door Sympathetic Magic: To enter by one door and leave by another invited strangers and bad luck.

This belief is attached to the fact that our ancestors often lived in secret underground rock-framed souterraims or weems. Typically, these were equipped with at least two long entryways, equipped with constrictions and deadfalls, in the event of unwelcomed visitors. In olden days, to enter by one door and leave by another usually indicated a following of enemies. It is noteworthy that that "fairy-hills" were always described as having two doors on opposite sides of the mountain. doppelganger Magic Race: German equivalent of the revanter or fetch: "...a person's own ghost." Fowke, CF, p. 95. double Sympathetic Magic: 1. A double-yolked egg was considered good luck. 2. it was considered bad luck to say goodbye twice. Two heads were, traditionally better than one and any twined object was considered to have magical powers. Twined people were were once thought to be capable of obtaining their innermost desires and to be controllers of the weather. Curses and blessings which were pronounced twice were considered in valid, the second cancelling the power of the first. Thus, to swear "by the cross of Christ" was a solemn promise; but, "by the two crosses", although vehement, indicated a hoax drawing Sympathetic Magic: 1. Silver bullets made from coin shavings were fired against drawings of witches in the belief that any injury done to the image was transferred to her person. "It was done

here (Eagle Head, N.S.) and a woman was in bed all winter with an injured hip because that was where they shot the image." Creighton, BM, p. 40. In earlier days, god-spirits were periodically loaded down with the ills of the community and put to death. These were, typically represented by humans or animals. When a "divine" animal was slain the skin was often cured and kept, for various supertitious rites. The skin was, in fact, considered not just a token or memorial of the god, but a container for his spirit. This representative of the god was sometimes dollied up and stretched upon a framework to make it more lifelike, or enscribed with a drawing, to clarify its nature. At first animals were killed, and the image renewed annually, but men being what they are, some tended to become permanent idols upon which the annual rites were practiced without any loss of life. If a god could have his spirit captured in a drawing on parchament, it followed that the spirit of any human might be bound to paper by a skilled magician. When the camera first came to the highlands of Scotland, it was regarded as an infernal device capable of capturing the external soul of a Scot. Any drawing or photograph was considered dangerous since damage done to it would probably transfer to the person represented. The use of silver to damage a witch is traditional. dreag Sympathetic Magic: A star-like object seen low in the sky, trailing a comet-like tail. Said to have presaged the death of important individuals. The length of the tail was thought to in proportion to the funeral cortege. The Anglo-Norman "dragon" appears related. The word derives from the Latin "draco", "to look upon with fear". It refers, of course, to a mythical, winged, fire-breathing monster, but it has secondary meanings, and particularly: "A luminous exhilation from marshy grounds which moves through the air like a fiery serpent."

The long-ships of the viking Norsemen were also called dragons, because of their shaped mast-heads. The arrival of such ships on British soil certainly presaged difficulties, and the longer the tail of the dragon ship, the greater the hazard for "important" people. dream Sympathetic Magic: 1. Dream of the dead, part with the living!" 2. A person in delirium, who spoke of the dead, was destined to die. dress Sympathetic Magic: A turned up dress hem was bad luck, which was countered by spitting on it and making a wish. Those low on the social scale, fairies, demons, witches and peasants, frequently wore furs rather than clothing made of cloth. These were frequently turned, so that the fur faced the body and provided an extra degree of warmth. "Humans" sometimes deliberately turned their coats to escape the notice of these "evil" creatures. The turned coats were always turned up at the wrists and the about the legs. A "lady" who suffered the unintentional indignity of having a turned hem, knew she might be mistaken for one of the lower classes, or that she had been marked for the attention of evil-doers. Spitting was a method of affirming an oath and in an earlier day it may be guessed that the person, who felt herself at hazard, accompanied this act with a counter-spell. droch-chromhalaichen Sympatheric Magic: Gaelic equivalent of the English Jonah or a Marked Man or Woman. An individual subject to witchcraft or devilish possession as a child, followed in adulthood by extreme bad luck which overflowed upon his neighbours,"unlucky people". When these people were about, "things would go wrong" and "they woul;d order that certain man to journey over..." MacNeil, TUD, p. 211. ear

Sympathetic Magic: 1. A ringing in the ears at night suggested that nice things were being said about the individual. 2. In the day-time, the ringing sensation in the right ear implied good news, but in the left, that someone was saying destructive things. 3. An itchy left ear indicated bad rumours were being passed about the person. If the right ear had an itch something good was being said. The human forerunner, or home shadow, had chores somewhat akin to the ravens of Odin, who flew forth into the world to observe and spy out the doings of men. It was believed that each person was born with an internal and an external soul, the latter housed in the fylgie, or home shadow. Gifted individuals could see and hear things which transpired at a distance through the eyes and ears of their shadow, but most folk received distorted messages, blurred visions of the past, present, or future, or a mere ringing in the ears. Left-handed happenings, whether at the dance or elsewhere, were always considered of evil omen, and apparently represented an attempt at short-hand on the part of the shadow-man. earring Sympathetic Magic: Men who wore earrings were suspected of practicing witchcraft. "My wife told me -she was of Scottish descent - about a man and he had pierced ears and was fine and fleshy...this old man went to a young man and tried to buy cattle and he wouldn't sell. The old man said, "You'll be sorry for this." Next day the young man was going ploughing and the cattle wouldn't move." In this instance the countercharm was a fire of hay built under the creatures, to "call" the witch. Earrings of earlier times were usuallly in the form of a ring, a prime symbol of the fairy and the witch kind. east

Sympathetic Magic: ships were advised to dock on the eastern side of a wharf for good luck. Creighton, FOLC, p. 16. Easter Sympathetic Magic: 1. At Blanford, N.S. they placed caps linmed with spruce boughs hoping to get eggs from the Easter Bunny. Sometimes a cabbage leaf or carrot was left in the hat for the Bunny to eat. Creighton, FLLC, p. 61. 2. At Upper Kingsburg, Rose Bay, Mahone Bay and Riverport, N.S., people played at "tipping eggs". To engage in this sport, farmers looked for eggs with especially strong shells, the game beginning on Good Friday and continuing through the Easter week-end. Participants walked about the community carrying a basket with a dozen eggs, and when they met, one would say: "How are you for a tip?" The strength of eggs would then be tested by banging them against one another at the pointed ends, cracked eggs going to the successful tipper. The eggs were decorated with tissue paper and dyed yellow with an onion skin wash, in distinctive patterns so that they could be traced to the owner. This was necessary since there were cases of people who pierced their eggs, blew the contents, and filled the interior with resin. Fist fights sometimes broke out over the fairness of an egg, the day ending with "eggshells everywhere", the possessor of the largest number being termed the "King Tipper." Creighton, FOLC, p. 62. 3. It was claimed that the sun danced at the horizon at dawn on Easter morning. Creighton, BM, p. 131. Also noted in Acadia, see Daigle, TAOTM, p. 494. 3. "My husband walked three miles before sunrise Easter Sunday to get dogwood to make crosses to put over the door." Creighton, BM. p. 38. "Put dogwood in two pieces and drive together with new pins like a cross and put it above every door and window in the house before daybreak on Easter morning. This will keep the witches out. 4. "In Kent County, New Brunswick, it was the custom to go about at midnight in small groups to the homes of those already in bed and sing, to the tune of the Latin hymn "O fili et filiae":

Awake, ye who sleep Our Lord is risen. In Galilee you will find him, Alleluyia! The people of the house, who were not always thrilled by this late night visit, were expected to get up, invite the unwelcome callers in and serve a drink of rum." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 494. This custom disappeared at the turn of the last century. 5. On easter morning people sought "Easter water", water drawn backhand from a stream or river. "This water would not spoil and was considered medicinal." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 494. See also egg.

Easter is the most overtly pagan special day. The word "Eastre" is the Anglo-Saxon form for the Teutonic goddess of spring, "Ostara". She confirs with Frigga, who also represents nature's ressurection after the long death of winter. This deity was very popular in north-western Europe and even after Christianity was introduced, her former adherents refused to have her degraded as a demoness or witch. The best the Christains could manage was to have her name tied to the greatest Christain feast of the year. It had formerly been the custom to exchange coloured eggs at this time, explaining that they represented a new beginning for life. The early Christians continued the practice, explaining that the egg actually represented the ressurection of the Christ. In parts of Germany stone altars can still be seen, which were dedicated the the goddess. At the appropriate season, they were garlanded with flowers by young people, who celebrated at a fire-festival, a combination religious rite and entertainment, which persistented until the middle of the last century in spite of repaeated banning. A "housele-egg" (sacrifice egg) was formerly laid out for house-spirits either at Easter on on Good FRiday. Eastern Bigfoot Magic Race:

egg Sympathetic Magic: 1. A abnormally small hen's egg was thought to be an unlucky omen, which could be countered by throwing the offending item over the roof of the house. Creighton, BM, p. 137. 2. Hen's eggs found to lack a yolk or be empty of content (witch's eggs) revealled a witched flock. To cure this the most hyperactive rooster was identified and buried alive. 3. An egg was sometimes rocked in a shoe in an attempt to cause danger to a ship at sea. 4. The presence of an egg in a hole in the ground indicated treasure. Creighton, BG, p. 209. 5. It was unlucky to bring an egg into the house after dark. 6. It is unlucky to use the word egg aboard ship. 5. Eggs blessed at Easter warded off illness and witchcraft. 6. Hens did not lay during the winter. Eggs laid before Easter were considered to have medicinal properties if kept and eaten on the morning of that holiday. In ancient times, when might made right, "big" was equated with power and "little" with weakness. An abnormally large doubleyolked egg therefore was considered a good omen, and a yolkless egg, a bad signal from the god-spirits. The route followed by an egg thrown over a roof was that of a partial-circle or horseshoe, which see. Live burial of a bewitched animal used to be common where the afflicted creature was not too large to object. The reasoning was that the most "high-spirited" animal was the focus of witchcraft, containing some witch-spirit in addition to that usual to it. Death was seen to be a "god-spirit" ritual which took the unwanted evil "to earth". The identify of the god-spirit Egg or "Ygg" is unquestionably Odin, and much of the above can be interpreted with this in mind. "Yggdrasil", or Odin's tree was described as the foundation of the universe, and his name has travelled as far west as the Scottish island called Eigg. Elsewhere, we have theorized that the word "pig" can be traced to a similar beginning, and it is noteworthy that it was also verbotten aboard ships at sea

Egg Day In southern New Brunswick, the first school day following Easter was designated as Egg Day. Children were given small paper bags and asked to bring an egg from home. These were contributed to the Protestant Orphan's Home at Saint John. Eggs have traditionally represented the resurrection of nature after the "death" of winter. See Easter. elder Sympathetic Magic: See alder. elf bolt or elf arrow Wonder Work: Stones were sometimes lobbed at farmhouses, or bullets fired at them by unseen marksmen. In a few cases firey brands were hurled. People hit by these magic missiles sometimes suffered "elf-stroke", a disease shortened to "stroke" and now technically termed "cerebral thrombosis", or a bloood-clot in the brain. Those hit in the limbs developed a stiffening, later termed poliomyelitus, and now credited to other vectors. It was said that the wound itself was impercepitible to the common eye, although discernable and treatable by "gifted" persons. The elf arrows which were triangular bits of flint were seen scattered across Britain, being most plentiful in Scotland. Although these are now credited as the work of aboriginal peoples, it was once commonly thought that they were the work of the fairies. In an early Anglo-Saxon poem they are described as "ylpa zercot" (elf arrows) at one point and as the "aera zercot" (god arrows) in another, reinforcing the idea that the little people were demoted gods. elfbore Wonder Work: Occasionally the wood in a fence, wall, or closet had a large hole in it where a knot had dried an dropped out. An elfbore was a bore hole where objects pressed in had the

disconcerting habit of popping out again. In Britain this sport used to be called "laking with Boggart." The elfbore is also known in Denmark, where folk used to say that those who peered into one might see things not necessarily to their advantage. enchant Eoghann a' Chinn Bhig Magic Race: The Gaelic Ian of the "little head". "A few Inverness County (Cape Breton) informants claimed in 1978 to have seen Eoghann riding by on his horse." Shaw, editor, TUD, introduction, xxxv. A surprisingly widespread legend relates to an this ancestor of the Maclaines of Lochbuie and Cape Breton. Ewan of the Little Head was relieved of it in a battle against his own father, Ian the Toothless. He afterwards appeared as a wraith to presage the death of Maclaines of Lochbuie. Dr. Flora Macdonald of Salen, who was well versed in the folklore of the Island of Mull from which this clan came, said that the headless rider was seen in Scotland in 1909 when Murdoch Maclaine fell ill and was attended by her late husband, the doctor on the island. Arriving at the door of Lochbuie House, he was met by a black dog which he assumed belonged to some resident. "After attending to the old chief, who was obviously very ill, he joined the family for a meal and mentioned the dog...On hearing this one of the Maclaines told him of the old family legend...and announced that this was a sure sign that the old man would be dead before morning. Sure enough, in the early hours of the morning Lochbuie passed away." At about this same time, an elderly Cape Bretoner belonging to this same clan lay near death. His attention seem fixed on the wall of the bedroom and one of those in attendance asked what he thought he was doing. "Waiting," explained the Maclaine, "just waiting". At dusk, one of the circle who was closest the window thought he heard the sound of a poorly shod horse approaching on the road. Sensing a presence beyond the window he turned just in time to catch a glimpse of a headless man. As the wraith passed from view his gaze came back to the bed, and in that brief

time, the man who was ill had died. Interestingly, the horse used by Ewan had partially thrown a shoe as a result of that ancient battle, and wherever the ghost horse has been heard, its sound is based on an irregular gait. evil eye Sympathetic Magic: Witches had "full and plenty of everything", their neighbours having to provide out of fear for the "evil eye". "Old Mrs. W. was supposed to be a witch. She'd come and look at your pig and it would be sick the next day." Creighton, BM, p. 54. A man at Lunenburg noted "an old fellow sitting on his steps looking at me through his fingers. When I got to his house the horse stopped short and I couldn't get the animal beyond that gate...He didn't want me, a stranger, to take gravel from the beach." Creighton, BM, p. 56. One medieval authority suggested that "witches have two eyes in their one eye, while Illyrian witches have the sme peculiarity in both eyes. They mortally enchanted those who looked at them, and killed those who gazed at them for a long time...One Spaniard had such an evil eye that he caused the windows to break by staring at them..." De Plancey, DOW, p. 59. There are much earlier accounts of beings who possessed the evil eye, in particular the Fomorian sea-giants who invaded Ireland and Scotland from an undersea kingdown in the western Atlantic. Their Celtic enemies described them as cannibals, shape-changers, who might appear in human disguise or as a being equal in height to the tallest tree in the forest. They frequently appeared to have animal heads and human bodies, but their "normal" configuration favoured a single uncanny eye centred in the forehead. One of the last of these was Balor of the Piercing Eye: "His eye was never opened but on the battlefield, when four men thrust a polished handle through the lid to lift it. Then men died by the thousand from the venomous fumes that emanated from it." Balor was challenged by the land-hero, Lugh, who fired a shot at him carrying

the eye completely out through the back of his skull. circa 3500 B.C. Katherine Scherman, TFOI, p. 56. eye Sympathetic Magic: 1. Sties in the eye were removed by "eloas nan Sul" (the charm for eyes). This had to be recited by three people having the same first names. Dunn, HS, p. 43. 2. An quivering left eye was bad luck; but a right eye an omen of good fortune. Itches, quivers,and jerks of the human body were considered sympathetic reactions of the forerunner as he observed the future. An evil sight was relayed back from the future to the left eye, a good view to the right. eyebrows Sympathetic Magic: Individuals whose eyebrows met would become wealthy. eyestone Folk Medicine: Small "stones" resembling split pea halves were stored in bags of brown sugar and brought forth to remove irritants from the eye. In use it had to be determined if they "alive" a fact determined by placing them in vinegar prior to use. If they were propelled about the shallow dish, they were presumed to be potent and placed beneath the eyelid of the suffering individual. According to Ron and Joy Laking (Rural Delivery newspaper, 1980) the eyestones would attract irritants taking them away when they were themselves removed from under the lid. Various writers have identified these stones as "seeds" or "half shells of marine animals...brought from some far-off place in the sailing ship days." Poteet, SSPB, p. 42. fairies Sympathetic Magic: "Mr. Rory Mackinnon, of Sugar Loaf, said that there used to be lots of stories of witchcraft in that part of Cape

