-v- 1173

{C}to be felt only by the learned and discerning [f#en- [f#en- [f#en- [f#en-
{C}vih›yas› (=›k›Ÿena)
fwn-a-’f-a-dt$- 1180
objects that make one skillful
in the sky/space; through the sky/space
fwn-c#e-a- 1193
{C}through the air {MV}daŸavidha˙ kauŸalyam
ten aspects of skill/wisdom
fwc-R#-‰Xv-a(- 1174
{C}vidu

fwn-a-’fn-W#-vn-’f-en$f-a(- 1181
{C}wise; experienced
{C}ko˛˛a-r›jan
fwn-b#r-pdn-b*n-a-x#]- 1194
king of a fort; comander of a fort {MSA}budhe˝u karma trividha˙
{C}commander of a fort three aspects of activites of the skilful {MSA}vicak˝a˚aŸ ca bhavati up›ya-jña¯
fwn- 1175

fwn-a-’fn-W#n-h$v-dl#]-dØen-]- 1182
wise/skilful and knowing methods/techniques

fw^c-h(n- 1195
{MV}kauŸala; {MV}kauŸalya; {C}sÒri;
{MSA}budha; {MSA}v›gmin dØe- Ø(e- dØen- Øen-
wise; skilled; be skillful; scholar {MSA}vidu˝›˙ yoni-vicay›t cheeks
{C}hero if/when the wise analyze properly
fw(-d- 1196

Comment: smra mkhas = v›k-kara˚a{MSA}.


fwn-a-v-zdXr^ -dz#-[(en-az#-e]n- 1183

necessary; important
fwn-eCd^ - 1176

zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- r*n-ac-fw(-d-


fwn-eC^d-Ë*-[e*-v*en-[av-d;r-a(- topic of qualm arising in scholars/the wise definitely necessary
Kay-drup [1385-1438; one of ‚zong-ka-fla's
fwn-a-b*n-sXc# -zu#e-Ø*]- 1184

f∑^[- 1197

two main students and 3rd abbot of Gan-den


(dga' ldan) monastery] {C} loka-vidusya
{C}for the sake of knowing the world (?)
f∑^[! f∑^[! f∑^[! f∑^[!
{MSA}mu˝˛i
fwn-az#-zu%e-az#-’f-db[- 1185
fist; keep; hold; retain; conceal
Comment: dpe mkhyud means to hold onto
{GD:847} Commentary on the Entry Gate of books and thus an unwillingness to lend
the Wise [by ⁄›kya Chok-den (Ÿ› kya mchog books; this is how it comes to mean
ldan)] miserliness with respect to the doctrine.

fwn-az#-[f#en-a-
1186

f∑*]- 1198

f∑*]- f∑*]- f∑*][- f∑*][-


fwn-ac-dX
[f#en-[
* -az# -[f#[f#een-a-
[f#en- n- [f#en- {C}j›nit›; {C}jñ›na; {C}jñ›to; {C}buddha;
kauŸaly›lambana {MSA}boddh¸; {LCh}vid
object of observation for [developing] skill exalted wisdom; know; wisdom (hon.);
knowledge; cognize; cognition
{C}cognize; known; cognized; Buddha

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 40


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

f∑*]-]n- zw^fn- zw(c-R#-[W#v-zw(c-


1199 1208 1216

f∑*]- f∑*]- f∑*][- f∑*][- w^f! zw^fn! w^fn! w^fn! {MSA}pari˝an-ma˚˜ala;


{MSA,C}par˝an-ma˚˜ala
{C}buddhv› listen; hear; understand; realize circle of attendants; circle of companions;
having known/cognized/realized zuf-[av-[r-]#-f$-o#-o-v-zw^fn! circle of the retinue
{C}having known
listened to Mañjushrı and Mutita {GZ/BG {C}circle of the assembly

f∑*]-a- 1200
69a.3}
zw(c-R#-Nœ-*≈ d(- 1217

zw^c- 1209

f∑*]- f∑*]- f∑*][- f∑*][- {MSA}parijana


{C}jñ›na; {C}jñ›ta; {C}j›n›ti; {C}praj›n›ti; responsibility; burden; carry; take on a burden being who is in the retinue
{C}praj›nayati; {MSA}boddh¸; {LCh}vid;
d[*-d-[r-V“]-ac-dX-dz#-zw^c- zw(c-R#-]r-[^- 1218
{MSA}( Ωvid): vetti
exalted knowledge; exalted knower; responsibility of causing them to have happiness {MSA}par˝atsu
knowledge; know; exalted wisdom; wisdom
zw([- in the retinue
1210
(hon.)

zw(c-zR^c- 1219
{C}cognize; cognizes; cognized; known;
knows; knowing; knows, in his wisdom; knows zw([! zw([! w([! w([!
wisely; comprehends ni˝ad zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
Comment: Equivalents taken from Grounds sit; set; settle circling
and Paths (sa lam) are path of liberation
zw([-a- 1211

zw(c-zR^c-d- 1220
(that lam), exalted wisdom (ye shes), clear
realizer (mngon rtogs), mother (yum),
vehicle (theg pa). zw([! zw([! w([! w([! zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
{MSA}(Ωsth›): ti˝˛hanti {C}sa˙sarati
f∑*]-az#-eo*c- 1201

sit; set; settle {C}wander about (in birth-and-death)

zw([-ac-zsen- 1212
f∑*]- f∑*]- f∑*][- f∑*][-
zw(c-‰X-fh·-f#-z„^en-a- 1221

treasure of exalted knowledge {C}visi˝˛a


z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en-
f∑*]-dl#]-[^- 1202
{C}distinguished
{C}s›garopamay› par˝ad› ak˝obhyaya
zw(]- 1213

f∑*]- f∑*]- f∑*][- f∑*][- {C}to an assembly vast like the ocean and
imperturbable
{C}j›nann eva {LCh}upan›ha
zw(c-N´c&≈ - 1222
while knowing resentment; malice
{C}although he knows the answer Ë*-d(-v-zw(]-a- zw(c-v(-N´≈&c-d-
f„#n- 1203
resentment towards leaders
cakravartin
f„#n-a- eC(en-zw(]- universal monarch
resentment towards friends Comment: A universal monarch rules by way
bile
Comment: See next entry. of a wheel.
c√^r-f„#n-d[-q]-z[^n-az#-][-y*]-
zw(c-i*-d-[r-c#r-dn-fh$rn-ac-p(n- 1223

zw(]-zj‹]- 1214

great diseases of the combination of wind, bile,


and phlegm {MSA}dÒr›ntika-par˝at-tulya-Ÿrava˚a
zw(]-[^-zj‹]-a-
Comment: In the Tibetan medical system, one retinue near and far similarly hear
upan›ha
of the three primary elements promoting
zw(c-[r-dtn-a- 1224

health, when balanced, and disease, when resentment


imbalanced--the other two being wind Comment: This is one of the twenty
{MSA}sa-pariv›ra
(rlung) and phlegm (bad kan). The three are secondary afflictions (nye nyon nyi shu,
upakleŸa): (1) belligerence (khro ba, together with the retinue/companions
called the three problematics (nyes pa, doŸa),
krodha); (2) resentment ('khon 'dzin,
zw(c-[r-Vør^ -d- 1225
often mistranslated as "humours," which are
necessarily fluids whereas wind is not a fluid. upan›ha); (3) concealment ('chab pa,
mrak˝a); (4) spite ('tshig pa, prad›sa); (5) {C} sabh›Ÿraya
f„#n-V∂- 1204
jealousy (ır˝y›); (6) miserliness (m›tsarya); {C}assembly-hall
(7) deceit (sgyu, m›y›); (8) dissimulation
zw(c-z[n- 1226
bile goiter (g.yo, Ÿ›˛hya); (9) haughtiness (rgyags pa,

f„*en-a(- zw(c-
1205 1215

zw(c-d-[r-fX-r]-vn-z[n-a-
hard (of objects) {MSA,C}pariv›ra; {MSA}par˝ad; {C}par˝at; cyclic existence and nirv›˚a
{C}sa˙sara˚a (=janma-graha˚a);
zw^-d- zw(c-s$]-n$f-h·en-a-
1206 1227
{C}sa˙sarati; {MSA}sa˙s¸ti; {C}cakra;
{MSA}ga˚a; {MSA}ma˚˜ala
{LCh}drugdha; {LCh}droha sphere; retinue; companion; attendant; {MSA}paric›ra-sa˙pad
scorn; vie with; contend; harboring ill-will; repaying marvelous/excellent/perfect retinue
wrong ideas {C}repeated rebirths; wander about in
birth-and-death; wander about; assembly;
zw^-d-V®-n(en- 1207

wheel
five wrong ideas and so forth

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 41


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

zw(c-d- zw(c-d-[r-l#-d-c(-et#e-a- zw(c-dz#-


1228 1240 1250

{MV,MSA,C}sa˙s›ra; {MSA}sa˙sarat›; {MSA}sa˙s›ra-Ÿ›nty-eka-rasa {C}bhava


{MSA}sa˙v¸ti the one/single/sole taste of cyclic existence and {C}becoming
cyclic existence; cycle [of powerless birth, peace
zw(c-dz#-zw(c-v(- 1251

aging, sickness, and death]


zw(c-d-]-‰X-^ d- 1241

{C}transmigration; birth-and-death {C} sa˙s›ra-cakri

zw(c-d-wn-v*]-a- 1229
‰X^- ‰X^- ‰X^- ‰X^- wheel of cyclic existence
{C}sa˙s›r›vacara {C}the wheel of birth-and-death
{MSA}sa˙s›r›bhyupagama
wandering in cyclic existence
zw(c-dz#-‰X]^ - 1252

assert cyclic existence


{C}bound up with samsara; 'which afflict on the
zw(c-d-u#-nC[# - 1230
plane of samsara'; belonging to samsara {C}sa˙s›ra-srota
continuum of cylcic existence
zw(c-d-]-e]n-a- 1242
{C}asa˙s›ram {C}the flood of birth-and-death
as long as cyclic existence lasts; as long as
{C}sa˙s›-gata
zw(c-dz#-fr(]-fp(- 1253
there is cyclic existence
dwelling in cyclic existence
{C}as long as the samsaric world lasts
{C}subject to birth-and-death high status within cyclic existence
zw(c-d-u#-nC[# -ac- 1231
Comment: The term mngon mtho
zw(c-d-]-Nå[(≈ -a- 1243

(abhyudaya) refers to elevated (ud) states,


{MSA}y›vat-sa˙s›ram i.e., the happinesses, of humans and gods
as long as cyclic existence lasts; as long as Nå≈[- Nå≈([- Nå≈[- Nå≈([- relative to animals, hungry ghosts, and
there is cyclic existence {C}sa˙s›r›vacara hell-beings within the five types of lives in
coursing in cyclic existence cyclic existence.
zw(c-d-eo(r-d-f*[-i#[- 1232

{C}bound up with samsara; 'which afflict on the


zw(c-dz#-y(n-t]- 1254

plane of samsara'; belonging to samsara


eor- eo(r- dor- p(rn-
zw(c-d-;[-W#-dc-[^- {C}sa˙s›ra˚a-dharmin
1244
{MSA}sa˙s›r›ty›ga
non-forsaking of cyclic existence subject to cyclic existence
{C}›sa˙s›r›t {C}subject to wandering about in
zw(c-d-dNø]* -a- 1233
until the extinction of cyclic existence birth-and-death
{C}throughout the round of birth-and-death
zw(c-dz#-N“e^ -dN®v- 1255

dNø]* - Nø]* - dNø]* [- Nø]* [-


zw(c-d-x(rn-n$-eo(r- 1245

{MSA}sa˙s›ra-ni˝eva˚a {MSA}sa˙s›ra-du¯kha
partaking of/adhere to cyclic existence suffering of cyclic existence
eor- eo(r- dor- p(rn-
zw(c-d-p(e-f-[r-p-f-f*[-a- 1234
{MV}khinna¯ sa˙s›ra˙ parityajeta
zw(c-dz#-Ì-d- 1256

thoroughly renounce/forsake/give up cyclic


{MV}anavar›grasya … sa˙s›rasya existence root of cyclic existence
cyclic existence without beginning or end
zw(c-d-x(rn-n$-f#-eo(r-d- zw(c-dz#-;e-a-
1246 1257

zw(c-d-[e-o^-x(rn-n$-dN®-( 1235

eor- eo(r- dor- p(rn- contamination of cyclic existence


{MSA}sa˙s›re pari˚›man›
{MSA}sa˙s›r›parity›ga
zw(c-dz#-;e-a-[r-dtn-a- 1258
thoroughly dedicate to those in cyclic existence
non-renunciation/non-forsaking of cyclic
zw(c-d-[r-fp%]-a-i#[- 1236
existence together with a contaminated phenonemon of
cyclic existence
zw(c-d-x(rn-n$-b*n-a- 1247
{MSA}sa˙s›r›nukÒlat›
zw(c-dc-zw(c-]n- 1259
concordant with cyclic existence
{MSA}sa˙s›ra-parijñ›na
zw(c-d-[r-fX-r]-vn-z[n- 1237
thorough knowledge of cyclic existence {C}sa˙s¸tya
having wandered/travelled in cyclic existence
zw(c-d-vn-r*n-ac-zdXr^ -d-
1248
{MSA}sa˙s›ra-nirv›˚a
{C}after he has wandered about
cyclic existence and nirv›˚a; sa˙s›ra and
zw(c-dc-zR^c-d- 1260
nirv›˚a

zw(c-d-[r-fX-r]-vn-z[n-a-v-f#-e]n-a-i#[ r*n-zdX 1238 r^ -^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-


zdX
{MSA}sa˙s›r›n ni¯sara˚a˙ zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
{C}sa˙sarati
- {MSA}aprati˝˛hita-sa˙s›ra-nirv›˚atva definite emergence/deliverance/leaving from
cyclic existence cycle/travel in cyclic existence
not abiding in cyclic existence and nirv›˚a; not {C}wander about (in birth-and-death)
zw(c-d-v*]-a-[r-Når( -d- 1249

abiding in sa˙s›ra and nirv›˚a


zw(c-dc-fr(]-fp(-dX[* - 1261

zw(c-d-[r-fX-r]-vn-z[n-a-v-f#-e]n-a- 1239
Når- Nå(r- Nårn- Nå(rn- {MSA}sa˙s›re 'bhyuday›ya
{MV}sa˙s›r›d›na-ty›ga
{MV}sa˙s›ra-nirv›˚›prati˝˛hit› cause [attainment of] high status in cyclic
assumption and abandonment of cyclic
not abiding in cyclic existence and nirv›˚a; not existence
existence
abiding in sa˙s›ra and nirv›˚a

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 42


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

zw(c-dc-eo(en-a- zw(c-v(n-N´c&≈ -d- zw(c-en$f-x(rn-n$-[e-a-


1262 1275 1283

{MSA}sa˙s›ra-gata {MV,MSA,C}cakra-vartin {C}trima˚˜ala-pariŸuddhi


included in cyclic existence universal monarch thoroughly devoid [of conceptualization] of
Comment: A universal monarch rules by way three spheres [i.e., agent, action, and object]
zw(c-dc-x(rn-n$-dN®-( 1263

of a wheel. {C}three-fold perfect purity


{MSA}sa˙s›re pari˚›man›
zw(c-v(n-N´c&≈ -dz#-‰Xv-a(- z∑f-
1276 1284

thoroughly dedicate to cyclic existence [i.e., to


those in cyclic existence] {C}r›ja-cakravartin z∑f! z∑f! z∑fn! z∑fn!
king who is a universal monarch
zw(c-dn-zu#en-a- 1264
wander
{C}universal monarch
z∑fn- 1285
{MSA}sa˙s›ra-bhıta
zw(c-v(n-dN´c&≈ -dz#-‰Xv-a(- 1277

frightened by cyclic existence


z∑f! z∑f! z∑fn! z∑fn!
dN´≈&c- N´≈&c- dN´≈&c[- N´≈&c[-
zw(c-l#-c(-et#e-a- 1265

{C}bhramate
cakravartin
wander
zw(c-d-[r-l#-d-c(-et#e-a- universal emperor; universal monarch
{C}revolves
{MSA}sa˙s›ra-Ÿ›nty-eka-rasa
zw(c-v(n-fh]- 1278

z∑fn-b#r- 1286
the one taste of cyclic existence and peace
{C}cakrݼka
zw(c-v$c-dX[* -ac- 1266
{C} sa˙dh›vya
marked by a wheel
wander
{C}par˝ad-guruka {C}lines depicting a wheel stamped on
{C}after he has erred about
{C}one who prefers a communal life
zw(c-en$f- 1279

z∑#v-d- 1287

zw(c-v(- 1267

{MSA}trima˚˜ala
{MV}cakra the three spheres [of self-contradiction]; three z∑#v! z∑#v[! ∑#v! ∑#v[!
wheel; channel wheel spheres [i.e., agent, action, and object]; "The {C}›vartat›; {C}›vartta
three spheres!" twisted; turned; accumulate together
zw(c-v(-N´c&≈ -d- 1268

zw(c-en$f-wn- {C}is twisted; curl and turning

z∑^[-a- 1288
zw(c-N´≈&c- [You] have asserted three spheres [of
cakravartin self-contradiction]
universal monarch zw(c-en$f-f#-[f#en-a- z∑^[! z∑^[! ∑^[! ∑^[!
Comment: A universal monarch rules by way embrace; hug
non-apprehension of the three spheres [of
of a wheel.
z∑*c- 1289
agent, action, and object as when giving a gift
or meditating]
zw(c-v(-’f-a-t]-R#-n*fn- 1269
Comment: A logical term used when the
opponent has been boxed in. The three are to ∑*c! z∑*c! ∑*c[! z∑*c[!
mind possessing the aspect of a [divine] circle have asserted either explicitly or implicitly carry; bear; bring
(1) the entailment/pervasion (khyab pa khas
zw(c-v(-dc-a- Nœ^-en$f-vf-z∑*c-
1270

blangs pa red), (2) the reason (rtags khas


blangs pa red), and (3) the opposite of the bringing the three exalted bodies to the path
middle wheel [of the teaching, mainly the
predicate of the consequence (gsal ba'i
Perfection of Wisdom SÒtras]
z∑*c-zw(n- 1290

zlogs phyogs khas blangs pa red). Spoken or


zw(c-v(-Ì‹dn-Nør( -[r-V“]-a- 1271
shouted in debate by the challenger to
∑*c! z∑*c! ∑*c[! z∑*c[!
zw(c-en$f-R#n-[e-a- 1280
{C}sahasr›racakra ability to bear; capacity to do so
wheel having a thousand spokes
{MSA}Ÿuddha trima˚˜alena
z„#-b#r- 1291

zw(c-v(-c#]-y*]- 1272
devoid [of conceptualization] of three spheres
[i.e., agent, action, and object] {C}lat›
{C}cakra-ratana vine; creeping plant; creeper
zw(c-en$f-’f-ac-[e-i#[- 1281

precious wheel {C}creeper; creeping plant


{C}precious wheel {C}trima˚˜ala-viŸuddhat›
z„#en- 1292

zw(c-v(-c#]-a(-y*- 1273
devoidness [of conceptualization] of three
spheres [i.e., agent, action, and object] z„#e! z„#e! z„#en! z„#en!
{MSA}cakra-ratna {C}three-fold purity
gather; be piled up
precious wheel
zw(c-en$f-’f-ac-[e-a- 1282

]f-fwz-v-yc-Nåç#]-z„#en-o*-
zw(c-v(-v-n(en-a-c#]-a(-y*-N‘-d[^]- 1274

{C}trima˚˜ala-viŸuddhi rain clouds gathered in the sky


{MSA}cakr›di-sapta-ratna devoid [of conceptualization] of three spheres
z„#[- 1293

seven types of precious articles—the wheel, [i.e., agent, action, and object]
and so forth {C}three-fold purity „#[! z„#[! „#[! „#[!
lead; lead through; guide
as noun: leader; instruction

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 43


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

z„#[-a- z„^e-ac-dX-d- z„^v-zw(c-


1294 1304 1314

{MV}nayana z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- {C}yantra


lead; lead through; guide device; machine
{C}vikopayati
as noun: leader; instruction {C}machinery
{C}do harm; upset; disturb
z„#v-de-yen- z„^v-zw(c-N∂c≈ -d-
1295 1315

z„^e-ac-dX[* - 1305

{C}v¸ttat›
z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[
{C}well-rounded
{C}yantra-yukta
{C}kutsayati;{C} pratikopayati; {C}vikopayati
z„#n- 1296
put together a device; put together a machine
disturb; make angry/agitated
{C}a puppet which can be moved by pulling the
{C}contemns; be angry; do harm; upset; disturb
near; close to; next to strings
z„^en- 1306

z„^e- 1297

z„^v-‰X-^ 1316

z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- cause of error/mistake
{MSA}kupita; {MSA}vik›rya
{C}up›y›sa; {C}k˝obha; {C}vik˝ipta
z„^v-‰X-^ t]- 1317

be disturbed/angry/agitated; fight
be disturbed/angry/agitated; fight

z„^en-a- 1307
{C}despair; misery; rage; anger having a cause of error/mistake
{GD:486} cause of error; {GD:736} leading to
z„^e-a-dX[* -a- 1298

z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- error


z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- {C}k˝ubhita; {C}up›y›sa; {MSA}kopa;
z„^v-‰X-^ Ø*]-v-x([-a- 1318

