# Design of Distribution Transformer

Design a Transformer to meet the following Specification: Type of Distribution Output in KVA Primary (HT) Volts Secondary (LT) Volts Frequency : CORE : 50kVA : 2400 V : 480/240 V (multi-tap) : 60 Cycle

Efficiency at Unity Power Factor Full Load ¼ Load : 98.4 % : 97.8 %

Temperature rise not to exceed to 55 c

CALCULATIONS:
Guaranteed Losses: Total Loss @ Full Load Total Loss @ ¼ Full Load Full Load Copper Loss Core Loss y Item 1. = y Volts Per Turn = 3.73 volts   (assume c = 60)  

Item 2 to 4. Primary and Secondary Turns. It is desirable to use Two coils on the High Tension Side and Four coils of the Low Tension Side. Total Secondary Turns Turns per Secondary coils Total Primary Turns Turns per Primary coils = = = = = 128.686 (say) 132 turns = 33 turn/coil =660 turns = 330 turn/coil

y

Item 5.

Full Load Current  @ Low Tension 

@ High Tension

y

Item 6 to 15. Before deciding upon the sizes of wire in the windings, it would be advisable to the probable dimensions of the opening or window, which must accommodate both primary and secondary windings. (assume Current Density = 1500 amp/sq. inch)  Space factor =  H x D=   D  inch 4.11 inch inch 

y y

By formula, the flux in the iron is 

From art 130. We select 70000 lines per sq. in as a trial density in the limbs under windings. Hence the proportion S = 2L and stacking factor of 0.9 assume S = 1.5L.  inch     inch   inch Assuming M=L, the same cross section of iron and the same flux density in the end of the core as in the limbs under windings M= 3.8 inch Weight of iron         

y y 

y Total core loss watts per pound of B= 70000 be 0.75 from fig. 154       The total Core Loss needs to be increased to meet the guaranteed Core Loss of 245.73. By making slight changes in the design and decreasing the number of turns in the windings, it will now be possible to proceed with the final calculations and approxiamate the losses required to give the specified efficiencies. Recalculation of Core Loss The total flux is:  y y  

y

= 1,553,277.415 maxwells Calculating the losses in the limbs under the windings and in the end sections must be calculated separately. For the losses of the 2 limbs under windings:       sq. in (say) 80,000 lines per sq. In.

We read watts loss per pound be: 0.95 Weight of 2 limbs under windings Core Loss of 2 limbs under windings y          

For the losses of the 2 end sections, it will also be calculated in the same manner. Henc, adjusting M=5.                which is practically the specified Loss of    

(say) 61,000 lines per sq. In.

We read Watts loss per pound be: 0.57 Weight of 2 end sections   

Core Loss of 2 end sections Total Core Loss 245. 75 watts Core Dimensions: L= 3.8 in. S= 5.7 in. M= 5 in. D= 4.11 in. 

H= 14.41 in.

Size of Wires And Winding Particulars
y Thickness CSA / Width    

Length of winding space in the Layer = 13.91 (from fig.) Width of one Conductor including insulation = Cotton Coverings = 0.02 in (20 mils) Width of Copper = 0.46 inch = 0.15175 inch Thickness = y For rectangular conductor   

y For high tension side select the size of wire at the table n page 431 use size #7 DCC wire  Length of winding Layer = 13.66 (assumption)  


Number of Wires per Layer = 13.66 x 6.35 = 86.74 (say) 87 where 6.35 is obtained from the wire table on page 431. y Total Number of Layers of Wire      

(for each 2 limbs) y Volts (RMS)

y It is usual to limit the potential difference between layers which can generally be accomplish the number of windings in the sufficient number of separate coils providing adequate insulation between coils with core dimension. Thickness of copper and insulation is computed as follows. y Item 16 to 23.

