498 views

Uploaded by abhish9k

- Data Structure
- MCA Assignment for MC0062-SMU
- Million Assignment Bca.xps Bc0038.Docx Mahs
- MC0063–02_discrete_mathematics
- MC061– 01_computer_programming_in_C_language
- MC0063 Fall Drive Assignment 2011
- SMU_MCA NEW FALL 2010_Discrete Mathematics(MC0063)_SEM_1_ASSIGNMENTS_set1
- BC0038 Data Structure Using C
- MC0062 August 2010 Q & Ans
- BC0038
- Master of Computer Application (MCA) – Semester II MC0068 – Data structutes using ‘C’
- MC0063–01_discrete_mathematics
- BC0039 Discrete Mathematics
- Answer BC0037 C++
- SEM 2 BC0039 Discrete Mathematics
- SMU MCA Assignments
- BC0040
- BC0038 Spring Drive Assignment 2012
- BC0037 - Programming Using C++
- MC0063 Fall Drive Assignment 2011

You are on page 1of 12

Book Id B0676 and B0677

Assignment Set – 1

______________________________________________________________________

(i)( A − B )×( B −C )

(ii) ( B − A) ×(C − B)

(iii) A ∪ ( A ∩ B)

Solution:

A={2,3}

B={2,4}

C={4,5}

i. (A-B)={3}

(B-C)={2}

(A-B) × (B-C)={(3,2)}

ii. (B-A)={4}

(C-B)={5}

(B-A) × {(4,5)}

iii. (A ∩ B)={2}

A={2,3}

A ∪( A ∩ B ) ={2,3}

n(n + 1)( 2n + 1)

12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + ..... + n 2 =

6

Solution:

I. If n=1 , left side =12 =1

1(1 +1)( 2.1 +1) 1.2.3

RHS = = 6

=1

6

Hence result is true for n=1

II. Now assume that the result is true for n=k

k (k + 1)( 2k + 1)

Then 12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + ..... + k 2 =

6

(induction hypothesis)

If n = k+1

12 + 2 2 + 3 2 + ..... + k 2 + ( k +1) 2

Form induction hypothesis we get

k ( k +1)( 2k +1)

RHS : + (k +1) 2

6

k (k +1)( 2k +1) + 6(k +1) 2

6

( k +1)( k ( 2k +1) + 6( k +1))

6

(k + 1)( 2k 2 + k + 6k + 6))

6

( k +1)( 2k 7 k + 6))

2

6

( k + 1)( 2k 2 + 4k + 3k + 6))

6

( k + 1)( 2k ( k + 2) + 3( k + 2))

6

( k +1)( 2k + 3)( k + 2))

6

(k +1)(( k +1 +1)( 2(k +1) +1)

LHS 6

( k +1)(( k + 2)( 2k + 3)

6

RHS = LHS

Hence Proved

than twice as a part is equal to the number of partitions of n into parts not

divisible by 3.

Solution:

The generating function corresponding to “no integer occurs more than twice” is

(1 + x + x 2 )(1 + x 2 + x 4 )(1 + x 3 + x 6 )... --------------(1)

(1 − x ) −1 (1 − x 2 ) −1 (1 − x 4 ) −1 .... ------------------(2)

1 − x 3 = (1 − x ) (1 + x + x 2 )

(1 − x 3 )(1 − x ) −1 (1 − x 6 ) (1 − x 2 ) −1 (1 − x 9 )(1 − x 3 ) −1 (1 − x 12 ) (1 − x 4 ) −1 .......... ...

= (1 − x) −1 (1 − x 2 ) −1 (1 − x 4 ) −4 (1 − x 5 ) −1 (1 − x 7 ) −1

For instance take n = 6. The partitions in which no integer occurs more than twice

are 6,5,1,4 2,4 1 1 ,3 3,3 2 1,2 2 1,1(these are 8 in number).

The partitions in which no part is divisible by 3 are 5 1,4 2 ,4 1 1 , 2 2 2 ,2211, 2

14,1 6 .

Q.4. Prove that if S contains more than two elements, then there exist f,

f g ≠g f

Solution:

Since S contains more than two elements, take the distinct elements a,b,c ∈S.

by g(a)=b,g(b)=a, and g(x)=x for all x ∈S\{a,b}. Then f,g are bijections and hence

(gof)(a)=a ≠ c =(fog)(a). This shows that gof ≠ fog.

Q.5. Prove that a ≡ b(mod m ) and a ≡ b(mod n ) if and only if a ≡ b(mod lcm( m,n ))

Solution:

Suppose a ≡ b(mod m ) and a ≡ b(mod n ) . This means m|a-b and n|a-b. That is,(a-b)

is a common multiple of m and n.