{MV}kopyatva; {MSA}k˝obhya;
{C}k˝ubhyati {MSA}vikopana; {MSA}vibhrama
get disturbed/agitated; become angry; fight that having a cause of error/mistake in the
be disturbed/angry/agitated; fight basis
{C}get angry with {C}agitated; disturbed; despair; misery Comment: An instance of this is a sense
z„^e-a-f*[-t#r-x(rn-n$-Ô·en-a-f*[-a- 1299

z„^en-ac-zR^c-d- consciousness to which, in dependence upon


1308

the eyes [which are the basis of an eye


z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- consciousness] being affected by opthamalia,
{C}an›sv›danat› one moon appears as two (mig rab rib kyis
{C}k˝obha˙ gacchati bslad pa la brten nas zla gcig zla gnyis su
{C}no enjoyment; derive no enjoyment become distrubed/agitated/angry snang ba'i dbang shes). This is one of the
z„^e-a-f*[-a- {C}get into a rage
1300
seven types of facsimiles of direct perception
(mngon sum ltar snang): mistaken
z„^r- 1309

z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en-


z„^v-‰X-^ [*-f-pe-ŒX]* -v-x([-a- 1319

{C}akopan›; {C}ak˝obha˚at›; {C} avik˝epa z„^r-! z„^r-! z„^rn! z„^rn!


non-disturbance; non-anger; absence of anger; {C}prarohati that having a cause of error/mistake in the
non-agitation immediately preceding condition
come into being; be born
{C}immovability; undisturbed; imperturbility; Comment: An instance of this is a sense
{C}grow up
absence of distractions; non-disturbance; consciousness to which the area appears as
z„^rn- 1310
non-distraction red in dependence upon the mind's being
disturbed by anger (yid zhe sdang gis dkrugs
z„^e-az#-n*fn- 1301

z„^r-! z„^r-! z„^rn! z„^rn! pa la brten nas sa gzhi dmar por snang ba'i
dbang shes). This is one of the seven types of
z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- come into being; be born
facsimiles of direct perception (mngon sum
{C}abundant; grow up
{C}k˝obha˚a-citta ltar snang): mistaken conceptions ('khrul

z„^[- ba'i rtog pa), conventional conceptions (kun


1311
mind of disturbance; disturbed/agitated mind
{C}watchfulness
z„^v-‰X-^ e]n-v-x([-a- 1320

dqC^! z„^[! dqC^n! „^n!


z„^e-az#-n*fn-zez-gf-xr-Nœ[*≈ -ac-f#-dX[* -[*- 1302

bathing; ablution that having a cause of error/mistake in the


abode
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
z„^[- 1312

Comment: An instance of this is an eye


{C}cittotp›dam api na k˝obhayati consciousness which, in dependence upon
does not generate even any mental dqC^! z„^[! dqC^n! „^n! one's abiding in a boat, sees trees as moving
disturbance/agitation (grur zhugs pa la brten nas ljon shing 'gro
bathing; ablution; bathe
{C}does not get angry even in his mind bar snang ba'i dbang shes). This is one of the
z„^v- 1313

seven types of facsimiles of direct perception


z„^e-ac-zR^c-l#r- 1303

(mngon sum ltar snang): mistaken


z„^v! z„^v! z„^v[! z„^v[! conceptions ('khrul ba'i rtog pa),
z„^e- z„^e- z„^en- z„^en- {MV}bhr›nti conventional conceptions (kun rdzob kyi
{C}k˝ubhyati mistake; be mistaken; be confused; err
become disturbed/angry/agitated as noun: mistake, error
{C}get angry with

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 44


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

z„^v-‰X-^ x$v-v-x([-a- z„^v-az#-n*fn- e-[^n-


1321 1331 1341

that having a cause of error/mistake in the {C}vibhr›nta-citta when?; at what time?


object mistaken mind
e-]- 1342

Comment: An instance of this is a {C}confused thought


consciousness to which a firebrand wheel
z„^v-ac-dX[* -a- where?
1332

appears in dependence upon quickly turning


a fire brand ('gal med myur du skor ba la {MSA}bhr›nti-karatva
e-]-dl^en-
brten nas 'gal med 'khor lor snang ba'i where [so-and-so] lived
that which causes mistake
dbang shes). This is one of the seven types of
e-]n- 1343
facsimiles of direct perception (mngon sum
z„^v-d- 1333

ltar snang): mistaken conceptions ('khrul


ba'i rtog pa), conventional conceptions (kun from where?; from whence?
z„^v! z„^v! z„^v[! z„^v[!
z„^v-N‘r-x([-fw]- e-ac-
1322 1344
{LCh}bhr›nta; {TN}bhr›nti
mistaken; illusion
N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- where?
cr-e#-N‘r-x$v-v-z„^v-d-
e-a$c- 1345
thattwhich is mistaken regarding the
mistaken with respect to its appearing object
appearance [of its object]
z„^v-d-[ee-a- camphor
1334

z„^v-a- 1323

e-h[- 1346

refutation of mistaken [views]


z„^v! z„^v! z„^v[! z„^v[!
z„^v-d-Ø(e-a- how many?; how much?
1335

{C}skhalita; bhr›ntu; {MSA}bhr›nta;


{MV}bhr›ntatva; {MSA,MV}bhr›nti
e-h·[- 1347

mistake; be mistaken; be confused; err z„^v-az#-Ø(e-a-


as noun: mistake, error mistaken concepttal consciousness/conception how many?; how much?
trip up; revolving (deluded) Comment: An instance of this is a conceptual
e-c*- 1348

consciousness apprehending sound as


z„^v-a-f#-frz- 1324

permanent (sgra rtag 'dzin rtog pa). This is what?


one of the seven types of facsimiles of direct
frz- frz- frz- frz-
e-v- 1349
perception (mngon sum ltar snang): mistaken
{MSA}aparyasta conceptions ('khrul ba'i rtog pa),
unmistaken; non-erroneous; not having conventional conceptions (kun rdzob kyi {C}kuta
mistake/error rtog pa), inferential conceptions (rjes dpag how?; where?
gi rtog pa), conceptions arisen from {C}how?; where?
z„^v-a-f*[-a- 1325

z„^v-f*[- e-v-x([-
1336 1350

{MSA}askhalita
unmistaken; non-erroneous; not having {MV}abhr›nti how could there be?; where is?
mistake/error non-mistaken; without mistake
e-vn-zu#en-f*[- 1351

z„^v-a-gf- z„^v-b*n-
1326 1337

akutobhay› (?)
{MV}bhr›nti-m›tra bhr›nti-jñ›na Akutobhay› [title of a commentary on
only mistake; mere error; only/merely mistaken consciousness N›g›rjuna's Treatise on the Middle, Toh. 3829]
erroneous/mistaken fh]-i#[! cr-e#-N‘r-x$v-v-z„^v-dz#-c#e-a! d([-fr-a(n-e-vn-zu#en-f*[-cr-zeC*v-[^-z[([-a-
z„^v-az#-‰X-^ 1327
Def.: a knower that is mistaken with respect to f#-zp[-a-
its appearing object
{MSA}bhr›nter nimitta˙ the assertion by many Tibetans that the
z„*]-a- 1338
cause of error/mistake Akutobhay› is an autocommentary is not
correct{DASI 582.1}
z„^v-az#-‰X-^ fh]- 1328
{C}m›tsarya Comment: Some attribute the text to
{C}mean; meanness; niggardly; jealousy N›g›rjuna, but others cite the fact that the
{MSA}bhr›nti-nimitta
text quotes firyadeva as evidence that it
z„(-d- 1339
cause of error/mistake
could not have been composed by N›g›rjuna,
z„^v-az#-Ø*]- 1329
krodha who was firyadeva's teacher. Ge-Ôhay
belligerence Ge-dün-Èo-drö suggested that this may also be
{MSA}bhr›nte¯ … sa˙niŸraya¯ the name of the author of the commentary,
e- 1340
basis of mistake/error; mistaken basis the text having been given the name of the
author as is the case with the Buddhap›lita
z„^v-az#-fh]-i#[- 1330
{C}da˙Ÿana
e-v*c- 1352

interrogative particle; all [of a certain


{MSA}bhr›nti-lak˝a˚a number]
character of mistake; mistaken character; slowly; gently
{C}marvellous power
definition of mistake Comment: Nga-Ûang-lek-den (ngag dbang
en$f-e- legs ldan) suggested that ga le may have
all three; the three derived from gang legs (whatever is good).

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 45


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

ee-a(- er-e#-xr- er-[^-xr-f-n(r-d-


1353 1365 1378

difficult; hard any; of any n(r- n(r- n(r- n(r-


[ee-dX-∑d-y*n-a- 1354
;d-f(z#-[(]-[*-D√(-er-e#-xr-x$v-[^-f#-c$r-d-f#]-R#- {MSA} ka˙cid-gata (na-)(from kim)
it is not that the meaning of the profound not gone anywhere
too extensive object of negation/refutation [emptiness] is not suitable to be the object of
er-[}]-[}]- 1379

any mind
er- 1355

whatever you thought; whatever might be


er-e#-N√[-[^- 1366

{LCh}ka, {C}katara; {MSA}yad; imagined


{MV.IV.4}katame Comment: Used in logical texts to indicate a
for what reason?; for the sake of what?; for
relative and interrogative pronoun: what; state of utter absurdity in which anything
the sake of which
who; which would be true.
er-e#n- 1367

pdn-er-v-dØ*]-]n-
er-sXc# - 1380

method in dependence on which {MSA}yena


{C}yatas; {MV}yad-artham
er-dNœ^c-dz#-[dr-[*- interrogative or correlative particle: by what;
because; for that reason; for the sake of; why?
by whom; by which
initiation which is bestowed Comment: Used often as a correlative with
Comment: Used often as a correlative with
de phyir.
e-ã´zΩ -# Q√r^ - de.
1356

er-d- 1381

er-e#n-Nør( -i#[-b*n-a-[*- 1368

{L}Gaºg›-nadı
Ganges River one who knows emptiness zer- zer- er- er-
e-ã´zΩ -# Q√r^ -e#-dX-* f-NI[* - 1357
{C}pÒr˚atva; {MSA}prapÒr˚atva; {C}bharita
er-e#n-[r-er-[^-N´d&ç -a- 1369

be full; become full


{C}gaºg›-nadı-v›lukopama
dN´d&ç - N´d&ç - dN´d&ç n- N´d&ç n- {C}completion; repletion; filled with
as many as the grains of sand of the Ganges Comment: rab tu gang ba =
{C}countless like the sands of the Ganges {MSA}yena ca pratipadyante yatra ca
pratipÒr˚a{MSA}.
by whom and where achieved
e-ã´zΩ -# Q√r^ -e#-dX-* f-z[#-NI[* -[r-fif-az#-nrn-‰X er-t#-
1358

er-d-f*[-a- 1382
1370

n- {MSA}ga˙g›-nadı-v›lik›-sam›na-buddha which?; why? zer- zer- er- er-


{C}aparipÒr˚a
(iyat …-)
er-t#zr-c$r- 1371

not full
Buddhas equal in number to these grains of
sand of the Ganges {C}without having fulfilled; (in)complete
any and all

er-dc-zR^c- 1383

e-ã´zΩ -# Q√r^ -fif- er-Vøc-wn-v*]-a-]#-[aX[-ac-dXz-(


1359 1372

{C} ga˚g›-nadı-v›li-sama it should be analyzed what sort of assertion zer- zer- er- er-
equal with the Ganges should be made {MSA}(› Ωp∂): ›pÒryate
{C}like the sands of the Ganges will fill
er-Vøc-xr- 1373

er-e#- er-f*[-
1360 1384

in any case
{MSA}yasya zer- zer- er- er-
er-[e- 1374

relative and interrogative pronoun: of which


{C}apÒr˚atva
er-e#-[(]-[^- {L}katara
1361
not full
what; which; who; some {C}non-completion; no increase
{MV}yad-artham Comment: Used often as a correlative with
er-h$]- 1385
for the sake of which de dag.

er-e#-sXc# - er-[^-
1362 1375
up to the point of

er-h°- 1386
{MV}yad-artham; {MSA}yasmai {MSA}yatra; {MV}yatra ca
because; for that reason; for the sake of; why? [what-in]; in which; where; as which
yad›; {C}yatra-antarasmi (=yad›); {C}k›li;
Comment: Used often as a correlative with
de'i phyir.
n*fn-er-[^-xr-f#-zj‹]-a- {C}yath› (=yad›)
mind not apprehending anything when; at what time
er-e#-h°- 1363
{C}when; time; so that
er-[^-z[([-az#-l#r-[^-zeC-( d- 1376

Comment: Often used as a correlative with


yad›; {MV}kasy›m avasth›y›m de'i tshe.
when; at what time {C} yatrecch›-k˝etra-gamanat›
er-h°-h°- 1387

Comment: Used often as a correlative with going to the pure land to which one
de'it tshe. wishes/wants
{L}yad›
{C}going to the field one wishes to go to
er-e#-h°---[*z-# h°- 1364
when
er-[^-[dr-dNœc^ -az#-[W#v-zw(c- 1377

{MV}yad› … tad›
correlative construction: when the ma˚˜ala in which initiation is bestowed

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 46


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

er-l#e- er-;e-e#-d[e-f*[- er-;e-fr(]-ac-Ø(en-a-


1388 1394 1402

{MSA}yad pudgala-nair›tmya Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en-


for one [indicates the first part of a reason]; selflessness of persons {MSA}pudgal›bhisa˙bodha
whoever; which [dX*-d! 1 er-;e-e#-d[e-f*[-cen-a! 2 manifest realization of the person
z[^n-f-dXn-W#-]f-fwz-y(n-t]! er-;e-e#-d[e-f*[-sC-f(! er-;e-o^-Nƒ-ç d- 1403

Øe-a-x#]-ac-pv! Div.: (1) coarse selflessness of persons; (2)


{MSA}pudgala-v›din
x([-a-er-l#e-Nœ[-t#e-f-f-x#]-az#-sX#c! subtle selflessness of persons
propound a person
er-;e-e#-d[e-f*[-Ø(en-az#-’v-zdXc( -R#-n- 1395
It follows that the subject, uncompounded
er-;e-o^-zj‹]-a- 1404

space, is a permanent phenomenon, because of


(1) existing and (2) not being momentary. Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn-
er-l*-]- yogic ground of realizing the selflessness of
1389

{MSA}pudgala-gr›ha
persons
apprehend a person; conceive a person
{C}katam›ni Comment: One of the three yogic grounds
er-;e-Øe-et#e-cr-[dr-t]-R#n-Nør( -a- 1405
if [someone asks], "What?"; if [someone asks], (rnal 'byor gyi sa); see rnal 'byor gyi sa for
"Which?" the others.
{C}what is? nityaikasvatantra-ŸÒnyapudgala
er-;e-e#-d[e-f*[-sC-f(- 1396

a person's emptiness of being permanent,


er-;e- 1390

unitary, and autonomous


subtle selflessness of persons
er-;e-[r-y(n-[e-f#-[f#en-az#-sXc# - 1406
{C,MSA,MV}pudgala; puru˝a fh]-i#[!
person; individual
fh]-i#[! er-;e-cr-ŒX-p%d-az#-Ôn-x([-W#n-Nø(r-a- [f#en- [f#en- [f#en- [f#en-
Def.: In non-Consequentialist schools: a {MSA}pudgala-dharmayor anupalambh›t
s$r-a(-V®-a(-er-c$r-v-dØ*]-]n-doen-az#-Nœ≈*n-d$! person's emptiness of being a self-sufficient due to/because of not apprehending persons and
Def.: a being imputed in dependence upon any substantial entity [other] phenomena
among the five aggregates
er-;e-e#-d[e-f*[-cen-a- er-;e-[r-y(n-f*[-az#-fh]-i#[-x#]-a-
1397 1407

[dX*-d! n(-n(z#-Nœ≈*-d(-[r-zsen-a-ei#n!
coarse selflessness of persons {MSA}pudgala-dharm›bh›va-lak˝a˚atva
Div.: the two—ordinary beings (p¸thagjana)
and Superiors (›rya) fh]-i#[! character of non-existence of persons and
[other] phenomena
Comment: Ken-sur Nga-Ûang-lek-den
er-;e-Øe-et#e-cr-[dr-t]-R#n-Nø(r-a-
etymologized this is "full-fall", i.e., one who is
er-;e-[r-y(n-v-d[e-f*[-a- 1408

filled with the afflictions and has fallen into Def.: In non-Consequentialist schools: a
cyclic existence. As he said, this is not true of person's emptiness of being permanent, unitary, {MSA}pudgala-dharma-nair›tmya
all persons, because even a Buddha, for and autonomous selflessness in persons and [other] phenomena
instance, is a person. It is to be noted that
er-;e-e#-d[e-zj‹]-az#-D√-( 1398

er-;e-[r-y(n-v-d[e-f*[-a-[e-x(rn-n$-b*n- 1409

animals, for instance, are persons. It is said


that in general "self" (bdag, ›tman) "person,"
and "I" (nga, aha˙) are equivalent, but in the e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn- ac-dX{MSA}pudgala-dharma-nair›tmyayo¯
-dz#-sXc# -
awareness apprehending a self of persons
er-;e! Nœn*≈ -d$- 1391

Comment: Given as an instance of parijñ›rtha˙


superimposition (sgro 'dogs), i.e., a in order to thoroughly understand selflessness
pudgala/puru˝a
superimposing consciousness. in persons and [other] phenomena
person
er-;e-[f-a- 1410

er-;e-er-e#n-x#[-eo[-an-fp(r-gf-i#[-]n- er-;e-e#-dX-* dCe-


1399
1392

{MSA}pudgala-bheda { M V } s a t add pudgala after


z[#-[r-z[#-z[}z-( NIf-az#-D√-( rr-e#-Nœ[*≈ -]^n-az#- instance of a person checking?
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - excellent person; holy person
er-;e-e#-v(rn-Nå[≈ -dX- 1400

phenomena naturally able to produce an


er-;e-e[en-a- 1411
awareness thinking, "This and that are alike,"
upon merely being seen by whatever person Nå≈[- Nå≈([- Nå≈[- Nå≈([-
directs the mind [toward them] objects of use of a person e[en- z[(en- doen!dØen- p(en-
Comment: This is the definition of same {MSA}pudgala-prajñapti
er-;e-e#-dnf-a-v-[e(rn-a- 1401

isolate type (ldog pa rigs gcig). See Perdue, imputation of a person


576. {MSA}pudgal›Ÿay›bhipr›ya
er-;e-]#-]f-xr-f*[-a-f-x#]-a- 1412

thinking/considering a person's attitude


er-;e-e#-d[e- 1393

Comment: dgongs pa (abhipr›y›) is often {MSA}kad› cit pudgalo n›sti (na-)


pudgal›tman mistranslated as "intention," but this does not persons are never non-existent
self of persons accord with the following:
er-;e-’f-ac-el#e-a- 1413
Four Thoughts
Thinking of sameness (mnyam pa nyid la
{MV}pudgala-vin›Ÿa
dgongs pa, samat›bhipr›ya)
Thinking of another meaning (don gzhan la disintegration of the person; destruction of the
dgongs pa, arth›ntar›bhipr›ya) person
Thinking of another time (dus gzhan la

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 47


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

er-;e-’f-ac-dle-a- er-;e-cr-ŒX-p%d-az#-Ôn-x([-W#n-Nør( -a- er-c$r-


1414 1425 1436

{MSA}pudgala-vyavasth›na emptiness of a person as being substantially one among; either one or both; whichever is
positing of the person existent in the sense of being self-sufficient suitable

er-;e-f-x#]-az#-V“]-f#]-z[^-dX[* -- 1415

er-;e-cr-ŒX-p%d-az#-Ôn-x([-[^-f-eCd^ -a- 1426


Ì-dz#-w-[(e-x#]-]-[fc-a(-[r-! [qc-a(-[r-!
*apudgalaviprayuktasa˙sk›ra non-establishment of the person as substantially
N®(]-a(-[r-! n*c-a(-er-c$r-x#]-an-∑d!
non-person compositional factor existent in the sense of being self-sufficient Whatever is a primary color is necessarily
Comment: One of the two divisions of Comment: This is the definition of (subtle) either red, white, blue, or yellow.
non-associated compositional factors (ldan selflessness of persons (gang zag gi bdag N´ç#d-ei#n-er-c$r-e#-[r(n-ei*]-dX*[-a-
min 'du byed). med) in the non-Consequentialist schools.
acting as an actual antidote to whichever of the
er-;e-f-x#]-ac-R^c-az#-V“]-f#]-z[^-dX[* - er-;e-v-f#-nC[# -NIf-a-
1416 1427
two [types of] obstructions

er-v- 1437
*apudgala-viprayukta-sa˙sk›ra {MV}asambh›van› pudgale
non-associated compositional factors that are thinking, "[Such and such] does not occur
{C}kutra; {C}kutu; {MSA}yatra
not persons; non-associated compositional among persons"
with respect to which; of what; where; of
factor which is not a person
er-xr- 1428
which; in which/whom
Comment: One of the two divisions of
{C}in whom; how
non-associated compositional factors (ldan
er-e#-xr-
min 'du byed).
er-v-er- 1438

{C}ki˙cit; {MV}ki˙cid; {C}kahi˙ci


er-;e-f#-Øe-a-i#[-[^-pv-dc-zR^c-d- 1417

[what-even]; any; whosoever. With negative: any...whatsoever


not any; none
zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[- er-v-er-f*[-a-[*-]#-[*n-Nør( - 1439

{C}anyone; whatever; anywhere


{MSA}pudgalasy›nityatva-prasaºg›t Comment: See gang rung.
the non-existence of something in something is
it would [absurdly] follow that persons would
er-xr-c$r-d- 1429
[its] emptiness of that
be just impermanent
Comment: Quote from Vasubandhu's
er-;e-f*[-a- 1418
anayatara; {L}anyatama; {L}anyatas-anyatara Madhy›ntavibh›ga and so forth.
any; some; some...or other
er-v-[e(rn-]n- 1440
{C}ni˝pudgala; {C}ni˝pudgalatva
er-xr-c$r-d-l#e-f-hr-d- 1430

non-existence of persons
in consideration of which; thinking of which
{C}no personality; without personality; absence {MV}anyatama-vaikalya
of a person
er-v-’f-ac-f#-Ø(e- 1441

any incomplete
er-;e-Nƒ-ç d- 1419

er-xr-c$r-dz#- 1431
{MV}yac ca na vikalpayati
pudgalav›din non-conceptual/not conceptualizing with
{C}anyataranyatara respect to which; non-conceptual with respect
Proponent of a Person
of any to anything
er-;e-gf- 1420
{C}some or other
er-vn- 1442

er-x#]- 1432

mere person
{L}k›m; {C}kuto; {MSA}yatra
er-;e-:√-f*[-a- 1421
what is?; which is from what?; whence?; why?

