You are on page 1of 9

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO.

5, MAY 2009 1209

Discrete Frequency Tuning Active Filter


for Power System Harmonics
Tzung-Lin Lee, Member, IEEE, Jian-Cheng Li, and Po-Tai Cheng, Member, IEEE

Abstract—Severe voltage distortion, due to power system har- unpredictable and serious in an electric power network with
monic resonance, has been reported in recent years. This issue be- high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) inverters due to a large
comes more significant in high penetration of a photovoltaic (PV) number of household capacitors and inverter output capacitors
network. A conventional voltage detection active filter operates as
similar conductance for all harmonic frequencies to resolve this [4].
problem whether in a fixed conductance command or in an auto- According to IEEE Standard 519-1992 [5], maximum al-
matic gain adjustment control. However, its filtering capability is lowable voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) is 5% and
impeded by the mismatch between the active filter and the radial individual voltage distortion is 3% for distribution network be-
line, and the voltage distortion may still be significant. This paper low 69 kV. In order to comply with the harmonics regulation,
proposes a discrete frequency tuning active filter to suppress power
system harmonics. The active filter operates as variable conduc- various active damping approaches have been presented. Ak-
tance for each individual harmonic frequency. Each harmonic con- agi and coworkers proposed a voltage detection active filter
ductance is dynamically adjusted according to the corresponding installed at the end of a radial line to suppress such harmonic
harmonic voltage distortion of the active filter installation point resonance [6], [7]. The damping performance is subject to the
in response to increase or decrease of nonlinear loads, or varia- matching between the harmonic conductance of the active filter
tion of resonant frequency in the power system. The mismatching
problem between the feeder impedance and the active filter can be and the characteristic impedance of the radial line. Therefore,
avoided effectively. Therefore, harmonic voltage distortion can be the capability of the active filter with fixed conductance de-
maintained at an allowable level throughout the feeder with lower clines due to variation of the characteristic impedance in the real
peak current and lower rms current of the active filter, and loads power system. In order to enhance filtering performance, an au-
installed at various locations of the power system receive more tomatic gain adjustment scheme is added to adjust the operating
uniform voltage waveform.
conductance for reducing the voltage distortion at the installa-
Index Terms—Active power filter, harmonic resonance, har- tion point [8]. The harmonic resonance is frequency-dependent
monic voltage damping. and may vary with the damping harmonic conductance, so the
active filter operating at similar conductance for all harmonic
frequencies may suffer the mismatching problem. This is the
I. INTRODUCTION so-called “whack-a-mole” problem, which illustrates uninten-
ITH the advance of semiconductor devices, power elec- tional induction of another harmonic resonance when supply-
W tronics technologies have been developed extensively
for various applications, such as lighting, adjust speed drivers,
ing damping for a specific harmonic frequency [7]. Therefore,
the filtering performance is limited, and some harmonic volt-
and uninterruptible power supply systems. Due to the nonlinear age components may become worse at certain locations along
nature, most power electronics equipment draws nonsinusoidal the line. Distributed installation active filter systems presented
current, and thus, results in significant harmonic pollution in the previously can address this issue. However, a real-time com-
power system. Harmonic voltage amplification along a power munication system [9] or harmonics-drooped control [10], [11]
feeder resulting from the resonance between power factor cor- should be developed to coordinate the operation of active filters
rection capacitors and system inductances, including transmis- for providing effective damping performances.
sion line inductance and transformer leakage inductances, has This paper proposes a discrete frequency tuning active fil-
been reported [1]–[3]. The harmonic resonance may become ter to suppress power system harmonics. The active filter op-
erates as variable conductance at each harmonic frequency.
The damping conductance for individual harmonic frequency
Manuscript received November 10, 2008; revised January 7, 2009. Current
version published April 17, 2009. This work was supported by the National Sci- is determined by the corresponding harmonic voltage dis-
ence Council of Taiwan under Grant NSC 97-2218-E-110-007. Recommended tortion of the active filter installation point. Based on this
for publication by Associate Editor J. H. R. Enslin. scheme, the active filter can dynamically adjust the filtering
T.-L. Lee is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun
Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (e-mail: tzunglin.lee@gmail. capability in response to increase or decrease of nonlinear
com). loads and system resonant frequency variation. The annoy-
J.-C. Li is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Chang Gung Uni- ing “whack-a-mole” problem due to mismatching between the
versity, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (e-mail: f22835014@yahoo.com.tw).
P.-T. Cheng is with the Center for Advanced Power Technologies, Depart- feeder and the active filter can be avoided effectively. There-
ment of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, fore, harmonic voltage distortion throughout the feeder would
Taiwan (e-mail: ptcheng@ee.nthu.edu.tw). be definitely maintained at an allowable level with lower peak
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. current and lower rms current consumption in the proposed
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPEL.2009.2013863 approach.

