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Provost s Energy Retreat FEEI February 24 & 25, 2006 Ken Nealson Wrigley Professor of Geobiology USC MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS (MFCs) Biofuelsfor energy production and Waste disposalProvost s Energy Retreat FEEIFebruary 24 & 25, 2006Ken NealsonWrigle y Professor of GeobiologyUSC
CO2 Text Box: Energy Flow on Earth Energy Flow on EarthEnergy Flow on EarthLight Energy(178,000 TW) Geothermal Energy(30 TW) PS BacteriaCyanobacteriaAlgae & PlantsBiomassOrganic CReducedInorganics(organic C) CO2LithotrophsAnimalsFungiBacteriaUSCUSCGeobiology
USC Geobiology CH3OH3/1 CH3CH2OH 2.5/1 Fermentation Metabolism Biofuels methanol ethanol Oval: Biomass Biomass Oval: Waste (CH4) Waste(CH4)
USC Geobiology Electricity CO2 Pollution removal water purification industrial water industrial waste BiofuelCell Interruption of the process! (Imagine many other fuels being used by these Microbial Fuel Cells) Don t always have to win breaking even might be enough! Oval: Biomass Biomass Oval: Waste Waste Oval: Biofuel Cells BiofuelCells .
USC Geobiology What is a microbial fuel cell? Advantages of MFCs Disadvantages of MFCs State of the Art Challenges Prospects Demonstrate these with examples of our work when appropriate. .
extract electrons electron flow to an acceptor is used to charge a biological capacitor charged capacitor used to make biological energy Fuel cell just short circuits this process MFCscome in two types: mediated and mediator-less .USC Geobiology What is a Microbial Fuel Cell? Fuel cell with microbe as a catalyst Known since early 1900 s First report of a microbial fuel cell in 1911 (Potter) Take advantage of way life works: Take up fuel.
nanowires) = Ion Exchange Membrane Almost any microbe can produce electricity with an electron shuttle (innefficient!) Mediators are mostly phenoliccompounds.e. which are expensive & sometimes toxic A mediator-less microbial fuel cell is possible if the microbes can give electrons directly to the electrode No additional electron shuttle is needed Few known microbes have this ability Shewanella & iron reducers do ! MicrobeAnodeCathodeFuelized Fuel= Oxidized carrier moleculeLoadReduced OxidOxida ntMediator-less Fuel Cell .= Oxidized Mediator = Reduced Mediator = Reduced carrier molecule Two Types of Microbial Fuel Cells MicrobeAnodeCathodeFuelized FuelLoadReduced OxidantOxidantMediated Fuel Cell = Ion Exchange Membrane= Outer membrane electron carriers (i.
Geobacter. but necessary for this reaction Example shown in next slide . others Iron/manganese reducing bacteria Famous for reducing solid substrates (Fe & Mnoxides) Subsequently found to have enzymes on outside of the cell Unusual for bacteria.USC Geobiology Mediator-less fuel cells take advantage of special bacteria Isolated ~ 15 years ago --Shewanella.
Enrichment Culture Five Days Incubation Pure Culture on MnO2Breathing Mn oxide! Solid Substrate Biofilm .
re-usable Extra ports for electrochemical measurements Cathode platinizedgraphite (SuryaPrakash shelp!) Microbial Fuel CellPt coated graphite felt electrodeScale in inchesAnodeCathodeClamp holding ion exchange membraneGraphite felt electrodePt leadsInjection port for fuelN2inletN2outletAiroutletAirinlet10 ohmV .Used to evaluate strains in the laboratory Anode graphite with bacterial catalyst Glass autoclavable.
etc. etc.Catalysts are inexpensive essentially free 2. Eh. 3.Catalysts are diverse and robust extreme conditions of pH. salinity.Catalysts can self repair (proteins.USC Geobiology Potential advantages of MFCs 1.) . T. membranes.Catalysts are versatile single type can use wide variety of substrates 4. DNA.
all produce current From ~ 4 oCto 55 oC. wide salinity range 65 different carbon sources Very tough and robust organisms Just the tip of the iceberg of biological diversity (other Fe-reducers are known that grow to 110oC!) .USC Geobiology More than 50 different Shewanellaspecies known So far.
05010203040Time (hours) Current (mA) LactateLactateSuccinate00.Response to different fuels (Shewanella) 00.8MFC OD of 0.030.0050.3MFC OD of 0.30.3(1mM) (1mM) (1mM) (1mM) (1mM) (1mM) (1mM) (1mM) (1mM) AcetateFormateSuccinate .0250.acetate .0150.020.050.010.040.0150.20.030.010.10.250.0450.020.0350.0450.0050.150.05010203040Ti me (hours) Current (mA) LactateLactateAcetate MR-1 can grow by converting lactate to acetate: lactate .040.350510152025Time (Hours) Current (mA) Lactate LactateFormateMFC OD of 0.0250.0350.CO2 MR-1 can also use these products to maintain and produce current Can also switch from one to another with ease: 00.pyruvate .