{C}apratipudgala [(]-[f-er-x#]! {C}with what?; why?

er-vn-dNœ[(≈ -ac-dR#[-ven- 1443


person without equal; matchless person what is the ultimate?
{C}without a match
er-x#]-a- 1433

dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ - dNœ[(≈ - Nœ[(≈ -


er-;e-x#]-ac-R^c-az#-V“]-f#]-z[^-dX[* 1422

which is; whatever is {C}ucc›layati


*pudgala-viprayukta-sa˙sk›ra {C}free oneself from
er-x#]-a-[*-pfn-t[- 1434

non-associated compositional factor which is a


er-bc-pfn-t[- 1444

person all of whatever is...; all whatsoever


Comment: One of the two divisions of all of whatever appears
er-x#]-ac-zeC-( 1435
non-associated compositional factors (ldan
er-n$-[e- 1445

min 'du byed).


{C}yath›gami
er-;e-x([-ac-wn-D√r-dc-f#-dX- {L}ye kecit
1423
{C}goes into...which he comes across on his
way whichever of those
{MSA}na v› pudgalo 'sti
ern- 1446

persons are not to be asserted as existing

er-;e-x([-ac-Nƒ-ç d- hima
1424

snow
pudgala-v›din
ern-t]- 1447

Proponent of a Person
that endowed with snow; The Snowy Land [i.e.,
Tibet]

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 48


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

ern-t]-fwn-a- f-x#]-[ee-e#-el]-n*v- e#n-


1448 1456 1465

scholar of the Land of Snows [Tibet] dnv- n*v- dnv[- n*v[- (as instrumental particle) by; by means of;
with; because. (as non-case particle corruptly
ern-a-n*z-$ *p›ryud›sa-apoha
1449

used in place of the non-case usage of genitive


other-eliminator/other-elimination that is an
particles) but; and; (semi-colon)
Gang-fla-Ôay-u [c.1200; a ‰a-dam-fla author on affirming negative
epistemology] fh]-i#[! [dr-e#n-
by the power of
ern-c#-N®]( -a(c-N‘r-dz#-[dr-b*n- 1450

cr-l*n-dË([-az#-N´çn-cr-e#-[ee-dX-dqe-b^v-[^-c Comment: One of five instrumental


N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- r-zj‹]-Ø(e-az#-elv-dXc-zsrn-a-xr-x#]! particles—gis, kyis, gyis, 'is, yis. Also used
adverbially.
sense consciousness to which a snow mountain N´thatç&d-a-xr-x#
which is]-az# -el#-fp%as]a-a-x(
observed [-a-xr-x#
common locus]!of:
e^-û-f-o#- 1466
appears as blue
(1) there existing a common locus of (a) being
Comment: An example of a non-conceptual
projected in place of its object of negation as an gu˚amati
wrong consciousness that is a sense
object of comprehension by the conceptual Gu˚amati [name of a Bodhisattva]
consciousness (dbang shes su gyur pa'i rtog
consciousness apprehending it and (b) being a
med log shes). [dX*-d! 1 [(]-cr-fh]-R#-el]-n*v! 2 Ck to make sure it is in the

ern-c#-d- 1451
D√(z#-el]-n*v! right order, as the sort code
is done on "na" rather than
Divisions: (1) factual other-eliminator that is a
{LCh}haimavata
specifically characterized phenomenon; (2) "˚a"
one [person] of the snow mountain
mental other-eliminator
e^-û-b}-Û# 1467

e[-f(- 1452
Comment: One of the two types of
other-eliminators (gzhan sel); the other is gu˚aŸrı
laugh; laughter; laughing other-eliminator that is a non-affirming
Gu˚aŸrı [proper name]
negative (med dgag gi gzhan sel).
e[-f(-[e([- 1453
Ck to make sure it is in the
ec- 1457

right order, as the sort code


de[- [e([- de[- [e([-
{C}n¸tya is done on "na" rather than
laugh; smile; make laugh/smile
[what to]; where; dancing; dance "˚a" and "shrii" rather than
r(-fhc-dz#-e[-f(-[e([-az(! N´≈&-zsC^v-[}-dz#-ec- "shii"
laughing the laughter of amazement
dance of magical emanation
e^-c$- 1468

ed-h°- 1454

ec-z[([-a- 1458

guru
{C}kara˚˜aka
{C}yatreccham [Tibetan transliteration of Sanskrit word,
{C}basket
wherever wished guru]; teacher

ef- 1455
{C}wherever it wishes Comment: The word guru literally means
weighty or heavy, one whose continuum is
ec-xr-∑d-a-]#-y$-:√-Vø-d$z-( 1459
or; and; particle indicating question; near weighty with the good qualities of scripture
Comment: One of ten particles used with a and realization (rgyud lung rtogs kyi yon tan
pervading everywhere like a moon in water gyis lci ba).
disjunctive ("or") or conjunctive ("and")
sense.
ev-o*- 1460

e^r-dN´e#ç n- 1469

if; in case of
dN´e#ç N´e#ç dN´e#ç n! N´e#ç n!
Comment: Usually used with na.
arrange; put in order
ev-o*---R^c- 1461

e^r-pr-[q(]-fy(e-dNø]-az#-N´](ç -f*- 1470

{MV.I.21 v}ced bhavet


if it would be [q(]-fy(e-dNø]-az#-N´ç(]-f*! e^r-pr-zuf-[av-[dXrn!
Gung-tang ‰ön-chok-·en-flay-drön-may
ev---]- 1462

[1762-1823; aka Gung-tang Jam-flel-Âang]


If...
e^r-pr-zuf-[av-[dXrn- 1471

en-[r-E√-^ h‹e-[r-N∂r&ç - 1463

e^r-pr-[q(]-fy(e-dNø]-az#-N´ç(]-f*!
{C} n›˛aka-itih›sa Gung-tang Jam-flel-Âang [1762-1823; also
{C}play known as Gung-tang
‰ön-chok-·en-flay-drön-may]
e#- 1464

e^r-dC]- 1472

(as genitive particle) of; by; in; which. (as


non-case particle) and; but; (semi-colon) communist
Comment: One of five genitive
particles—gi, kyi, gyi, 'i, yi.

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 49


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

e^r-f( e^n-ac-dX-d- e(-Nœdn-


1473 1483 1494

middle finger {C}satk¸ti {LCh,MSA} avak›Ÿa


that which is to be respected opportunity; chance to
fj$d-f(-[r-e^r-f(-ei#n-f#-sX*[-ac-eb#dn-az#-h$v
-R#n-”(-Ë*c-dXn-o*-
{C}honoring n*c-N‘-fr(]-R^c-Nœ≈*-dz#-e(-Nœdn-
e^n-ac-dX-d-x#[-v-dX[* -a- 1484
chance to generate manifest miserliness
having made the index and middle fingers into a
e(-Nœdn-zdX[* -ac-f#-zR^c-d- 1495
vajra in the manner of aligning them without {MSA}satk¸tya-manask›ra
separation {Dor 34b.4/ 252.4} taking to mind an object to be respected
{C}(na) avak›Ÿa˙ daŸyanti
e^n-ac-dX[* -a- 1485
not provide an opportunity/chance
{C}they are given no opportunity
e^[-[^- 1474
{L}›dara˙k›ra; {MSA}satk¸tya
e(-Nœdn-f-fy#n-a- 1496
be respectful toward; exert oneself for;
separately; apart interest onself in; be zealous; be intent upon
{C}anavak›Ÿa
Ì-dz#-‰X^[-[^-vn-c#en-e^[-[^-f-dNø]-a- e^n-ac-f#-dX[* -a- 1486
no opportunity; no chance
In the root tantra, the action lineage is not {C}it cannot be; impossible; no room
taught separately {GZ 42a.7/ 269.7} {L}an›dara
e(-R(]-o*- 1497
disrespect; be indifferent; neglect; not be
e^[-[^-zeC-( dc-zR^c-t#e- 1475
intent upon
{C}sa˙nahati
e^n-dXn- 1487
{C}apakr›matu put on armor; wear armor
{C}may depart {C}put on the armor
{C}satk¸tya (=Ÿrı-pa˛˛a-bandh›din›
e^[-[^-n(r-dc-R^c- 1476
viŸe˝apada-sth›pan›t = ma˚˜al›di-kara˚›t)
e(-R(]-a- 1498

having respected
n(r- n(r- n(r- n(r- {C}having honored {MSA}sa˙nahana
{C}apakr›mati put on armor; wear armor
e^n-N∂c(≈ - 1488

{C}go away; departs; takes his leave


e(-de(n-a- 1499

e^[-]-f*[- 1477
N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[-
{MSA}sa˙nahya
intense application
[separate-in-not exist]; inseparable; not exist put on armor
e*en- 1489
separately
e(-N´d&ç - 1500

e^c-∑#f- 1478
{LCh}vighna; {L}vibandha
obstacle; hindrance; impediment; obstruction dN´d&ç - N´d&ç - dN´d&ç n- N´d&ç n-
[tent-home]; abode {LCh}sa˙n›ha-pratipatti
z[#c-Vø-d-’f-[e-e#-e*en-e(v-nz#-eg·-d(-]#-ei#n-o*- achieving armor
e^c-e^f- 1479

the principal places of possible error that serve


e(-et#e- 1501
to obstruct the pure view are two
saffron

e*en-dX[* - 1490
sam›na-deŸa
e^n-a- 1480

same place
{LCh}pratibandha
{LCh,C}gaurava; {MSA,L}›dara;
e(-y- 1502

{MSA}bahu-m›na; {C}bhajati [hindrance-make]; hindrance; interference;


respect; devotion; humility; be intent on prevention; impediment
{C,MSA}sa˙n›ha; s{C}annadhu
{C}dignity; a title to be respected; regard; care;
e*en-n$-R^c-a- 1491
armor
trouble; bring to light; loves; attends to {C}armor; armed with
{MSA}vibandhana; {MV}vibandha
zsen-x$v-aû-y*]-’fn-v-e^n-sXe-zhv-
e(-y-de(-[e(n-n(- 1503
[hindrance-as-became]; hindrance;
[I] bow down respectfully to the great scholars interference; prevention; impediment
of the Land of the Superiors [India] {C}sa˙nahitavya
e*v-a- 1492
must/should put on armor
e^n-a-dNœ[*≈ -a- 1481

{C}must put on the armor


{C}gulma
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {C}shrub e(-y-de(n-b#r- 1504

{MSA}›darotp›dana
e(- 1493
{C}sannadhu
generate respect
put on armor
{C}avak›Ÿa
e^n-ac-dX- 1482
{C}armor
opportunity; occasion; armor; (terminating
e(-y-y*]-a(-de(n-n(- 1505
{C} bhajati particle indicating the end of a statement). As
be respectful toward; exert oneself for; verb: understand
interest onself in; be zealous; be intent upon {C}opportunity; occasion; room; occasion for {C}mah›-sann›ha-sannaddha
{C}loves; attends to Comment: One of eleven terminating put on great armor
particles go, ngo, do, no, bo, mo, 'o, ro, lo, {C}armed with the great armor
so, to, which follow their respective suffixes
with to following the extra suffix da.

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 50


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

e(-yz#-N´d&ç -a- e(-c#f- e(r-[^-db[-f-pe-a-


1506 1518 1530

dN´d&ç - N´d&ç - dN´d&ç n- N´d&ç n- {LCh}krama; {LCh,MV,MSA}anukrama; {MV}anantaram uktam


{MSA}›nupÒrvı explained just above/immediately above
sa˙n›ha-pratipatti
order; series; arrangement
e(r-]- 1531
achieving armor; achievement of armor
c#f-V®z#-eCrn-[r-e(-c#f-r*n-a-[r-
e(-y([- 1507

enumeration of the five stages and their definite {MV}Òrdhvam


order above; earlier; previously; higher
fill the role; fulfill what it means to be;
e(r-]-f-fy#n-a- 1532
perform the function
e(-c#f-a- 1519

b*n-N´ç#d-W#-e(-f#-y([-[(- {C}niruttara; {C}uttapta


{C}anukrama
cannot function as an obstruction to none higher; unsurpassed
[place-series]; order; series; arrangement
omniscience {C}unsurpassed; highest; most excellent; the
{C}gradual action
utmost
e(-d[*-dc-dË([- 1508

e(-c#f-dl#]- 1520

e(r-]-f*[-a- 1533

dË([- Ë([- dË([- Ë([- e(-c#f-dl#]-[^-


express in an easy to understand form {C,MSA}niruttara
{MV}yath›-krama˙ none higher; unsurpassed
e(-zsr- 1509
in order; in accordance with the order; {C}unsurpassed; highest; most excellent; the
respectively utmost
{LCh,MSA} pada {C}in due order; respectively
e(r-]n-e(r-[^- 1534
position; rank; state
e(-c#f-dl#]-[^- 1521

[eC-dt(f-az#-e(-zsr-fr(]-[^-dXn-a- {L,MSA}uttarottara; {MSA}uparyupari


actualized the state of a Foe Destroyer yath›tram from high to higher; progressively higher
in order; in accordance with the order;
e(-zsr-D√-]-f*[-a- e(r-]n-e(r-[^-dN´d&ç -a-
1510 1535
respectively

e(-n- 1522
{MSA}anuttara … pada dN´d&ç - N´d&ç - dN´d&ç n- N´d&ç n-
unsurpassed/highest position/rank/state
place; area; rank; station {MV}uttarottara-nirh›ra
e(-d- 1511
achieve progressively higher [states]
e[en-el#z#-e(-n-e](]-az#-h$v-[^-x([-a-
e(r-d$- 1536
{LCh}gata; {LCh}avagama; existence in the manner of covering the area of
{MSA}gamya;{MSA} jña (e.g.: udgha˛ita-jña; its basis of designation
vipañcita-jña); {MSA}bodha {LCh}pi˚˜a

e(-n-e](]-]^n-a- 1523
understanding lump; mass

e(r-f-e(r-fz#-Vø-d-e(-dX*[-W#-Nø*en- capacity to occupy/cover an area e(r-f- 1537

a platform for causing understanding of the


e(-N√- {MSA}upari; {C}utt›ri (?); Òrdhva {GD:265}
1524

views of the higher [schools]


upper; superior; higher; emperor
e(-dc-dX[* -a- 1512
easy to understand {C}superior; {GD:177} vertical

{MSA}sa˙pr›pti; {MV}pr›pa˚a; e(r- 1525


e(r-fz#-Nå≈#-
{MV}sa˙pr›pa˚a vertical-universal {GD:177}
{MSA}upari
cause understanding; communicate; cause to
e(r-f-e(r-fz#-Vø-d-e(-dX[* -W#-Nøe* n- 1538
high; the above; price; value
know/comprehend; means of understanding

e(r-y*]- 1526

e(-dc-;[- 1513
dVø- Vø- dVøn- Vø(n-
greatly high platform for causing understanding of views of
{MSA}gata
the higher [schools]
reduced to/exhausted as understanding
e(r-[^- 1527

e(r-f-dn-y*n-e(r-f- 1539

e(-dc-N√- 1514

{MSA}uttara; {MSA}Òrdhva
above; earlier; upward {L}uttare˝v uttama
{MSA}subodha
much higher than the high
easy to understand x(]-o]-R#-eCrn-e(r-]n-e(r-[^-zs*v-dz#-∑[-ac-
e(r-f-n- 1540

e(-dX[* - feature of increasing the number of good


1515

qualities higher and higher


{MV}utt›rasu … bhÒmi˝u
{MV}pr›ya˚a; {MV}sa˙pr›pti
e(r-[^-zeC-( d-[r-V“]-az#-sXc# - 1528
high ground
means of understanding; that which causes
e(r-f(- 1541
understanding; means of communication {MSA}Òrdhva˙ gamana-yog›t

e(-f#-y([- because of possessing progress upward


1516

grouse
e(r-[^-dË([-;#]- 1529

e(r-b#r- 1542
does not fulfill the role; does not fulfill the
meaning of; does not function as
dË([- Ë([- dË([- Ë([- {C}sa˙lıyate
e(-cfn-a-dn([-]fn-n*r-e*- 1517

already explained above {C}becomes stolid; despond; is cowed


Go-ram-fla-Ôö-nam-Ôen-gay [1429-1489]

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 51


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[e(rn-a-dl#- e(fn-ac-dXn-an- e(n-a-f-fy#n-a-


1543 1551 1561

catv›ro 'bhipr›y› {C}›sevana; {C}sevan›; {MV}abhy›sa {C}anupalepa


four thoughts by having familiarized/conditioned [covered-not-being]; not sullied; not polluted;
Comment: dgongs pa (abhipr›y›) is often {C}cultivation; tending; cultivation not covered
mistranslated as "intention," but this does not {C}stainless; spotless
e(fn-dX-x(]-o]- 1552

accord with the following:


e(n-a-f*[-t#r- 1562

Four Thoughts {MSA}abhy›sa-gu˚a


Thinking of sameness (mnyam pa nyid la
quality to be cultivated {C} nirupalepa
dgongs pa, samat›bhipr›ya)
[covered-not-being]; not sullied; not polluted;
e(c-e(c- 1553
Thinking of another meaning (don gzhan la
not covered
dgongs pa, arth›ntar›bhipr›ya)
{C}without a stain; stainless; untainted
Thinking of another time (dus gzhan la circle

e(n-a-f*[-a- 1563

e(f-NIf( n-a- 1544

e(c-f-ye-ac- 1554

{C}sama-kramatva {C}nirupalepa; {C}nirupalepat›;


{LCh}avaŸyam
{C}nirÒpalepa (=nirupalepa); {MSA}nirlepa
{C}walks at an even pace without a doubt
[covered-not-being]; not sullied; not polluted;
e(f-a-et#e-d(c-dn- 1545

e(v-d- 1555
not covered
{C}without a stain; stainless; untainted; free
sak¸ta-p›da-k˝epe˚a {MSA}utpatha from stains; untainted
with a single step deviant; deviating from the proper
e(n-ac-zR^c- 1564

e(fn- 1546
vf-e(v-d-
deviant path {C}lipyate
e(fn! e(fn! e(fn! e(fn! be sullied/covered/polluted
e(v-n- 1556