0885-8993/$25.00 © 2009 IEEE


1210 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 5, MAY 2009

Fig. 1. Proposed discrete frequency tuning active filter in a radial line. (a) One-line circuit diagram of the proposed active filter and the associated control.
(b) Conductance tuning control for individual harmonic frequency.

II. OPERATION PRINCIPLES associated harmonic voltage component Ẽabc h of the AFU in-
A simplified one-line diagram of the proposed discrete fre- stallation point. Harmonic voltage components can be derived
quency tuning active filter is shown in Fig. 1(a). The active filter according to the synchronous reference frame (SRF) transfor-
unit (AFU) is installed at the end of a radial line to terminate mation [12]–[14]. The specific harmonic voltage component
harmonic voltage propagation. The AFU operates as variable Ẽabc h becomes a dc value in the SRF at ωh , so it can be derived
conductance at each harmonic frequency as given, by using a low-pass filter (LPF), as shown in Fig. 1(a). Note that
 ωh should be set to extract the corresponding negative-sequence
i∗abc = G∗h · Ẽabc h (1) (i.e., fifth) or positive-sequence (i.e., seventh) harmonic voltage
h component. The current command is then generated by multi-
plying the voltage harmonics and its corresponding conductance
where h represents the harmonic frequency order. The individ-
command. Based on the current command i∗abc , the measured
ual conductance command G∗h is a control gain to suppress the
LEE et al.: DISCRETE FREQUENCY TUNING ACTIVE FILTER FOR POWER SYSTEM HARMONICS 1211

current iabc , and the measured voltage Eabc , the current regula- 3) The reference harmonic voltage distortion is 3% (VD∗h =

tor calculates the voltage command vabc as follows: 3.0%).
4) ωf is set as 62.8 rad to filter out 120 Hz ripple components
∗ Li ∗
vabc = Eabc − (i − iabc ). (2) in the calculation of harmonic voltage distortion.
∆T abc 5) PI controller: kp = 100, ki = 2000.
Here, Li is the output inductor of the AFU, and ∆T is the 6) The AFU is implemented by a conventional three-phase
sampling period [15]. The current regulator operates the inverter voltage source inverter. The PWM frequency is 10 kHz
to synthesize the current as in (1) to accomplish the damping and the sampling frequency is 20 kHz.
functionality. In the simulation, power system parameters are arranged to
Fig. 1(b) shows the proposed discrete frequency tuning illustrate the harmonic amplification issue along the feeder [2],
scheme for harmonic order h. The conductance command of [7], where L is the line inductor and C represents the power
each harmonic frequency G∗h is determined according to the factor correction capacitor installed on the feeder. If the feeder
harmonic voltage distortion VDh at the AFU installation point length is closed to odd multiple of quarter wavelength of specific
Eabc . The harmonic voltage distortion VDh is defined as the harmonic frequency, harmonic voltage resonance occurs and
harmonic voltage component rms value at ωh divided by the then harmonic voltage is severely amplified [7], [17].
voltage rms value as given