Current density is low 2.Difficult to run and maintain 3.USC Geobiology Potential disadvantages of MFCs 1.Sensitive to breakdown and decay Almost certainly all these are built on misconceptions These arise from use of mediated MFCs disadvantages .
Current densities are getting into the range of interest mA/cm2(wide range of abilities) 4.USC Geobiology State of the art: 1.Many bacteria now known that produce current in mediator-less MFCs 2.Mechanism of current production not understood 3. Interesting development has to do with microbial consortia current density is always higher .
Power densities range from: 16 to 4. 16:163-177. . J.USC Geobiology Chang et al. Microbiol. Biotechnol.. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) and mediator-less microbial fuel cells.300 mW/m2 I have a PDF of this I will send to anyone who wants reviews much of what I have said today. 2006.
Microbial communities and consortia enrichment cultures interface with FC .USC Geobiology Challenges to be addressed: 1. etc. Physiology of the cells biofilms. 3.How do they work? Mechanisms? genetic and genomic approaches 2.
USC Geobiology 9 mutants that knock out ability to produce current 4 are involved with iron reduction 5 are not 3 mutants that increase current production all of these are cytochromesleading to other termini Several regulatory mutants that increase or decrease the level of current production .
Text Box: Table 1. Electrochemical activities of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and its mutants Table 1. Electrochemical activities of Shewanella oneidensisMR-1 and its mutants .
so far great success using this approach .USC Geobiology How do the catalysts work? Mutant screening genome of Shewanellahas been sequenced use this information to make directed mutants mutant analysis identifies those genes coding for proteins involved with current prod.
biofilms.USC Geobiology Understanding the catalyst: Role of attachment. connections No doubt of catalytic ability Question of how to control and direct it This is issue of physiology of cells: .
20.40.811.811.4) Graphite felt electrode with MR-1 biofilm ShewanellaoneidensisMR-1 biofilm current production00.Graphite felt electrode without MR-1 Graphite felt electrode with planktonicMR-1 (OD 0.60.60.3mACourtes y of PNNL and KIST .8) Erroneous data pointMaximum current value 0.2012345678Time (Hours) Current (mA) MR-1 Biofilm on Anode (4 day growth)Injection of planktoniccells (OD 0.20.40.2051015202530Time (hrs) Current (mA) 00.8 mAMaximum current value 0.
MR-1 biofilm/electrode images (PNNL) .
Ronney.Mansfeld.USC Geobiology Many questions to answer and things to optimize However. these approaches. (Prakash. coupled with modeling should lead to an optimum catalyst that can be combined with optimum design to yield high power To this end: we were just awarded a MURI From DOD for this work (5 from USC).Wang. Nealson) .
USC Geobiology Prospects & Approach: Understand the system Optimize to produce adequate current Scale up or down for specific applications: power waste disposal remote power supplies water treatment etc. .
USC Geobiology Power Production Waste Disposal Water Treatment Biosensors Remote Power Supplies Medical Devices Teaching Scale up Scale down Oval: MFC MFC Same scaleResearch tool .
. we could get paid for this process by current production THANK YOU !! .7 billion tons of sewage sludge generated in the US We estimate that 90% of this could be metabolized by efficient MFC approach If properly designed.USC Geobiology Waste Disposal: .
USC Geobiology Text Box: MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS (MFCs) Biofuels for energy production and Waste disposal THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !! Ken Nealson Wrigley Professor of Geobiology USC (email@example.com) .edu) MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS (MFCs) Biofuelsfor energy production and Waste disposalTHANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !! Ken NealsonWrigley Professor of GeobiologyUSC(knealson@usc.
USC Geobiology .
Pt at cathode (soon to be microbe) ..Microbial Fuel Cell Operation Text Box: Fuels Organic or inorganic matter Fuels ....Atmospheric oxygenAnode CatalystCathode CatalystProton Exchange MembraneFuelOxidized FuelOxidantReduced OxidantOxidation ReactionReduction Reactioneeee-e-e-e-eeee-ee-eH+ H+ H+H+H+H+H+H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ Catalyst .Solid polymer or single compartment reactorOxidant .Microbe at anode .Organic or inorganic matterIon Exchange Membranes ..
USC Geobiology Anode CatalystCathode CatalystProton Exchange MembraneFuelOxidized FuelOxidantReduced OxidantOxidation ReactionReduction Reactioneeee-e-e-e-eeeeee-eH+ H+ H+H+H+H+H+H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ .
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