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Foreword
iii
1.The Earth in the Solar System.........................
1
2.Globe : Latitudes and Longitudes....................
10
3.Motions of the Earth........................................
18
4. Maps................................................................
23
5.Major Domains of the Earth.............................
30
6.Major Landforms of the Earth..........................
39
7.Our Country – India.........................................
47
8.India : Climate, Vegetation and Wildlife...........
56
Appendix I............................................................
66
Appendix II...........................................................
67
CO N T E N T S
1
1
THE EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
How wonderful it is to watch the sky after sunset! Onewould first notice one or two bright dots shining inthe sky.
Soon you would see the number increasing.You cannot count them any more. The whole sky isfilled with tiny
shining objects – some are bright, othersdim. It seems as if the sky is studded with diamonds.They all appear to be
twinkling. But if you look atthem carefully you will notice that some of them donot twinkle as others do. They
simply glow withoutany flicker just as the moon shines.
Along with these bright objects, you may also seethe moon on most of the days. It may, however, appearat
different times, in different shapes and at differentpositions. You can see the full moon only once in abouta
month’s time. It is Full moon night orPoornima. Afortnight later, you cannot see it at all. It is aNew
moon night orAmavasya. On this day, you can watch
the night sky best, provided it is a clear night.
Do you wonder why can’t we see the moon and allthose bright tiny objects during day time? It is becausethe very
bright light of the sun does not allow us to seeall these bright objects of the night sky.
The sun, the moon and all those objects shining in
the night sky are called celestial bodies.
Some celestial bodiesare very big and hot. Theyare made up of gases. They have their own heat andlight,
which they emit in large amounts. These celestialbodies are calledstars. The sun is a star.
Countless twinkling stars in the night sky aresimilar to the sun. But we do not feel their heat orlight, and they look so
tiny because they are very very farfrom us.
Let’s Do
You’ll need : 1 torch,
1 sheet of plainpaper, pencil and aneedle.
Step :
1. Place the torch in the centreof the paper with its glassfront touching the paper.
2.Now draw a circle around
the torch.
3. Perforate the paper with theneedle within the circledarea.
4.Now place the perforatedcircle part of the paper onthe glass front and wrap thepaper around the torch with a rubber
band.
5.Take care that the switch
of the torch is not covered.
6.In a dark room, stand atsome distance facing aplain wall. Switch off allother lights. Now flash thetorch light on
the wall. Youwill see numerous dots oflight on the wall, like starsshine in the night.
7. Switch on all the lights inthe room. All dots of lightwill be almost invisible.
8. You may now compare thesituation with what happensto the bright objects of thenight sky after the sun risesin the
morning.
2
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
Figure 1.1 : Saptarishi and the
North Star
You must have noticed that allobjects look smaller when seen from adistance. How small an aeroplane
lookswhen it is flying at a great height!
While watching the night sky, youmay notice various patterns formed bydifferent groups of stars. These
arecalledconstellations. Ursa Major orBig Bear is one such constellation. Oneof the most easily
recognisableconstellation is the small bear or
Saptarishi(Sapta-seven, rishi-sages). It
is a group of seven stars (Figure 1.1)that forms a part of the large Ursa MajorConstellation. Ask someone elder
inyour family or neighbourhood to showyou more stars, planets andconstellations in the sky.
In ancient times, people used todetermine directions during the nightwith the help of stars. The North
starindicates the north direction. It is alsocalled the Pole Star. It always remainsin the same position in the sky. We
canlocate the position of the Pole Star with
the help of the Saptarishi. Look at Figure 1.1. Youwill notice that, if an imaginary line is drawn joiningthe pointer
stars and extended further, it will point tothe Pole Star.
Some celestial bodies do not have their own heatand light. They are lit by the light of the stars. Suchbodies
are calledplanets. The word ‘planet’ comes fromthe Greek word “Planetai” which means ‘wonderers’.The earth
on which we live is a planet. It gets all itsheat and light from the sun, which is our nearest star.If we look at the
earth from a great distance, say themoon, it will appear to be shining just as the moon.
The moon that we see in the sky is a satellite. It is acompanion of our earth and moves round it. Like
ourearth, there are eight other planets that get heat andlight from the sun. Some of them have their moons too.
THE SOLAR SYSTEM
The sun, nine planets, satellites and some other
celestial bodies known as asteroids and meteoroids
Interesting Fact
Jupiter, Saturn and
Uranus haverings
around them. Theseare belts of small debris.These rings may beseen from the earthwith the help of
powerfultelescopes.
3
THE EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
1.MERCURY-O
neorbitarou
ndsun-88day
s,
Onespinonax
is-59days.
2.VENUS-One
orbitaround
sun-255days
.
Onespinonax
is-243days
3.EARTH-One
orbitaround
sun-365days
.
Onespinonax
is-1day
Numberofmoo
ns-1
4.MARS-Oneo
rbitarounds
un-687days
Onespinonax
is-1day,
numberofmoo
ns-02
5.JUPITER-O
neorbitarou
ndsun-11yea
rs,11
monthsabout
12years.One
spinon
axis-9hours
,56minutes,
numberof
moons-16
6.SATURN-On
eorbitaroun
dsun-29year
s,5
months.Ones
pinonaxis-1
0hours40
minutes,num
berofmoons-
about18.
7.URANUS-On
eorbitaroun
dsun-84year
s.One
spinarounda
xis-17hours
14minutes,
numberofmoo
ns-about17.
8.NEPTUNE-O
neorbitarou
ndsun-164ye
ars.
Onespinarou
ndaxis-16ho
urs
7minutes,nu
mberofmoons
-8.
9.PLUTO-One
orbitaround
sun-248year
s.
Onespinonax
is-6days9ho
urs,
numberofmoo
ns-1
Innerplanet
s-veryclose
tothesun.Th
eyaremadeup
ofrocks.
OuterPlanet
s-Very-very
farfromthes
unandarehug
eplanetsmad
eupofgasesa
ndliquids.
Figure1.2:T
heSolarSyst
em

Class VI - The Earth Our Habitat

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