Ẽabc h ,rm s A. Steady-State Operation


VDh = 100%. (3)
Eabc,rm s Due to harmonic resonance, the bus voltages are severely
distorted, as illustrated in Fig. 2(b). After the AFU is engaged,
The derivation of VDh can be approximately evaluated by us-
Fig. 2(c) shows that voltage THD along the line is significantly
ing two LPFs with cutoff frequency at ωf , which are to filter
improved, and the voltage THD at bus 9 is reduced to 4.4%. As
out ripple components in the calculation. The error between
demonstrated in Fig. 2(e) and (f), both the fifth harmonic voltage
the allowable harmonic voltage distortion VD∗h and the actual
distortion VD5 and the seventh harmonic voltage distortion VD7
harmonic voltage distortion VDh is then fed into a proportional-
are maintained below 3%. At the steady state, the AFU consumes
integral (PI) regulator to adjust the conductance command G∗h .
1.7 kVA (peak current = 10 A, rms current = 3.6 A) at G∗5 =
The PI controller can provide zero steady-state error, so the har-
0.61 Ω−1 and G∗7 = 0.49 Ω−1 .
monic voltage distortion VDh can be reduced to the allowable
The automatic gain adjustment scheme is shown in Fig. 3.
level. The PI regulator is defined as
In this control, the conductance command of the AFU is de-
ki termined according to voltage THD of the AFU installation
TPI = kp + (4)
s location. Therefore, the conductance command G∗ at all har-
where s is the Laplace operator, kp and ki are proportional monic frequencies has the same value [8]. In order to comply
and integral gains, respectively. In order to avoid extra phase with individual harmonic voltage limit [5], the reference voltage
lag in the harmonic frequency [16], the cutoff frequency of the THD should be set as 3%. Fig. 2(d) shows that the voltage THD
PI controller should be set at one decade below the damping at bus 9 can be maintained at 3%, but the improvement on the
harmonic frequency. Hence, ki can be determined. On the other midsection of the line is not clear. Fig. 2(e) also indicates VD5
hand, kp is selected according to the required response time. at buses 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 becomes higher than 3% due to the
Variation of kp and ki gains causes different response of voltage fifth harmonic resonance. This is the so-called “whack-a-mole”
distortion. Since harmonics variation in the power system is phenomenon when supplying harmonic damping with similar
usually slow, the PI controller with a low bandwidth can function conductance for all harmonic frequencies [7]. The AFU con-
well [8]. The small-signal model derivation of the AFU and sumes 2.9 kVA (peak current = 17 A, rms current = 6.2 A) at
the further dynamic analysis with the root locus method are G∗ = 1.35 Ω−1 . If the reference voltage THD of the AFU is set
discussed in [11]. as 4.4% as derived in the proposed method, individual harmonic
voltage may not conform with regulation because harmonic res-
onance may only occur at a specific harmonic frequency. Table I
III. SIMULATION RESULTS
summarizes comparison between these two methods. The dis-
The proposed discrete frequency tuning active filter is applied crete frequency tuning AFU provides better voltage THD and
to a radial power distribution line to demonstrate the harmonic VD5 in both average and variance senses, and similar damping
filtering performance by using the alternative transient program performance for VD7 . Therefore, more uniform voltage quality
(ATP). Fig. 2(a) shows the simulation circuit, and circuit param- would be retained in the proposed method.
eters are given as follows. Fig. 4 illustrates magnifying factors of both fifth and sev-
1) Power system: 220 V (line-to-line), 20 kVA, 60 Hz, L = enth harmonics with variation of resonant capacitors by using
0.2 mH (3.1%), C = 150 µF (13.7%). an equivalent distributed-parameter circuit model [17]. Both
2) Nonlinear loads NLA and NLB : Both nonlinear loads are resonant frequencies and resonant quality factors of harmonic
diode rectifiers with filter inductor, dc capacitor, and load standing waves are dependent on line inductors and power fac-
resistor. NLA and NLB are rated at 5.3 kVA (30%), re- tor correction capacitors. As indicated, the system resonates
spectively. at fifth harmonics if C = 45 µF, and at seventh harmonics if
1212 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 5, MAY 2009

Fig. 2. Simulation circuit and steady-state simulation results. (a) Simulation circuit configuration. (b) AFU is OFF. (c) Discrete frequency tuning AFU.
(d) Automatic gain-adjusted AFU. (e) Fifth harmonic voltage distortion on all buses. (f) Seventh harmonic voltage distortion on all buses.