Breton and that his father was full of them. He mentioned fairies in the same breath almost as though the two were connected in his mind." Creighton, BM, p. 61. The term "fairy" is much to loosely used, "little people" being preferred. The Celts labelled them the sidh, the Anglo-Saxons, elfs, and the Normans, fairies and/or witches. It would appear that they were "little" in terms of wealth, political power and social prestige, defeated races forced to inhabit the backlands by their "big" conquerors. The Anglo-Saxon word "wic" originally identified people who lived near a bay, but after they were defeated by the Normans in 1066, the wiccans were identified as "wicked" half-wits and nit-wits, practitioners of "wit-craeft", now spelled "witchcraft." The fairies had all of the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of the witch-clan, and one word is synonymous with the other. At Lunenburg, N.S. superstitions were referred to as "the fairy of the time". fairy gold Sympathetic Magic: The traditional name for hidden lodes, for example the lost gold of Kejimkujik (Micmac: choked gut, a lake having a constriction due to fish weirs), N.S. Jim Charles of the local Micmac band found "wisosooleawa" (brown silver) somewhere in the vicinty of "Kej" during the 1870s. When a man named Hamilton confronted Jim demanding a share of the gold, he responded by hitting him with the butt of a gun thus killing him. Afraid he would be convicted of murder, he fled up the Shelburne River to Two Fan Lake but continued to mine the fairy gold. He was acquitted of the murder charge but the interest of white gold seekers made it impossible for him utilize his mine. In 1881 he went into partnership with David Lewis and a gold mining mill was established on Buckshot Lake, the source of the Shelburne River. After a brief prosperity, Charles experienced very bad luck and died a rheumatic cripple in 1905. In spite of the facts many woodsmen contended that the mother lode was never revealled and that the woods were haunted by Jim's ghost. Raddall,

FOOF,p. 197. Fairy Hole Fairy Lake Magical Place: "...at Mother Cary's Orchard Indian Burying Grounds...the Micmacs told the first white settlers fearsome stories of pixies (the mikumwess) and mysterious beings that ruled the region, so it was named Fairy Lake." Bird, OTINS, p. 107. Fairie Queene fall Sympathetic Magic: 1. To have a hatch-cover fall into the hold of a ship was bad luck. 2. To stumble while crossing a neighbours threshold was considered bad luck. This could be countered by snapping the fingers three times or by rotating three times clockwise saying: "Three turns about, bad luck to rout." The downward passage of the cover was seen as a presage of the ship falling into the "hold" of the sea. Falling on the threshold was, in medieval times, taken as evidence that the person was a witch. The "sunwise" turns were therefore necessary, since witches were unable to make this "Christian" manoeuvre. familiar Wonder Work: 1. Witches injured in their familiar form while travelling at night, would show a similar defect when they returned to the human form by day. The injury would not become apparent until day-break and would appear due to a natural agency. 2. Witches who failed to return home by sun-up were often seen making travelling the last few miles in their night clothes. 3. In the familiar form witches possessed uncanny physical strength. 3. One of the most potent forms was the white bumble-bee. Creighton, BM, p. 53.

In other times, the human being was seen to have an internal and an external spirit. The first was housed in human form but the latter often took the form of the family's totem animal. Ordinary folk were unaware of this runner but those with the two sights and practiced witches were always aware of them, and in the case of the later, they sometimes took material form. Gillian Tindall thought that small animal familiars were a "peculiarly British phenomena", which was not unnatural to them since "the British are dotty about animals." Favoured animals were the cat, the dog, the crow, the frog, and the horse, although some harboured ferrets, hedgehogs and snakes. The term "familiar" still connotates an abnormally close relationship, and it has been suggested that there was "a symbiosis between the witch and her animal which was often pushed to unhealthy lengths." The Christians promoted this view, adding that the familiar was a gift from the Devil, and noting that these animals were often named, suggestively: "Suckim" or "Titty". Familiars are regarded as a late development, typical of the decadent, individualistic practitioner of witchcraft as opposed to earlier "innocently pagan" supporters of the craft. It was generally assumed that the witch could transfer her internal soul to her counterpart during the night hours, but at any time, the health of witch and familiar were intertwined, any damage to one reflecting ultimately on the other. In the medieval period no distinction was made between the bee and the fly. In that same time, the word "wit" or "witch" was understood as the equivalent of "white" and a white bee or fly was quite literally a witch-bee or a witch-fly. far sight Wonder Work: The observation of distant land masses in a clear atmosphere pointed to storm. See calm. Father, Son and Holy Ghost Blessing: According to local tradition, the three most potent words of the Christian God spells. Like most of the elements of Christian ritual it has frequently been subverted as a curse, eg:

"Father, Son and Holy Ghost; nail the Devil to this post..." fear dearg Among the Abenaki the reddening of the sky under meteoric passage was considered prophetic of war. This view was shared by the Acadians. See Ruben Gold Thwaites, TJR, p. 5-55. feather Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was said that people were innately incapable of dying when placed on a feather tick, which included the feathers of wild birds. 2. To lie on a feather bed promoted rheumatism and asthma. 3. The identity of the witch used to be determined by dipping black feathers in a volitile solution and naming them for suspected persons. Each was fired and that which would not burn spotted the witch. 4. Theatre people consided peacock feathers an ill omen. fetch Sympathetic Magic: See gopher or runner. This is Newfoundland Irish usage according to Mackenzie, TIICBI, p. 60. fern spores Sympathetic Magic: 1.Individuals who consumed fern spores became invisible. 2. Fern plants touched by undesirable characters withered and died. feu follet Magic Race: Acadian equivalent of the gopher, will o' the wisp, or corpse candle. Translates as "dancing fire". Also used to describe luminescent marsh gas and the Northern Lights fiddle Sympathetic Magic: "...elders of the Presbyterian church had solemnly smashed fiddles and burnt the pipes of those carnally minded people who wished to cling to their beloved instruments". Dunn, HS, p. 54. 2. When fiddles played three notes

independent of a fiddler a death was predicted. 3. If a fiddle refused to remain in tune bad weather lay ahead.

fifty Numerology: A man who survived a serious disease at the age of fifty would live to advanced age. fire Sympathetic Magic: 1. To have a fire fail to light meant that a best friend was speaking evil of the individual. In the case of a married woman the person in a bad humour was the husband. Creighton, BM, p. 151. 2. An individual had to know a person for seven years before "poking up" his fire. 3. Salt directed against a chimney fire would extinguish it. 4. As a countercharm, nine new pins and three new needles used to be placed in brown wrapping paper, and this used to wrap the heart of an animal killed by witchcraft. After the heart was burned, the power of the witch was broken provided the victim refused her three favours. 5. As a countercharm the end of the tail of a bewitched animal was thrown in fire. An instance is mentioned where "an old man (an experienced witch) was taken cripple from that day, although he could never tell what crippled him. 6. A snake-skin kept in a house protercted it against fire. Those found in the spring were more potent than those found during the fall. 7. If a fire was seen to draw badly, the Devil was thought to be nearby. As a countercharm the poker was often placed so as to form a cross with the grate. 8. If a fire burned more brightly after poking it was said that an absent relative was in good spirits. 9. A hot cinder which popped from the fire indicated a guest might be expected. 10. A boquet of dried seaweed placed on the mantle protected against house fire. 11. If a fire lit on New Year's morn was allowed to go out during that day bad luck was to be expected throughout the year. 12. A Seabright, N.S., fisherman once sighted a vessel on the Gaspe coast. He was about to

speak it when he reconsidered. Consulting with others he learned that, "It was a good thing we didn't speak it, for that would have been the end of us. You see, if we had spoken it, not realizing she was a ghost ship, that would have been our doom." Others saw this pass as "a ball of fire" and interpreted this as "no friendly gesture." There is strong evidence that fire-festivals, involving the kindling of "new fire", round dancing, ritual sex, and ritual or real sacrifices were customary in Europe before the Middle Ages. Sir James Fraser sees the strongest case for these fires in "the attempts made by Christian synods in the eighth century to put them down as heathenish rites." The seasons of the fires were usually spring and mid-summer; but in some places, they were a tradition at the end of fall or at mid-winter. There is no question that effiges were burned in these fires, or at the very least, a pretense was made of burning a living person. These a grounds for suspicion that something more sinister once occurred. Our superstitions have to be examined with this in mind. In parts of Britain, the lighting of the fire was a sub-ritual demanding the attention of twins, people with the same names, or collections of three or nine crime-free individuals. If there was a blemish in any one of these the fire would not light and the whole community considered itself liable to a full year of hardship and evil. The Atlantic Canadian version of the dangers implicit in a failed fire is much less pointed. In Scotland, an probably elsewhere, the hearth was considered to be full of omens. In the highlands, Briid's Day is celebrated on the eve of the first day of February. All of the family participate in dressing a sheaf of oats in woman's apparel. This is placed in a large basket and a wooden club laid beside it. Just before bed, the people of the house shout three times to the darkness: "Briid is come, Briid is welcome." When they rise in the morning they go immediately to "look among the ashes, expecting to see the impression of Briid's club there; which if they do they reckon it a true presage of a good crop and a prosperous, and the contrary they take as an ill omen." They, of course, resented strangers

interfering with their ashes and possibly misrepresenting their future. When men were burned and reduced to ash, these remains were seen as the reproductive "seeds" of their reincarnation, scattered on the fields and fed to cattle to imbue the crops with the spirit of those who had "passed on" or "over" rather than "died" in the classic Christian pattern. Some of this still-burning ash was taken home to the hearth to relight all of the parish fires, hence fire and ash once had ritual importance and strangers could not be certain what they were about when they raked up a fire. In addition, fire has always been regarded as having a purifactory function. The old bone-fires were guessed to protect the field against lightning strikes in the area where light happened to fall. Since hail was associated with thunder and lightning, which was thought caused by witches, it may be presumed that, "the great evil against which fire was directed appears to have been withcraft." Fraser said: "Forermost among eveils we may reckon the diseases od cattle; and of all the ills that witches were believed to work, there was probably none more constantly insisted on that harm they did to herds. It ios significant that the need-fire...was kindled above all as a remedy for a "murrain" or other disease of cattle (suggesting that) the custom of kindling fire goes back tpo a time when the European peoples subsisted chiefly on the products of their herds...Further, brands were taken from the bonfire and commonly kept in the house to guard against conflagration; and though this may perhaps have been done on the principle of homeopathic magic, one fire being thought to act as a preventive against another, it is also possible that the intention may have been to keep witchincendiaries at bay. Again, people lept over the midsummer fires or circumambulated them as a preventive for colic, and looked at the flames steadily (as aremedy for) sore eyes. (Such) was also thought to prevent a person from feeling pains in the back at reaping;... in Germany such pains were described as "witch-shots" (and elsewhere as Elf-bolts), and ascribed to witchcraft." fire, lambent

Wonder Work: See corpse-candle, gopher, guardian and will o' the wisp. "The northern nations believed that the tombs of their heroes emitted a kind of lambent flame, which was always visible in the night, and served to guard the ashes of the dead; they called it the "hauga elldr", or "sepulchral fire (more literally, fire of the elders, or elle-people). It was supposed more particularly to surround such tombs as contained hidden treasures. Keightley, TFM, footnote, p. 73. fire, spontaneous Wonder Work: The work of the knocky boh was infrequently accompanied by outbreaks of fires and in some instances fiery brands were supposed to have been hurled from unseen hands at farm-houses. The best chronicled was at Caledonia Mills. See Sherwood, MM, p. 107. fish Sympathetic Magic: Fish was "brain food". Divination: To view a future loved one eat salted herring before going to bed. In a dream, the future wife (or husband) would appear offering water. Fish were never of great appeal as the familiars of witches, being considered "a symbol of chastity". In addition, they lacked a "companionable personality". As these animals were not represented as having a great interest in sex it was presumed that they were cerebral. Among the Ottawa Indians it was common to lecture the fish, "imploring them to come and be caught, and to be of good courage and fear nothing, for it was all to serve their friends who houred them and did not burn their bones." Since fish were considered very intelligent creatures eating them sympathetically passed this understanding to the eaters. flannel Sympathetic Magic: 1.Red flannel was considered useful in constructing countercharms. Typically, urine was drawn from the

victim of witchcraft and nine new pins and nine new needles inserted in the flannel, with "words" said at each placement. The cloth was placed in the urine in an iron pot and boiled. This invariably called the witch whose power was terminated if the three traditional requests she made were turned down. The word flannel derives from the Welch "gwlanen", and was , and is, a soft woollen cloth of loose texture, often used for undergarments or for clothing exposed to the sweat of athletics. The word also described a hot alcholic drink containing spices and and egg. This woollen cloth was so warm it appeared to generate heat. Heat was considered sympathetically attached to fire which was useful against witchcraft. flying Wonder Work: It was generally acknowledged that all of the fay folk could fly. Thus: 1. A farmer "got up one morning real early and went quietly out to the barn and there was an old woman milking the cow, and she flew out the window, and it was his neighbour, a little woman blamed all over the country as a witch." Creighton, BM, p. 64. 2. That afternoon it rained, and it was winter. I travelled back in moonlight and at Northfield there was a church. As I got opposite it a figure came out of it and was about a foot off the ground. He had a gown and a topknot and there wasn't much wind and still the gown was blowing and he came right out on the road. There was ice between men and this man...he tripped me and my head struck the ice. I got up and he walked with me...and at last he left. Never a word, he just left..." Creighton, BG, p. 162. The craft of flight, without help from hot air, hydrogen, or helium balloons, or mechanical appartati, was ascribed to druids, who were enemies of the baobh, or witch, as well as to gods, godspirits, elves, the sidh and fairies. This peculiartity extended to the Norse Valkyrie and the Christian angels. Few witches claimed mastery of the art, but all were accussed of "riding the air" usually

by means of a forked stick (the adder's or the Devil's tongue) a divining rod, or a simple broomstick. Clearly, some of this was metaphorical rather than real flight. The Scottish witch, Isobel Gowdie, admitted to ownership of a little horse, over which she cast the spell of, "Horse and Hattock, in the Devillis name!" After that, he "flew away" as "straws upon the highway!" Fairies and the Indian mikumwess shared this ability of instantaneous transport, although they (originally) lacked wings. "Witch-flight" was invariably tied to the ritual application of "flying ointment", whose active ingredients are well known: viz. deadly nightshade (belladonna); "persil", or poison hemlock and aconite. The first two are deadly poisons, but in small quantity, gained by inhalation or permeation, they produce no more than excitement and delirium. "It is easy to see, therefore . that these ointments might well have produced the "sensation" of flying in those who used them." It was always stated that the flying ointment was put into use by rubbing it on the skin, but medical men argued this was an inefficient way of getting the drugs into the blood circulatory system. A.J. Clark has, however, pointed out that, in past centuries, people were vermin-ridden, and had many skin punctures, which gave direct access to these drugs. In the first case of witchcraft prosecuted in England (1324) Dame Alice Kyteler's closet turned up evidence in the form of a "Pipe of oyntment, wherewith she greased a staffe, upon which she ambled and galloped through thick and thin..." This does not seem to suggest physical flight, but a hobby-horse style of locomtion. Some have suggested that the magic staff of the witch was actually used as a vaulting pole. fog 1. A summer fog for fair, a winter fog for rain. A fact most everywhere in valley or on plain. 2. When the fog goes up, the rain is o'er. When the fog comes down, twill rain some more. 3. Evening fogs will not burn soon. Morning fogs will burn off by noon. 4. Fog that starts before the night. Will last beyond the morning light. Phillips, FAF, p. 78.