{LCh}abhy›sa {C}be sullied with; be polluted; change


familiarize; become accumstomed to;
e(n-f*[- 1565
place where one can go wrong; place of
condition to; familiarization; conditioning
possible error; place of deviance
xr-[r-xr-[^-x#[-v-dX*[-a-e(fn-]- [covered-not-being]; not
sullied/polluted/covered
if one familiarizes with taking to mind again Vø-dz#-e(v-n-N´ç(-Nœ^c-R#-fpz-r(n-e;$r-d-]#-
and again
e(n-[fc-d- 1566

identifying the places where one can go wrong


e(fn-z[}-# 1547
with respect to the view, the extremes of
t›mraŸa˛ıya
superimposition and depreciation,
red garment/clothing
conditioning; familiarization; accustoming
e(n- 1557

e(n-v-n(en- 1567

e(fn-a- 1548

{LCh,MSA,C}cıvara; {C}ambara; {C}caila;


{C}pr›vara˚a; {MSA}lipta; {MSA}vasana; {MSA}cıvar›di
{MSA}abhy›sa; bh›vita; aby›sa
{MSA}vastra clothing/garments and so forth
familiarize; become accumstomed to;
cloth; clothing; cover
condition to; familiarization; conditioning;
e(n-v-n(en-a---h·v-d- 1568

cultivate {C}garment; robe; strips of cloth; cloth; cloak;


robes dgv- zh·v!zh°v- dgv- h·v[-
e(fn-a-t]- 1549

e(n-∑[-ac-[^-zsen-a- 1558
{MV}cıvar›dy-anve˝a˚a
abhy›savat seek clothing/garments and so forth
familiar; conditioned {MSA}vastra-viŸe˝a˚a
e(n-n(en- 1569

{GD:734} trained perceptions special clothing; special garment

[(]-e(fn-a-t]-R#-[dr-fr(]-R#-h[-f- e(n-[e-zp(c-l#r- 1559


{MSA}cıvar›di
sense direct prime cognition having a familiar clothing/garments and so forth
{C}caila-vik˝epamak›r˝u¯
object
R-R^-f*[-a- 1570
{C}wave their garments (?)
Comment: There are five types of prime
e(n-a- 1560
cognitions which induce ascertainment by {C}aku˛ila
themselves (rang las nges kyi tshad {C}not crooked
ma)—sense direct prime cognitions having a {LCh}upalipta; {C}lipyate; {MSA}lepa;
R-](f-N‘r- 1571

familiar object (don goms pa can gyi dbang {MSA}nirlepa


mngon gyi tshad ma), sense direct prime sullied; covered; polluted
cognitions to which the ability to perform a {C}be sullied with; be polluted; change N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r-
function appears (don byed snang can gyi Ì-Vø^r-e#n-eo]-f-e(n-a-v-zd[-t#r- {C}sud¸Ÿ› (dev›)
dbang mngon gyi tshad ma), self-knowing auspicious/sublime appearance
strive at not being polluted at all by root
e(fn-az#-vf- 1550

R-](f-N‘r-d- 1572
infractions
Comment: Similar words are sgrib (obstruct,
{C} abhy›sa-m›rga
path of familiarization; path of conditioning
defile), bslad (pollute), zag bcas N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r-
(contaminated); dri ma (taint, stain). sud¸Ÿa
{C}path of repeated meditational practice
excellent appearance

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 52


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

R-](f-a- R^c-t#r- R(-


1573 1581 1593

{LCh,C,L,MSA}pra˚ıta {C}upagacchati Ÿ›˛hya


auspicious; sublime {C}come (to); go to; be overpowered; dissimulation
{C}sublime; fine; good to eat; superior; exalted approach; take to; undergo; with negative:
R(-[^f- 1594

remain (un)aware of
R-](fn-a- 1574

R^c-a- 1582
potsherd; sugar
pra˚ıta
R(-f(- 1595

auspiciousness {C}upagata; {MSA}upagamana (e.g.:


ekı-bh›vopagamana); {MSA}gata (e.g.:
{C}ka˛halya; {C}p›˝›˚a
R-h·f-[^- 1575
aprameya-sa˙khy›-gata); {MSA}gamatva;
{C}bhinno; {C}bhiy›; {MSA}bhÒta (e.g.: {C}gravel; stone
{C}sahas› become; change; transform; arise; be
R(]- 1596

{C}hurries {C}takes place; can be approached; has


admitted into himself; there would be
{MSA}pr›v¸ta
R#- 1576

R^c-d- 1583
put on; dress; wear
(as genitive particle) of; by; in; which. (as
R(]-R(]-a- 1597

non-case particle) and; but; (semi-colon) {C}›padyate; {C} bhavati


become; change; transform; arise; be
[aX[-el#c-dq([-a-x#]-R#- {C}bring about; undergo; show; feel; fall into;
{C}yath›-v¸ta
wearing [continuously]
I state this as a point to be analyzed, but incur; put forth; experience; becomes; stands;
{C}in a proper and correct manner; fitly
Comment: One of five genitive takes place; occurs; comes about
particles—gi, kyi, gyi, 'i, yi.
R(]-dX[* - 1598

R^c-v---xr-zR^c- 1584

R#n- 1577

{C}sa˙nahantı
zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[- put on; dress; wear
dR#! dR#[! dR#n! R#n! {MV}bhÒtv› … bhavati {C}put on
(as instrumental particle) by; by means of; became and becomes again; having become, it
eC-˚ hr- 1599
with; because. (as non-case particle corruptly again becomes
used in place of the non-case usage of genitive
R*]- 1585

particles) but; and; (semi-colon). monastic college


(as imperative verb form) do
eC-˚ n-dl#- 1600
upward
Comment: One of five instrumental
particles—gis, kyis, gyis, 'is, yis. Also used p%c-n*v-R*]-[^-v(e-an- the four [Ge-luk-fla] monastic colleges [e-ra
adverbially. (se rwa); Dre-flung ('bras spungs); Gan-den
since the downward voiding [wind] turned
(dga' ldan); ‚ra-Ôhi-hlün-flo (bkra shis lhun
R#n-b#e- upward
1578

po) ]
R*]-‰X-^ 1586

dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n- eC-˚ n-en$f- 1601

{MSA}lo˛; {MSA}(Ωphal) upward moving; upward-moving [wind]


[imperative form]: do the three [Ge-luk-fla] monastic colleges:
R*]-‰Xz^ -# c√r^ - 1587

[e-ra (se rwa); Dre-flung ('bras spungs);


R^c- 1579
Gan-den (dga' ldan)]
upward-moving wind
eCen- 1602

zR^c! zR^c[! R^c! R^c[!


R*]-[^- 1588

{LCh}as; {LCh}bhÒ; {C}›sı {MSA}yaŸas; {MV}prasiddha(ka)


become; change; transform; arise; be {C}Òrdhvam; {MSA}urdhva
renown; renowned; fame; notoriety;
{C}have; had upwards established; consensus; consensual renown
{C}upwards
zdX^r-dc-R^c-az#-c*e-dX-
eCen-y*]-dt(-d‰X[- 1603

R*]-[^-do*e-t#r- 1589

tangible objects which are elements


eighteen [texts] of great renown [a a-„ya
zdX^r-zR^c-R#-c*e-dX- {C}abhyutk˝ipya collection]{GD:309}
tangible objects which arise from elements {C}having lifted up
eCen-y*]-V“]- 1604

R*]-[^-z[*]C -a- 1590

R^c-t#e- 1580

{C}mah›-yaŸu
draw upward
zR^c! zR^c[! R^c! R^c[! grealty famous; greatly renowned

R*]-[^-sXe( n- {C}greatly famous


1591
imperative verb: let it
be/become/change/transform/arise/be!; may it
eCen-fy(e- 1605

be! {C}Òrdhva
face upward; directed upward
n*fn-t]-pfn-t[-d[*-d-[r-d[*-dz#-‰X^-[r-V“]-a {C}point upwards
{MSA}mah›-yaŸas
supreme fame; supreme renown
c-R^c-t#e-
R*n- 1592

may all sentient beings have happiness and the


causes of happiness! spread out
NI#r-e-]n-R*n-az#-c#f-a-
stages of spreading out from the heart{TGP-49}

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 53


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

eCen-p(d- eCr-r*n- eCrn-az#-o#r-r*-zj‹]-


1606 1615 1627

eCen-a-p(d-a! precise/definite enumeration e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn-


eCr-d- 1616
famous; attained fame meditative stabilization of counting
eC(r-∑*c-d;r-a(c-nrn-‰Xn-N“*-l*n-eCen-p(d-er-! {LCh,MSA}Ÿıta eCrn-f-fy#n- 1628

!D√-fz#-fy(e-[*-[r-a(c-cd-[[-fi*n-dXn-o*! cold; cool {L}asa˙khyeya


In Bhadrapura [Maºgalapura?], the famous
eCr-d-[r-h-d-v-n(en-az#-N“e^ -dN®v- 1617
innumerable; uncountable; countless;
Buddhasen›/ The supreme guru, first I pleased immeasurable; incalculable; inestimable;
with the highest faith{GZ 64a.2} {MSA}Ÿıtalo˝˚›di … du¯kha measureless; infinite
sufferings of cold, heat, and so forth
eCen-a- eCrn-f*[-
1607 1629

eCr-[fXv-d- 1618

{LCh,MV,L}prasiddha; {MV}prasiddhaka; {MSA}asa˙khyeya


{LCh,C}kırti; yaŸas; {MSA}pratıta; pr›tıtya; cold hell-being; being dwelling in a cold hell [number-not existing]; innumerable;
n›man (e.g.: a-buddha-n›man); ravita (e.g.: uncountable; countless; immeasurable;
eCr-nCr( - 1619
svara-ruta-ravita)
renown; fame; notoriety; consensus; incalculable; inestimable; measureless; infinite
consensual renown ¸˝i
eCrn-f*[-ei#n-]#-Ô(en-a- 1630

{C}brought about; accomplished; adorned; sage; seer


celebrated Ô·en- Ô·en- Ô·en- Ô·en-
eCrn- 1620

eCen-a-‰X-y*]- 1608
{MSA}dvyasa˙khyeya-sam›pti
{LCh,C,L,MSA}sa˙khy› two [periods of] countless [eons]
{L}viŸ›lakırti number; enumeration; calculation; finished/completed/fulfilled
ViŸ›lakırti [name of a Tath›gata] computation; reckoning; tally Comment: "Countless" in this context is said to
{C}calculation; counting; numbering; definition; be a number very diffuclt to reckon,
eCen-a-t]- 1609

are counted as specifically a one with fifty-nine zeros


kırtimat (NWLD).
eCrn-W#n-f#-y([-a- 1621

renowned; famous
eCrn-f*[-a- 1631

[number-by-not-cut-off]; not delimited in


eCen-a-p(d-a- 1610

number; innumerable; uncountable; countless; {L,MV}asa˙khyeya


immeasurable; incalculable; inestimable; innumerable; uncountable; countless;
eCen-p(d- measureless; infinite immeasurable; incalculable; inestimable;
famous; attained fame measureless; infinite
eCrn-zeC-( 1622

eCen-a-gf- 1611

eCrn-dl#]- 1632

{C}sa˙khy›˙ gacchati (=vyapadeŸa˙


merely renowned gacchati) {MV}yath›-sa˙khyam
go in the count of; reckon as according to the count/calculation
eCen-az#-‰X-^ i#[- 1612

{C}comes to be styled/called; derives his name


eCrn-n$- 1633

{MSA}yaŸo-hetutva from; it gives sense to say; be reckoned among;


cause of fame/renown/notoriety is called {C}ga˚an›˙ gantu-k›mena; {C} ga˚an›

eCrn-r*n- 1623
{C}wants to be numbered among; counting;
eCen-az#-Ë*n-[ae- 1613

count; enumeration
prasiddh›num›˚a; prasiddhaanum›na definite/limited in number; numerically
eCrn-n$-deçr-dc-eo(en-a- 1634

inference through renown limited; all-inclusive; comprehensive;


enumeration
fh]-i#[! {C} sa˙khy›˙-ga˚an›˙ pravi˝˛a

eCrn-t]- 1624
included in numerical calculation
cr-e#-Ø*]-eCen-Øen-xr-[e-v-dØ*]-]n-cr-e#-e {C}they have transcended all counting
s›˙khya
lv-dX-N´ç-dX^r-eCen-a-v-f#-N√^-dz#-l*]-c#e
eCrn-n$-zeC-( 1635

S›˙khya [Enumerator]
Def.: a determinative knower that in
eCrn-t]-a- 1625
dependence on its basis, a correct sign of {C}sa˙khy›˙ gacchati; {C} parisa˙khy›ta
renown, is incontrovertible with regard to its go in the count of; reckon as
object of comprehension, a terminological {LCh}s›˙khya {C}comes to be styled/called; derives his name
suitability S›˙khya; S›˙khya ("Enumerators") School from; it gives sense to say; be reckoned among;
Comment: This is one of the three divisions of
inference (rjes dpag)—inference through Comment: A non-Buddhist school renowned is called; reckoned up as
power of the fact (dngos stobs rjes dpag), in Buddhist texts as the precursor of all Indian
eCrn-n$-zeC-( zR^c-c(- 1636

inference through renown (grags pa'i rjes systems and so called due to the belief that
dpag), and inference through belief (yid liberation can be gained through thoroughly
{C}parisa˙khy›ta
ches rjes dpag). understanding the enumeration of twenty-five
go in the count of; reckon as
categories of objects of knowledge which
eCr- {C}reckoned up as
1614
principally involves distinguishing between
mind and twentt-four categories of matter.
Ÿıta
eCrn-a- 1626
cold; cool

ga˚an›
counting

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 54


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

eCrn-n$-fy#z-( eCd^ - eCd^ -fpz-q^]-b*n-]n-fpz-dCv-N´d&ç -a-l*n-dX-d


1637 1647 1651

{C}sa˙khy›˙ gacchati
go in the count of; reckon as
zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- z#-dNø ]-dt(n-’f-ac-db[-a-v*en-db[-W#-‰X-
Ocean of Good Explanations: Explanation of
sidh; {MSA,MV}siddha; siddhi; {MSA}›pti
{C}comes to be styled/called; derives his name (e.g.: manorath›pti) the Treatise "Establishment of Freedom from
from; it gives sense to say; be reckoned among; be established; be accomplished; establish; Extremes through Understanding All Tenets" [by
is called; reckoned up as exist; achieve the Translator ‚ak-tsang hay-rap-rin-chen
(stag tshang lo ts› b› shes rab rin chen; b. 1405)]
eCf-n- xr-[e-ac-eC^d-a! [*-w(-]-i#[-[^-eC^d-a!
1638

Comment: This is a commentary on his own


{C}ujjaºgala d[*]-ac-eC^d-a! [(]-[f-ac-eC^d-a! verse root text entitled Establishment of
Freedom from Extremes through
{C}arid r(-d(-i#[-W#n-eC^d-a- Understanding All Tenets. The book contains
eCd# - 1639
established as its own reality (*samyak-siddha); a lively exposition of many contradictions he
established as [its own] suchness found in the writings of ‚zong-ka-fla.
defilement; filth; stain; contamination; stroke (*tattva-siddha); truly established Jam-Âang-shay-fla wrote a lengthy rejoinder
(satya-siddha); ultimately established in his Great Exposition of Tenets (grub mtha'
eCd# -a- 1640

(param›rtha-siddha); established through its chen mo).


cr-dl#]-R#n-eC^d-a! cr-e#-fh]-i#[-W#n-eC^d-a!
eCd^ -fpz-[(c-d- 1652
ch›y›
shade cr-r(n-]n-eC^d-a!
inherently established (svabh›va-siddha); forsake the tenet [by holding a tenet contrary
eCd# -a-f*[-ac- 1641

established by way of its own character to it]


(svalak˝a˚a-siddha); established from its own
eCd^ -fpz-Nƒ-ç d- 1653
{L}an›vara˚a
eCd^ -zu$e-e#-D√-( 1648

undefiled; not filthy; without stain;


uncontaminated; without covering proponent of tenets
zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn-
eCd# -f- eCd^ -fpz-Ì-d-
1642 1654

*viddhiprav¸ttibuddhi
{LCh}cch›y›; {MSA}ch›y› awareness/mind of complete/total The Root Text on Tenets [by Jam-Âang-shay-fla
engagement; awareness/mind which engages which is the basis for his own comentary called
shadow
[its object] in a complete/total manner Great Exposition of Tenets (grub mtha' chen mo)
eC-^ 1643

in its short title]


eCd^ -pdn- 1649

eCd^ -fpz-dl#z-# v$en-W#-q^]-Ô(d-[r-[(]-[f-az# 1655


{LCh}n›va; {LCh}nau; {C}n›vi
boat; ship zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn-
{C}ship s›dhana
means of achievement
-[(]Explanation
-’f-ac-db[-a-v* en-db[-[aX[# -W#-[av-
c#en-az#-eC^c- of the Conventional and the
Ultimate in the Four Systems of Tenets: The
eCd^ -fpz- 1650
in the ship of reasoning Spring Cuckoo’s Song of Good Explanations [by
Nga-Ûang-flel-den (ngag dbang dpal ldan, b.
eC-^ l#e- 1644

eC^d-az#-fpz- 1797)]
{C}bhinna-bh›vo {LCh}siddh›nta; siddhyanta
eCd^ -fpz#-’f-ac-dle-a-c#]-a(-y*z-# s*rC -d- 1656

{C}who suffers shipwreck tenet; established conclusion; tenet system;


system of tenets; system; outlook Precious Garland of Tenets [by
eC-^ dl#- 1645
in the ety I changed grub pa'i ‰ön-chok-jik-may-Ûang-flo (dkon mchog 'jigs
{LCh}catarasra to grub pa'am; check med dbang po; 1728-91)]
square; four-cornered [av-fy(e-zeC*v-a-y$r-d-N√(d-[a(]-q^]-NI#r-e#n-f eCd^ -fpz#-’f-dle- 1657

eC-^ e;#rn- 1646

j[-a-f-x#]-o*! [*-[r-eC^d-fpz-f#-fp%]-az#-sX#c! *siddh›ntavyavasth›pana


the shorter commentary on the Glorious presentation of tenets [genre of literature]
ship; boat
Param›dya was not composed by
eCd^ -fpn-dN√[-a-v-Vøn( -f*[-[^- 1658

finandagarbha because it does not accord in


outlook with his great commentary on the without relying on being affected by tenets
Glorious Param›dya Tantra
enr-N®en-W#-eC^d-az#-fpz-‰X-fh·z#-s-c(v-[^-n(]-a-
eCd^ -[^n- 1659

[he] reached the far shore of the ocean of


secret mantra systems zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn-
N´ç-db[! time of accomplishing/achieving/establishing
v$r-c#en-er-c$r-v-dØ*]-]n-pe-dt[-t#r-eC^d-az cr-eC^d-[^n-vn-[^n-ei#n-ac-f#-N“([-a-
f-[f-dtn-az#-[(]-[*-i#[-cr-e#-D√(-r(c-h$v-[*-vn- [a thing] will not remain for a second period
after its time of establishment
el]-[^ -z[(c-f*etymology:
Contextual [-an-]!-eC^dA-az# -fpz-l*
tenet n-dË(an[-a-
[literally,
established conclusion] is a meaning that has
been decided upon and established or promised
in reliance upon scripture and/or reasoning and
which, from the perspective of one’s mind, will

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 55


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

eCd^ -d[*-et#e- eCd^ -a-[^n-fif! e]n-a-[^n-fif! eCc^ -l^en-v-dØ*]-]n-V¨]( -b#r-zeC-( dc-N‘r-dz#-


1660 1667 1677

zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- zu#established


e-a-[^n-fif!
simultaneously, abide
[dr-b*n-
ekayogak˝ema N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r-
one establishement and abiding; same in terms simultaneously, and disintegrate simultaneously
a sense consciousness to which, in dependence
of establishment and abiding Comment: The meaning (don) of one upon having entered into a boat, trees appear
establishment and abiding (grub bde gcig).
fh]-i#[! eC^d-a-[^n-fif! e]n-a-[^n-fif! to be moving

eCd^ -az#-fpz- 1668


Comment: Example of a non-conceptual
zu#e-a-[^n-fif! f a c s i m i l e b o g u s : c h e c k K a t h y of
Def.: those which are established eC^d-fpz- direct perception whose cause of error
simultaneously, abide simultaneously, and abides in the basis ('khrul rgyu gnas la yod
{LCh}siddh›nta
disintegrate simultaneously pa'i rtog med mngon sum ltar snang).
tenet; established conclusion; tenet system;
eCd^ -d[*-Ôn-et#e- 1661
system; outlook
eC-* a(-ei]- 1678

Comment: See grub mtha'.


zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- mischievous ghost spirit
eCd^ -a- 1669

one substantial entity of establishment and


eC-* f(- 1679

abiding; one substantiality of establishment and zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn-


abiding; same substantial entity in terms of ghost spirit
{TN}ni˝panna
establishment and abiding
established; perfected; accomplished;
eC-( e- 1680
{GD:241} simultaneous substantial identity;
completed
{572} one simlutaneous substance
birch
eCd^ -ac-R^c-a-Ø(en-a- 1670

eC^d-d[*-Ôn-et#e-az#-x(]-o]-
eCe( -N∂-^ 1681

qualities that are the same substantial entity of zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn-
establishment and abiding
{MSA}ni˝panna-bodha ant

eCd^ -a- eC^d-fpn-D√(-f-dN´≈&c-dz#-eC(e-N∂^-


1662
realize that it has been
established/accomplished/achieved/completed
ant whose mind has not been affected by tenets
zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn-
eCd^ -ac-zR^c-d- 1671

eCe( n- 1682
{L,MV}siddha; {L,MSA}siddhi; samup›rjita;
{MSA}ni˝patti; {MSA}ni˝panna
be established; be accomplished; establish;
zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- eC(en-a(! eC(en-a!
exist; achieve; existent; establishment {C}siddhyanti; {L}siddhyeta
{LCh,C,L,MSA}sah›ya; {LCh,MSA}mitra;
{C}power; succeed; accomplish; stored up establish; accomplish; achieve {MSA}sah›yaka; {MSA}s›h›yya
Comment: See grub. {C}will succeed; become; arise; come to be; friend; accompanier; companion;
perfect concomitant; assister
eCd^ -a-q^]-p(d-ac-zR^c- 1663

eCd^ -ac-dX-d- 1672

eCe( n-e#-c#f-eC-( dXn-an- 1683

p(d!zp(d- zp(d- p(d- zp(dn-


{MSA}eti sarva-siddhim
zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- {C}jıvita-anugraha-kara˚a
{L}s›dhya {C}help living beings
will attain all feats/yogic achievements
that which is to be
eCe( n-r]- 1684

eCd^ -a---W#-N®]( -[^-zeC-( dz#-dqC-b#n-x#]-a- 1664


achieved/established/mastered/perfected
{MSA}asan-mitra; {MSA}kumitra
eCd^ -ac-fj[- 1673

zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- bad friend


{MSA}siddhi-pÒrva˙gama-maºgalatva
zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- eCe( n-fy(e- 1685

auspiciousness preceding a feat/yogic


achievement established; taken/treated as
established/accomplished/achieved {MSA}sumitrat›

eCd^ -a-[r-d[*-d- 1665


supreme/good friend; supreme/good friendship
eCf^ -a- 1674

eCe( n-NIr# -Ë*-y*]-a(n-;#]-t#r- 1686

zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- badger


yoga-k˝ema affected by great compassion which is its
eCf^ -a(- 1675
establishment and abiding accompanier
Comment: See grub bde gcig.
eCe( n-Nød( n- 1687
{C}khañja
eCd^ -a-[r-d[*-d-f*[-a- 1666
{C}lame
{MSA}mitra-bala
eCc^ -l^en-a-v-dØ*]-]n- 1676

zeC^d- zeC^d- zeC^dn!eC^d- eC^dn- power of an accompanier/assister

eCe( n-a- 1688


{C}ayoga-k˝ema l^e- zu$e- l^en- l^en-
{C}surrounded by troubles
in dependence on residing in a boat {L}sah›ya
friend; companion; accompanier; assister

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 56


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

eCe( n-a-v-[[-y*-dc-f#-zR^c- eCr( - eCv( -]n-


1689 1701 1712

zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[- zeC(r-! zeC(rn! eC(r-! eC(rn! zeC(v- zeC(v[- eC(v- eC(v[-
{C} (na) sa˙v›sa-Ÿıl› (bhavati) {L}gr›ma {C}mukta
{C}she abstains from habitual cohabitation(?) town/village. (as verb) die; one who has died having released/loosened/freed

eCe( n-a(- 1690


eC(r-zu$e-e#-’v-zdX(c- {C}freed; let loose; delivered

eCv( -d- 1713


yoga of entering the dead
{C,MSA}mitra; {C}sah›yaka; {MSA}sah›ya; (parak›ya-praveŸa-yoga)
{C}b›ndhava; {C}m›r˝a
zeC(v- zeC(v[- eC(v- eC(v[-
eCr( -∑*c- 1702
friend; companion; accompanier; assister
{L,MV,MSA}mukta; mok˝a; {C}nirmukta;
{C}teacher; adherent; advocate; maternal
{LCh,C}nagara; {C}pura; {L}gr›ma; {MV,MSA}mukti; {MSA}vimukti
relative; Sir!
city/town release; liberation; freedom; released;
eCe( n-a(-z[}-d- 1691
loosened
{C}town; abode, village
{C}freed; let loose; delivered; sundered from;
{MSA}mitra-kalpa [}#-;z#-eC(r-∑*c- outside
like a friend/companion/assister city of fragrance eaters (fata morgana) Ô·en-ac-eC(v-d-
eCe( n-a(-[f]-a-[e-e#n-x(rn-dNœc( -d- 1692

eCr( -∑*c-d- 1703


completely release

dN(œc- N(œc- dN(œc[- N(œc[- {MSA}paurı zw(c-d-vn-eC(v-d-v-Nø(r-i#[-r*n-ac-Ø(en-[e(n-


{MSA}hınai¯ sah›yai¯ pariv›rita¯ city-person in order to be released from cyclic existence
completely surrounded by low one must definitely realize emptiness
eCr( -e#-]r- 1704

friends/companions
eCv( -d-i#[- 1714

{C}gr›m›nte
eCe( n-a(-vn-D√rn-a- 1693

inside a town/village zeC(v- zeC(v[- eC(v- eC(v[-


{MSA}mitr›d ›tt› {C}in the neighborhood of a village {C}muktat›
taken from a friend
eCr( -zu$e-e#-’v-zdXc( - release; freedom; liberation; loosening
1705

{C}freedom
eCe( n-a(c-r]-a- 1694

{LCh}parak›ya-praveŸa-yoga
eCv( -d-a(- 1715

{MSA}kumitra yoga of entering the dead


bad/false friend
eCr( -zu(fn- 1706
zeC(v- zeC(v[- eC(v- eC(v[-
eCe( n-dX-d-v-Nœ-(≈ d-f*[-a- 1695
{MSA}mokt¸
el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn- releaser; liberator; freer; loosener
{MSA}s›h›yya-kriy›kheda gramaghataka
eCv( -dc-zR^c- 1716
without discouragement concerning Destroyer of Cities [epithet of ⁄iva];
accompanying/helping destruction of city
zeC(v- zeC(v[- eC(v- eC(v[-
eCe( n-dXn- Comment: grong sogs 'joms—destruction of
1696

cities and so forth—is one of the eighteen {MV}mukt›¯ syu¯


[companion-done]; helped; aided; assisted root infractions of the Bodhisattva vows. will release/free/liberate/loosen
Gr›magh›taka; perhaps also Nagaragh›taka,
eCv( -dc-dX[* - 1717

eCe( n-dX[* - 1697

or Pura˙dara.

eCr( -z[d-]-e]n-a- zeC(v- zeC(v[- eC(v- eC(v[-


1707
that which acts as an assister
Comment: The definition of condition {MSA}(Ωmuc): mocayanti; {MV}vimocana
(rkyen, pratyaya). {C}gr›m›nta-vih›rin
release; liberate; free; loosen
{C}living near a village
eCe( n-h$v-„#fn-[r-Vø-d-fp%]-a- 1698

E√-d- 1718

eCr( -”v- 1708

dVø- Vø- dVøn- Vø(n- {C}nigama


musk deer
{MSA}sabh›ga-Ÿıla-d¸˝˛i-sah›yakatva
E√en- 1719
{C}market town; market place
friend/companion with concordant ethics and
eCr( -h‹en- 1709
view {L}avatarati; {C}avat›ra; ot›ru (=avat›ra)
opportunity; possibility
eCe( n-d;r-a(- 1699
{L}gr›ma
{C}enter; descend; penetrate; descent; opening;
city; village
{MSA}susah›yaka opportunity; possibility; entry; phrase at;
eCr( -en*d-a- 1710
good friend/companion descent; opening

E√en-È*[-zR^c- 1720

eCe( n-n$-R^c-a- 1700


villager

eCv( - {C}avat›ru labhi˝yati


1711
{MSA}sah›yatva
friendship; became friend find a chance; gain an opportunity
zeC(v- zeC(v[- eC(v- eC(v[- {C}gains entrance
{C,MV}mukta; {MV}mukti; {MSA}vimukti;
{MSA}vimok˝a
released; loosened; freed
{C}freed; let loose; delivered

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 57


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

E√en-È*[-ac-zR^c- E√r-a(-y*z-# e;$en- E√r# -dl#-


1721 1734 1744

{C}avak›Ÿa˙ labhate {MSA}hasty-›k¸ti caturdvıpa


find a chance; gain an opportunity form of an elephant the four continents [of traditional Buddhist
{C}a chance with cosmology]
E√r-a(-c#]-a(-y*- 1735

Comment: In Buddhist cosmology there are


E√r- 1722

{MSA}hasti-ratna eight smaller continents (gling phran brgyad)


that, two each, are next to four large
{C}balıvarda precious elephant
continents: In the center, is the monarch of
bull
E√r-a(z-# Ë*n- mountains, ri rab (meru). The four
1736

{C}bull continents and eight smaller continents


Comment: Note that rta blang means "horse are (1) shar lus 'phags po (videha), the
{C}hasta-pada eastern continent "land of [those with]
and elephant," blang being an abbreviation of foot-print of an elephant superior/large bodies" with lus (deha)
blang po che. {C}elephant's foot and lus 'phags (videha); (2) lho 'dzam
bu gling (jambudvıpa), the southern 1 7 4 5
E√r-y*]- E√r# -dl#-a-
1723

E√r-a(z-# e;$en- 1737

D√r-a(-y*- {MSA}hasty-›k¸ti {L}caturdvıpaka


gaja; {C}ibha form of an elephant four-continent world-system
elephant
E√r# -dl#z-# f#- 1746

E√rn- 1738

E√r-pr-a- 1724

humans of the four continents


D√r-! v*]! D√rn! v*]!
Íang-tang-fla [a ‰a-dam-fla Ge-Ôhay reputed Comment: One of the two divisions of mi
{C}grahiy›na
for never laughing] (humans), the other being humans of the eight
take; get; grasp; receive small continents (gling phran brgyad kyi mi).
E√r-a(- {C}would have taken
1725

E√-^ 1747

E√v-d- 1739

{L,MSA}hastin
{C}gıta
elephant {C}vij¸mbhate song
E√r-a(-y*- yawn
1726
{C}song
{C}yawn
E√-^ R]- 1748
gaja; {C,MSA}hastin
E√r# - 1740

elephant
mischevious n›gas
E√r-a(-y*-z„^v-a- {LCh,C}dvıpa
1727

E√-^ [dXrn- 1749


continent; island; location [as of a monastery]
{MSA}bhr›nta-hastin {C}island
illusory elephant {LCh}gıta; {LCh}sa˙gıti; {MSA}sa˙gıti-gho˝›
E√r# -w- 1741
song
E√r-a(-y*-[r-Øz#-h·en-v-n(en-a-[r-z[}-d- 1728

E√-^ dn*]-f(- 1750


park
{MSA}hasty-aŸva-k›y›di-bhÒtatva
E√r# -sC]-d‰X[- 1742

similar to herds of elephants and horses, etc. evil female n›ga

E√e* n- 1751

E√r-a(-y*-v-n(en-a- 1729
{Rigzin} a˝˛a k˝udradvıp›ni
eight small continents [of traditional Buddhist
{MV}hasty›di {C}pustaka
cosmology]
elephants and so forth book
Comment: There are eight smaller continents
in Buddhist cosmology (gling phran brgyad) {C}book
E√r-a(-y*-v-n(en-ac-f*[-a- 1730

that, two each, are next to four large


E√e* n-df- 1752

{MSA}hastitv›dy-abh›va continents: In the center, is the monarch of


mountains, ri rab (meru). The four {LCh}pustaka; {C}puste; {C}pusta
without elephants and so forth continents and eight smaller continents
are (1) shar lus 'phags po (videha), the [boards-what is gathered]; book; volume
E√r-a(-y*]-a(- 1731

eastern continent "land of [those with]


E√e* n-df-[^-y$[-ac- 1753
superior/large bodies" with lus (deha)
{C}mah›-n›ga and lus 'phags (videha); (2) lho 'dzam
{C}great serpent bu gling (jambudvıpa), the southern 1 7 4 3 {C} pustaka-gata
E√r# -sC]-d‰X[-W#-f#- included in book
E√r-a(-y*]-a(z-# Vø-Nørn- 1732

{C}has got it from a book; from a book


humans of the eight small continents; humans
E√e* n-df-[^-dCn# -]n- 1754
dVø- Vø- dVøn- Vø(n- of the eight subcontinents
{C}n›g›valokita (=mah›-n›g›valokita) Comment: One of the two divisions of mi
(humans), the other being humans of the four {C}pustaka-likhit›˙ k¸tv›
elephant-gaze; gaze of an elephant
continents (gling bzhi'i mi). written in a book
{C}elephant-look
{C}written down in a book
E√r-a(-y*z-# N´-ç Nœ[- 1733

E√e* n-d$- 1755

{MSA}n›ga-svara-Ÿabd›
page; label
sound/bellow of an elephant

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 58


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

E√r* -dË([- E√-( d$c-[^- [ee-N´d&ç -ei#n-


1756 1767 1777

dË([- Ë([- dË([- Ë([- {C} ›gantuka(m) dN´d&ç - N´d&ç - dN´d&ç n- N´d&ç n-
sudddenly; adventitiously; temporarily
{LCh}nid›na the two—negative [phenomena] and positive
{C}(something) adventitious
introduction; specific teachings [phenomena]; the two—refutation and

E√-( d$c-[^-dXr^ -d- establishment; the two—refutation and proof


1768

E√r* -el#- 1757

Comment: Positive and negative phenomena


{LCh}nid›na zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r- are one of the divisions of gzhi grub
(established base), i.e., existents (yod pa).
introduction {MV}›gantukatva

[ee-N´d&ç -dX[* - 1778


adventitiously/suddenly arisen
E√r* -el#z-# N“-* 1758

E√-( d$c-[}-# dCv-R#-y- 1769

{L}nid›na dN´d&ç - N´d&ç - dN´d&ç n- N´d&ç n-


introduction; specific teachings factor of freedom from adventitious refutation and establishment; refutation and
defilements; factor of being separated from proof
E√r* n- 1759

adventious defilements refutation and establishment


E√*r-! E√*r-! E√*rn! E√*rn! E√-( d$c-’f-[e-e#-y- [ee-a-
1770 1779

{C}vy›p›rita
factor of adventitious purity [ee ze(e dqe w(en-
talk; say; mention; express; propound
Comment: A state of purity brought about by
{C}set to work {LCh,MSA}prati˝edha
the path rathan than a factor of natural purity
negation; refutation; negative [phenomenon];
E√r* n-a- 1760
(rang bzhin rnam dag gi cha).
cessation; negative phenomenon
E√-( d$c-d- 1771

E√*r-! E√*r-! E√*rn! E√*rn! f*[-ac-[ee-a-dË([-ac-z[([-az#-sX#c-[r(n-a(-f*[-


{MSA}pÒrv›dhik¸ta {MSA}›kasmika; {MSA}›gantuka az#-[(]-]#-cr-dl#]-f*[-az#-[(]-x#]-](-
talk; say; mention; express; propound adventitious; sudden; temporary because of a wish to express a non-affirming
E√]* -a- E√-( d$c-dXr^ -d-
1761 1772
negative, lacking being means an absence [or a
lack] of nature
{C}jada (abh›vaprati˝edhavivak˝atatv›t
zdX^r- zdX^r- dX^r- dX^r-
stupid bh›v›bh›v›rtha eva svabh›v›bh›v›rtha¯) [PP,
{MV}›gantukatva fh]-i#[!
{C}stunned; senseless idiot; stupid
adventitiously/suddenly arisen cr-zj‹]-Ø(e-an-cr-e#-[ee-dX-[r(n-n$-dt[-az#-
E√-( 1762

E√e( - 1773

h$v-R#n-Ø(en-ac-dX-d!
side; proximity {C}vidyuta; {C}vidyut; vidyuj-jyotis Def.: an object realized by the conceptual

E√-( fw]-y*]-dn([-]fn-Vµ]^ -eCd^ - consciousness apprehending it in the manner of


1763
lightning
{C}lightning flash an explicit elimination of its object of negation.
Ío Ken-chen Sö-nam-hlün-drup{GD:ix}
]f-fwz#-E√(e- [dX*-d! 1 f-x#]-[ee 2 f*[-[ee
E√-( d-[ez- 1764

lightning in the sky Div.: (1) affirming negative; (2) non-affirming


negative
E√e( -Vø-d$z-# o#r-r*-zj‹]- 1774
E√(-d-[ez! [ez! [ez! [ez! Comment: Negative phenomenon (dgag pa) is
take joy (in); delight (in) equivalent to gzhan sel (exlusion of the other,
e;$r- zj‹]- d;$r- ;$rn- other-exclusion [any›poha]). Examples are
d${“m-e^˜-d[e-[r(n-E√(-d-[ez! {C}vidyutopama rtag pa ma yin pa (non-permanent); bum pa
lightning-like meditative stabilization ma yin pa las log pa (opposite from non-pot).
I, Buddhaguhya, truly take joy [in that] {GZ

E√[( -a- [ee-a-[r(n-n$-Ø(en-az#-h[-f- 1780


69a.2} 1775

E√-( d$c- 1765

E√([-a! E√([-a! E√([-a! E√([-a! Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en-


{MSA,MV}›gantuka; ›gantakumala; {MSA}samavagh›ta direct perception explicitly realizing a negative
{MV}›gantukatva; ›kasmika loosen; relax; release; set free phenomenon
adventitious; temporary; sudden;
fh]-y#[!
[ee- 1776
circumstantial
E√(-d$c-R#-[}#-f- [ee-az#-’f-a-bc-]n-[ee-a-v-enc-[^-f#-dN√^-d
[ee ze(e dqe w(en-
adventitious stain/defilement negate; stop; refute; block; limit
z#-c#e-a-
E√(-d$c-R#-z„^v-‰X^-[r-s$en-W#-z„^v-‰X^- Comment: See dgag pa. Def.: a knower newly incontrovertible with
respect to a negative phenomenon upon the
adventitious causes and error and innermost
aspect of a negative phenomenon appearing [to
causes of error
it]
Comment: "Adventitious" in this context does
Comment: The aspect of an object must
not mean "uncaused"; it means "superficial"
appear in cases when the realization is
and is the opposite of "innermost" (phugs).
explicit.
E√-( d$c-R#-[}-# f- 1766

adventitious defilement/stain

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 59


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[ee-az#-N´-ç [ed- [ez-V“]-e]n-v-n(en-ac-Nœ-*≈ dc-q^]-o^-Nø]( -a-


1781 1792 1802

negative word/term [ed! ze*dn! dqd! w(d! dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [-
f-f#-f#]-f*[-[ee-az#-N´ç- {MSA}vasana {MSA}tu˝ita-bhavan›dy-upapatti-sa˙darŸana
ma, mi, min, and med are negative terms cover; spread over thoroughly displaying birth in the Joyous Land
and so forth
[ee-az#-’f-a-bc-]n-[ee-a-v-enc-[^-f#-d [ez-
1793
1782

[ez-d- 1803

{C}prıti; priya; rati; {MSA}rata; {C}nanda;


N√-^ dz#-c#
e -a-
a knower newly incontrovertible with respect
{C}parito˝ayati; {C}sukha; {MSA}(Ωmud): {MSA,C}priya; preman; {MV,MSA,C}prıti
modate; {MSA}muda; {MSA}moda; {C}sp¸h› (=lokottara- dharma-parye˝˛i¯ =
to a negative phenomenon upon the aspect of a joy; happiness; liking saumanasyam); {C}rata; udbilya; ›moda;
negative phenomenon appearing [to it] {C}joyous; remains contented; kind; dear; ease; udagra; tu˝˛a; (=sneha); {L}nandi; nandana;
joy; happiness; liking; like; prefer; incline
Comment: This is the definition of direct pleasure; happiness; happily; longing toward
perception explicitly realizing a negative
[ez-dR#[- 1794
phenomenon (dgag pa dngos su rtogs pa'i {C}joyous; satisfaction; happiness; elated;
tshad ma). contented; dear; kind; zest; rapture; affection;
dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n- love; sympathetic joy; delight; delighted; delight
[ee-ac-R^c-az#-V“e( -a-c#en-et#e-a- 1783
in
{C}sp¸h›ti
negative phenomena which are the same {C}emit radiance fn-dØ]-R#-[ez-d-
isolate type joy of stability from below
[ez-fe^c- 1795

[ee-dX- 1784
xn-ddn-W#-[ez-d-
arbitrarily
joy of descent from above
{LCh}prati˝edhya; ni˝edhya
[ez-Nø]( - 1796

[ez-d-dNœ[*≈ -a- 1804


object of negation/refutation; object negated;
object stopped; that which is to be negated; {LCh}utsava
object to be negated festival; fest; party dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -
prıty-utp›da
[ee-dX-dqe-a- 1785
fwn-az#-[ez-Nø(]- generate/produce/engender joy/happiness
festival for the wise
negative of the object of negation; negation of
[ez-d-ifn-n$-fXr( -d- 1805

[ez-[r-V“]-a- 1797
the object of negation
{MSA}sukham anubhavati
[ee-dX-ze(e-az#-Ø(e-a- 1786

{MSA}rati-yukta experiencing joy


endowed with joy/happiness
a conceptual consciousness that [merely]
[ez-d-zp(d-a- 1806

[ez-V“]- 1798
refutes an object of negation

[ee-dX-r(n-d;$r-d- 1787

{LCh,C}tu˝ita; {MSA}sp¸h›vat; {C}tu˝ita-deva p(d!zp(d- zp(d- p(d- zp(dn-


Joyous Land/Heaven [name of a Buddhist pure {L}prıti; {L}prıti-l›bha
identifying the object of negation attain/obtain joy/happiness
land]; Gan-den ("Joyous") Monastic University
[ee-dXz-# y(n- 1788
[name of one of the large monasteries of the
[ez-d-[r-d[*-d- 1807

Ge-luk-fla order in Tibet founded by


*prati˝edhya-dharma ‚zong-ka-fla (tsong kha pa) in 1408] {C}prıti-sukha; prıti-sukhado;
predicate to be negated; predicate of the Comment: The other two large monasteries joy and bliss
negandum near Hla-Ôa that constitute the Three Seats
{C}rapture; zest and joy; which gives joy and
are e-ra (se rwa) and Dre-flung ('bras
[ee-el#- ease
1789

spungs).
[ez-d-[r-d[*-d-dNœ[*≈ -a- 1808

[ez-V“]-z„#-a- 1799
basis of negation

[ee-el#-t]-R#-y(n- dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ -


1790

holder of the throne of Gan-den [head of the


Ge-luk-fla order] {MSA}prıti-sukha-sa˙jananı
phenomenon which has a basis of negation generate/produce/engender joy and bliss
[ez-V“]-R#-e]n-]-e]n-a-v-n(en-az#-Nåv&ç -a- 1800
Comment: A phenomenon that is absent
[ez-d-[r-d[*-d-xr-[e-ac-fXr( -d- 1809
somewhere.