TABLE I
AVERAGE AND VARIANCE VALUES OF VOLTAGE THD, VD5 , AND VD7
LEE et al.: DISCRETE FREQUENCY TUNING ACTIVE FILTER FOR POWER SYSTEM HARMONICS 1213

Fig. 3. Automatic gain adjustment control.

C = 22 µF and 190 µF. Therefore, similar conductance for all


harmonic frequencies in the automatic gain adjustment control
cannot guarantee harmonic voltage distortion complying with
regulation [7]. Fig. 5 shows the conductance commands G∗5 ,
G∗7 for various capacitors C (50–225 µF). G∗5 and G∗7 are ad-
justed to neutralize the harmonic amplification in different res-
onant conditions according to system characteristic impedance
and harmonic magnitude. The reciprocal of system character-
istic impedance is proportional to the square root of resonant
capacitor, so required conductance commands would be vari-
able. Maximum G∗5 is at C = 125 µF, and maximum G∗7 is at
C = 75 µF and C = 187.5 µF, respectively. When the capac-
itor is larger than 175 µF, fifth harmonic resonance no longer
occurs, so fifth harmonic damping is not needed (G∗5 = 0). On
the other hand, seventh harmonic resonance changes more dra-
matically compared to fifth harmonics due to small wavelength.
Therefore, by using the proposed approach, both G∗5 and G∗7 can
respond to the variation of capacitors to accomplish harmonic
damping requirement.

B. Transient Operation
Fig. 6 shows the conductance commands G∗5 , G∗7 and the har-
monic voltage distortion VD5 , VD7 , THD of the AFU instal-
lation location under nonlinear load variation. NLA increases
to 6.6 kVA at t = 2.0 s and subsequently NLB increases to
6.6 kVA at t = 3.0 s. Fig. 6(a) shows that the increase of non-
linear loads causes higher voltage distortion, thus the PI regu-
lator raises both G∗5 and G∗7 commands to draw more harmonic
current for reducing voltage distortion. VD5 , VD7 would be
maintained at 3%, and voltage THD would be smaller than 5%
as indicated in Fig. 6(b).
Fig. 7 illustrates the transient when the capacitors on bus 4 and
bus 7 are disconnected at t = 2.0 s and t = 3.0 s, respectively. Fig. 4. Magnifying factors of both fifth and seventh harmonics with variation
Due to uneven distribution of the feeder capacitors, the resonant of resonant capacitors. (a) Fifth harmonics. (b) Seventh harmonics.
pattern of the circuit cannot be predicted easily. However, G∗5
and G∗7 can still be tuned effectively according to VD5 , VD7 Fig. 7(b). In addition, voltage THD is always maintained below
in the proposed approach. As shown in Fig. 7(a), G∗5 and G∗7 5% as variation of resonant capacitors.
are decreased because the capacitor on bus 4 getting offline
causes lower voltage distortion. Particularly, G∗7 is reduced sig-
IV. LABORATORY TEST RESULTS
nificantly. On the other hand, the capacitor on bus 7 switching
offline would cause both VD5 and VD7 increased. Therefore, G∗5 Fig. 8 shows a test circuit in the laboratory. System parameters
and G∗7 are raised to maintain VD5 and VD7 at 3%, as shown in are given as follows:
1214 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 5, MAY 2009

Fig. 5. Conductance commands of the AFU and system characteristic


impedance (Z) in variation of resonant capacitors.