foot Sympathetic Magic: A person with an itchy foot might expect to travel. If the left foot itched the travel would be unpleasant. This is a very explicit example of the "like-to-like" principle, presumably a reaction of the human body to its runner or shadow man, who is already embrarked on future travel. footprint Sympathetic Magic: 1. A witch could be prevented from "wandering" if a steel knife or some other sharp iron object was driven into his or her footprint. 2. A lover might be bewitched by planting a sunflower seed in earth gathered from a footprint. As the plant grew and matures so would the feelings of the loved one, forerunner Magic Race: 1."My husband was in his bunk ready to go to sea when first thing a bundle of papers came flying across the room and hit him...he turned over and there was a blaze of fire the size of a man in the centre of the floor. A voice said, "Don't go in this ship or you'll be lost. If you don't go you'll live to be an old man and die at home," so the next day he packed up and left the ship...the ship sailed and was never heard of again." Captain Godfrey's wife at Liverpool, N.S. quoted by Creighyon, BG, p. 13. 2. "Mother lived on Tangier Island with her sister, my Aunt Maime. One night Aunt Maime was looking out the window. The moon was bright. There was alittle outbuilding nearby with a window in it, and she said to my mother, "There's a woman looking out that window. It's myself, and I have a baby in my arms." Mother went to the window and looked, and she could see it too... fifteen years later when she died (Aunt Maime) had a baby in her arms." In legend apparitions of the living were called runners, home shadows or the fylgiar. Each individual born into the world was

thought accompanied by a external spirit, who was an invisible counterpart. If this runner travelled into the future he was called a forerunner. To actually encounter the forerunner face-to-face was an omen of death. foresight Sympathetic Magic: An ability to see visions of the future superimposed on the present. Often foresight involved observing funerals or accidents destined to take place. Those who possessed this gift found the transitory experience exhausting. As a rule these phantoms of the future were taken as warnings of danger for the individual or his immediate kin. Those who had foresight were often described as "double-sighted". "There was a woman in Mira who could see a funeral ahead of time, even sometimes before the person had taken sick, and she would know whose funeral it was. When it happened she would be walking along the road and would be pushed aside by the crowd following the hearse..." Creighton, BG, p. 70. This ability used to be explained in terms of the invisible human counterpart which the Anglo-Saxons called the runner or shadow man. Each human was though born with one of these protectors, who carried his external soul. Those who were gifted were thought capable of projecting their internal soul into this familiar. As a forerunner the shadow man might travel into and observe the future. It was the soul alone that travelled but events observed through the eyes of the runner were also seen by the human counterpart. This activity required an expenditure of energy leaving the double-sighted in need of rest.

found object Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was bad luck to fail to pick up money found on the street. 2. "Find a pin and pick it up and all the day you'll have good luck!" 3. To give away any found object was to give away personal luck.

To lose an object was obvious bad luck, thus the converse was taken as a good omen, a gift from the gods. Naturally, one should not refuse such gifts, nor give them away. Coins found on the way were frequently made into charms or charm-strings. four-leaf clover Sympathetic Magic: It was thought lucky to find a four-leaf clover, but the plant had to be bitten off for a wish to come true. fox fire Sympathetic Magic: Same as will o' the wisp or gopher, which see. Friday Sympathetic Magic: 1. Work commenced on Friday was never completed unless it could be finished before the day was out. 2. Boats were never launched on a Friday. 3. It was bad luck to sail on Friday. 4. Seamen did not like to make port on this day. 5. Ship-builders would not commence building a boat on Friday. 6. Fishermen would not set nets. 6. A miner would not hire on to begin work on Friday. 7. Woods-workers would not begin work on Friday. 8. It was inadvisible to cut hair or nails on Friday. 9. Friday the thirteenth of any month was unlucky except for those possessing it as their birth-date. 10. Those troubled by witches were advised to "take certain words from the Bible, go to the door on Good Friday, and make a wish. Say certain words and whoever is the witch will come at daylight and die by your door." 11. If the weather was bad throughout the week it would clear on Friday. Friday's weather was said to be the "fairest" or the "foulest" in the week. 12. The pattern of weather seen in the last Friday of the month was considered indicative of that expected in the coming month. 13. A woodsman hired on Friday would not remain in camp for a full season of cutting. Spray, WOTW, p. 4

Friday was named for the goddess Freya, the daughter of Niord and Skadi, the patroness of beauty and love. According to myth, she was a sea-woman, born in Vanaheim, on the southern coast of Sweden. For this reason, she was sometimes known as Vanadis or Vanabride. Some consider this female deity an invention of the scalds (poets) corresponding to "her brother" Freyr or Frey. "She did not long remain a mere poetic abstraction, but was worshipped zealously, by the side of, or in the place of, Frey. Both were at the centre of fertility cults, and in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, she was confounded with the earlier goddess, Frigga, the wife of Odin. This loving lady had a distinctly martial taste, leading the female Valkyrs down from the heavens to the battlefields of the north. From that place, she had the right to transport half of the spirits of the heroic dead to Folkvang, the rest being claimed by Odin and his land of Valhalla. Freya has been described as "the most beloved of all the goddesses". but this was only true in the Teutonic north. While the Norsemen and the Anglo-Saxons respected her, the Celts had no wish to meet her or any of her kind. Adherents of Freya naturally considered Friday an auspicious time to start any enterprise, including launching their longboats against Great Britain. British seamen knew better than to try to put to sea on this day since the "black crow" symbol was more often seen at that time. From their point of view, it was fairly certain that any job started on Friday would end badly, if at all. fright Sympathetic Magic: 1. Fright caused the child of a pregnant woman to develop a birthmark. The shape of the mark resembled the form of the fear-producing agent, e.g. "A snake scare will cause a snake-shaped birthmark." Creighton, FOLC, p. 16. See also, pregnancy. 2. People who created fear were in danger of being frightened. Creighton, FOLC, p. 23.

Fearful results were always expected to accompany fear. The idea that fear-generators could expect fear was implicit in the pagan idea that the world was full of checks and balances, that those who gained in one incarnation were destined to be put down in the next. fulling Sympathetic Magic: The cloth-making process was once considered magical, the chief pursuit of the little people of northwestern Europe. When the Celtic sidh wished to reward humans, they presented them with an especially fine bolt of closely woven cloth. The business of manufacturing cloth was called weaving, and this was followed by fulling, the cleansing, shrinking and thickening of cloth through the application of water, heat and pressure. In local Gaelic communities the rites of fulling were as follows: Three "consecrators" placed the cloth on a long table. The oldest of these revolved the material three times, clockwise, about the table incanting, "I make sunwise turns, in honour of the Father." The next eldest made his turn, "in honour of the Son", and the third for the "Spioraid" or "Holy Spirit". The three then recited: "Each sunwise turn is in the service of the Trinity; each rotation of the cloth for the sake of the Trinity; each turn in the service of the Trinity". Following that, the ordinary business of making up the cloth was accomplished by teams of ordinary folk. In ancient communities, long-lived individuals were considered to harbour more than the usual amount of god-given spirit, and being closer God, or the gods, were chosen for important rites such as the fulling ceremony. The above ceremony is esentially pagan expect that the "rounds" are made with rather than against the sun and Christian deities have replaced one of several older trinities. frog, toad

Amulet: 1. Frogs and toads are biologically indistinguishable, but witches preferred species with a lumpy skin surface, keeping them as familiars and for their spittal, which was often called for in casting spells. The fact that the magic of the witch was exactly that of the common man, except that she was a specialist, is shown in the fact that some ordinary people used it to ward off evil and bring good luck. There are bones within the skeleton of this animal, "one shaped like a fork, the other like a spoon". To be useful as an amulet, these bones had to be extracted from the animal without killing it and hung from a gold or silver chain at the neck. While construction of this charm might seem impossible, the frog had only to be placed in a shoebox and buried it in an ant-hill so that it expired at the hands of others. After decay, it was dug up and the bones taken. It was advised that those indirectly responsible for the death should avoid standing by to hear the death cries of the animal for fear they would be made deaf." Fraser, FONS, p. 31. 2. "When the pig has frog (a sore throat), take live frogs and hold at the throat. Creighton, FOLC, p. 102. In other times the frogs association with water earned it a reputation as a custodian of rain, and since rain was generally desirable, as a spirit of good luck. There was (and may still be) a fruitful branch of imitative magic which supposed that potent charms might be made from the bones of dead animals. The idea was that dead bones cannot see, hear or speak, and that blindness, deafness, or dumbness might be projected at others from such an amulet. Since even a frog contained some of the essence of the god-spirit, this was to be feared and could only be bound into a useful charm it the nature-spirit entrapped in the bones was satisfied that the wearer was not responsible for his death. Folk Medicine: 3. At Kingsburg, N.S. a girl who suffered from goitre was treated with three live frogs wrapped in a flannel cloth bound to her throat. "In half an hour they were dead so she replaced them with three more. She got better." In parts of New England a similar remedy involved a single live frog which was placed within the mouth until it died. Obviously, the local treatment is better protocol since the nature-spirit resident in the

god could not blame the suffering human for his death. This is paralleled by the old Roman custom of having those with a toothache spit into the mouth of a frog, requesting it to take away the pain, and then releasing it. Wonder Work: 4. To create a permanent countercharm against disease and evil it was advised that one should catch a frog and imprison it in the hand until it died. After that that hand would have the healing touch, provided the individual knew "the proper healing words" to go with it. A Lunenburg respondent told Helen Creighton that these words were "Heliga rissa", but elsewhere, "By Father, Son and Holy Spirit" were recommended. fruit Sympathetic Magic: "Fruit out of season; trouble with reason." furarag Divination: This Gaelic word described an edible used in "the various kinds of marriage divination practised on the island (Cape Breton). The most popular is the ring in the bowl of "fuarag" eaten on Hallowe'em Night (Oidhche-Shamhna)." John Shaw, editor, TUD, p.introduction xxxv. Also called "drammoch", this dish takes its name from the Gaelic word "fuar" (cold). It is similar to the "crowdie" of lowland Scotland. The "cream-fuarag", which seems to be that referred to by Shaw, was said "an indispensible dish at the Kern or Harvest Home. It was never restricted to this special day being provided on all festive ocassions. It is considered an extremely ancient preparation and among articles at the Scottish National Museum of Antiqities is an old fro'ing stick, consisting of a wooden cross surrounded by a ring of cow's hair at one end, once used for beating the cream and whey in fuarag. This food was made by toasting coarse oatmeal lightly before a fire or in an oven. Cream was beaten and stirred into the oatmeal which was sweetened with whey and spices to the individual taste. The toasting gave a nutty "agreeable flavour to the dish. Divination entered the recipe

when various objects were placed in the batter, e.g. a ring, a coin, a thimble, etc. It was supposed that the person who found the ring might expect to marry in the near future, while the recipient of the coin would become wealthy and the thimble-bearer might expect a life full of toil. See Saint Columba's Cake.

funeral Sympathetic Magic: 1. Meeting a funeral parade was regarded as a bad omen, although the danger was relieved if the person happened to be travelling in the same direction as the procession. The meeting of a wedding party with a funeral cortege was though to predict particularly bad luck. Another example of contact magic, death being implicit, and perhaps catching, in this circumstance. 2. Any noticeable gap in a funeral procession let way for another funeral in the immediate future. ghost Magic Race: 1. Those who searched for ghosts never found them. 2. Ghosts guarded buried treasure. 3. Ghosts were usually invisible but might materialize in full-blown human form, as wraiths dressed in white, as balls of fire, as animals, as lights or as monsters of uncertain species. Alternately, they might be represented in a cold irresistible force, which could be violent or passive. 4. A ghost was the product of unfinished earthly business and could only be exorcized if his purpose was fulfilled. The ghost was unable to speak unless spoken to. 5. The presence of a ghost chilled the air. 6. It was unwise to make requests of ghosts since, like the Devil, they were apt to comply. At Myer's Point, Head of Jeddore, N.S., a boy once called out jokingly, "Ghost, light up your light so we can put our skates on." That is precisely what happened. Creighton, BG, p. 149. Ghosts have commonly been referred to as revanters in parts of the Maritimes. The word derives from the Anglo-Saxon "gast"

(breath, soul, spirit) and resembles the Germanic "geist" (which appears in "poltergeist"). A ghost is currently understood to represent the spirit of a deceased human. See runner, fylgie, Holy Chost. shadow man. Locally, there have always been taboos against "trying too hard". This is in line with the ancient belief in "checks and balances", in a world where overindulgence of any sort was suspected of offending the god-spirits, by attempting to exhibit god-like energy. Those who made a fetish of any hobby from seeking treasure to ghosts were thought certain to fail. ghost ship Sympathetic Magic: Men who saw the Teazer light (a ghost ship), would die within a year. Creighton, BM, p. 127. In this instance, the "Teaser" was considered the equivalent of the corpsecandle, sometimes refered to as the gopher. The runner, or shadow man of any human, as well as certain of the sidh might take up the business of transporting a virulent light, which travelled about the countryside after dark and could kill on contact. These lights were considered an omen of the death of a particular individual (the light being carried by his runner). Typically, the light-carrir would not be observed but the sphere of fire would emerge from the place of death and preasage the route of some future funeral procession. gift Sympathetic Magic: Those born during meteor showers, heavy displays of northern lights, in the season of a comet, or during severe electriucal storms were considered "gifted", or destined to lead uncommon lives. Those for with the caul of luck (an amniotic membrane present over the head) were similarly described as were those born with different coloured eyes, which after a time, merged into a single colour. Others of this ilk were people born

with a cow-lick or the "widdow's" or "devil's-peak", a downward arrow of hair between the eyes. Those facing imminent death were also considered gifted with prophetic information.

gisreag Wonder Work: The Gaelic equivalent of the English spell. Literally "projected energy". Currently, "giseagan" refers to individuals who are superstitious.

glin Sympathetic Magic: "A southern glin leads to wet skin". The word relates to "glint" and "glimmer" and referred to a sunny pocket found within a bank of sea fog. Glooscap or Kluscap

glove Sympathetic Magic: To avoid bad luck, the individual who chanced to drop a glove had to ask another to pick it up. Creighton, FOLC, p. 21. god Magic Race: The pagan gods of Europe are lost to memory, and in Atlantic Canada are remembered collectively as devils, witches, demons or some brand of little people. The word is Anglo-Saxon. It has been guessed that that the word is descended from the past participle of the Sankrist "huta", to call upon or invoke for help. Interestingly, the Welsh still refer to God as "hu", and this Celtic word has been engrafted to English in the name "Hugh". "Huan" translates from the Cymric-tongue as sun and this corresponds with the Gaelic word "aod", now written as "kay".