But l=lcm(m,n) is the least common multiple of m and n.

a ≡ b(mod lcm( m,n ))

Therefore (a-b) is a multiple of l.That is l|a-b. This means

L = {x / x ∈{a, b}∗ , the number of a ' s in x is a multiple of 3}

Solution:

Let t = {a,b} and N={S,A,B}

S is a stating symbol.

S → bS

S→b

S → aA

A →bA

A → aB

B → bB

B → aS

B→a

For instance ,

bbababbab can be generated as follows.

S => bS

=>bbS=>bbaA=>bbabA=>bbabaB=>bbababbB=>bbababbaS=>bbababbab

Therefore the grammer G=(VT={a,b},VN={S,A,B},Φ,S)

Master of Computer Application (MCA) – Semester 1

MC0063 - Discrete Mathematics

Book Id B0676 and B0677

Assignment Set – 2

______________________________________________________________________

any of the integers 2, 3, 5 and 7.

Solution

Write Similarly A2, A3, A4 are set of integers ≤ that are divisible by 3,5 and 7

respectively.

250

|A1|= 2

=125

250

|A2|= 3

=83

250

|A3|= 5

=50

250

|A4|= 7

=35

250

| A1 ∩ A2 |= =41

2 ×3

250

| A1 ∩ A3 |= =25

2 ×5

250

| A1 ∩ A4 |= =17

2 ×7

250

| A2 ∩ A3 |= =16

5 ×3

250

| A2 ∩ A4 |= =11

7 ×3

250

| A3 ∩ A4 |= =417

5 ×7

250

| A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3|= =8

2 ×3 ×5

| A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A4 | =5

| A1 ∩ A3 ∩ A4 | =3

| A2 ∩A3 ∩ A4 | =2

| A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 ∩ A4 | =1

Therefore | A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3 ∪ A4 |=125+83+50+35-41-25-17-16-11-7+8+5+3+2-1=193

using the generating function.

2 n

Solution: Let f(x)=a0+a1x+a2x +…+anx +….

2 n

2xf(x)= 2a0x+2a1x +…+2an-1x +….

2 2 n

x f(x)= a0x +…+an-2x +….

2 2 n

Therefore f(x)-2xf(x)+ x f(x)= a0+(a1 -2a0 )x+(a2 -2a1 +a0 )x +…+(an -2an-1 +an-2)x

+…=3-8x(since a0=3 , a1 =-2 and an -2an-1 +an-2 =0 for n≥2)

1

On simplification ,we get f(x)= (1− x)

2

(3 – 8x)

= (1 + 2 x + 3 x

2

+ ...... + ( n +1) x n + ......) (3 - 8x)

= 3 − 2 x − 7 x 2 −12 x 3 ...... + (−5n + 3) x n + ......

Therefore the coefficient of xn ,that is ;an=3-5n is the solution.

Solution: Assume that L is a distributive lattice. Let x ,y, z ∈ L and x ≤ z.

We have that ( x ∧ y ) ∨ ( y ∧ z ) ∨ ( z ∧ x) = ( x ∨ y ) ∧ ( y ∨ z ) ∧ ( z ∨ x)

( x ∧ y) ∨ ( y ∧ z) ∨ x = ( x ∨ y) ∧ ( y ∨ z) ∧ z

This shows that L is modular lattice.

Q.4. Prove that for any a and b in a Boolean algebra,

(i) a ∨ b = a ∧ b (ii) a ∧ b = a ∨ b

Proof :

(i) We show that a ∧b is the complement of a ∨ b

(a ∨ b) ∨ ( a ∧ b ) =[( a ∨ b) ∨ a ] ∧[( a ∨ b) ∨ b ]

=[( a ∨ a ) ∨ b] ∧[ a ∨ (b ∨ b )]

= (1 ∨ b) ∧ (a ∨1)

=1 ∧1

=1

Also

(a ∨ b) ∧ ( a ∧ b ) =[( a ∧ b) ∧ a ] ∨ [( a ∧ b) ∧ b ]

=[( a ∧ a ) ∧ b] ∨ [ a ∧ (b ∧ b )]

= ( 0 ∧ b ) ∨ ( a ∧ 0)

=0 ∧0

=0

(a ∧ b) ∨ ( a ∨ b ) = [( a ∨ (b ∨ a )] ∧ [b ∨ (a ∨ b ]

= [( a ∨ a ) ∨ b] ∧ [a ∨ (b ∨ b )]

= (1 ∨ b) ∧ (a ∨1)

=1 ∧1

=1

Also

(a ∧ b) ∧ ( a ∨ b ) =[( a ∧ b) ∧ a ] ∨ [( a ∧ b) ∧ b ]

=[( a ∧ a ) ∧ b] ∨ [ a ∧ (b ∧ b )]

= ( 0 ∧ b ) ∨ ( a ∧ 0)

=0 ∧0

=0

Q.5. Explain the concept turing machine with example.

finite control and a tape. At any time it is in one of the finite number of states. The

tape has the left end but it extends infinitely to the right. It is also divided into

squares and a symbol can be written in each square. However, unlike finite

automata, its head is a read-write head and it can move left, right or stay at the

same square after a read or write.