1) Power system: 220 V (line-to-line), 60 Hz. The harmonic


source is background voltage distortion of the power sys-
tem. Voltage THD = 2.8%, VD5 = 2.8%, VD7 = 0.3%.
Ll represents leakage inductance of the power system.
2) Experimental circuit: L1 = 0.2 mH, L2 = 0.4 mH, C =
180 µF.
3) Active filter: Li = 1.0 mH, the PWM frequency is 10 kHz
and the sampling frequency is 20 kHz.
4) Active filter controller: ωf = 62.8 rad, kp = 100, ki =
2000, VD∗h = 3.0%, G∗h,m ax = 1.0 Ω−1 and G∗h,m in =
0.1 Ω−1 .
The control of the active filter is implemented by using a
TI TMS320C6711 chip to perform phase lock loop, synchronous
frame transformation, LPF, PI controller, and current regulator.
The PWM, A/D, and memory management are manipulated by
CPLD chip. More detailed design issues are illustrated in [18].
Before the AFU is started, Fig. 9(a) shows bus voltages are
amplified substantially toward the end of the bus. Particularly,
fifth harmonic voltage is severe, such as VD5 = 4.4% at bus
2 and VD5 = 6.8% at bus 3, respectively. Harmonic voltage
distortion on all buses is given in Table II. After the AFU with Fig. 6. Conductance commands and harmonic voltage distortion of the AFU
the proposed discrete frequency tuning method is in operation, when NLA and NLB are added at t = 2.0 s and t = 3.0 s, respectively.
voltage distortion is significantly improved. Voltage waveforms (a) Active filter conductance commands. (b) Harmonic voltage distortion.
and harmonic voltage distortion are shown in Fig. 9(b) and
Table III. VD5 is reduced to 2.8% and 3.0% at bus 2 and bus 3,
respectively. The AFU operation is in Fig. 10. It indicates the
AFU current iaf can track the reference current i∗af generated The AFU with the automatic gain adjustment scheme is also
from (1) for supplying damping functionality. At the steady implemented. The AFU operation and test results are shown
state, the AFU consumes iaf ,rm s = 8.1 A, and iaf ,p eak = 13 A. in Table IV and Fig. 12. The damping performance is similar
Fig. 11 shows G∗5 and G∗7 when the AFU starts up and expe- to the proposed discrete frequency tuning method because the
riences transience due to a resonant capacitor at bus 2 switching “whack-a-mole” phenomenon is not clear in the short circuit.
offline. At t = T0 , the AFU is turned on. G∗5 and G∗7 would set- At the steady state, the AFU would consume iaf ,rm s = 8.1 A,
tle at t = T1 . Based on harmonic voltage distortion VD5 , G∗5 is and iaf ,p eak = 16 A. Harmonic current components of the AFU
adjusted to supply adequate damping. When reaching the steady in both the discrete frequency tuning method and the automatic
state, G∗5 is approximate to 0.65 Ω−1 . On the other hand, G∗7 gain adjustment control are shown in Fig. 13. Compared with
is always maintained to the minimum value (0.1 Ω−1 ) because the proposed method, the peak current of the automatic gain
VD7 is slightly larger than 3.0%. At t = T2 , the capacitor con- adjustment control is larger because the AFU emulates the same
nected at bus 2 is switched offline. The voltage distortion on all damping conductance for all harmonic components, as expected
buses is reduced. Finally, G∗5 is reduced to 0.5 Ω−1 . in Section III-A.
LEE et al.: DISCRETE FREQUENCY TUNING ACTIVE FILTER FOR POWER SYSTEM HARMONICS 1215

Fig. 9. Bus voltage waveforms. (a) Bus voltages before the AFU is started.
Fig. 7. Conductance commands and harmonic voltage distortion of the AFU
(b) Bus voltages after the AFU is in operation.
when the capacitors on bus 4 and bus 7 are switched offline at t = 2.0 s and
t = 3.0 s, respectively. (a) Active filter conductance commands. (b) Harmonic
voltage distortion. TABLE II
HARMONIC VOLTAGE DISTORTION WITHOUT ANY FILTERING

Fig. 8. Experimental circuit.


ductance of individual harmonic frequency, the mismatching
problem between the feeder and the AFU can be avoided effec-
V. SUMMARY tively, and voltage distortion of each harmonic frequency would
A discrete frequency tuning active filter has been proposed be definitely maintained below an allowable level either at the
in this paper to suppress power system harmonics. This ac- AFU installation point or on other location of the feeder. This
tive filter is installed at the end of the radial line to terminate is the significant advantage of the proposed approach.
the propagation of harmonic resonance. It operates as variable Variation of resonant capacitors in the power system would
conductance according to harmonic voltage distortion at each shift resonant frequency and change system impedance. This
harmonic frequency. By dynamically adjusting damping con- phenomenon may deteriorate AFU damping functionality or
1216 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 24, NO. 5, MAY 2009