Gods may be distinguished as the elder and the mortal gods, hu being one of the former. The elder gods were also spoken of as elementals since they were immortal and in control of one of the elements: viz. fire, water, and air. In northern mythology the three elder gods were considered subservient to the Allfather and restricted to magic associated with their particular kingdoms. They were variously named, the god of fire being Hu, Aod, Loki, Laugar, Lucre (hence "filthy lucre"), Lob, Lugh. The god of the sea was Llyr in Wales; Ler in Gaelic lands; Hler in Teutonic area; Aegir or Eagor in England. Kari or Carry was the best known god of the wind. In each case, these names were completely synonymous with the words fire, water and wind. The mortal gods and the giants were independent creations of the Allfather, the former being, at first, immortals like the elder gods. To dominante the giants the gods are supposed to have had sexual liasions with their foe, using the offspring to help wage war. In this they were successful but this cohabitation destroyed their immortality. Thus an explanation was provided for the "passing" or "going to earth" of such mortal-gods as Thor, Odin, Niord, Frey and Bragi. Since these gods had elements of immortality, their rebirth was expected in the royal houses of Europe. God-spirit was the name attached to a god not visible in the flesh. When gods were demoted they came to be called demons, devils, witches or fairies.

God Magic Ruler: 1. Rain was referred to as "God's tears." 2. A natural illness was referred to as "the hand of God". See Creighton, BM, p. 6l. The one God of Christianity has some notable connections with the the elder and the mortal gods. Missionaries were careful to emphasize his "oneness" but confused the issue by referring to Him as the "Three in One". Pagan mythology is awash with trinities and perhaps the Christians sought points of contact between old beliefs and the new? In any instance, local folklore insists that

"Father, Son and Holy Ghost" or "Holy Spirit" are "the most powerful words in the Bible." There are other parallels, notable those listed above: The idea that weather was visited on mankind by a god or goddess is very general. People looked to the sun-gods to provide energy for plant and animal growth; to the wind gods to power their boats; and to the water-gods for necessary rainfall. "Among them was the fair goddess Holda, who graciously dispensed many rich gifts. As she presided over the weather, the people were wont to declare when the snowflakes fell that Frau Holda, or Holle was shaking her bed, and when it rained, that she was washing her clothes." Guerber, TN, p. 51. gold Sympathetic Magic: It was once common to incorporate a gold chain into chimney flues for good luck. The chimney of the house, like the nose of a man, was always open to the invasive activities of god-spirits, demons, or little people, which gold might attract and entrap until they were dispersed by the light of dawn. It was assumed that these "evil" spirits would be unable to resist the lure of gold but could not take it away since it was fixed to the flue. More importantly it was fashioned in interconnected rings, or a chain, which might encompass the spirit forcing it to travel in left-hand circles until unbound and dissipated. good catastrophe Sympathetic Magic: The curse of a witch was cancelled by three misfortunes plaguing those who were troubled. Good Friday Talisman: 1. Preserve a bun baked on this day and it would harden without spoilage. If kept in a house or aboard ship this talisman would preserve either against fire, or general loss. 2. It was thought bad luck to remove cattle from their barn on Good

Friday. Both from Creighton, BM, p. 131. 3. Nails were not to be driven on Good Friday, Creighton, BM, p. 141. 4. A ring blessed on Good Friday was a potent talisman. 5. Bees were best moved on this day. 6. To avoid bad luck iron was never hammered on this Friday (presumably because it recalled the hammering of nails at the crucifixion). 7. Clothese were not hung for fear they would dry spotted with blood. 8. It was considered of ill omen to plow or spade the earth, thus bringing iron into contact with the ground. 10. "In memory of Our Lord's death, the early Acadians marked Good Friday by severe fasting. In some families a religious silence was observed until three o'clock." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 494. 11. No butchering or hunting was permitted. See Friday. As noted elsewhere Friday was sacred to the fertility goddess Freya, or Freja, and most British tribesman objected to doing anything on this day. The word "good" derives from "god" and the particular God honoured on Good Friday was Christian. The hotcrossed bun baked on this day was even marked to cross out Freya, and the viking Norsemen, and became a present-day talisman as a result of this connection. As with all high, holy, or special days, most pagan "gods" were considered unbound for a brief spell. Iron was particularly disliked by the older gods, whose supporters had fallen before weapons made of it, and it was bad form to show it at a time when they might object by raising storms or other kinds of magical force. good neighbour good shipwreck Sympathetic Magic: "God's purposes are hidden from man...If a ship is doomed to go down with all on board, no one can do anything. People not sailing on ity are lucky...An island, far from the mainland has people on its barren coast who need a cauldron, a barrel of white flour, a fine mahogany door with a brass handle, firewood, a

box of nails, or even, it may happen, a trousseau fopr a marriageable daughter. Well, the wreckage washed up on the sands or caught on the reefs contains all that. Is it then a good shipwreck or not?" Darios, STOC, p. 55. gopher Sympathetic Magic: "The gopher was something that appeared at Ingomar (N.S.) and people wouldn't go near the place where it was seen. Nothing happened there to account for it, but they dasn't pass it. It died away after a while but not before frightening a lot of people. Creighton, BG, p. 229. Reference is to a mysterious cold flame seen after dark and alternately known as the will o' the wisp. A harmful variant was the corpse candle. In Abenaki legend these lambent flames were known to issue from decaying organic matter and phosphorescent logs were deliberately left at Indian burial places "to give light to the spirits". The runner of the dead often inhabited such logs crying out or singing from them "because they are lonesome." gorbey Sympathetic Magic: Men who damaged the gorbey would be injured in like manner. "Gorbey" appears to be an anglicization of "corbeaux", a word the French used to describe members of the Crow Family (i.e. the Raven, Crow, Canada Jay and Blue Jay). All of these animals are familiar, plentiful and bold. The Gray, or Canada Jay, is alternately known as the Carrying Jay, Carrion Jay, or Whisky Jack. gooseberries Sympathetic Magic: Gooseberries presented to a loved one strengthened affection. Gras, Jour de

Litterally, Fatty Days; the Sunday, Monday and Tuesday before Lent, a time for unbridled entertainment: partying, card playing, singing and dancing, before the forty pentitent days of lent. At midnight on Shrive Tuseday, Lent commennced and these diversions ended. "There was a good deal of visiting...sometimes totally spoiled, by alcoholic beverages." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 492. grass Sympathetic Magic: 1.Grass would not grow where fairies danced. 2. Grass would not grow in certain places where people had stood to watch a hanging.

grasshopper Countercharm; There was a plague of grasshoppers at Judique, N.S. A farmer convinced that they were evil spirits in disquise obtained holy water from the Roman Catholic priest and sprinkled it on his fields, incanting: "Now, get to Hell with you!" They vanished. Mary L. Fraser, FONS, p. 31. The pagan idea that living things contained the god-spirit, which was periodically reincarnated, extended to insects as well as other animals and plants. As such, any creature might serve as a familiar to witches, pagan gods, god-spirits, little people or demons. The countercharm suggested above involved a simple curse of exorcism. Holy water was used here as a talisman, a symbol once thought to embody the power of the god (in this case the Christian God). In ancient times the waters of the sea were considered the province of the elemental or elder god named variously Eagor, Hler, Llyr or Ler, who was considered the supreme deity in that element. Landlocked fresh-water was believed to harbour his magic especially where it was bound within a circle of stones. The water of wells and springs was often reputed to contain water-spirits, who were actual sub-divisions of the god, whose power might be directed through them with curative effect. When they came to Europe, the Christian missionaries re-dedicated many of these holy places, sometimes

actually building a church about the water source. grief Sympathetic Magic: Overlong grief for the dead caused them to rest uneasily in their graves. Creighton, FOLC, p. 22. In the old world men did not believe in ultimate death and ultimate ressurection, but supposed that all people were periodically reincarnated after their spirits spent a brief period of rest with "mother earth". There was therefore no need for much grief and it was felt that "like-affecting-like" the needed rest was interrupted by the uneemly wailing, hair-pulling, and breast-beating of the living. grimoire Groundhog Day Sympathetic Magic: Our local woodchuck is expected to appear on the second day of February. "...and (if) he sees his shadder, he will git back and it will be a late spring." Called Daks Day in Lunenburg County, N.S. In a few places referred to as Timberdoodle Day We have secularized this day in North America, but in Britain it was Candlemas Day, the time when the holy candles of the Church were ritually blessed. The holiday has been identified as the day when Christ was presented in the temple, or as the feast of the Purification of the Virgin Mary. Anciently it was neither of these, but the feast day following the fire of the pagan goddesss Bridd, Brigit, or the Bride. We suspect that the tradition was adopted by the Celts from the Brigantines, who occupied Northumberlandshire at the time of the Roman occupation. Their goddess was born with a corona of fire, or a will o' the wisp, extending from her head into the heavens. Her eventual followers lit a perpetual flame from this source, which was afterwards guarded by virgins. This maternal religion focused on the smelting of metals and the healing arts. When the Christians invaded Britain, they replaced the

guardians with nuns, but wisely kept the home-fires burning for several centuries, and renamed the deity Saint Brigit. The groundhog day legend seems to attach to Brigit, for the Scots still insist that: "If Candlemas dawns light and clear, there'll be twa' winters in the year." Until the last century the eve of Brigit's Day was used in fashioning a replica of the goddess from a sheaf of oats. It was dressed in women's clothing and laid in a basket with a wooden club at the side. Members of the family would then cry into the dusk: "Bridd's bed is laid, Bridd is welcome!" As this was the date of the earliest planting in Scotland, this rite is seen as an attempt to aid in fertilizing the soil, and this Christian "saint" is clearly a symbol of some earlier fertility cult. The club was clearly a phallic symbol, and in the morning residents of the house looked closely to see if it had been used. Under the most desirable circumstances it would be seen to have disturbed the ashes on the hearth, in which case good luck was expected for the coming planting season. Daks Day may relate to the Old Danish "dack", a staggerer, one who wavers while walking. The ritual use of liquor was prominent in all such fire-festivals. Groundhog Day Divination: Sometimes called Woodchuck Day, Candlemas Day, Briid's Day or Daks Day. "If Candlemas dawns fair and clear; There'll be twa winters in the year." See similar in Creighton, BM, p. 263. This was once the feast-day following the pagan-fires on the eve of Imbolc (G.v. to retreat into the woods for sacrifices). In Celtic parts, Imbolc Day was said to coincide with the first lactation of ewes or with the first planting of seed. It became a traditional Quarter, or Rent-paying Day in Scotland, the other times being May 1, August 2 and November 1, which were the dates for similar pagan fire-festivals and fertility rites. In North America the tradition that relates to this day suggests that if the groundhog emerges and sees his shadow, he will have to retreat to his burrow because of further hard weather. In Europe, February 2nd was called Bride's Day, Briid's Day,

Brigit's Day, or Saint Brigit'd Day in recognition of an ancient Celtic goddess of hearth and home. Her divinity was recognized at birth by a lambent flame which issued from her head into the heavens. By-standers rescued some of this "divine-fire" and used it to create perpetual flames in Ireland and Scotland. These were tended by virgins who were skilled in the metal and healing arts, and were later kept by Christian nuns well past the pagan era. In the old rites, the virgin-goddess, or bride, was married to a bridge-groom, and they were publically mated in ceremonies meant to awaken the vegetation, sunshine and procreative acts of spring. Until recently, Scottish families lay out a basket and a club for the Briid at their hearths. At dusk on Februrary 1st, they stood at the door and invited the old goddess to stay the night. The next day they looked carefully for indications that the ashes of the hearth had been disturbed, a mark of good fortune for the coming year. guardian Magic Race: a runner or a ghost conscripted to guard buried treasure by scaring off treasure-seekers. This earth-bound spirit was duty bound to create supernatural lights and sound, but was anxious to see the treasure removed from the ground thus ending his period of imprisonment. According to Mr. Enos Hartlam of South East Passage, N.S., a naieve member of a pirate crew usually "volunteered" for the function, after which, "they had a party and soused him and buried him alive with the treasure." Creighton, BG, p. 47. It was supposed that the guardian had no physical potential as long as the seekers remained silent while digging. If they were able to withstand a barrage of transient images and sound, the treasure could be obtained, but they usually bolted or spoke or screamed. In the latter case, the guardian was released to chase or kill those whoinvaded his domain. Some guardians were virulent because of their confinement but others were apparently bored with their work. A fisherman rowing past Clam Island, N.S. was confronted by a wraith who stood on the shore shouting "Come ashore and take me off this island...Come ashore and take me

off...You're not going to take me off? Do you mean to say I've got to stay here another hundred years?" While the guardian might laed people to treasure all of the various taboos had to be observed. See treasure. guess cake Sympathetic Magic: At all-day fairs arranged to fund church or school activities guess cakes were sometimes featured. These were baked by unmarried women and concealed an unexpected item which prospective purchasers had to divine. The person who deduced the contents won the cake (and sometimes the affection of the lady). gun Sympathetic Magic: 1. As a countercharm against witchery, water from a place where two streams met could be run through the barrel of a gun while chanting an appropriate spell. This called the witch and led to the breaking of the original charm where the traditional three favours were refused. 2. Some people cured "witch-warts" on cows by "firing a gun up the flue." Creighton, BM, p. 59. Iron and steel were considered extremely useful in warding off witchcraft and the gun barrel, additionally, has the shape of the ring which has the capacity to entrap free spirits. With the witch familiar held within the metal, executing endless left-hand circuits, the witch was naturally drawn hoping to break the countercharm. The creation of any loud noise, such as the firing of guns, always frightened off witches and their influence. It is a matter of record that many of the little people removed themselves from Europe because of the loud noises which accompanied the Christian "invasion". Apparently, the traditional witches were country herdsmen, who disliked the "plaguey bells" of the church as much as the sounds of agricultural industrialization. gum Sympathetic Magic: It was said unwise to chew gum which had