Given a string of symbols on the tape, a Turing machine starts at the initial state.

At any state it reads the symbol under the head, either erases it or replaces it with a

symbol(possibly the same symbol). It then moves the head to left or right or does

not move it and goes to the next state which may be the same as the current state.

One of its states is the halt state and when the Turing machine goes into the halt

state, it stops its operation.

Formally a Turing machine is a 5-tuple T = < Q,∑, Γ ,q0,δ> , where

Q is a finite set of states, which is assumed not to contain the symbol h. The

symbol h is used to denote the halt state.

∑ is a finite set of symbols and it is the input alphabet

Γ is a finite set of symbols containing as its subset and it is the set of tape symbols.

q0 is the initial state.

δ is the transition function but its value may not be defined for certain points.

It is a mapping from Q (Γ U{Δ} ) to ( Q U{ h } ) (Γ U { Δ } )

{ R , L ,S } .

Here Δ denotes the blank and R, L and S denote move the head right, left and do

not move it, respectively. A transition diagram can also be drawn for a Turing

machine. The states are represented by vertices and for a transition δ ( q, X ) = ( r,

Y, D ) , where D represents R, L or S , an arc from q to r is drawn with label

( X/Y , D ) indicating that the state is changed from q to r, the symbol X currently

being read is changed to Y and the tape head is moved as directed by D.

Example : The following Turing machine < Q,∑, Γ ,q0,δ> accepts the language

aba* , where

Q1= { q0, q1, q2, q3} , = { a , b } , = { a , b } and is as given by the table below

q0 Δ (q1, Δ , R )

q1 a (q2,a,R)

q2 b (q3,b,R)

q3 a (q3,a,R)

q3 Δ (h, Δ , s )

A transition diagram of this Turing machine is given below. It is assumed that the

tape has at the left end and the head is initially at the left end of the tape

1 0 0 1 1 0

G = 0 1 0 0 1 1

0 0 1 1 0 1

(ii)Obtain the associated parity –check matrix

(iii) Hence decode the received words:110110,111101

Solution:

1 0 0 1 1 0

G=[I | A],where I = 0 1and

3 0 A= 0 1 1

3

0 0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 1 0

(i) E(110)=[110] 0 1 0 0 1 1 =[110101] and

0 0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 1 0

E(010)=[010] 0 1 0 0 1 1 =[010011]

0 0 1 1 0 1

1 0 1 1 0 0

The parity-check matrix associated with G is H=[A | I ]= 1 1 0 0 1 0

(ii)

T

3

0 1 1 0 0 1

(iii) For r=110110 the syndrome of r is

1 0 1 1 0 0 0

H[110110] = 1 1 0[110110]

010

T

T =

1 .

0 1 1 0 0 1 1

We can observe that this matrix is identical with the second column of H.

Therefore we change the second component in r (from 1 to 0) to get the

code word c=100110. The first three components of this code word gives

the original message w=100.

1 0 1 1 0 0 1

H[111101] = 1 1 0[111101]

010

T

T =

0 .

0 1 1 0 0 1 1

We can observe that this matrix is identical with the third column of H.