TABLE III
HARMONIC VOLTAGE DISTORTION AFTER THE ACTIVE FILTER IS ENGAGED

TABLE IV
HARMONIC VOLTAGE DISTORTION IN THE AUTOMATIC GAIN
ADJUSTMENT CONTROL

Fig. 12. Active filter currents in the automatic gain adjustment control.
Y axis(i∗a f , ia f : 2.8 A/V).

Fig. 10. Active filter currents in the proposed discrete frequency tuning
method. Y axis(i∗a f , ia f : 2.8 A/V).

Fig. 13. Harmonic current components of the AFU in the discrete frequency
tuning method and the automatic gain adjustment control. Y-axis (ia f , h : A).

cause unintentional harmonic amplification on certain locations


of the feeder whether a fixed gain or an automatic gain adjust-
ment is employed due to similar conductance for all harmonic
frequencies. Thanks to the discrete frequency tuning method of
the proposed AFU, power system harmonics would be main-
tained at an allowable level and become insensitive to sys-
tem variation. Therefore, entire loading installed throughout
the feeder would receive similar voltage quality. The proposed
method is also suitable for power electronics interface con-
verters of distributed generation to suppress harmonic voltage
distortion [19]–[22].
Fig. 14 presents AFU current to total nonlinear loads for the
circuit of Fig. 2(a). Compared with the automatic gain adjust-
ment AFU, the discrete frequency tuning AFU operates with
lower peak and rms current in various nonlinear loads. As
Fig. 11. Fifth and seventh conductance commands in AFU startup and capac- shown, both the peak current and the rms current of the AFU are
itors at bus 2 switching offline. Y axis(G: 0.5 Ω −1 /V). roughly reduced 0.06 per unit (p.u.) and 0.02 p.u., respectively.
LEE et al.: DISCRETE FREQUENCY TUNING ACTIVE FILTER FOR POWER SYSTEM HARMONICS 1217

filters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1826–1835, Sep.
2007.
[15] T. G. Habetler, “A space vector-based rectifier regulator for AC/DC/AC
converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 30–36, Jan.
1993.
[16] P. Jintakosonwit, H. Fujita, and H. Akagi, “Control and performance
of a full-digital-controlled shunt active filter for installation on a power
distribution system,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 132–
140, Jan. 2002.
[17] P.-T. Cheng and T.-L. Lee, “Analysis of harmonic damping effect of the
distributed active filter system,” IEEJ Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 126, no. 5,
pp. 605–614, May 2006.
[18] R. Godbole and S. Bhattacharya, “Design and development of a flexible
multi-purpose controller hardware system for power electronics and other
industrial applications,” in Proc. IEEE Ind. Appl. Conf. 43th IAS Annu.
Meet., 2008.
[19] W. R. Ryckaert, K. De Gusseme, D. M. Van de Sype, L. Vandevelde, and
J. A. Melkebeek, “Damping potential of a single-phase bidirectional rec-
tifier with resistive harmonic behavior,” in Proc. IEE Proc.-Elect. Power
Appl., Jan. 2006, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 68–74.
[20] E. Wu and P. W. Lehn, “Digital current control of a voltage source converter
with active damping of LCL resonance,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,
vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 1364–1373, Sep. 2006.
Fig. 14. AFU current to nonlinear loads in various control methods. (p.u.). [21] H. Fujita and H. Akagi, “Voltage-regulation performance of a shunt active
filter intended for installation on a power distribution system,” IEEE
Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 1046–1053, May 2007.
Therefore, switching devices with lower current rating may be [22] T.-L. Lee and P.-T. Cheng, “Design of a new cooperative harmonic filtering
strategy for distributed generation interface converters in an islanding
used and lower operating current can be accomplished in the network,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1301–1309,
proposed AFU. Sep. 2007.