[ee-dle-Når( -en$f- 1791 r*n-ac-Nø]( -a- {MSA}prıti-sukha-sa˙vedana


dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [- thoroughly experience joy and bliss
el]-v$en-[ee-a! cr-v$en-dle-a! {MSA}
[ez-d-[r-V“]- 1810
tu˝ita-bhavana-v›s›di-nirm›˚a-nidarŸana
[*-v-Ì·[-a-Nå(r-d! definite display of emanations such as that
the three—refuting [other's systems], {C}hrımat
dwelling in the Joyous Land
establishing [our own system], and dispelling joyous; possessing joy; endowed with joy;
[objections with respect to our own system]
[ez-V“]-R#-e]n-]-dl^en-a- 1801
happy
Comment: The first of the three also is taken {C}modest
as 'khrul pa dgag pa (refuting mistake/error). {MSA}tu˝ita-bhavane vasati;
{MSA}tu˝ita-bhavana-v›sa
[ez-d-[r-V“]-a- 1811

dwelling in the Joyous Land


{MSA}prıti-sahagata
joyous; possessing joy; endowed with joy;
happy

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 60


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[ez-d-[r-dCv-d-f*[-a- [ez-dz#-‰X-^ [ez-dn-e]n-az#-sXc# -


1812 1823 1836

{C}avirati {MSA}tu˝˛i … hetu {MSA}raty› vihara˚›t


not separated from joy/happiness; not devoid cause of joy due to abiding with joy; due to abiding joyously
of joy/happiness
[ez-dz#-‰X-^ i#[- [ez-dX[* -
1824 1837

{C}no discontent
{MSA}rati-hetutva {C}pramoday›ti
[ez-d-[r-fh$rn-ac-V“]-a- 1813

cause of joy make happy


{MSA}rati-sa˙prayukta {C}makes happy
[ez-dz#-fy(e- 1825

having similar association with joy


[ez-dX[* -a- 1838

{MSA}prıti … agry›
[ez-d-[r-x#[-d[*-Nœ-*≈ d- 1814

supreme of joys; supreme joy {MSA}(› Ωmud): ›modate [mi dga' byed pa =
{C}prıti-saumanasya-j›ta {MSA}udvejana]
[ez-dz#-cr-dl#]-t]-d[*-dz#-cr-dl#]-t]- 1826

generate/produce/engender joy and mental make happy


bliss {C}priya-rÒpa-s›ta-rÒpa
[ez-hv- 1839

{C}exultant and glad; full of zest and gladness; {C}dear and pleasant forms ('things' would be
overjoyed and enchanted better) {C}ramya-vana
{C}delightful forest
[ez-d-N“[^ -az#-x#[-dX[* - 1815

[ez-dz#-c(- 1827

[ez-l#r- 1840

dN“^- N“^[- dN“^n- N“^n- {MSA}prıti-rasa


ratisa˙gr›haka-manask›ra taste of joy {C}nirata; {C}ramate (=bhakti˙ karoti)
mental contemplation of joy-withdrawal enjoy; like
[ez-dz#-dnf-a- 1828

Comment: One of the seven preparations {C}take delight in; enjoy oneself; delight in;
(nyer bsdogs, sam›taka) for a concentration {MSA}mudit›Ÿaya have joy
(bsam gtan, dhy›na). joyous thought; thought of joy
[ez-cd-[dr-sXe^ - 1841

[ez-d-]#-d[*-d-[r-f#-zdCv-dz#-’f-a-x#]- 1816

[ez-dc- 1829

the demonic Lord of Love


{MSA}mudit› sukh›viyog›k›r› {C}udagra; {C}prıta Comment: An epithet of the God of Desire
joy has the aspect of [wishing for] joyous; happy ('dod lha, k›madeva).
non-separation from happiness/pleasure {C}elated; full of zest; glad
[e^- 1842

[ez-d-Når( -d- 1817

[ez-dc-zR^c-c(- 1830

nava; {C}kuk˝it›
Når- Nå(r- Nårn- Nå(rn- nine; all
zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[- {C}belly
{C}rati-jaha {C}ramate (=bhakti˙ karoti); {C}sp¸ha˚ıya Comment: "Nine" may come to mean "all"
abandoning/forsaking joy become joyful due to the fact that there are nine levels in
{C}forsaking delight {C}enjoy oneself; delights in; have joy; to be cyclic existence.
envied; enviable; desirable
[ez-d-dX[* -a- 1818

[e^-a- 1843

[ez-dc-dX[* -a- 1831

{C}rati-kara; {MSA}mudit›yata
{L}nava; {MV.V.28}navama; {MSA}navamı
{C}giving (joy) {MSA}›varjana; {MSA}(Ωprı): prı˚ayati; ninth
{MSA}prema˚ıy›; {MSA}rañjikatva;
[ez-d-f*[- 1819

[e^-a(- 1844
{MSA}sa˙tu˝˛i-karin
{C}arati take delight
the nine; all nine
joyless; absence of joy; without joy/pleasure
[ez-dc-f#-dX-d- 1832

[e^r- 1845
{C}not content; no content
{L}anabhirati
[ez-d-x#[-v-dX[* -a- 1820

not take joy (1) sky; space (2) middle


nC#[-W#-yd-nC#[-frz-pr-[e^r-v-c*e
{MSA}pramoda-manask›ra;
[ez-dc-f#-dX[* - 1833

{MSA}prıya˚›-manasik›ra; [his] power over the kingdom of existence


{MSA}rati-manask›ra; {L}apay›ti reaches to the sky {GZ 69a.1}
{MSA}sp¸h›-manask›ra not take joy; not take delight
mental contemplation of joy; joyous mental i#]-[e^r-
contemplation; taking joy to mind
[ez-dc-h‹f-ac-dX[* - 1834

noon [literally, mid-day]


[ez-d-x(rn-n$-Nƒ]# -a- 1821

{MSA}(Ωprı): prı˚ayati
[e^r-]f- 1846

{MSA}ruci-parip›ka satisfy; joyously satisfy


thorough maturaion of joy space; sky; mid-space
[ez-dc-fj[-az#-h$v-R#n- 1835

[e^r-]f-zsC^v-R#-‰Xv-a(z#-[d(]-a(-x#n!
[ez-dz#-∑[-ac-dNœ[*≈ -a- 1822

{C}sa˙har˝ayam›˚a-rÒpa by the nephew of the space-emanation king


in the manner of making joyous
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {GZ 68b.4}
{C}with a thrill
{MSA}tu˝˛i-viŸe˝otp›dana
[e^r-n*r- 1847

generate a particular/specific/instance/type of
joy vacation; holiday

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 61


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[e*- [e*-z[^]-i#-b^z-# f[(- [e*-d---fr(]-ac-[ez-


1848 1861 1868

{L,MV}Ÿubha; {L}kuŸala; {L}kaly›˚a sÒtra passages on the twenty members of the {MSA}Ÿubh›bhir›mat›
virtue; virtuous; wholesome spiritual community manifestly liking virtue
good; merit; lovely; pleasant; helpful
[e*-z[^]-sv-y*]-a- [e*-d-dt$z-# vn-W#-vf-
1862 1869

Comment: See dge ba.


mah›s›˙ghika {C}daŸa-kuŸala-karma-path›
[e*-›]- 1849

Mah›s›˙ghika; Great Assembly School paths of action of the ten virtues


teacher Comment: One of the eighteen so called {C}ten ways of wholesome action
Hınay›na schools; thought to be an early
[e*-‰Xn-a- [e*-d-y(n-
1850 1870

precursor of Mah›y›na.

[e*-d- {L}kuŸala-dharma
1863
{C}Ÿubhak¸ts˚› (dev›)
{C}Ÿubhak¸ts˚› (gods) virtuous/wholesome doctrine/phenomenon
{LCh,C,L,MSA,MV}kuŸala;
[e*-dt$z-# vn-W#-vf- [e*-d-zu$e-z[([-
1851 1871
{C,L,MSA,MV}Ÿubha {C}(=praŸasta);
{C,L,MSA}kaly›˚a; {MSA}kalya; {MSA}Ÿukla
{MSA}daŸa-kuŸala-karma-patha {MSA}Ÿubha-v¸ttau … ›Ÿaya¯
virtue; virtuous; wholesome; virtuous factor
path of the ten virtuous actions wish to engage in virtue
{C}wholesome; good; lovely; pleasant; merit;

[e*-y(n- helpful(ness); lovely


[e*-d-ei#n-
1852 1872

fh]-i#[! {MSA}Ÿubha-dvaya
{MSA}kuŸala … dharma
virtuous doctrine v$r-[^-dNø]-a-er-l#e-cr-zdCn-’f-Nƒ#]-d[*-d-zdX#] two virtues

[e*-dNI]* - 1853
-dX*[-W#-c#en-n$-e]n-a! [e*-d-[e-]#-N´f( -a- 1873

Def.: that which is (1) indicated [as a virtue]


{LCh}up›saka and (2) abides in a type bringing forth dN´(f- N´(f- dN´(fn- N´(fn-
approacher to virtue; layperson with vows; lay happiness as a fruition which is its own effect {MSA}kuŸalasya ca bh›van›
practitioner
[dX*-d! 1 [[-a! 2 r(-h-b*n-a! 3 „*v-x([-a! meditatively cutlivate virtues

[e*-dNI]* -[r-[e*-dNI]* -f-ei#n- 1854

[e*-d-[r-V“]-a- 1874

4 f-yen-a! 5 l*-N“r-f*[-a! 6
the two—laymen (up›saka) and laywomen eo#-f$e-f*[-a! 7 dÌ·]-zeC^n! 8 b#]-o^-N∂≈rn-a! {MSA}Ÿubhin
(up›sik›) with vows virtuous; endowed with virtue; possessing
Comment: the two divisions of householders 9Div.:
de-(1)x(faith
[-a! (Ÿraddh›);
10 dor-NI(2)(fn!shame
11 (hrı); (3) virtue
(khyim pa, g¸hastha). embarrassment (apatr›pya); (4)
[e*-d-[r-f#-[e*-dz#-vn- 1875
non-attachment (alobha); (5) non-hatred
[e*-dNI]* -f- 1855
(adve˝a); (6) non-ignorance (amoha); (7)
{MV}kuŸal›kuŸala-karman;
effort (vırya); (8) pliancy (prasrabdhi); (9)
up›sik› {MV}Ÿubh›Ÿubha-karman
Comment: Virtuous mental factors are one of
female approacher to virtue; laywoman six main groupings of mental factors (sems virtuous and non-virtuous actions
byung, caitta): (1) five omnipresent (kun
[e*-[r-f#-[e*-dNœ[*≈ - [e*-d-[r-f#-[e*-dz#-vn-W#-vf-[r-[*z-# zdCn-d$
1856 1876

'gro, sarvatraga) mental factors; (2) five


determining (yul nges, vi˝aya-pratiniyama)
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - mental factors; (3) eleven virtuous (dge ba, -’f-a-N‘-h·en-b*n-a-
{MSA}kuŸal›kuŸala-karma-patha-tat-phala-va
{MSA}Ÿubh›Ÿubh›dhi kuŸala) mental factors; (4) six root afflictions icitrya-jñ›na
generating virtue and non-virtue (rtsa nyon, mÒla-kleŸa); (5) twenty secondary knowledge of the various aspects of virtuous
afflictions (nye nyong, upakleŸa); and (6)
[e*-z[^]- 1857
and non-virtuous paths of action and their
[e*-d-e(fn-a- 1864
effects
{LCh,L,C,MSA}sa˙gha; saºgha
[e*-d-z[([-a- 1877

[virtue-aspire]; spiritual community; {MSA}Ÿubh›bhy›sa


assembly; aspirants to virtue cultivate virtue; become asccustomed to virtue
{MV}kuŸala-ruci
{C}crowd; group; assembly; congregation
[e*-d-N´f( -a- 1865
desiring virtue; wishing virtue; wanting virtue
N√(d-a-sX#c-f#-V“(e-az#-[e*-z[^]-
[e*-d-[ae-o^-f*[-az#-e]n 1878

irreversible aspirants to virtue who are [still] dN´(f- N´(f- dN´(fn- N´(fn-
learners {MSA}Ÿubha-bh›van› {MSA}ameya-Ÿubhat›Ÿraya
meditate virtue; meditatively cultivate virtue source of immeasurable virtue
[e*-z[^]-[q(]-fy(e- 1858

[e*-d-N´d&ç -a- [e*-d-zs*v-d-


1866 1879

Spiritual Community Jewel


dN´d&ç - N´d&ç - dN´d&ç n- N´d&ç n- {MSA}kuŸala-vivardhana; {MSA}Ÿubha-v¸ddhi
[e*-z[^]-eCd^ - 1859

{MSA}Ÿubha-nirh›ra increasing virtue


Ge-dün-drup [the first Dalai Lama achieve virtue; accomplish virtue
[e*-d-dX-d- 1880

(1391-1474)]
[e*-d-N´d&ç -a-’f-a- 1867

{L}kaly›˚a
[e*-z[^]-‰X-fh(- 1860

helpful; good; lovely


dN´d&ç - N´d&ç - dN´d&ç n- N´d&ç n-
Gen-dün-gya-tso [the second Dalai Lama
{MSA}kuŸal›bhinirh›ra-nimitta
(1476-1542)]
aspect of achieving virtue

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 62


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[e*-d-D√-]-f*[-a-v-N´d#ç -a- [e*-d-v-f-l^en-a- [e*-dz#-y(n-Nåv* -d-


1881 1894 1905

{MV}Ÿubh›nuttary›vara˚a l^e- zu$e- l^en- l^en- Nå*v- Nå*v- Nå*v[- Nå*v[-


obstructing unsurpassed virtue {MSA}kuŸale 'prayukt›¯ {MSA}kuŸala-dharma-sa˙vardhana

[e*-d-f-x#]- 1882
not engaged in virtue increasing virtuous
qualities/practices/phenomena
[e*-d-v-el(v-d- 1895

{L}akuŸala
[e*-dz#-y(n-zs*v-dc-zR^c-d- 1906

non-virtue; non-virtuous; unwholesome {MSA}kuŸala-nata

[e*-d-f-dnen-a- {MSA}kuŸala-dharma-v¸ddhi-gamana
1883
tending to virtue; flowing to virtue
increasing virtuous
[e*-d-dnen-a- 1896

{MSA}anupacita-Ÿubha; {MSA}Ÿubhe … qualities/practices/phenomena


an›rabdhv›
{MSA}kuŸal›caya; {MSA}Ÿubh›caya
[e*-dz#-y(n-zs*v-dc-dX[* -a- 1907

non-accumulation of virtue
virtue accumulated
[e*-d-f#-dNœ[*≈ -a- 1884
{MSA}kuŸala-dharm›bhiv¸ddhi
[e*-d-dnen-an-cd-er- 1897

increasing virtuous
dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {MSA}Ÿubh›caya-prapÒr˚a qualities/practices/phenomena
{MV}kuŸalasy›nutpatti¯
[e*-dz#-y(n-v-e(fn-ac-dXn-a- 1908
filled with accumulated virtue
ungenerated virtue; not generating virtue
[e*-dz#-eCe( n-a(- 1898

{MV}kuŸaladharm›bhy›sa
[e*-d-f#-;[-dX-dz#-sXc# - 1885

accustomed to virtuous
{MSA}kaly›˚a-mitrat›
{MV}kuŸalasy›k˝ay›ya qualities/practices/phenomena
virtuous friend; spiritual guide
in order not to extingtuish virtue
[e*-dz#-y(n-v-N∂c(≈ -d- 1909
Comment: See dge ba'i bshes gnyen.