Therefore we change the third component in r (from 1 to 0) to get the

code word c=110101. The first three components of this code word gives

the original message w=110

- Data StructureUploaded byraunak19
- MCA Assignment for MC0062-SMUUploaded byVikas Dahiya
- Million Assignment Bca.xps Bc0038.Docx MahsUploaded byMilli Estifanos
- MC0063–02_discrete_mathematicsUploaded byssharma79
- MC061– 01_computer_programming_in_C_languageUploaded byssharma79
- MC0063 Fall Drive Assignment 2011Uploaded byRitesh Saha
- SMU_MCA NEW FALL 2010_Discrete Mathematics(MC0063)_SEM_1_ASSIGNMENTS_set1Uploaded bykiller1
- BC0038 Data Structure Using CUploaded bygurugabru
- MC0062 August 2010 Q & AnsUploaded byabhish9k
- BC0038Uploaded bygurugabru
- Master of Computer Application (MCA) – Semester II MC0068 – Data structutes using ‘C’Uploaded byAbhinav Duggal
- MC0063–01_discrete_mathematicsUploaded byssharma79
- BC0039 Discrete MathematicsUploaded bygurugabru
- Answer BC0037 C++Uploaded byPartha Roy
- SEM 2 BC0039 Discrete MathematicsUploaded byme_ajeesh
- SMU MCA AssignmentsUploaded byNarendra Dev
- BC0040Uploaded byAmit Jain
- BC0038 Spring Drive Assignment 2012Uploaded byshanvi09
- BC0037 - Programming Using C++Uploaded byNadeem Mohammed
- MC0063 Fall Drive Assignment 2011Uploaded byRitesh Saha
- BC0044Uploaded bygurugabru
- MC0061Uploaded byVikas Kumar
- BC0044 Accounting and Financial ManagmentUploaded bygurugabru
- Book_MC0061(A&B)Uploaded byjagdeep_bhatt
- MC0063 Discrete Mathematics Model Question PaperUploaded byashish544170
- MCA Sem-1 Sample MC0061 Spring 2012Uploaded byajeetsinghkatiyar
- Solution to Mca Sem 1 AssignmentsUploaded byKwame Tetteh Jnr
- BC0042Uploaded bygurugabru
- MCA Blog URLsUploaded bySatya Thirumani
- MC0063Uploaded bySonia Gahlaut

- MC0068 August 2010 Q & AnsUploaded byabhish9k
- MC0070 August 2010 Q & AnsUploaded byabhish9k
- MC0069 August 2010 Q & AnsUploaded byabhish9k
- MC0067 August 2010 Q & AnsUploaded byabhish9k
- MC0068-2 August 2010 Q & AnsUploaded byabhish9k
- MC0062 August 2010 Q & AnsUploaded byabhish9k
- MC0064 August 2010 Q & AnsUploaded byabhish9k
- MC0061 Q & AnsUploaded byabhish9k
- 52335683-MC0066-August-2010-Q-AnsUploaded byShibu George

- Principle Component AnalysisUploaded bymatthewriley123
- We Don't Know What We'Re Saying, But is Profound. the Language and Contexts of GlossolaliaUploaded byKarla C. Rodríguez
- Diagnotes Recognized in Gartner’s 2018 Market Guide for Clinical Communication and CollaborationUploaded byPR.com
- 2002may u Sfu Scs Walenstein PhdUploaded byChristian Visca Barqa
- John Keats Negative Capability in his odes.docxUploaded byLjupcho Petreski
- Forecasting (1)Uploaded byHisoka
- Agency Effectiveness HandbookUploaded by'Biodun Agbaje
- Trust, Communication, And LeadershipUploaded byArslan Jokhio
- 201819coursecatalogUploaded byapi-421849818
- Eurocode8 Part 5Uploaded byAjay Kumar Sreerama
- Impact of Land Use Land Cover Change on Stream Flow and Sediment Yield a Case Study of Gilgel Abay Watershed Lake Tana Sub Basin EthiopiaUploaded byijteee
- SDL Trados Studio 2014 Advanced - WorkbookUploaded byVeren
- grade sheet (Law Related Studies).docUploaded byJetzon Lee
- Computer.docxUploaded byAdeel Raza
- legal regime for the regulaiton of ICT in NIGERIAUploaded byKingsley 'kingsville' Udofa
- Occupational Health & Safety and Employee Well-BeingUploaded byPal Arnesen
- PMR+04710%2C+379%2C+000Uploaded bySee Hongrui
- 9.Management-Motivation Tools as a Determinant of Effectiveness -Ebadu PaulUploaded byImpact Journals
- CHFI 4.pdfUploaded byFelipe Avinzano
- Aboriginal Communities and Non-renewable Resource DevelopmentUploaded byNational Round Table on the Environment and the Economy
- anisogridUploaded byGowtham Raj Thulasi Raman
- Mathematics Paper1 Form 5 Mid Year Exam AnswerUploaded byjosnih bin murni
- E 1763 - 06Uploaded byEric Gozzer
- philosophy of education finalUploaded byapi-445385283
- Simulation of a Contra Rotating Open Rotor at Angle of AttackUploaded bynascosannascosan
- EN 335-2-2006Uploaded byWJW_total
- Translation of PoetryUploaded byapi-3733336
- skittles term project - kai galbiso stat1040Uploaded byapi-316758771
- sav511pdeploy3-2810135Uploaded bykaushik4end
- 02chapter1-5Uploaded byMarta Flores