Conceptual Models and Theoretical Models

Theoretical Models or Frameworks are highly established set of concepts that are testable. The following is a theoretical framework as proposed by Lydia Hall, a nurse theorist.

The Person
Social Sciences Therapeutic use of self

“The Core” The Disease The Body
Natural and Biological Sciences Intimate bodily care

“The Care”

Pathological and Therapeutic Sciences Seeing the patient and family through the medical care

“The Cure”
Conceptual models or Frameworks are representations of an idea or body of knowledge based on the own understanding or perception of a person or researcher on a certain topic, phenomena or theory. They can be represented thru a diagram or in narrative form which shows how concepts are interrelated.

PERSON

Physical Fitness Exercise

Lowered Blood Pressure

Conceptual Framework vs. Theoretical Framework

from the Latin scientia. Science In its broadest sense. Example: They conduct a survey and . It is also the organized body of knowledge gained through research. Example 1: Hospital Stay The time during which a person is a The total of days as patient. In a more causal sense. Example: Elmer. science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method. and journals. procedures and operations significant to determine concepts. a nurse. refers to any systematic knowledge or practice in a discipline of study. Example 2:Ambulation To walk from one place to another or to Taking 6 steps without assistance. Experimental Investigation A set of examination done to solve the particular query raised through the hypothesis process. Forming Hypothesis An attempt to explain or suggest a nature of a phenomenon. move about.CONCEPTUAL THEORETICAL It is a structure of concepts or theories It is a structure of concepts which exist which are pulled together as map for or tested in the literature. Example: His colleague. Dave helps him to gather data thru various methods. beginning registered patient in a certain hospital. determined and assess it also identifies encyclopedia. This Scientific Method includes several steps: Scientific Method Observation Integration of knowledge and/or phenomena by a rational/sentient being. meaning “knowledge”. map for the study. Types of Definition of concepts CONCEPTUAL THEORETICAL Comparable to definition from a Specifies exactly how the concept will be literature such as a dictionary. a ready-made the study. science. Gathering Information/ Data Recognition and collecting data for a particular scientific problem or inquiry. with admission day and finishing with discharge.researcher observes a certain nursing phenomena and makes a study about it.

skills and expertise acquired by a person through various life experiences.Conclusion or Theoretical Explanation interview. Example: Based from the result. Knowledge acquirement involves several cognitive processes. A statement explaining a set of natural phenomena or a scientific query derived from Experimental investigation. skills. self study. vocational. or for comparison Acquiring experience. or through formal/informal learning such as formal education. What is Knowledge? Knowledge can be defined as: • Information. KNOWLED GE Percepti on Associati on Learnin g Reasoni ng Communicat ion Perception Association Learning Reasoning Communication Types of Cognitive Process Achieving understanding of sensory data Combining two or more concepts/ideas to form a new concept. information and values Mental process of seeking conclusions through reason Transferring data from sender to receiver using different mediums or of . • There is however no single agreed of classification of knowledge. • The abstract or workable understanding of a subject or idea • What is known in a particular or awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. As new data emerges. they draw a conclusion. the study is reexamined and verified. and apply statistical treatment on the data.

The nurse supervisor is well equipped with knowledge and skills about the procedure through experience and the novice nurse accept it as true because of the authority of the expert nurse. This practice is commonly observed in an ICU setup. The underlying principle in the procedure is a concrete example of a knowledge based from a scientific point of view. The three sources of knowledge are valuable in the body of knowledge that represents the nursing profession. still the practice is adopted in the hospital as an important component of providing quality patient care. scientific knowledge through evidence – based practice and research serves as the main focus . Types of Knowledge ADVANTAGES Traditional and >Practical to implement Authoritative DISADVANTAGES >Based on subjective data >Limited use in a variety of practice setting >In nursing practice. When asked about the basis of the nursing practice the answer would be as simple as “it’s always been practiced this way”. should know the rationale (reason) behind this procedure. authoritative and scientific sources. • Authoritative knowledge is an idea by a person of authority which is perceived as true because of his or her expertise. • Scientific knowledge is a type of knowledge which came from a scientific method through research. However each of them has its own strong and weak points. An example of a traditional knowledge that had an impact to nursing practice is the routine changing of bed linens whether it is soiled or not. These new ideas are tested and measured systematically using objective criteria. An example of this type of knowledge can be seen in the clinical setting in which a nursing supervisor who considered expert in the field is teaching a nurse beginner on the proper insertion of urinary catheter insertion. Even though there are no research data to support this.communication What is the Source? Knowledge emerges from a range of source which can be categorized into three namely Traditional. For example a student nurse providing Tepid Sponge Bath (TSB) to a patient with fever. As long as the recognized authority maintains his or her perceived expertise authoritative knowledge in general is accepted. which is heat transfer through evaporation (basic physics). • Traditional knowledge is a nursing practice which is passed down from generation to generation.

Phenomenon Concepts Conceptual models Paradigms Assumptions Propositions Hypothesis Research Induction Deduction .Scientific >Systematic and accurate > Requires time and effort >Theories it creates are to produce credible results less subjective than knowledge gained by other methods Phenomenon A phenomenon can be defined as set of empirical data or experiences that can be physically observed or tangible such as crying or grimacing when in pain. phenomena can be: • Clinical or environment setting of nursing – health canter • Disease process – stomach ulcer • Client’s process – guarding behavior at the pain site • Interventions – care of the client in pain • Practice that are utilized in nursing theories and metaparadigms (person. In Nursing. nursing. health and environment) KEY POINTS An empirical data that can be observed Building blocks of theories which can either be an empirical or abstract Derived from a person’s own point of view Another term for Conceptual framework or model Statements that the theorist hold as factual Statement that imply the relationships of concepts A testable relationship statement Use of systematic methods to study a phenomenon and create general knowledge. It is concerned with how an individual person reacts using the human senses concerning their surrounding and assessing the different behaviors and factors that affect such behaviors. A type of reasoning wherein general conclusions are made based from specific concepts. A type of reasoning that uses specific details to form general conclusion.

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