been placed in water as this would lead to mouth sores. Today, this would be understood in terms of the germ theory, but yesterday, water was thought to the medium of water-spirits, who might create such illness from spite. guy's buck Magic Race: Anglicized version of the German "geisboch" gypsies Sympathetic Magic: It was thought bad luck to short-change, or badly treat, gypsies. hag-ridden Wonder-Work: Witches, or hags, were able to take animal form and crouch upon the chests of sleeping victims, infusing them with bad dreams. These unfortunates awoke from a sleep of poor quality, bathed in sweat, with their hair lutinized. It was claimed this was because the witches, fairies, or devils rode the victim as one might ride a horse, using the hair as reins. According to local folklore they could be driven off as long as they were not actually crouched on the chest. One victim noted: "If she'd gone on my breat or stomach I couldn't have done a thing." Creighton, BM, p. 27. The expression "hag-ridden" is used in places having AngloGermanic roots. The Celts ascribe the same business to their baobhs, to the old god-spirit called Aog (Angus Og, or Angus Young), or to the sidh known as the Alp. "Hag" arises from the Middle English "hagge", the first part of the word corresponding with "haw" or "hedge", hence a "hedge" or "woods-woman", and similar in basic meaning to witch, excepot that the latter identified a costal dweller. All of the various fay-tribes have been accussed of this activity, and the English form is called the Night Mare. Richard Hartlan encountered this phenomena when he visited the Hartlan "ghost house" at South West Passage, N.S.: "The only time I ever saw anything was one Sunday afternoon. After I ate my dinner I went and had a lay down and I fell into a doze of sleep...After I got to sleep there was something pressing me and I

couldn't wake or I couldn't turn over for about half an hour and, when I woke, I seen this person go from me to the windy and she was a woman with a black and white spotted dress on and I was a lther of sweat with the water pouring off me as big as marbles. Whatever it was, witch or not, God knows." Creighton, BM, p. 275. hair Sympathetic Magic, Divination: 1. If a lock of hair was stolen from a girl it was thought she would be unable to refuse reasonable, or unreasonable, requests. 2. A woman's hair knit into a seaman's socks would ensure that he would come back to the land, dead or alive. 3. It was unlucky to comb the hair after dark. 4. A person born with a "cow-lick" or "two-crowns" on the head would never drown. 5. Hair taken from a dog or cat was burned "to keep witches out." Creighton, BM, p. 45. 6. Curly hair was lucky and could be encouraged by eating bread crusts, carrots or spinach and prunes (or any other food a fractious child was likely to refuse). 7. Rain caused hair to grow more quickly and to curl. The same effect was produced by frequent cutting. 8. A man who had his hair cut during the waning of the moon was likely to go bald. 9. Eating a raven's egg would cause the hair to turn black, but a severe fright would cause it to whiten. 10. Sports figures involved in a winning streak often vowed not to shave until the luck has ended. 11. Male children who wished to grow hair on their chests were advised to eat substantial foods such as meat and potatoes. 12. Masturbation resulted in the growth of hair on the palms of the hands. 14. People used to go outside backwards beneath the light of the new moon and "pick something off the ground and bring it indoors and then it would be taken apart to see if they could find a hair in it. If they found a hair, , even if it came from some animal, they used to think that hair would be the hair colour of their future lover." MacNeil, TUD, p. 104. 16. In Acadian communities hair was not cut during the first year for fear the child's genie, or wits, would leave with it, leaving him an idiot. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 479.

In ancient belief, the part was never separated from the whole, thus beating a lock of hair, even where separte from the head, was believed to injure the person. The swain, who purloined a lock of hair was able to bring it within the physical compass of his spirit, and through force of will, make the two, one. It is noteworthy that Napoleon always asked for souvenir locks , and many of these are still extant. It was thought that the power of spiritual love was such that corpses lost at sea would actually float home if hair was knit into the socks. The various fay-folk were abroad after dark and might make nefarious use of lost hair, which explains the proscription against combing after dark. In earlier communities, hair receivers were kept to protect it against misuse until it could be ritually hidden from danger. The Fomors, and various other sea-peoples, were sometimes pictured as having a crest on their head. Humans born with two parts were thought to show a relationship to these sea-dwellers, and were thought protected by them. Some captains attempted to hire on these individuals trusting that their protection might extend to the ship. Since cats and dogs were frequent familiars of witches it was reasoned that they might be frightened off by the smell of others of their kind who had, apprently, been incinerated. Most of the above superstitions have obvious connotations, but we have to add that witches considered their powers to be resident in their hair, hence their lack of elegant coiffures. These people were the first hippies, refusing to cut their hair and shave. Sports figures on a winning binge are following this ancient tradition when they refrain from sprucing up for fear of interfering with their good luck. The business with masturbation is based on the idea that "bestial acts" create a beastial appearnce. halibut Sympathetic Magic: To see the ghost of a halibut was an omen of death. Caspar Henneberry was supposed to have attended and "evenin' of drinkin' and dancin' on an island in Halifax Harbour. Going outside to "relieve himself" he returned ashen-faced saying: "Boys, my time is finished...I seen the devil on the bankin' (piled

seaweed used as winter insulation) of the house and he came in the form of a halibut..." The next day Caspar was found drowned and the island has since been called "Devil's Island". Creighton, BG, p. 110.

Hallowe'en Sympathetic Magic, Divination, Wonder Work: 1. Waste water was not to be thrown out on this night for fear it might fall on a spirit and rouse his wrath against the family. 2. Salt cake was eaten before retiring to bed, it being assumed that the thirsty dreamer would be approached by a future mate offering a glass of water. Fraser, FONS, p. 104. 3. People walked backwards into the cellar looking in a mirror, expecting to see the forerunner of their future mate. 4. In German areas it was customary to eat colcannon (a salad made of turnips, cabbage and potatoes) on this evening. Within the dish lay buried omens: a penny, match, ring and button, symbolizing marriage, old maid-ship, money and poverty, repectively. Creighton, FOLC, p. 60. Charm: 5. On Hallowee'en a fatal charm could be fashioned by placing a human skull on the ground and firing three shotgun blasts at the moon. Under ideal conditions, three spots of blood would fall from the injured moon into an eye of the skull. A shot ball was then placed in the eye cavity and removed for use against an enemy. It was claimed that this charmed shot, on being fired, would find its way to the enemy, kill him and return to the pocket of the charmmaker, so that his culpibilty could not be proved. Creighton, BM, p. 131. 6. After the potatoe crop was harvested the stalks were held and burned on Hallowe'en, Manny. 7. Potaoe harvesting was followed by "pancake parties at which they played cards - fortyfivees, cribbage, snap, old maid - while the women cooked...then they danced and ate and sang." Fowke, CF, p. 103. Fraser has suggested that Hallowe'en, formerly called the Samhainn Eve, was the oldest and most important special time of the year, "since the Celts. would seem to have dated the

beginnings of the year from it..." The Celtic New Year began on Samhainn Day (November 1) and both the eve and the day were filled with attempts at divination. "Throughout Europe, the night which marks the transition from autumn to winter, seems to have been the time of year when the souls of the departed were supposed to revisit their old homes in order to warm themselves by the fire...But it is not only the souls of the departed who were supposed to be hovering unseen...Witches then speed on their errands of mischief. The fairies too are all let loose, and hobgoblins of every sort roam freely about." Fraser, TGB, p. 735. hand Sympathetic Magic: To have an itchy right hand led one to expect a stranger and pay out money; left, one would receive money. Here again, a forerunner might feel the exchange of money before it took place. Since it was held, in some quarters that it was "better to give than receive", such premonitions involved the right hand. The earliest exchanges were in kind, and the introduction of coinage into the bartering system, created additional possibilities for fraud. The receipt of money was a chancey business, thus any portent of this sort, affected the left hand, which see. Harvest Home Sympathetic Magic: 1. For the crop of the next year to be large it was thought that the last sheaf should be large. 2. The last sheaf taken had to be bound by a woman for good luck. 3. An effigy of a child was sometimes fashioned from a shaef of corn or oats and hung from the kitchen wall to ensure prosperity. 4. Before corn became hybridized it was common to find redkerneled corn in a crop consisting mostly of yellow ears. It was considered lucky to find such "Indian corn" and the finder expected this was sufficient excuse to extort a kiss from a girl friend. A survival of this is seen in the dried decorative corn which people buy at supermarkets for attachment to their autumn doors.

Harvest Home was the gathering and bringing home of the harvest; the time of harvest; and the feast traditionally held at its close. It is also certain folksongs sung by the reapers as they returned from their last stint in the fields. This is an extremely ancient European celebration, which originally had magical and religious connotations, not all of which are pleasant. A characteristic of the rites was the creation of a doll from plant materials, which was often decorated with ribbons or flowers. Typically it had the shape of a woman, but in some cases it was obviously a four-footed animal. Whatever the shpe it obviously represented a nature-spirit and once fashioned from the last sheaf, was carried from the field at the head of a farm procession which was both bawdy and uprorious. The image was variously called the corn mother, kirn baby, kirn doll, corn maiden, old woman, fox in the field, last goose, etc. and was regarded as emblematic of the "corn spirit". To put it simply, the farmers regarded the soul of the corn to be as real as that of men, and considered that it fled before the scythes and sycles, taking final refuge in the last sheaf. In this form it was overwintered, and being fed at last to the ploughman and plough animals at the first of the next season, was returned through their digestive tracts to the soil. Often one of the workers was forced to take the roll of harvest queen and another that of the corn king. In former times it is suspected that they were participants in sexual rites which ended with their sacrifice at a fire-festival similar to the Samhainn. For other participants dancing, feasting, drinking, and "merrymaking" were rampant, the special; day being termed variously, throughout Europe, the kern, the mell or the hockey. The latter was reserved to the festivities of Celtic herders who used a crooked stick, or hock, to tend their flocks. Interestingly, the pagan festival was put down by the Christian church only to be partially revived by the Church of England in the 1840s. Although the Reverend R.S. Hawker, who served a Celtic parish, balked at sanctioning blessing the earth by sprinkling blood on the fields, he did allow the autumn decoration of his church with produce from

the fields, a tradition afterwards sanctioned almost universally. There has been some tendency to equate Harvest Home with Thanksgiving, but this obviously comes long after the fact. The American Thanksgiving, first held in 1621, and now established as the fourth Thursday of November, is obviously entirely unrelated, and there are few superstitions surrounding it. hawthorn The fair maid who, on the first of May Goes to the woods at break of day And bathes in the dew of hawthorne tree Shall ever after handsome be.

Sympathetic Magic: During the month of May it was considered bad luck to keep hawthorn blossoms in a house. "Pick flower, pick sickness." Creighton, BM, p. 156. The word "hawthorn" derives from the Anglo-Saxon English, "hagathorn", which relates to the Germanic "hagge", a witch, and the English "haw", a hedge. The hawthorn tree also identified the entrances of "fairy hills". May Eve was formerly known as the Beltane, an important European fire-festival, which centred on consumming alcohol, round dancing, ritual and informal sex, and the sacrifice of humans and animals. Witches, fairies, and god-spirits were all unbound at this time, as at Hallowe'en. This superstition probably centers on the idea that those who gathered hawthorns and kept them in the house, invited unpleasant company. In olden days those who returned from the left-hand dances were often seen to be physically or mentally ill, thus the association of the flower of the hawthorn plant with illness. hay Sympathetic Magic: A wish could be made on a wagon load of hay. The words "hay" and "haw" are connecteed, both being akin to the word "hedge" and related to the Germanic "hagge", a witch. The

word hay was formerly used as the equivalent of hawthorne, the symbolic plant of the fairy people. Since these were failed godspirits, it is assumed that wishing on the hay was the equivalent of wishing on a star, calling upon a "god" for supernatural help. hemlock Sympathetic Magic: Crosses steeped in hemlock were believed most potent against witchcraft. The word hemlock originally described several species of poisonous herbs, with finely-cut leaves and white flowers, but in North America, the term has been applied to pineaceous trees. THe use of hemlock against witches was a matter of fighting fire with fire. A common Continental name for the witch was "venefica", the "poisoner", and one of her poisons was the European hemlock. Neither the witch, nor common folk, had any understanding of the precise action of drugs. While we would consider the administration of poison sufficient to kill and individual, our ancestors frequently buried a pot of poison near the threhold of the intended victim, and uttered curses, without being absolutely certain which of the three actions created the desired effect. It used to be assumed that the cross had a potency quite aside from the hemlock, which acted against the witch by projecting an invisible force of its own. hex Sympathetic Magic: In Atlantic Canada the word "hex" was used in the same sense as "to witch" or "blight" or "trouble". Creighton says the word is "infrequently used in Nova Scotia" BM, p. 18. The word derives from the Greek word for six, and strictly speaking, is the conjuration of a spirit or spirits while standing within the protection of a six-sided star called the hexagram. hill Sympathetic Magic: People who were troubled would hitch iron chains to any animal dead through witchcraft and haul the corpse first up, and then down, the closest hill. The same rite was

sometimes performed for human dead. Creighton, BM, p. 50. Witchs, fairies and god-spirits inhabited the underside of the "high places", and when the dead were passed above them it was thought that the spirit of death might affect them. Iron rings were, of course, a talisman against evil, reinforcing the effect. Holy Ghost Magic Race: Derived from Christian mythology, the Holy Ghost, or Holy Spirit, was one of the Trinity: viz. Father, Son and Holy Ghost. The "Father" seems to have symbolized God as a remote universecreator; while "Son" represented his historical presence on earth. "Holy Ghost" appears to have represented supernatural manifestations of the God-spirit, as it is sometimes defined as "the angelicus". Thus, the agency responsible for producing angels, the dancing of the sun on Easter morning, weeping statues, etc. The translation of the Latin "spriritum" (breath of life) as Holy Ghost or Holy Spirit has troublesome pagan connotations. The prefix "Holy" is confluent with "holly, wholey, hooley," and "holey". The Middle English word "holy" originally indicated anything which was "whole" or soundly crafted for example a brass container. This became associated with the concept of objects set apart to service a deity, e.g. "holy" vessels. All early religious rites took place out-of-doors in natural ampitheatres, more simply called "holes" or "holy" places. The Teutonic goddess Holle is remembered in the Middle English word "hole", which also indicates "a cavern in the ground" According to myth she dwelt in the cave called Horselberg, in the province of Thuringia, Germany. Frau Holle presided over the weather in pagan times, gifted mankind with a knowledge of the use of flax, and lured mortals into her realm, detaining them forever in a sexual limbo. Her most famous victim was Tannhauser, who escaped her power and fled to Rome seeking absolution for this unnatural "connection". The Pope declared that the German knighht could no more hope for pardon than have his staff bear buds and bloom. Although this did occur, it was too late for Tannhauser who returned to the hole in the earth. See also spirit and ghost.