Materials
Cotton tape binding assembled laminations Varnished cambric Pressboard Clearance Inner L.T. coil (one layer) including cotton on wire Parchment paper (0.010) between coils; allow Outer L.T. coil (one layer) Pressboard around outer L.T. coil Spacers of treated wood to form oil ducts Pressboard Two layers cotton tape Parchment paper w/ crimped edges on w/c primary and secondary coil will be wound 18 layers of No. 13 dcc round wire Two thickness of 0.005 papers between layers Cotton tape, half lapped Allowance for bulging (0.02 x 3.05) Total 0.018 0.010 0.030 0.067 0.190 0.015 0.190 0.020 0.125 0.020 0.018 0.005 1.092 0.080 0.018 0.114 2.012

Radial Thickness
t = 0.125

s = 0.395

g = 0.188

p = 1.304

Space available to accomodate this total thickness of copper and =2.055 in. insulation =

CALCULATION OF COPPER LOSS

y

The mean length per turn (MLT) of the windings     



y

Total Length of Wire Primary Winding = 580 x 1.72 = 997.6 ft Secondary Winding = 116 x 1.75 = 203 ft y Weight of Copper Loss Primary Coils (No.7), 63 x 0.9976 = 62.85 lb Secondary Coils = 0.32(0.46 x 0.151) x 203 x 12 = 54.145 lb Since the resistance of No.7 DCC wire is 0.5790 ,   y Total Resistance (Primary) RT = 0.61 x 0.9976 = 0.61 IR = 20.83 x 0.61 = 12.68 volts    

(Secondary) RT=

IR = 104.167 x 0.02789 = 2.9 volts    

Total Copper Loss = 264.67 + 302.63 = 567.3 watts y y Items 24 32. Core and Copper Losses 245.31 + 567.3= 812.61 watts

Items 33. Efficiency at unity power factor @ Full Load :    
   

@ Full load @ Half Full load @ Three quarter full load

: : : 

@ 25% over load Maximum Efficiency:   

:  

 

  

94.5% y Items 34. Basis of 4 hour full load and 20 hour no load. All Day Efficiency: 
       

y

Item 35. For the two limbs under the winding with mean length B = 80,000 Mean Length = 2 x (3.8 + 5.7 + 4.11) = 27.22          

     

 

Total (T x I) = 21.78 + 175.77 = 197.55 amp. turns    y   Regulation 
  

=      

   

Item 36 to 39.       
    
 

   

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

    

% Regulation @ 0.80 power factor 

y

Item 40 to 42. The temperature rise of the windings as measured by the resistance method must not exceed the specified 55 .  For the dimension of tank total area   
 

Dimension are 15 x 12 x 24 in high Cooling Effective Surface  For Watts 
  

 

For temperature

Item No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

SUMMARY OF CALCULATIONS
Volts per turn : From formula = 3.73 v ; actual = 4.138 v

Windings

High Tension

Low Tension
116 4 29 104.167 1500 0.07245 0.46 x 0.1575 29 1 2 120

Total numbers of turns 580 Numbers of coils 2 Turns per coil 290 Full Load Current (Amp) 20.83 Current Density( ) 1223.24 Cross Section of Conductor 0.01635 Dimension of Conductors No. 7 # of Turns per Layer per Coil 87 # of Layer per Coil 7 # of Taps None Volts per Coil 1200 Volts Between Layers 360 Length of Winding Layers 13.68 Length of Layer Including Insulation Insulation Between Layers 0.02 Insulation on Wire dcc Length per Turn 1.72 Total Length, all Turn in series, ft 997.6 Weight in Copper(lbs) 62.85 Resistance a 75 c All Coils 0.61 IR Drop Volts 12.68 Full Load Copper Loss(Compare to Guaranteed) 246.67

dcc 1.75 203 54.145 0.02789 2.9 302.63

THE MAGNETIC CIRCUIT
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Dimension of Windows Total Flux, Maxwell s Flux Density in Core Under Windings Cross Section of Iron in Core Under Windings Width of Stampings in Core Under Windings Gross Thickness of Core Total Weight or Iron in Core, lbs. Watts Loss in Iron (compare to guaranteed) Total Full Load Losses, watts 14.41 x 4.11 1553277.415 80000 19.494 3.8 5.7 325.5 245.31 812.61

EFFICIENCY AND EXCITING CURRENT
33 Efficiency at Unity Power Factor At Full Load At ½ Load At ¼ Load At ¾ Load At 25% Over Load All Day Efficiency (4Hr Full Load) Primary Exciting Current, Amp. 98.4% 98.5% 98.77% 98.84% 98.42% 96.7% 0.2408

34 35

REGULATION
36 37 38 39 Total Equivalent IR Drop Percent Total Reactive Drop Percent Regulation on Unity Power Factor Regulation on 0.80 Power Factor 1.6252 1.656 1.6252 2.29376

DESIGN OF TANK TEMPERATURE RISE
40 41 42 Effective Cooling Surface of Tank, sq. inch. Watts per square inch of Tank Approximate Temperature Rise, 3020 0.269 47.2

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