[e*-d-l]-a- 1886

[e*-dz#-y(n- 1899

N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[-


{MSA}Ÿubha-daurbalya {L,MSA}kuŸala-dharma; {MSA}kuŸala … {MSA}kuŸala-dharma-yojana
weak virtue dharma; {MSA}kuŸala-mÒla; {MSA}dharma … endeavoring at virtuous
kuŸala; {MSA}Ÿubha … dharma qualities/practices/phenomena
[e*-d-xr-[e-v*]-[^-zu$e- 1887

virtuous/wholesome
[e*-dz#-y(n-n$-N‘r-d- 1910

qualities/practices/phenomena
{MSA}Ÿubhe sam›d›payate (sic)
Comment: See chos.
cause to assume pure virtue N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r-
[e*-dz#-y(n---W#-eg·-d(- 1900

[e*-d-x#[-v-dX[* - 1888
{MSA}kuŸala-dharm›bh›sa
appear as virtuous
{MSA}kuŸala-dharma-pr›dh›nya
{MSA}Ÿubha-manask›ra qualities/practices/phenomena
chief/principal/main of virtuous
taking virtue to mind; contemplating virtue
[e*-dz#-sXe( n- 1911
qualities/practices/phenomena
[e*-d-cd-o^-N∂c(≈ -d- 1889

[e*-dz#-y(n-N´f( -a-v-dc-y[-f*[-ac-dÌ·]-a- 1901

{L}kuŸala-pak˝a
N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[- {MSA}kuŸala-bh›van›-nirantar›bhiyoga class of virtues; class of virtuous
{MSA}kuŸala-prayoga qualities/practices/phenomena
uninterrupted effort at meditative cultivation
thoroughly engaging in virtue
[e*-dz#-f*-o(e-‰Xn-b#r-env-d- 1912
of virtuous qualities/practices/phenomena

[e*-d-v-ze([-a- [e*-dz#-y(n-t]-
1890 1902

{C}Ÿubha-pu˝pita-Ÿuddhi
broad and bright flower of virtue
[e([- ze([- dq([- ze([- {C}kaly›˚a-dharmin
{C}sweetly blooming purity
{MSA}kuŸala-prati˝˛h›pana having the quality of virtue; having the
attribute of virtue
[e*-dz#-Ì-d- 1913
establish/set in virtue
{C}virtuous/lovely in character
[e*-d-v-zu$e-ac-z[([-a- 1891
{L,MSA,MV}kuŸala-mÒla; {MSA}kuŸala-dharma
[e*-dz#-y(n---zp(d-d(- 1903

virtuous/wholesome root(s); roots of virtue


{MSA}kuŸala-prav¸ttich› (sic) Comment: The three virtuous roots (dge ba'i
wishing to engage in virtue p(d!zp(d- zp(d- p(d- zp(dn- rtsa ba, kuŸalamÒla) are: (1) non-attachment
{MSA}kuŸala-dharma-l›bha (ma chags pa, alobha); (2) non-hatred (zhe
[e*-d-v-zu$e-ac-dX[* -az#-sXc# - 1892

attained virtuous qualities/practices/phenomena sdang med pa, adve˝a); non-ignorance (gti


{MSA}kuŸale pravartan›t mug med pa, amoha).
[e*-dz#-y(n-N“[^ -az#-h$v-„#fn- 1904

because of engaging in virtue; in order to


[e*-dz#-Ì-d-q^]-o^-y[-a- 1914

engage in virtue dN“^- N“^[- dN“^n- N“^n-


[e*-d-v-N∂c(≈ -d- 1893
{MSA}kuŸala-dharma-sa˙grahaka-Ÿıla zy[- zy[- y[- y[-
ethics that is the composite of virtuous {MSA}samucchinna-kuŸala-mÒla
N∂≈c- N∂≈(c- N∂≈c[- N∂≈(c[- qualities/practices/phenomena thoroughly annihilated roots of virtue;
{MSA}kuŸale niyojan›t thoroughly severed roots of virtue
training in virtue; endeavoring in virtue

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 63


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[e*-dz#-Ì-d-dNœ[*≈ -a- [e*-dz#-v(-o(e- [e*-N∂r(≈ -f-x#]-


1915 1929 1941

dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - dNœ[*≈ - Nœ[*≈ - {MSA}kuŸala-mÒla-sasya; {MSA}kuŸala-sasya N∂≈r- N∂≈(r- N∂≈rn- N∂≈(rn-
harvest of virtue
{C}avaropita-kuŸala-mÒla {C}aŸr›ma˚a

[e*-dz#-v(-o(e-Nœn*≈ -a-zu(fn-a- 1930


growing roots of viture; generating roots of not engaged in virtuous endeavor
virtue {C}ceases to be a recluse
{C}one who has planted wholesome roots el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn-
[e*-f#-[e*-er-[^-v$r-[^-f-dNø]-a- 1942

{MSA}utpanna-kuŸala-mÒla-sasya-dhva˙sana
[e*-dz#-Ì-d-‰X-y*-d-i#[- 1916

destroying harvests of virtue that have been dNø]- Nø]( - dNø][- Nø]( [-
{MSA}kuŸala-muÒlaud›ryatva generated
neutral; not indicated/revealed as either virtue
vast roots of virtue
[e*-dz#-v(-o(e-‰X-^ fh]- 1931
or non-virtue
[e*-dz#-Ì-d-et([-a- 1917
Comment: Explanation of lung du ma bstan
{MSA}Ÿubha-sasya-nimittatva pa (not indicated/revealed).
{MSA}kuŸala-mÒla-samucchedana signs of harvest of virtue
[e*-Ì- 1943

cutting roots of virtue; severing roots of virtue


[e*-dz#-db*n-ei*]- 1932

[e*-dz#-Ì-d-if-y$r-d- 1918
[e*-dz#-Ì-d-
[e*-db*n- kuŸula-mÒla
{MSA}kuŸala-mÒla-daurbalya {L,MSA,MV}kaly›˚a-mitra virtuous/wholesome root(s); roots of virtue
weak roots of virtue spiritual guide; virtuous friend; virtuous

[e*-dz#-Ì-d-[ae-o^-f*[-az#-e]n- spiritual friend; spiritual friend


1919

good friend
[dX*-d! 1 f-yen-a! 2 z[([-yen-f*[-a! 3
{MSA}aprameya-kuŸala-mÒl›Ÿraya l*-N“r-f*[-a! 4 eo#-f$e-f*[-a!
[e*-dz#-db*n-ei*]-[r-V“]- 1933

source of immeasurable roots of virtue


Div.: (1) non-attachment (alobha); (2)
[e*-dz#-Ì-d-[f]-a- {C}kaly›˚a-mitra-sahita
1920
non-desire (ar›ga); (3) non-hatred (adve˝a);
one who has a sprititual guide; possessing a non-ignorance (amoha)
{MSA}hına-kuŸala-mÒla spiritual quide Comment: See also dge ba (virtue).
low/lesser roots of virtue {C}one who has a good friend
[e*-h$v- 1944

[e*-dz#-Ì-d-x(rn-n$-f-Nƒ]# -a- [e*-dz#-db*n-ei*]-[r-f#-V“]-a-


1921 1934

Ÿrama˚era
{L}aparipakva-kuŸala-mÒla¯ {MV}kaly›˚a-mitra-vaidhurya novice monastic
unripened/unmatured roots of virtue not having a spiritual guide; one who does not
[e*-v-de-x([- 1945

have a spiritual guide


[e*-dz#-Ì-d-x(rn-n$-Nƒ]# -a- 1922

[e*-dz#-db*n-v-i*-dc-dØ*]- {MSA}kuŸal›pramatta
1935

{C}paripakva-kuŸala(-mÒla) conscientious with regard to virtue


thoroughly ripened/mature roots of virtue {MSA}satya˙ mitram up›Ÿrita¯
[e*-v-xr-[e-ac-Nå-(ç d- 1946

{C}virtuous/wholesome roots are mature relying on a spirirtual guide

[e*-dz#-Ì-d-x(rn-n$-Nƒ]# -ac-dX[* -a- [e*-dz#-dnf-a- {MSA}uts›ha¯ kuŸale samyak


1923 1936

delighting in virtue; taking enthusiasm in virtue


{MSA}parip›can› kuŸale {MSA}kaly›˚›Ÿaya
[e*-v$en- 1947

thoroughly ripening/maturing roots of virtue virtuous thought; thought of virtue

[e*-dz#-Ì-d-dnen-a- [e*-dc-dX-d-
1924 1937
Ge-luk
Comment: See dge lugs pa.
{MSA}upacita-kuŸala-mÒla; {C}kaly›˚a
[e*-v$en-a- 1948
{MSA}kuŸala-mÒlopacaya acting virtuously
accumulated roots of virtue {C}helpful(ness); lovely; good
Ge-luk-fla [school of Tibetan Buddhism founded
[e*-dz#-h·en- 1925

[e*-dn-zs*v-dc-dX[* -a- 1938


by ‚zong-ka-fla Ío-sang-drak-fla (tsong kha
pa blo bzang grag pa)]; Ge-luk-fla order
{MSA}kuŸala-sa˙bh›ra; {MSA}Ÿukla-ga˚a {MSA}kuŸalair vardhayanti Comment: The sect probably was originally
collection of virtue increase through virtue called the "Joyous Way" (dga' ldan pa'i lugs)
after the monastic university called "Joyous"
[e*-dz#-x(]-o]- 1926

[e*-dX[* -a- 1939

(dga' ldan) established by ‚zong-ka-fla in


{MSA}gu˚a … Ÿubha {MSA}Ÿubha-kara 1409.
virtuous quality; quality of virtue making virtue
[e*-v*en- 1949

[e*-dz#-vn-’fn-dX[* -a- 1927

[e*-N∂r(≈ - 1940

virtue and goodness


{MSA}Ÿubha-karma-k›rin
N∂≈r- N∂≈(r- N∂≈rn- N∂≈(rn- [e*-db*n- 1950

performing actions of virtue


{L}Ÿr›ma˚a
[e*-dz#-vn-vf- 1928
one engaged in virtuous endeavor [e*-dz#-db*n-ei*]!
recluse; ascetic {LCh}kaly›˚a-mitra
{C} kuŸala-karma-patha [virtuous-friend]; spiritual guide; ge-Ôhay [a
path of virtuous action person who has completed the scholastic phase
{C}wholesome path of action of monastic training]; geshe

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 64


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[e*-n(en-en$f- [e(rn- [e(rn-a-r*n-ac-zeCv* -az#-f[(-


1951 1961 1966

the three: virtue and so forth [e(rn-a-


Comment: The three are dge ba (virtue), mi
dge ba (non-virtue), and lung du ma bstan
{L}sa˙dhi; abhipretya; {MSA}abhipr›ya; f[(-N“-* [e(
dqCvr-n-zeC
zeC*v- v
* dqC- v[- zeC*v[-
{C,L,MSA}(sa˙Ωdh›): sa˙dh›ya {MV}sa˙dhinirmocana-sÒtra
pa (neutral); this is one of the divisions of thought; thinking; thinking of; hidden meaning;
established base (gzhi grub). [thought-unravel-sÒtra];
intention; notion Sa˙dhinirmocana-sÒtra; SÒtra Unraveling the
[e*-N√r( - {C}hidden intent; with hidden meaning
1952
Thought [title of a third-wheel sÒtra considered
[e(rn-]n- to be definitive by the Mind-Only School; P774,
dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn- thinking of; in consideration of
Vol. 29]
{C}bhik˝u; {L}Ÿr›ma˚a
[e(rn-a-t]- 1967
Comment: See dgongs pa.
[virtue-beg]; monastic; monk; nun

[e(rn-zeCv* -
1962
recluse; ascetic {MSA}abhipr›yika
having a thought behind it; having another
[e*-N√r( -e#-N“f( -a- 1953

thought

dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn-


[e(rn-a-r*
dqCv-nzeC-ac-zeC
*v- dqCvv
*[- -az#
zeC*v-f[(
[- - [*-Vø-dn-]-h‹e-[*-’fn-]#-N´ç-u#-dl#]-R#-[(]-[^-r*n-a
sa˙dhinirmocana-sÒtra
{MSA}bhik˝u-sa˙vara
[thought-unravel]; Sa˙dhinirmocana-sÒtra;
c-e;$r-dc-f#-dXz(! z(-]-t#-l*-]-[e(rn-a-t]-](
monastic's vow Therefore, those words [speaking of
SÒtra Unraveling the Thought [title of a
naturelessness] definitely should not be taken as
[e*-N√r( -[r-[e*-N√r( -f- 1954
third-wheel sÒtra considered to be definitive by
the Mind-Only School]; commentary on the of literal meaning. Then, as what? As having
thought another thought [behind them].
dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn-
{MSA}bhik˝u-bhik˝u˚ı f[(-N“*-[e(rn-zeC*v-v-dØ*]-az#-sX(en- Comment: See dgongs pa.

[e(rn-a-t]-R#-[(]- 1968
monk and nun faction relying on the SÒtra Unraveling the
Thought
[e*-N√r( -[^-b*n-a- 1955
{MSA}abhipr›yik›rtha
[e(rn-o*- 1963

meaning that has a thought behind it


dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn-
[e(rn-a-Ø(en-a- 1969
{C}sa˙dh›ya
{C}Ÿr›ma˚yat›
thinking of; thinking; in consideration of;
{C}honoring recluses
intending Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en- Ø(en-
[e*-N√r( -f- 1956
{MV}abhisandhi-praveŸa
{C}hidden intent; with hidden meaning realization of the thought; realization of the
dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn- thought behind it
[e(rn-a- 1964

bhik˝u˚ı
[e(rn-a-fj[-[*- 1970

nun {LCh,C,MSA}abhipr›ya; {L}abhipr›yika;


{C}samanv›h›ra; {MSA}anusa˙dhi; {C}samanv›harati
[e*-N√r( -f-x#]- 1957
{MSA}abhisa˙dhi; {MSA}›Ÿaya;
{MSA}bh›va; {MSA}sa˙dhi; abhipreta consider; take under consideration
dN√r- N√r-!N√(r- dN√rn- N√(rn- thought [hon. of bsam pa]; notion; significance; {C}his mind is impressed by; consider; bring
intention out; bear in mind; bring to mind; behave
{C}abhik˝u
{C}intent(ion); desire; purpose; attempt (to towards(?); thinks to himself
non-monastic
hurt); veiled; indirect; with hidden meaning;
[e(rn-a-cd-env- 1971
{C}cease to be a monk grace(?)

[e*-N√d( - [(]-z[#-v-[e(rn-]n-
1958

Illumination of the Thought [Dzong-ka-ba's


having considered this meaning; in commentary on Chandrakırti's
Ÿr›ma˚a
consideration of this meaning Madhyamak›vat›ra, Illumination of the
training in virtue; ascetic; novice monk Thought, Extensive Explanation of
en$r-cd-W#-[e(rn-a-[r-en$r-d-a(z#-[e(rn-a- (Chandrakırti’s) “Supplement to (N›g›rjuna’s)
[e*-N√d( -f- 1959

thought of the scripture and thought of the ‘Treatise on the Middle’” (dbu ma la ’jug pa’i 1 9 7 2
Ÿrama˚› speaker [of the scripture] [e(rn-a-b#]-o^-;d-
female novice {MSA}bh›v›tigahana
[e(rn-a-dqCv-d- 1965

very profound thought


[e(-d- 1960

dqCv- zeC*v- dqCv[- zeC*v[- [e(rn-ac- 1973

antelope
commenting/commentary on the thought;
{C} samanv›harati
unraveling the thought
(=bhavaty›-rÒpe˚a-avadh›ra˚›t)
{C}his mind is impressed by; consider; bring
out; bear in mind; bring to mind; behave
towards(?); thinks to himself

[e(rn-ac-zR^c- 1974

{C} samanv›harati
{C}his mind is impressed by; consider; bring
out; bear in mind; bring to mind; behave
towards(?); thinks to himself

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 65


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[e(rn-ac-N‘r-d- [e([-ac-dX- [e(]-[d*]-Nå[(≈ -a


1975 1982 1992

N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- N‘r- [e([- ze([- dq([- ze([! Nå≈[- Nå≈([- Nå≈[- Nå≈([-
appears to be the thought e[-f(-de[- [e([- de[- [e([- {C}ra˚ya-viveka-c›ri
{C}sth›payati {C}one who courses in the detachment of the
[e(rn-ac-fj[- 1976

set/state/establish/arrange/register/make a remote forest


record/place [on throne]/put [a signature];
{C}samanv›harati
[e(n- 1993

affix; array; make laugh/smile


{C}his mind is impressed by; consider; bring
{C}to place (in); discard(?); to store; affix; to
out; bear in mind; bring to mind; behave {C}k›rya; {MSA}prayojana
fix; deposits; to put up
towards(?); thinks to himself purpose; necessity; need to; necessary
[e([-ac-dX- 1983
{C}work; business; function; task
[e(rn-el#- 1977

[e(n-y*[-W#-N´-ç 1994

basis in [Buddha's] thought; [factual] basis in [e([- ze([- dq([- ze([!


Buddha's thought e[-f(-de[- [e([- de[- [e([- dative case [term of purpose or benefit]
Comment: The first in the triad of factors {C}prati˝˛h›payitavya
[e(n-a- 1995

involved in passages requiring set/state/establish/arrange/register/make a


interpretation—the basis in [Buddha's] record/place [on throne]/put [a signature];
{LCh,MSA}prayojana; {C}k¸tya; {MSA}k›rya
thought (dgongs gzhi), purpose (dgos pa), and array; affix; smile; laugh; make smile/laugh
[yid ches par bya dgos pa =
damage to the explicit [rendering] (dngos la {C}should establish {MSA}pratyetavya]
gnod byed). dgongs should not be translated
[e([-ac-dXz-( purpose; necessity; need; aim; must; should;
1984

as "intention," since this would too easily be intention


confused with dgos pa ("purpose" or
"intention"). [e([- ze([- dq([- ze([! {C}duty; necessary

e[-f(-de[- [e([- de[- [e([- [*n-[e(n-a-zeC^d-v-


[e(rn-el#-[r-[r(n-v-e]([-dX[* - 1978

{C} prati˝˛h›payeyam
by means of that the purpose is achieved
set/state/establish/arrange/register/make a
the basis in [Buddha's] thought and the damage
record/place [on throne]/put [a signature]; Ø(en-[e(n-ac-f-;[-
to what is explicitly taught
array; affix; smile; laugh; make smile/laugh not only is it necessary to realize
Comment: The first and third in the triad of
{C}I could establish
factors involved in passages requiring
[e(n-a-Vøn( -az#-eCrn-r*n- 1996

[e(]-a- 1985
interpretation—the basis in [Buddha's]
thought (dgongs gzhi), purpose (dgos pa), and definite enumeration in terms of purpose;
damage to the explicit [rendering] (dngos la {C,MSA}ara˚ya; {C}›ra˚yaka; {C}rany› definite enumeration relative to purpose
gnod byed) monastery; forest; hermitage
[e(n-a-pfn-t[-dX[* -a- 1997

{C}remote forest; jungle; wilderness; forest


[e(rn-n$-en(v- 1979

dweller; belonging to the forest; in the remote {MSA}sarva-k›rya-kara˚a


forest
please pay heed effecting all purposes/aims
[e(]-a-[r-]en-z[d- 1986

[e(n-a-dX[* -[(- 1998

d[e-v-[e(rn-n$-en(v-]#! {C}ara˚ya-vanaprastha
{C}k›rya˙ karoti
h‹e-v-NI]-eo[-t#r-[(]-r*n-ac-zj‹]-a-[r-dtn- {C}jungle
performs its purpose
an-’f-ac-e;#en-b#e-az(! [e(]-a-]en-„([-y*]-a(- 1987
{C}does its work
“Please pay heed to me” means “hear [my]
[e(n-a-dX[* -]^n-a- 1999
{L}ara˚yamah›vana-prastha
words and definitely grasp their meaning,” and
great forest; hermitage in a great forest
therefore means “watch [over me]!”{Dor {C}k›rya-samartha
[e(]-a-a- 1988
45a2./ 273.2} able to perform its purpose
{C}capable of doing; business
[e([- 1980

{C}›ra˚yaka
[e(n-a-f*[-a- 2000
{C}forest-dweller; belonging to the forest
[e([- ze([- dq([- ze([!
[e(]-a-v-e]n-a- 1989
{MSA}ni˝prayojana
e[-f(-de[- [e([- de[- [e([-
set/state/establish/arrange/register/make a without purpose; without need
{C}ara˚ya-v›sa
record/place [on throne]/put [a signature];
[e(n-a-x(rn-n$-eCd^ -a- 2001
forest-dweller; dwelling in monastery
laugh; smile; make laugh/smile
{C}dwelling in the forest
k¸ty›nu˝˛›na; {L}k¸ty›nu˝˛h›na
[e([-a- 1981

[e(]-a-Vµc^ -dX[* -t#r- 1990


thorough achievement of the purpose;
thoroughly achieve one's purpose
[e([- ze([- dq([- ze([! {C}ara˚ya-parama
[e(n-a-b#]-o^-x(rn-n$-È*[-a- 2002
e[-f(-de[- [e([- de[- [e([- {C}one completely devoted to life in the remote
{C}niveŸana; {C}prati˝˛h›payati (=g¸hıt›n›˙ forest
sthirıkara˚›t = vinayaset) {C} suparipr›ptak›rya
[e(]-az#-vf- 1991
set/state/establish/arrange/register/make a {C}one who has well done his work
record/place [on throne]/put [a signature];
[e(n-az#-[dr- 2003

array; affix; make laugh/smile {C}k›nt›ra-m›rgi


{C}house; entering on; show respect to; {C}wilderness
by the power of necessity; through the force of
establishes; introduces to; transfers to; builds; a purpose
places; deposits in; bestows

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 66


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

[R*n-a- [eC-dt(f-zdCn-e]n- [eC-dX[* -fr-d-


2004 2011 2020

pras›da; {L}anumodita; {MSA}k›nta el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn- {C}bahÒ-›matro


to be pleased (hon.); rejoiced having many enemies/foes
arhattva-phalastha ; arhattvaphalasthita
{C}full of many hostile forces
[eC- 2005
abider in the fruit of Foe Destroyer

[eC-fr-d-x#]-o*- 2021
Comment: This is one of the eight types of
{LCh}ari; {LCh,MSA}ripu; {LCh,L}Ÿatru; enterers and abiders (zhugs gnas brgyad):
{C}pratyarthika Approacher to Stream Enterer (rgyun zhugs {C}bahu-pratyarthik›ni-bhavanti
foe; enemy zhugs pa); Abider in the Fruit of Stream {C}provoke much hostility; surrounded by
{C}provokes hostility; hostile forces Enterer (rgyun zhugs 'bras gnas); much hostility
Approacher to Once Returner (phyir 'ong
[eC-dt(f- [eCf-a-
2006 2022

zhugs pa); Abider in the Fruit of Once


Returner (phyir 'ong 'bras gnas);
el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn- Approacher to Never Returner (phyir mi
arrange; set out; spread out
arhan; arhat; {MSA}arihan
[eCz-# [dr-[^-n(r-d- 2023

[eC-dt(f-l^en-a- 2012

Foe Destroyer; Enemy Killer


Comment: Arhan/ arhant (dgra bcom pa) n(r- n(r- n(r- n(r-
is translated as “Foe Destroyer” to accord l^e- zu$e- l^en- l^en-
with the usual Tibetan translation of the arhattva-pratipanna ; arhattvapratipannaka {MSA}Ÿatru-vaŸa-ga
term and to assist in capturing the flavor come under an enemy's power
approacher to Foe Destroyer
of oral and written traditions that
Comment: This is one of the eight types of
[eCv( - 2024
frequently refer to this etymology. Arhats
have overcome the foe which is the enterers and abiders (zhugs gnas brgyad):
afflictive emotions (nyon mongs, kleŸa), Approacher to Stream Enterer (rgyun zhugs {C}mocayanti (=moci˝ya)
the chief of which is ignorance, the
conception (according to the zhugs pa); Abider in the Fruit of Stream loosen; release; free
Consequence School) that persons and Enterer (rgyun zhugs 'bras gnas); {C}release; liberate; set free
Approacher to Once Returner (phyir 'ong
[eC-dt(f-‰X]-f*[- 2007

[eCv( -d- 2025


zhugs pa); Abider in the Fruit of Once
Returner (phyir 'ong 'bras gnas);
el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn- Approacher to Never Returner (phyir mi {C}pramocana; {C}parimocayati
Unadorned Foe Destroyer release; free; looosen
[eC-dt(f-cr-‰Xv- 2013

{C}liberation; set free


[eC-dt(f-[r-cr-‰Xv- 2008

[eCv( -dz#-sXc# - 2026


el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn-
el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn- {C}raha-pratyaya
{C}parimocayati
{C}raha-pratyaya Foe Destroyers and Solitary Realizers
in order to release/free; because of releasing
Foe Destroyers and Solitary Victor; Foe
[eC-dt(f-cr-‰Xv-p*e-a- 2014
{C}set free
Destroyers and Solitary Realizers
de[- 2027

[eC-dt(f-a- el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn-


2009

{C}raha-pratyaya-y›na
el(f- zu(fn- dt(f- y(fn- de[! [e([! de[! [e([! e[-f(-de[! [e([! de[!
vehicles of Hearers and Solitary Realizers
{L,MSA}arhat; arhan [e([!
[eC-’fn- 2015
laugh; smile; make laugh or smile
Foe Destroyer; Enemy Killer
de*en- 2028
Comment: See dgra bcom. {C}Ÿ›trava
enemies; foes
[eC-dt(f-az#-f∑*]-a- 2010
{LCh,MSA}vighna
{C}multitude of enemies obstacle; obstructing force; obstructing entity;
f∑*]- f∑*]- f∑*][- f∑*][-
[eC-d(- obstructor; interference; evil interference;
2016

exalted knower of a Foe Destroyer interfering being


{C}pratyamitra
Comment: dgra bcom pa'i mkhyen pa, dgra b*n-dX-x(rn-n$-et([-az#-de*en-n$-R^c-a-x#]-v-
bcom pa'i mi slob lam, dgra bcom pa'i nyon enemy; foe
are obstacles to discriminating objects of
sgrib spangs pa'i ye shes (exalted knower of {C}inimical force; foe
knowledge
a Foe Destroyer, path of no more learning of
[eC-d(z-# z[^-b*n- 2017

a Foe Destroyer, exalted wisdom of a Foe ,(±-P-,-l*n-dË([-an!