hoodoo Sympathetic Magic: An alternate name for the runner, or shadow man. Also applied locally to jinxed individuals and, less frequently, to witches. The word confers with "howdie" (a mid-wife), "hoodie" (the European hooded or carrion crow), hood (the usual wearing apparel of monks, invisible god-spirits, and little people), and perhaps, voodoo. horn Sympathetic Magic: l. Horns were erected above doors and hearths to ward off witchcraft. 2. When horns were knocked off animals, some old-timers advised binding them in place with tar and string. Herding peoples frequently identified their deities as possessing horns so their loss on farm animals was considered an ill omen. Conceivably, those hung above doors were first meant to identify adherents of the old pagan fertility cults, and these god-spirits, perceiving this homage might by-pass a marked doorway. Anciently, horns were blown to create a noise which would frighten off witches and devils. horn sickness Folk Medicine: The name given distemper in cattle. The traditional cure was to lay a chain across the animal's back while milking, subject the cow to the smoke from burning shoes soaked in tar, or drill the horn and pour in turpentine. A local old-timer explained that the cow's stomach needs a good supply of blood to function properly and that "horn sickness" mysteriously diverts the supply of blood to the horns. Surprisingly the horns are cold when the stomach is upset! horribles Sympathetic Magic: costumed individuals who paraded on New

Year's Day. The equivalent of guisers (disguisers) kris kringlers and belsnickers, who were also abroad during the Yuletide. Particulary noted on Prince Edward Island. "In Canada, the custom apparently died out during the First World War." See Old Christmas. horse Sympathetic Magic: 1. Mariners disliked dreaming of horses. 2. Horses suffering sprained feet were subjected to the "eolas an t-sniomh" (charm for a sprain) in Gaelic villages. The charm-maker knotted string about the injury following traditional patterns, while reciting: "Christ came out; he found the bones of the horse broken. He placed blood next to blood, flesh to flesh; as he cured then, so cure now." 3. A stallion would always side with his human master, but a mare had the potential to take the side of supernaturals. A countercharm was a simple thread of wool tied about the neck. 4. On buying a horse: "One white foot, try him; two white feet, buy him; three white feet, deny him. Four white feet and one white nose: cut off his head and throw him to the crows!" Spray, WOTW, p. 5. The horse hoof was symbolic of the Devil. A lady who swore that she would go dancing with any partner, "even the devil," was accomodated and was afterwards found with "the devil's mark, the imprint of a horse's hoof" on her forehead. Creighton, BG, p. 93. 6. A pregnant mare was worked close to the time of delivery since it was believed this would produce a healthy foal. 7. If a donkey ran with a new foal it was believed that animal would be free of disease. 8. Horses brasses with the crescent moon or stars were often suspended over a horse's forehead to ensure good fortune. Horses were the preferred witch-familiar following cats and dogs. Mariners disliked dreaming of horses not only because of this, but also because they observed that the mythical god and fairy-spirits (e.g. the kelpy, nuckalavee, and sea-serpents) frequently had the head of a horse. Because witchcraft came to be regarded as a female occupation, female animals, whatever their species, were

always considered more dangerous than male. The above is a traditional charm, the word "Christ" having been inserted into the litany in place of a dishonoured god-spirit. Knotted string had the same properties as rings. It may be guessed that red wool thread would be preferred as a countercharm. Horseman's Word Magic Assembly: A magical cult which originated in Britain and at one time embraced almost the entire labourer population of the north-east. Its principle ceremony, celebrated at the time of Martimas, aimed at the creation of "made horsemen" from the young males of the neighbourhood. It was a secret society imported to Canada in the early part of the eighteenth century. Actual members have stated that the number of initiates was always odd rather than even and that the place of initiation was a barn well off the beaten path. Inductees were summoned by the receipt of a single horsehair enclosed in an envelope, and had to bring with them a bottle of whisky, bread and a jar of jam. With most of the countryside bedded down, these novices travelled to pre-selected points where they were blindfolded and led to the door of the barn where rites were to be held. There each had to give the three "horseman's knocks" and be interrogated by a gateman. Among the questions were "Who bade ye come here?", the invariable answer being "Old Clootie" (the Devil). At midnight the ceremony began: The novices, blindfolded, knelt in a circle about the central figure of a horse-master, who informed them that the order was instigated by Tubal Cain, the first Horseman and gave them the secret words of cult. He also revealled two verses of the Bible which he said copuld be read in reverse to invoke the Prince of Darkness. After they were conversant with the "Word" the initiates had to promise that they would "neither write, nor dite, nor recite" anything they had been told. Immediately following, the master would attempt to trick them into doing just that by lifting their blindfolds and commanding them to write the secret words on a piece of paper. Occasionally a sharp

lad would refrain, but most did as instructed, and received a "lick" across the finger with a chain or horsewhip until they learned the meaning of secrecy. The lads were again blindfolded and taken to shake hands with "old Hornie" (who might be represented by a man dressed in an animal skin or a live calf or goat). In any case, no youth became a "made horseman" until he had shaken hands with the "devil" of the Horseman's Word. This done, the whisky bread and jam was produced, the initiates unblinded and a party put into motion. The Horseman's Word promised help from the supernatural but was really a brand of Freemasonry, in the sense that the older men recognized obligations of help and counsel towards new members. It is suspected that the cult evolved out of the Hayman's Word in 1820 when horses began to supplant oxen for farm work. It persisted until about 1914 when machines displaced the horse. It was hardly a trade union! One son of a deceased member said that it was, "purely connected with black magic, the occult, the language of horses &c." horseshoe Sympathetic Magic: 1. Horseshoes could be placed above any door to ensure good luck. To be useful the tines had to point upward to "hold the luck in" and three nails were used. The points on the underside of the shoe had to be placed pointing inward. 2. "A horseshoe should be nailed on the step of the barn in the position of the horse walking out. They say bad luck can't come in then, and any good luck can't go any further." Creighton, BM, p. 139. 3. "We pick up horseshoes on the road for luck; each nail is a year of luck." Creighton, BM, p. 139. 4. Horseshoes found on the road indicated good luck where the tines pointed toward the finder; bad luck if they pointed away. 5. To prevent witches from noticing horseshoes erected against them they were sometimes sheathed with lead foil. 6. Wool in which the dye failed to set or where the colour proved other than expected was considered to have been witched. As a countercharm a horseshoe was heated until red and then plunged into the dye. Creighton, BM, p. 46. When a man at West Pubnico, N.S., was refused wool he placed a spell on her dyes. Realizing this she attempted the

horseshoe treatment and when she did, "the man writhed in agony." When wild horses were first tamed, their "binding" to the tasks of man was marked by the horseshoe. The process was referred to as "the breaking of their spirit", which was considered essentially dangerous and evil. Having been in intimate contact with a tamed horse, the shoe was thought potent against general evils and capable of providing omens. In European legend it was suggested that any uncanny spirit was drawn into this incomplete circle and forced to resonate between the tines of the horseshoe during the hours between dusk and day. Indian summer Sympathetic Magic: it was claimed that a period of extremely warm weather invariably followed the first snowstorm of the fall or winter. inspirational writing Sympathetic Magic: "Eighty years ago (1898) I used to write strips for the Pictou Advocate and I stumbled on a way of writing without thinking. I did it much better than I could do with any amount of thinking...Where did the power come from? God and the Devil were ones I'd heard of and I didn't feel like blaming either one..." Creighton, BM, p. 190 inversion Sympathetic Magic: The inversion of any object at sea was thought to endanger the ship. Fishermen would not turn baskets, hatch covers or similar objects upside down aboard their craft. Objects seen as having a hold, or interior, were thought comparable with the ship itself, hence inverting one was likely to tip over the other. invisible wall Sympathetic Magic: 1. Captain David Hayden was climbing a fence one night when he was stopped by "a strong force that pulled him

back." 2. This was as baffling as "the force that held a fishing vessel back as it was sailing up the La Have River. There was a good breeze, and these waters were familiar to all the crew. Suddenly the vessel wheeled around in the opposite direction. The men were excellent seamen but, not matter what they did, they could not get that vessel up the river until daylight." Creighton, BG, p. 161. 3. A classic case was that of "an oild sea captain" who attempted to sail his "shallop" between Tatamagouche, N.S. and "the Island" (Prince Edward Island): "One day he was sailing there undera steady breeze when suddenly in the Strait, far from land and in deep water, his vessel without any reason whatever suddenly stopped. An ordinary mariner would have been at a loss to understand so strange a phenomenon but this old salt...was a master of witchcraft. He knew the plight had been wished upon him by his enemy...He lashed the wheel and then disappeared inmto the cabin. In a moment he re-appeared, carrying...an old musket...and a rough slab (of wood) on which he sketchedthe likeness of his enemy, the witch. Placing the slab by the mast he shot at it...Scarcely had the report died away when the vessel began to move..." Patterson, HOT, p. 57. iron Sympathetic Magic: 1. As a countercharm against the witching of milk, an iron pin was placed in fire and then plunged into milk from the afflicted cattle. 2. Farmers, whose animals were troubled would fill their vest pockets with iron nails and beat their cattle with it. The torment was believed passed on to the witch who was called by this action. 3. In all remedies new iron was usually specified. Iron has had an extremely high reputation as a charm against all supernaturals. In earlier days, Celtic thieves would steal any object except that made of iron. Gold, silver and brass could be beaten into form, but iron which was smelted, cast and annealed, was regarded as a magic metal, and the black smith was regarded as a practitioner of one of the dangerous crafts. It has also been suggested that the godspirits, devils, fairies and witches had among them white smiths,

but could not work iron. It is suspected that the fay-kind were first subjugated by iron weapons, which were far keener than those of brass and bronze, which they possessed. Hence, their distaste for any object made of the hated metal. itch Sympathetic Magic: 1. An itchy right hand indicated that that person would soon shake hands with a stranger; an itchy left, that one would soon receive money. 2. Itchy lips presaged a kiss or the passage of a dram of whisky. Itches, twitches, and quivers in the human body were seen as the actions of forerunners or hindrunners examining the future or the past on behalf of their human counterparts. A forerunner parroted every future activity of his birth-mate, but his attempts to warn of eventual happenings could only be seen by those with the gift. Omens relayed through the right hand were usually considered innocuous, but those through the left suggested danger or dealings with potentially dangerous matter (e.g. money). Jack O'Lantern Sympathetic Magic: Those who observed "swamp-lights" were forced to follow them unless they had the foresight to "turn-coat". The Jack was a god-spirit, or fairy, a light-carrying creature similar to the corpse candle or gopher. He inhabited swamps and his light often mislead travellers, but he he was potentially dangerous rather than omen-laded like the corpse candle. All of the fay-kind wore the turned-coat of animal hide, the fur turned inward toward the body, but outward at the waist, collar and wrists. Any "human", who reversed his clothing, acted to make himself indistinguishable from the "enemy". janney Sympathetic Magic: a mummer, sandy, or belsnicker. See Old Christmas.

jaundice Sympathetic Magic: Cold water was dumped over the body of the victim without prior notice. Dunn, HS, p. 43. Fright or surprise was considered on possible means of exorcizing unwanted spirits. jipijkam Magic Race: Abenaki creatures, water-dwellers, "the horned'serpent people". Similar to the Gaelic Fomors, a race which inhabited the sea, lakes and ocean, and had highly developed shape-changing abilities. They might appear as humans, but one of their resting forms was that of great mountains. When disturbed they were believed to swim off through earth or water in the forms of great snake-like creatures. The former event led to earthquakes. They formed sexual alliances with humans, who were subverted to their kingdom by this act. In serpent form, the water people carried a yellow and a blue horn upon their foreheads, and these were valued as an aphrodisiac. The Utopia Monster appears to be of this kind. Jonah or Joner Sympathetic Magic: An seaman consistently pursued by bad luck. See runner kaqtukwaq Magic Race: The "thunder people" of the Abenaki. Supposedly, they lived "much as men do" but "their power shapes are those of great birds, and when they fly and beat their wings, the people down below on the earth world have storms..." Whitehead, DFTSW, p. 232. See sky-people. kelpy or kelpie keyhole Wonder-Work: Witches and fairies, demons and sidh were all able to dematerialize and pass through a keyhole. The Celtic Fomors,

or sea-people, who were supposed to have been the first to inhabit Britain after the great world-flood, were descibed as shape-changers, who could dematerialize and reconstitute themselves after this fashion. Possibly the ability was in their genotype, and many humans admitted cohabitation with this usually anti-social race. kisulkw Sympathic Magic: The Abenaki word for moon, which was always personified in their mythology as a goddess. "Whenever they saw the new moon they had prayers. What they asked for...they would get." Parsons, MF. kitchen racket Sympathetic Magic: See wake. kji-kinap Magic Race: Abenaki creator-god. "Kji" is a prefix meaning "great" and "kinap" a synonym for "power" knife Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was bad luck to close a jacknife opened by another person. 2. To create a wind a knife was stuck into the spar of a sailing ship. 3. It was bad luck to rotate a knife on the table. 4. Two knifes crossed on a table indicated bad luck. 5. People were advised not to accept an opened jacknife as it might "cut a friendship". 6. A witch is unable to pass over a knife driven into any part of the doorframe. 7. When cows went dry, and witchcraft was supected, the woman of the house would obtain what milk was avaliable, cut a cross in it with a steel knife, and throw it out. The next woman to come to the door was expected to have a cross cut on her forehead and would be seeking a favour. If these were refused the witching would cease. 7. A countercharm used against the witching of animals was to place milk from affected cows on the stove, cross it with a steel knife, boil it, and then slash it randomly. This would cause the

witch to develop a fever as well as facial cuts. Closing a jacknife was the equivalent of sheathing another man's sword, a blunder of etiquette at best, an act likely to result in death in harsher times. The fay disliked iron, and knifes were made of this metal. A knife stuck in the spar of a sailing ship was fully visible to the seadwelling Fomors and similar creatures, who supposedly reacted to the sight by raising the wind. The table was considered a basic symbol of the family's prosperity since it held what they ate. Even when food was not present, the spirits of the food were though to linger, and to be exorcized by inappropriate actions with iron. knitting Sympathetic Magic: Knitting was done after dark when the sheep were asleep. knock a balls Magic Race. "I had never heard the knock-a-balls until I visited the Smith family at Blanche (N.S.)...They are knockings which have no natural explanation. If we took the Bible out and opened it we wouldn't hear a sound but, if we closed it we would hear the knockings..." Creighton, BM, p. 276. The knocky boh have been described as the poltersprites or poltergeists of England. In other parts of Europe they were called the pulter klaes, nicker-knockers, bubka, or klopferles. They were considered to be spirits related to the bodach, the brownie or the kobold but instead of performing household chores they delighted in making noise (hence the designation poltergeist, which translates as noisy ghost). They travelled about the house invisibly or in the forms of squirrels or cats, rattling and knocking their way through shelves of dishes, causing objects to vibrate or fly through the air. They would throw objects dowen stairways, thump softly from beneath the wainscotting, patter about on the roof, throw rocks at the walls, make the beds squeak without obvious cause, swing on creaky doors and act as a general nusiance. When someone in the family was destined to die they

made an unusually loud clammer to warn of the coming event. knockers Magic Race: The knockers or tommy knockers are related to the house spirits known as the konck a balls (see above notation). At Springhill, N.S., one of Helen Creightons respondents noted: "I've heard of Tommy Knockers having been heard before an accident. Men often seen lights before an accident and they would quit and come up...In Stellarton if miners heard a certyain knocking in the mine they would come up and close it down and stop work for that day." Again she found that "Tommy Knockerrs used to be heard in the mines in Queen's County. A Cornishman, Tommy Connolly from Bridgewater knew all about them." The Cornish tin-miners were largely believers in these diminutive creatures who dressed in leather miner's clothing and picked away at the ore in galleries unused by men. By following the sounds of their knocking it was believed that men could find the richest veins of ore. Three sharp sounds from the underground were understood to suggest an impending cave-in or some other disaster. Miners were careful not to sing or whistle underground as this upset the knockers. They were also careful not to make the sign of the cross as this tribe were enemies of Christianity and resenting its symbols, might create an underground "bump". kobold kukwesk Magic Race: "...giants, covered with hair. They crave human flesh. The sound of their screams can kill." Whitehead, SFTSW, p. 5. Similar to European giants and Fomors. ladder Sympathetic Magic: It was considered bad luck to walk beneath a ladder; some people would cross their fingers after inadvertently making such a move. Ladders were frequently used in northern