REFERENCES Tzung-Lin Lee (S’04-M’08) received the B.S. de-


gree in electrical engineering from Chung Yuan
[1] E. J. Currence, J. E. Plizga, and H. N. Nelson, “Harmonic resonance at Christian University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, in 1993, the
a medium-sized industrial plant,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 31, no. 3, M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the Na-
pp. 682–690, May/Jun. 1995. tional Chung Cheng University, Chiayi, Taiwan, in
[2] H. Akagi, “Control strategy and site selection of a shunt active filter for 1995, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering
damping of harmonic propagation in power distribution system,” IEEE from the National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu,
Trans. Power Del., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 354–363, Jan. 1997. Taiwan, in 2007.
[3] M. Saito, T. Takeshita, and N. Matsui, “Modeling and harmonic suppres- From 1997 to 2001, he was a Research Engineer
sion for power distribution system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 50, at the Microwave Department, Electronics Research
no. 6, pp. 1148–1158, Dec. 2003. and Service Organization (ERSO), Industrial Tech-
[4] J. H. R. Enslin and P. J. M. Heskes, “Harmonic interaction between nology Research Institute (ITRI), Hsinchu. He is currently an Assistant Professor
a large number of distributed power inverters and the distribution net- in the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University,
work,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1586–1593, Nov. Kaohsiung, Taiwan. His current research interests include utility applications of
2004. power electronics.
[5] IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for Harmonic Control
in Electrical Power Systems, IEEE Standard 519-1992, 1993.
[6] H. Akagi, H. Fujita, and K. Wada, “A shunt active filter based on voltage
detection for harmonic termination of a radial power distribution line,” Jian-Cheng Li received the B.S. degree in electri-
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 638–645, May/Jun. 1999. cal engineering from the National Chin-Yi Univer-
[7] K. Wada, H. Fujita, and H. Akagi, “Considerations of a shunt active filter sity of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, in 2007. He
based on voltage detection for installation on a long distribution feeder,” is currently working toward the M.S. degree in the
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1123–1130, Jul./Aug. 2002. Department of Electrical Engineering, Chang Gung
[8] P. Jintakosonwit, H. Akagi, H. Fujita, and S. Ogasawara, “Implementation University, Taipei, Taiwan.
and performance of automatic gain adjustment in a shunt active filter for His current research interests include active fil-
harmonic damping throughout a power distribution system,” IEEE Trans. ters for power conditioning and power distribution
Power Electron., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 438–447, Mar. 2002. systems.
[9] P. Jintakosonwit, H. Fujita, H. Akagi, and S. Ogasawara, “Implementation
and performance of cooperative control of shunt active filters for harmonic
damping throughout a power distribution system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,
vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 556–564, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[10] P.-T. Cheng and T.-L. Lee, “Distributed active filter systems (DAFSs):
A new approach to power system harmonics,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,
vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 1301–1309, Sep./Oct. 2006.
[11] T.-L. Lee, P.-T. Cheng, H. Akagi, and H. Fujita, “A dynamic tuning method Po-Tai Cheng (S’96–M’99) received the B.S. degree
for distributed active filter systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 44, no. 2, from the National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu,
pp. 612–623, Mar./Apr. 2008. Taiwan, in 1990, and the M.S.E.E. and Ph.D. degrees
[12] S. Bhattacharya, D. Divan, and B. Banerjee, “Synchronous frame har- from the University of Wisconsin, Madison in 1994
monic isolator using active series filter,” in Proc. 4th Eur. Conf. Power and 1999, respectively.
Electron. Appl., 1991, pp. 30–35. He is currently an Associate Professor in the De-
[13] S. Bhattacharya, T. M. Frank, D. Divan, and B. Banerjee, “Active filter partment of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing
system implementation,” IEEE Ind. Appl. Mag., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 47–63, Hua University, Hsinchu. His current research inter-
Sep/Oct. 1998. ests include distributed power systems, utility appli-
[14] C. Lascu, L. Asiminoaei, I. Boldea, and F. Blaabjerg, “High performance cations of power electronics, power quality issues,
current controller for selective harmonic compensation in active power and high-power converters.