Destroyerthat has abandoned the afflictive
obstructions) are equivalent.
{MSA}amitra-sa˙jñ› y$-[r-y$z#-e]n-pfn-t[-W#-de*en-pfn-t[-d;
discrimination of [someone as being] an
enemy/foe z-dc-dX z!(
through reciting o˙ hÒ˙ a consume all
obstructing entities of the water and the entire
[eC-d(z-# z[^-b*n-n$-dX[* -a- 2018

area around the water {Dor 22b.4/ 228.4}


de*en-dX[* -a- 2029
{MSA}Ÿatru-sa˙jñ›-kara˚a
discriminating [someone as being] an
{MV}vibandhana
enemy/foe
act/serve as an obstacle/interference/evil
[eC-dX[* - 2019
interference

{C}amitra
one acting as an enemy; foe; enemy
{C}foe

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 67


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

de*en-f-fy#n-a- dR#n- deC[( -


2030 2041 2052

{C}avighena dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n- deC[( ! deC[( ! deC[( ! zeC[( ! deC[( ! deC[( !
unobstructed; without obstacles/ interference
do; perform; make; act; manufacture {L}y›na
{C}without fail progress; get along; advance; proceed; travel;
dR#n-ac-zR^c- 2042

de*en-f*[-a- go; traverse; vehicle


2031

deC[( -[qz-dz#-vf-v-q^]-o^-l^en-a- 2053

{C}avighena dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n-


unobstructed; without obstacles/ interference {C}satkaroti
{C}without fail do; perform; make; act; manufacture l^e- zu$e- l^en- l^en-
{C}treat with respect; revere; honor {MSA}durga-m›rga-sam›rÒ˜ha
de(-Nœv-v-Nå[(≈ -a- 2032
entering a path difficult to traverse
deCr- 2043

deC[( -p%d-a- 2054

Nå≈[- Nå≈([- Nå≈[- Nå≈([- {C}ga˚aye; {C}sa˙khyeya


{MSA}d›y›da
count; number; calculate; compute; reckon; can progress/get
partake of/enjoy the share along/advance/proceed/traverse
enumerate; tally; numerate

de(-Nø-* 2033
{C}calculation
deC[( -a- 2055

{C}sa˙vibhajati (=t›vatk›likatvena dan›t)


[eC-dt(f-zdCn-e]n-xn-deCr-dz#-zsen-a-d‰X[-
share; divide up a- deC[( ! deC[( ! deC[( ! zeC[( ! deC[( ! deC[( !
{LCh}ayana; {C}gati
{C}share (out) the eighth Superior when one counts backwards progress; get along, advance, proceed; travel;
from Abider in the Fruit of Foe Destroyer
de(-d- 2034
go

deCr-d- 2044
{C}going; route; destiny; resort; where it has
{C}pr›vara˚at›; vastra gone to; means of salvation; route; departure;
clothing {C}ga˚an›; {MSA}sa˙khy› situation; place of rebirth; goal
{C}upper garments (of a monk) count; number; calculate; compute; reckon;
enumerate; tally; numerate
l#-d-deC([-a-et#e-a$-az#-i]-p(n-
de(-el#- 2035

{C}counting; enumeration Hearers who progress soley to peace


basis of infusion vf-deC([-h$v-
deCr-d-vn-xr-[e-ac-z[n-a- 2045

N´ç#d-az#-de-yen-de(-el#- mode of progressing on the path


{C}ga˚an›-samatikramat›
deC[( -a-et#e-az#-vf- 2056
basis of infusion of the predispositions for the
thoroughly passed beyond enumeration
obstructions
{C}they have transcended all counting {MSA}ekay›na-patha; {MSA}ekay›na-m›rga
See bsgo ba'i gzhi
deCr-dc-z[([-an- path of sole progress; path of sole passage;
2046

dR#- 2036

path of the one vehicle


wish to count
deC[( -ac-dX-d- 2057
dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n-
deCr-xn- 2047

do; perform; make; act {MSA}y›tavya

dR#-d- something to be traversed/progressed


2037
[number-lacking]; numberless; uncountable;
countless; incalculable; inestimable; over/proceeded over/travelled
dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n- immeasurable; measureless; infinite
deCn( -a- 2058

{C}k›rya
deCrn- 2048

do; perform; make; act; manufacture {C}mantrita


{C}work; function; business; task count; number; calculate; compute; reckon; {C}murmuring; counsel
enumerate; tally; numerate
fe^- 2059

dR#-d-f-fy#n-a- 2038

deCrn-a-[r-elv-d-[r-dØen-a- 2049

{C}udagra; {MSA}(Ωtu˝): to˝ayati


dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n-
dØe- Ø(e- dØen- Øen- please; make happy; gladden
{L}akara˚ıya
{C}elated
not something to be done {MSA}ga˚ita-tulita-mım›˙sita

fe^-d- 2060
counting and measuring/comprehending and
dR#[- 2039

analyzing
{C}udagra; {MSA}dh¸ti
deC-( d- 2050
dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n- please; make happy; gladden
do; perform; make; act; manufacture {C}sa˙gıti {C}elated

dR#[-a- {C}chorus
fe^-dc-zR^c-d-
2040 2061

deC-( dc-dX[* -a- 2051

dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n- {MSA}›r›dhana; {MSA}(Ωtu˝): to˝ayati


{C}sa˙g›yam›na (=paraspara˙ will please/make happy/gladden
{C}k›ri˝ya
grantha-artha-nir˚ay›t)
fe^-dc-dXn-o*- 2062
do; perform; make; act; manufacture
{C}something to be done {C}chanting
{MSA}›varjya (› Ωv¸j)
having pleased/made happy/gladdened

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 68


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

fe^-dc-dXn-o*-zj$[-[(- fe(-h$en- zee-a-


2063 2075 2086

{MV}›varjy›vat›rayati begin; start zee- zee- zeen- zeen-


having pleased enter; enter pleasingly
fe(]- {LCh,MV}(niΩrudh); {LCh,L,MSA}nirodha;
2076

{L}niruddha; {C,MV}nirudhyate
fe^-dc-dXn-a- 2064

{C}n›tha be stopped/obstructed/destroyed/ceased/halted
{C}›r›dhayati (cittam) protector; benefactor {C}stopped; destroyed; obstructed
pleased; made happy; gladdened {C}benefactor; savior dl#-d‰X-a-vn! x$v-v-d[e-f*[-fp(r-]-]#!
{C}gladden
fe(]-dR#[-a- 2077

nC#[-az#-n-d(]-zee-ac-R^c!
fe^-dc-dX[* -a- 2065

From [firyadeva's] Four Hundred


dR#- dR#[- dR#n- R#n-
{MSA}›varjana; {MSA}(yang dag mgu bar (catu¯Ÿataka), "When selflessness is seen in
{C}n›tha-karin
byed = sa˙Ωr›dh) objects, the seeds of cyclic existence cease."
act as a protector
please; make happy; gladden
zee-a-f*[- 2087
{C}one who protects; protector
fe^-dX- 2066

fe(]-dtn-a- 2078

zee- zee- zeen- zeen-


{C}to˝i˝yi
{C}san›tha {L}anirodha
that which is to be pleased
having a protector not be
{C}I will please stopped/obstructed/destroyed/ceased/halted
{C}they have to help them
fe^c- 2067

zee-dX- 2088

fe(]-a(- 2079

{C}grıv›
{C}(nape of the) neck {LCh}n›tha zee- zee- zeen- zeen-
protector; benefactor object
fe(- 2068

D√-f-[r-fe(]-a(-zuf-az#-[dXrn-v-sXe-hv-v(! stopped/obstructed/destroyed/ceased/halted

zee-f*[- 2089
head; top; beginning I bow down to the Lama and the Protector
Mañjugho˝a
fe(-et#e-o^- 2069

zee- zee- zeen- zeen-


fe(]-a(c-zR^c-d- 2080

{L}ek›˙Ÿika {LCh}aniruddha
certain; for sure without cessation; unimpeded
zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
zeen- 2090

fe(-et([-a- {C}n›tha-karaka
2070

{C}which make him into a savior


{C}ŸiraŸ (c)cheda; Ÿır˝a-ccheda zee- zee- zeen- zeen-
fe(]-f*[-a- 2081

cut off the head; decapitate {C}niruddhiya; {L}niruddha; {L}nirodha


{C}decapitation; his head is about to be cut off {L}an›tman be stopped/obstructed/destroyed/ceased/halted
{C}is stopped
fe(-fu$e- protectorless
2071

n*fn-cen-a-zeen-]n-f*[-az#-sX#c-c(!
fR(en-a(c- 2082

beginning and end


because coarse mind, having ceased, does not
N´ç&d-pdn-W#-fe(-fu$e-pfn-t[- fast; quickly; soon exist
all the means of achievement from beginning to
feC]# -a- 2083

zeen-a- 2091

end
{LCh}grıva
fe(-[r-¤r-ve- 2072
zee- zee- zeen- zeen-
neck; throat (hon.)
{L,MSA}niruddha; {L}nirodha
{C}Ÿira-hasta-pad›
feC]( -d$- 2084
be stopped/obstructed/destroyed/ceased/halted
head, legs, and arms; head, feet, and hands
zez-l#e- 2092
{C}head, hands, and feet shell [cowries, that is, small shells used as dice]

fe(-]e- zee-
2073 2085
{LCh}kaŸcid
some
[head-black] laity; lay person zee- zee- zeen- zeen- en$r-cd-zez-l#e-o^-
d([-W#-a$c-‰Xv-fe(-]e-x(rn-W#-Ë*- {L}(niΩrudh): nirodha; {L}niruddha
in some scriptures
Foremost of the laity of Tibet, kingdom of the be stopped/obstructed/destroyed/ceased/halted
zez-cd- 2093
dead{GZ 68b.5} be stopped/obstructed/destroyed/ceased/halted

fe(-Nƒn( -an-e(-d! fe(-Nƒn( -an-e(-d-f-x#]-a- 2074


very many; quite a few

zez-bn- 2094
{C,MSA}udgha˛ita-jña
understands through mentioning the beginning
and does not understand through mentioning several; a few
the beginning; those who...
{C}(un)acquainted with the main points;
understands as soon as the main points are
mentioned

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 69


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

zev- zev-d- zev-f*[-fXc^ -[^-dNœc( -d-v-dØ*]-]n-zev-f*[-


2095 2102 2109

{MSA}viruddha; virodha; virodhitva;


vilomayati (vi-loman)
{LCh,C,MSA}virodha; {L,MSA}viruddha;
{C}rodha; a{MSA}virodhitv; {MSA}vilomayati zw(c-v(c-N‘r-dz#-[dr-b*n-
contradict; contradictory with; mutually (vi-loman) dN(œc- N(œc- dN(œc[- N(œc[-
exclusive with contradiction; contradictory; mutually sense consciousness to which a firebrand wheel
exclusive; mutually exclusive phenomena appears in dependence upon quickly turning a
zev-ŒX]* - 2096

{C}obstruction; conflict firebrand


Comment: This is an illustration of
[contradict-condition]; contradictory [r(n-a(-[r-zev-d- non-conceptual counterfeit direct preception
condition; discordant condition; contrary contradictory with [functioning] thing which is a sense consciousness and whose
condition
c#en-t]-en$f-R#-dN´(f-dXz#-eg·-d(-zev-d-x#]-o*- cause of error exists in the object (dbang
zev-∑d-’v-f- shes su gyur pa'i 'khrul rgyu yul la yod pa'i
2097

the main of the objects of meditation of the rtog med mngon sum ltar snang).
three lineages are contradictory
contradictory normative pervasion Check
zev-:√- 2110

Kathy fh]-i#[! ∑([-p-[[-xr-x#]!


Comment: One of the four types of normative el#-fp%]-f#-nC#[-az#-y(n! {LCh}pratidvandin
Check Kathy pervasion (khyab pa rnal contradictory object
Def.: those which are different and phenomene
ma bzhi); an illustration of this type of
ze^v-d- 2111
of which a common locus is not possible
reasoning is: Whatever is a definiendum is
necessarily not permanent (mtshon bya yin [dX*-d! 1 s]-h$]-Når-zev! 2 {C}calayati
na / rtag pa ma yin pas khyab pa).Check Vµ]-et#e-f#-e]n-zev! vibrate; move
Kathy {C}is moved along
Div.: (1) contradictory in the sense of mutual

zev-∑d-sX]# -t#-v(e- abandonment; (2) contradictory in the sense of


ze*rn-
2098 2112

not abiding together


perverse negative pervasionCheck Kathy [er- ze*rn- dqr- ze*rn-
zev-d-f*[- 2103

Comment: One of the four types of perverse fill; fulfill; satiate


pervasions (khyab pa phyin ci log bzhi); an {MSA}aviruddha
illustration of this type of reasoning is: non-contradictory; no contradiction
](c-d$-ze*rn-az#-c#f-a-
whatever is a definiendum is necessarily not stage of filling the jewel
zev-dz#-eo]-h‹en- 2104

not-permanent (mtshon bya yin na / rtag pa


ze*rn-a- 2113

ma yin pa ma yin pas khyab pa).Check viruddha-hetu;{GD:276} viruadhahetu G D


Kathy looks mistaken; check his [er- ze*rn- dqr- ze*rn-
zev-dË([-pv-zR^c- 2099
source fill; fulfill; satiate
contradictory reason
ze(- 2114

dË([- Ë([- dË([- Ë([- {GD:276} contradictory evidence, a form of


faulty reasoning
contradictory consequence {MSA}avabodha

zev-z[^n-Nœ](≈ -f*[-zu#e-Ø*]-[a*-vn-z[n-a- zev-dc-dX [* - 2105


2100 head; top; beginning
Comment: See mgo.
{C}prativahati; {C} virodhayati
without the flaws of a combination of
ze(-d- 2115

contradict
contradictions, beyond worldly examples
{C}opposes; to obstruct; contradict; bring into {MSA}avasa˙bodha; {MSA}gamika
zev-Når( -e#-[}n# -v]- 2101
conflict with
head; top; beginning
zev-dc-dX[* ! zev-dc-f#-dX[* - 2106

Når- Nå(r- Nårn- Nå(rn- Comment: See mgo.


question about contradiction and answer {C}virodhayati
ze(-dz#-][- 2116
disspelling contradiction {C}opposes; to obstruct; contradict; bring into
conflict with
{C}upasarga
zev-dc-dX[* -a-dX-d- 2107
{C}misfortune; troublesome

ze(-Ì·f- 2117
{C}virodhayati
{C}opposes; to obstruct; contradict; bring into
begin; initiate
conflict with
i(]-N´ç#d-f-v$n-a-f-Nårn-dc-[^-b*n-N´ç#d-Nå(r-dz#-z
zev-f*- 2108

e(-f#-Ì·f-az#-h$v-z[#-b#]-[^-zp[-[*-
firebrand
this way of not beginning to abandon the
obstructions to omniscience until one has
abandoned all the afflictive obstructions is very
correct

ze(-v(e- 2118

Go-lok [an area in Am-do]

Tenses: future, present, past, imperative 70


TIBETAN-SANSKRIT-ENGLISH DICTIONARY

ze(e- ze(e-ac-dX[* - zR^c-


2119 2130 2137

[ee ze(e dqe w(en- {C}pratik˝ipati zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-


stops; ceases; refutes
{LCh}(niΩrudh); {MV}nirodha {LCh}as; {MV}sy›t; {LCh}bhÒ; {MV
{C}rejects V.daŸa-vaj}bhavati; {L}pari˚›ma;
cease; stop; negate; refute
{MSA}(niΩgam): nigacchati; {MSA}y›ti
c#en-an-ze(e-a- ze(r-dc-zR^c! ze(r-dc-f#-zR^c- 2131

vik¸ti˙; {MV,MSA}vik›ra; {MSA}vrajati;


change; mutate; become; be; come to be;
refute with reasoning
zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[- transform; grow; translate; translation
dØen-f#]-R#-ze(e-a- {C}avalıyate {C}becoming; evolution; transformation;
non-analytical cessation {C}becomes cowed; be cast down; hide change; provide; is; approach; come to; run
despondently in; does (not) despond; (not) cow through; get to; implies; undergo; bear; admits
ze(e-‰X-^ 2120
of; will become; come to; incur; attains; gains;
ze([- 2132
bring about; grow; gone (to); reached; (is)
[ee ze(e dqe w(en- conducive to; lead to (a rebirth)
that which is to be stopped/refuted; object [e([- ze([- dq([- ze([- f#-zR^c-dz#-d[*-y*]-
negated/refuted {C}vyaya (= nirodho); {C}sth›pana;
{MSA}(niΩviŸ): niveŸayati; {MSA}niveŸyate immutable great bliss
ze(e-t#r-Når( -z[([-zdXr^ - 2121

set; state; establish; arrange; register; make a


zR^c-∑[- 2138

record; place [on throne]; put [a signature];


wish to cease and abandon it arises array; affix different translation; difference in translation
ze(e-NIf( n- 2122
{C}passing away; fall; establishment
zR^c-o*- 2139

nirodhasam›patti
w^rn-ze([-a-
absorption of cessation; meditative absorption cite/state sources zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
of cessation re-ze([-a-v-n(en-a-fj[-]n- {C}sa˙vartayati
{C}will lead to
ze(e-d[*]- 2123
having made a statement of speech, etc.
zR^c-az#-N“e^ -dN®v- 2140

ze([-a- 2133

ze(e-az#-d[*]-a-
nirodha-satya [e([- ze([- dq([- ze([- zR^c- zR^c[- R^c- R^c[-
true cessation; truth of cessation vipari˚›ma-du¯khat›
{C}niyojana; {C}prasth›payati;
[change-of-suffering]; suffering of change;
ze(e-a- {MSA}prati˝˛h›pana; {MSA}ropa˚a;
2124

{MSA}sa˙niveŸana suffering of vicissitude


{L,MSA,MV}nirodha; {C}nirodhi; set; state; establish; arrange; register; make a
zR^c-d- 2141

{C}nirodhika; {C}ni˝edha; lam 'gog pa = record; place [on throne]; put [a signature];
{MSA}paripantha array; affix
cessation; stopping