Europe to spread-eagle witches and criminals while they were disembowelled. Standing in the shadow of a ladder could be a unlucky business, since it was closely related to the spirit of death.

ladybug Sympathetic Magic: Killing a ladybug was bad luck; it had to be taken out of doors and released. lambkiller Divination: It was considered that there would inevitably be a harsh March storm just after lambs were foaled. launching Sympathetic Magic: Lucky ships turned with their bow to the land immediately after launching. Ships, like people, seemed to enter life with an invisible forerunners, which predicted future events by subtle interactions with the craft. If this spirit turned the ship to the land upon launching, it was assumed that she would make many safe returns. When the Bluenose II was launched, this is exactly what happened, and she has had a very successful career since her maiden voyage. leaf Sympathetic Magic: Catching a falling leaf would lead to twelve months of good luck. leap year Sympathetic Magic: February twenty-ninth was feared if it fell on a Friday. Among the Teutons, Friday was held sacred to Freya, or Freyja, who considered it a lucky day. In Britain, where the viking Norse were feared, the reverse was true. Leap-year days were considered "out-of-phase" and somewhat dangerous; a time when females might proposition males, and other unlikely or fay-events occur. The coincidence of both was considered doubly ominous.

left Sympathetic Magic: 1. Ropes were never coiled in a left-handed or counter-clockwise fashion. 2. Left-handed children forced to write with the right hand would stutter. Tyr, the Scandinavian god of war, was relieved of his right hand by the wolf Fenris. As a result he was a left-handed deity, and his people were also lefties. This is not entirely an unfounded myth. Many of the northern clans of Scotland have a heavy percentage of left-handed individuals after intermarriage with invading viking tribesmen. In general, however, the British were extremely suspicious of left handed individuals since they were perceived as having an unfair advantage in matters of peace and war. It will be recalled that most "normal" warriors carried a shield on their left arm and a sword in the right. On meeting, they would put aside the weapons and show mutual accord by shaking hands with their right. Lefties, were of course adept with their shield arm, and could easily overcome right-handed men if they reversed their usual way of carrying arms, and hid a spare sword behind the shield. The circular dances of the left-handed northerners, with their "lord of the dance" at the centre, were invariably counter-clockwise. Lent Lent was forty days of penitence ushered in by Ash Wednesday. It was described as a time of fasting, "very severe for those between the ages of twenty-one and sixty." In Acadian villages the allowance was two ounces of bread in the morning, a good meal at noon, and a light snack, consisting of eight ounces of food at night. Meat was at first prohibited throughout the week, later on Wednesdays and Fridays. Children gave up candies and some men smoking. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 493.

leprachaun levitation

Wonder Work: A witch at North Port Mouton, N.S. is credited with having leviated a wagon after a few mumbled words. Creighton, BM, p. 60. lie Sympathetic Magic: Lies blistered the tongue producing a "lie lump" or "lumps". A sore tongue indicated one had lied. light Sympathetic Magic: l. Miners disliked seeing lights in their mine, and would often quit work and come to the surface when they were seen. These lights were thought to have been carried by the tommy-knockers or bodachs of the mine, who corresponded with the surface little-people known as corpse candles, gophers, will o' the wisps, jack o'lanterns or forerunners. which see. 2. When ghostly lights were seen this indicated that treasure was buried nearby. lightning Sympathetic Magic: 1. Lightning never strikes twice in the same place. 2. To protect against lightning sleep in a feather bed with a steel thimble or knife under the pillow, or equip the bedroom with hawthorn cut on holy Thursday. Burnt sticks taken from a bonfire at Easter served the same purpose. 3. It was observed that three or four days of cold weather invariably followed a severe lightning storm. 4. Birds ceased to sing before a severe storm. It is patently untrue that lightning never strikes twice, but the idea was based on the principle of checks and balances, which supposed that men received an equal supply of good and bad luck. Birds seemed not to be struck by lightning, so disguising oneself as a bird seemed commonsense. Thunder was generated by the god-spirits (Odin, Thor, Loki, and Bolg) and iron products repealled them as successfully as it did witches and fairies. The hawthorn was sacred to the little people and was cut on Thor's day, so this was perhaps an attempt at propitiation or disguise?

Burnt sticks taken home from any of the pagan fire-festivals had the same effect. lightning bug Divination: Light bugs heralded the beginning of a stretch of dry heat. little people locust Divination: The song of the locust prognosticated warm weather. loon Sympathetic Magic: The cry of the loon was an omen of rain. lucifee Magic Race: A devil of the Devil, who was sometimes referred to as lucifer. Also used to describethe wildcat or lynx. lumbago Sympathetic Magic: Cured by lying face down on the floor and having an individual born in "breech position", with feet foremost, walking with full weight upon the back. Fraser, FONS, pp 25-26. Lumbago made it painful to walk, and it was supposed that those whose feet came first had a special strength with respect to walking. Some of this magical power was passed by contact. lutin mackerel sky Divination: "Mackerel sky, ne'er twenty-four hours dry!" A mackerel sky was spotted with many small colouds, all blue-gray like the fish. making clear Sympathetic Magic: A phrase describing the effect of employing

countercharms against witchcraft. man-in-the-moon Sympathetic Magic: The man in the moon was banished there for cutting withes on Sunday. Creighton, BM, p. 140. We consider it significant that "withe" correponds with both "willow" and "witch". Willow was cut for use as a witch-wand, thus willow-cutters were suspected as practitioners of witchcraft. March Sympathetic Magic: Because of the lingering winter weather this month was described as "long-legged" or "hungry March". marriage Sympathetic Magic: 1. "Marry in Lent, sure to repent." Creighton, BM, p. 145. 2. A person who stumbled and fell while walking up a stairway would not marry in that year. 3. "Monday for health, Tuesday for wealth, Wednesday the best day of all. Thursday for losses, Friday for crosses, while Saturday is no day at all! 4. "It is unlucky to marry in May; this has something to do with having children." Creighton, BM, p. 146. 5. "June is the best month for a marriage, and Wednesday the best day." Creighton, BM, p. 146. 6. "Happy is the bride the sun shines on." 7. The bride who married in black was believed to tempt an early death. 8. Old shoes were tied to the car used on the honeymoon to promote good luck. 9. Rice, or confetti, was thrown after newly-married couples for "good luck". 10. A dog howling during a wedding was bad luck. 11. Two spoons inadvertently placed in a single saucer were the sign of a wedding. 12. It was considered unlucky to postpone a wedding. 13. When four hands crossed in shaking hands at leave-taking, a wedding was indicated. 14. "Three times a bridesmaid never a bride." 15. The bridesmaid who caught the bride's boquet would be next to wed. 16. To lose a wedding ring meant the loss of the mate. 17. If the wedding ring was to be removed, the husband was to be the first to take it off. 18. The recipient of the last piece of cake on the plate was likely to go

unmarried. To take the last piece meant a lonely existence, but to offered the last piece was good luck. 19. In Acadian villages the wagon or sleigh transporting the couple was decorted with ribbons. The groom and maid of honour drove to the church in one carriage; while the bride and best man travelled in another. On return, the bride and groom came in the first and the best man and maid of honour in the second. Daigle. TAOTM, p. 485. 20. Among Acadians the fathers of the bride and groom acted as witnesses. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 485. 21. Weddings normally took place in the winter. Among Acadians a prefered time was after Epiphany on a Tuesday morning. 22. Acadian brides were fitted with red ribbons draped from head to waist. The groom wore a ribbons of the same colour in the buttonhole of his jacket. Attendants were similar decked, and the attire was worn for the whole day. Mgr. Joseph-Octave Plessis, JDVD, in LFDC, 1865, vol. 3, p. 229. (Le Foyer canadien). 23. The Acadian wedding dinner was held with the bride's parents and included lavish dishes, the singing of customary bridal songs, and a dance, the last led by the newlyweds. At midnight the couple shook hands with everyone and left for bed. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 487. 24. The Acadian "shivaree" took place under extraorinary circumstances; summer and winter marriages, the loss of a longtime bachelor, or in the case of a widower thought to have marriaed too soon after the loss of his previous wife: In this case, after the couple had retired they were pursued by a crowd equipped with drums, barrels, kettles, "borgos" (a type of horn) and a racket was produced, which usually lasted through the night, but might go on for several weeks. It did not traditionally end until the sleepless newly-weds appeared offering rum or other refreshmentd to their tormenters. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 487. The proscription against May as a month for weddings has to do with former festivities of the Beltane, which were practiced on May Eve by various British tribesmen. The relic known as the Maytree, or May-pole, is assuredly a phallic symbol of lapsed fertility cults. In other times, this was considered the eve of summer, the

only other recognized season being winter. At the fire-festival male and female representatives of the pagan gods indulged in ritual sex for the good of the land, and the common folk were encouraged to follow this example. In those days, the peasantry had little energy for romantic love, and May Day couplings were usually a matter of chance. Impregnation was not usual, but it did happen, therefore "love-matches" were discouraged in a period where there was the chance that children might be born with characteristics unlike those of the male parent. If the female menustrated at the end of May, a match during June was considered of good omen. Wednesday was considered propitious by all Teutonic tribesmen, who worshipped Woden, after whom the day was named. Monday was sacred to the Anglo-Saxon goddess Monan, a deity of the moon and healing, and thus a fairly safe time for unions. Tuseday was devoted to Tyr, the god of war and agriculture, and wealth. Thor's day, or Thurday, was a stormy time because he was the god of thunder and lightning, and those married on his day were thought certain to fight. Freya's day, or Friday, was formerly considered very propitious, but only among those of Teutonic background. As for Saturday, it was first known as Laugardag, or Loki's day, after the god of fire. When he fell from grace, even among pagans, the day was renamed, not after Saturn, the Roman god, but for Sataere, the "thief in ambush", an agricultural deity who appears to be a another personification of Loki. It has been noted that no shrines were erected to Loki, the "playman", thus this was "no day at all", a period without religious significance, but an unlucky time since it was associated with the god of the southern wind, heat, humidity, volcanic fire and summer storms and whirlwinds. Marriages which happened to take place on a sunny day were considered blessed by the sun, or day god. In Ireland he was called Crom, in Wales Hu, in Scotland Aod, and Cornwall, Cernu, and throughout Scandinavia as Frey. The latter rode the golden bristled boar named Gullin-bursti, a personification of the sun. The sun gods were considered to have taught man the arts of agriculture and scattered fruits and flowers wherever they travelled. Their radiant beams of light were seen to raise

crops and it was generally considered that they had the same beneficent effect on animals and people. Thus those married on a sunny day might expect a fertile union and many children. Black was the colour of the garb worn by various deities of death (e.g. the Scandinavian goddess Hel) and to wear clothing so coloured was to ask for the attention of some dark lord or lady. In former times, the most important aspect of marriage was sexual fertilty, since couples hoped for large numbers of male offspring who could aid them farming. Seeds which were seen to sprout after a winter of rest were thought to contain the earth spirit. When bridal couples were pelleted with seeds it was the intention that some of this energy might be transmitted to them, promoting their fertility. Rice and surrogate seeds, in the form of confetti, are the last in a long line of missiles used for this purpose. As noted elsewhere, the dog is closely associated with witch familiars and is sometimes identified as a form preferred by the Devil. Howling dogs were therefore taken as an ill omen. Most of the other marriage superstitions are straight forward, but the business of the male mate being first to remove the wedding ring hinges on the old belief that a major artery connected the ring finger with the heart of the woman. If the ring was removed by a stranger it was suspected that the love-spirit might be drained off through this finger. mast-money Sympathetic Magic: 1. "Money was put under the masts of ships when being built to bring prosperity. Creighton, BM, p. 119. 2. "...a five dollar gold piece was put where the mast was stepped into the kelson, for luck..." Creighton, BM, p. 119. Gold was the passion of Ran, goddess over those who died at sea. Because she lined her halls with gold, which was their sole source of light, she was frequently called the "flame of the sea". Noting phospheresence at sea, sailors said that this was the light of these caverns reflected to the surface. Those who embarked on the "ocean-sea" as opposed to various "inland-seas" always

carried gold or some precious mineral on their person in case their ship went down and they were forced to bargain with Ran for decent treatment. In time it became the custom to place this metal under the mast, where it could not be stolen. Mast money had the additional property of turning away sea-serpents by spreading a net of invisibilty below the ship. In latter days basecoinage of copper, brass, and iron was substituted for gold and silver with no difference in effecxt, May 1. Because of the nature of the weather usual to this month it was labelled "up May hill month". 2. The first snowfall of the month was thought medicinal for sore eyes, ear aches and the like. The Acadians collected and melted down several bottles of "May water" for this purpose. May Day Sympathetic Magic: 1. "It is a custom among Catholic farmers to sprinkle their cattle with holy water early in the morning of this day... (In addition), the hair on the backs of the animals is singed with the flame of a blessed candle. These ceremonies are to avert the influence of the Evil Eye." Folk Medicine: 2. Snow that fell during the month of May had curative powers. It was melted, filtered and bottled for use against sore throat, cuts, bruises,etc. The water collected on May Day was "piously considered a cure for sore eyes." 3. In Pomquet, Antigonish County May Day water was collected on May Eve, before sunset from a brook with a bucket placed so that the mouth stood back to the water current. Water thus collected was said to remain fresh for many years and was a useful cure-all. Fraser, FONS, p. 103. 4. It was considered bad luck to give anything away on the first day of May. "On the first day of May, Give nothing away." Creighton, FOLC, p. 23. 5. "A May day visit could be an unsettling experience in Margaree (N.S.) where the first living thing (from) "off the property" to enter a farmhouse would get doused with hot water. Visitors thought it prudent to shove a dog, cat or rabbit in ahead of them to be

ducked." 6. May Day Cakes (called bannoch Bealltain in Gaelic districts) were marked with a cross on one side and a circle on the other. These were rolled down hillsides on Beltane morning in the interest of divining the future. The above May Day rites are exceptionally pagan in their origin. May Eve was known in Gaelic realms at the Baeltainne, or night of the fire of the Bael. "Bael" or "Baile" was a general description for various local gods, and is preserved in numerous British place names, e.g. Bail'an-lug (the town of the god Lugh or Loki); Bail'uaine (the town of the green god); Baile-nan-cailleach (town of the hag-goddess). The extinguishing of all fire and the renewal of a single sacred flame, which was scattered to re-light the hearth fires was an essential rite of Beltane eve. In addition the Celts used to build two adjacent fires and herd their cattle through smoke and the singing flame to drive off disease and protect against witchcraft. Using a "holy candle" to this same purpose is a simplified variant of rites which gone but not forgotten. In earlier times humans and animals were burnt in the flames so that their spirits could return to, and rejuvenate the soil. To this end their ashes were scattered over the fields, and in line with recent local practice, water or ashes collected from these fields was considered potent with spirits. Spirits of good, and ill, were all unbound at this season. Those who received any token on this day, considered their destiny implicit within it. To give away such a talisman was to give away luck. Additionally, people believed they were especially prone to be weakened by gift-giving at this time, when spirits of evil might seize upon any object formerly in contact with a person to gain control of that individual. May Eve menses Sympathetic Magic: To swim while menstruating invited insanity, since the blood "would go to the brain."

All body openings were considered possible exit routes for the controlling spirit, and potential entry routes for evil spirits. The loss of blood was always feared, even when the cause was natural. Essential spirit was thought lost to the body in bleeding and the person was thought open to acts of witchcraft or invasion by devils or demons. Not much was known concerning anatomy, and country folk were convinced that invasive water-spirits were implicated in diseases formerly classed as "brain-fever". mentuk Magic Race: "Mn'tu'k are Persons, entities who do not need to take form, although they can and do. as it pleases them. The world shimmers with their presence. Abenaki creatures, similar to the European god-spirits. mercury Sympathetic Magic: Mercury was sometimes placed in holes drilled in the wooden sills of animal barns to protect animals from supernatural harm. After placement, this heavy liquid metal was pegged into place. Mercury, or quicksilver, had a shadowy reputation because of its colour, liquid state, extreme weight per unit of volume and excessive cohesion. Peasants who saw rounded balls of this strange metal, noted the reflective surface, and said that witches, spirits and devils would be diverted after seeing their repulsive images in it. mickeleen Micareme The Acadian mid-Lent. "On that day, children, young people and sometimes even married couples would dress up in costumes prepared several days before in any of countless fashions. They would wear homemade masks, often woolen stockings with holes cut for eyes, nose and mouth. Thus costumed and armed with

sticks, they would go about, alone and in groups, from house to house. The game consisted of escaping recognition, while making gestures, dancing, and even speaking, in an assumed voice...In some parts of Acadia, the mid-Lent celebrants distributed candy to chgildren, who were allowed to eat it on that day. In some parts of Prince Edward Island and the magdelen Islands, Mid-Lent was an opportunity to collect gifts for the poor. MId-Lent was originally a single day, and later two days...Today this tradition has disappeared except in the Cheticamp region of Cape Breton Island, Daigle, TAOTM, p. 493.

mickeram Sympathetic Magic: Also (for French-speakers) Mi-Careme. A festival held a mid-Lent in Acadian and some Irish communities. Gerorges Arsenault described it as having some of the elements of belsnicking or mummery: Traditionally each family had its particular mummer who appeared at the door in disguise at dusk. The role was normally taken by an elder member of the family who wrapped himself in blankets and carried a a long pole a cane and a sack. The latter he laid on the floor and motioned children to take their pick of the treats it contained. Through the rest of the year bad children were threatened with abduction by the mickeleen and it was rumoured he would take his rod or cane to those who had been bad. mikumwess Magical People: The resident "little people" of the Abenaki were called the mikumwess, "dwellers under rock". Described as, "handsome finely dressed beings (that) live alone in the woods; they can cure people with magic herbs and are capable of transporting someone through the air." Carole Spray, WOTW, p. 53. "The mikumwesuk are beautiful and strong - flute-players whose music enchants. Male and female, they appear to humans lost in the woods. They themselves are thought to have once been People, having become throough Power the ultimate

realization of human potential...Time runs differently in a mikumwesu wigwam: one night with them, and a year has passed in the camps of the people..." Whitehead, SFTSW, p. 6. The equivalent of the sidh, elfs or fairies. milk Sympathetic Magic: As a countercharm against the witching of cows, milk was boiled with pins in it and then discarded, a procedure thought to "prick" the witch. For the witch to influence the milk of the cow, it was assumed that she had to project some part of her spirit into the animal. If the cow gave milk, some of the witch-spirit was necessarily passed into the milk bucket. If the milk was boiled, the heat was sympathetically transferred back through the witch familiar within the cow to the witch who lay at home abed. If pins were jiggled about in the boiling milk, they moved similarly within the witchwoman. Made aware of heat and pricking, the witch was forced to call upon the person posing the countercharm hoping for relief by the granting of a favour. If the this favour was refused three times then the original charm was broken and the witch was at the complete mercy of her tormenter, who could lerave off, or boil her to death. million Numerology: One life was destined to be lost for every million dollars spent on the construction of a bridge. Creighton, BM, p. 166. minister Sympathetic Magic: Priests and ministers were never invited aboard a ship for the maiden voyage, and their presence was avoided where possible in connection with all sea-going activities. Christian clerics were given great respect in land-based situations, but their influence did not entend to the sea. Few of our fisher-

folk remember that the seas were once the domain of undersea god-spirits, known as the Fomors in Gaelic parts and the Vana in Scandinavia. These creatures possesssed the evil-eye, shapechanging abilities, and a taste for people, raw, boiled or fried. The sea-people were very protective of their domain and disliked visiting "missionaries" whether pagan or Christian. If they spotted a priest or minister aboard a ship they were likely to raise a storm in which all hands might be lost. mine Sympathetic Magic: The presence of a woman in a mine was considered an omen of accident, and some men thought it bad luck if they met a woman on his way to the night shift. "A woman was supposed to queer the luck of a mine." Creighton, BM, p. 129. Women have been traditionally associated with the warrior Hagedisis of Germany since ancient times, see travel and witch. Because of the suspicion that they might be part-time witches, some men would not allow a woman to overlook a mine shaft and would carefully exclude ore samples from their view. mirror Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was unwise to use a mirror after dark. 2. Breaking a mirror created seven years of bad luck. 3. Acadian women believed that placing a mirror beneath the pillow they slept on would produce a dream of the man they would marry. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 487. Ancient peoples distinguished between their internal and their external soul. The former was usual present in the human except during sleep anmd at death. The latter wandered was a shadow man or runner. Some believed that the shadow was the runner, as were reflections, whether seen in water or a mirror. The reflection-soul living apart from the human soul with which it was born, was always at hazard. Some people would not look into dark pools thinking that water-spirits might catch and kill their external-

soul thus killing their internal-soul. Since some rather unsurley spirits were known to be abroad after dark, our ancestors avoided mirrors at that time for exactly the same reason. Incidentally, this explains the common local custom of covering mirrors with a white cloth after a death has taken place in a house. With the soul of the newly-dead at large, unsavory spirits may be about and capture an external soul of the living through a mirror image. Sir James Fraser noted that he met persons in the west of Scotland who refused to have their photograph taken, citing "the cases of several friends who never had a day's health after being photographed." The tearing of a photograph or the breaking of an image-beraing mirror was taken as an evil omen, since it was thought that fragmentation of the human mind or body had to follow. See also mercury. mole Sympathetic Magic: Moles were incapable of crossing a road, and would die if they made the attempt. Creighton, FOLC, p. 21. In myth, the mole was a goodess-spirit permanently shapechanged for showing too much pride in her appearance. Part of her binding required that she could only travel across boundaries by moving underground. Monday Sympathetic Magic: 1. Work commenced on Monday would expand to fill the week. 2. Those who spent money on Monday would have an outflow through the remaining days of the week. 3. Those who received gifts or money on Monday would have similar presents for the rest of the week. The word "Monday" derives from the Anglo-Saxon "Monandaeg", and meant, literally, the "moon's day". In Gaelic the day is called "Di-luain", the "day of the moon". In other times, Sunday was fully devoted to religious rites, and the adverb "Mondayish" was frequently applied, especially to clergymen, who were completely

fagged out after a long day of effort. Even in Maritime Canada, church services took place twice a day and might be two hours in length. Backcountrymen were put to great effort to attend services and and thus in no condition to begin a major project at the first of the week. Since they were not mentally alert, their superstitions warned them against making deals and spending money on "Blue Monday". Those who received gifts or money on this day were once thought favoured of the moon goddess, named Samh in Gaelic mythology. moon Sympathetic Magic, Divination: 1. Crops tend to grow more lavishly during the "waxing" of the moon, crops ripening as much by moon as by sunlight; 2. A farmer would not kill an animal at the waning of the moon, but would wait until the increase; 3. Girls would only cut their hair on the waning of the moon, "otherwise it would grow too fast". 4. To see the new moon over the left shoulder was bad luck, but good when seen over the right; 5. Wishes made on seeing the new moon came true provided one had an object in hand at the sighting and made the Sign of the Cross. Fraser, FONS, p. 30. 5. Observing the new moon through glass was considered bad luck. 6. Those who saw the moon through glass were advised to go outside and bow three times to it. 7. When the phase of the moon altered on a Sunday and there was no rain in the following week, rain had to come before sundown on Saturday. 8. Pickle rose on sauerkraut during the fullness of the moon. 9. Alder brush could be permanently eradicated by cutting it following the waning of the "bad" moon in August. 10. A wet moon occured when the horns of the cresent pointed upward, making it capable of "holding water." This was a sign of rain. When the horns poiinted down, the moon was thought empty of water and dry days were said to lie ahead. 10. "The women were always eager to have a man point out the new moon to them, for they were certain it brought good luck." MacNeil, THHINS, p. 84. 11. The hair of witches might turn into snakes under the influence of the moon. 12. On first sighting the new moon people were

advised to view it over the left shoulder at the same time picking up whatever happened to underfoot. The following was recited: "New moon and moon of truth, Tell me without falsehood in what direction my true love lies. The clothes he wears and the colour of his hair." After this, the stick or rock was taken home and placed beneath the pillow. "...according to the belief you would see your future love in a dream." MacNeil, TUD, p.204. From the Anglo-Saxon pagan-goddess "Monas", whose name derives from eastern words, initially used to measure periods of time. In Britain, as elsewhere, the full moon was taken as the base for a lunar calendar, which is now defunct. "Moon" is confluent with the words "measure, month, Monday" and "menses". It was observed that the moon grew in size, or waxed, and at other times diminished, or waned. Any kind of plant or animal growth was formerly seen as attached to these phases of the moon. Children were thought best conceived while the moon was in her "pregnancy", those arising at other times being likely to suffer wasting diseases while still in the womb. Left-handed viewing of the moon revealled an attachment to the Devil, which see. Seeing it through glass allowed the same damaging potential as seeing objects in a mirror after dark. Celtic time was based on the phases of the moon, their weeks, months and periodic thirty years' cycles being dated from the sixth day after the waxing of the new moon. A "bad" moon was that which came just before the fire-festival known as the Lunastain (literally night of the bloodstained moon. During these rites the elder or alder people, who were perhaps the Scandinavian elle-folk, were sacrificed to thr "good of the land" and the hoped depletion of their particular kind. Killing anything on the wane of the moon was suspected to interfere with their future reproductive capacity, and this held for alder trees, the totems of the elle-folk. "There is a great deal of ethnological evidence to show that witchcraft is athing bestowed by the moon either directly, or through the intermediary opf snakes." Eliade, PICR, p. 168.

money Sympathetic Magic: 1. To spend money on Moday morning meant an outflow of cash through the remainder of the week. Creighton, FOLC, p. 20. 2. Money which had been found was never given away as this "gave away your luck". Creighton, FOLC, p. 21. 3. To throw a cent overboard would cause the wind to rise. 3. A purse had to contain at least a single coin if the individual was receive additional funds. 4. Purses given as presents were always equipped with a penny. 5. Those who gave sharp or pointed objects as presents always asked a penny in return. 6. When the two dollar bill was new they were often refused as habringers of bad luck. 6. Money placed in the four corners of the house would drive off witches and other evil spirits. 8. Some people considered it good luck to carry a coin bearing their birth date. 9. Turning up a coin with a plow was considered unluckly. The usual countercharm was to spit of both sides before pocketing it. 10. Bent coins and those found with a hole in them were thought to be lucky. 11. Tossing a coin into water brought good luck (e.g. the fountain at Market Square, Saint John, which was diassembled because of the monthly pile-up and drainage problems.) 12. In a few places coins were placed on the eyelids of the dead. 13. A small child who refused a coin from an adult was thought destined to become a spendthrift and reckless with money. See moon and Monday for an explantion of the first superstition mentioned above. Found money was considered a talisman given by the gods as a symbol of favour, and not to be given away. Base metals were disliked by the sea gods, who would raise the wind against those who threw iron or copper into their realm. THe land-fay also disliked these metals and thus placing them within the four corners of a home protected it against evil. The giving of a penny had similar symbolism. Knives, scissors and other sharp objects might cut the shadow-man of the giver or receiver leading to back luck or death, a possibilty countered by crossing the path of the gift with a coin as an omen of good luck. The word "two" relates to "deuce" from the old Teutonic word "Tiu" or

"Diu", their god of war. His name is now encountered in Tuesday and in the Anglo-Saxon "deoful", full of Deo, Tiu, or Tyr. The latter word is now preserved as "devil". moss people Magic Race: The moss or woods people were said to be two to three feet in height, and so well camouflagued in moss and grasses as to be indetectable. Their faces were old and furrowed, their bodies hairy and their skin gray. Old-timers said that they spun the "Spanish" moss which hung from trees. The males were reclusive and bad tempered but the females sometimes dressed in the conventional clothing of the district and offered farm-help in return for human baking or the mending of their pots and pans. They had the ability to become invisible and create vortexes of wind in the forest. Combining these forces they sometimes disconcerted human travellers by drawing together sticks and bits of greenery into a temporary assembly of monstrous proportions. Most people fled from these creations, which Indians sometimes called the "moosewood-man". This creature was similar to the sea-weed man reported by Helen Creighton. Those who maintained their courage and approached these beasts found that they disassembled into a harmless pile of plant life. These people were well-known in Europe where they were called the Moswyfjes among the Flemish, the Lohjungfern by Germans, and the Finzweiberl among Bavarians. All agreed that they had knowledge of the medicinal value of plants, could promote the growth of crops by dancing in the fields and sometimes gifted humans with gold which they produced from transmutated leaves. "They were even generous with complete strangers, leaning down from their tree-nests to hand them a ball of yarn. No matter how many sweaters are knitted from this wool, it will never come to an end." Arrowsmith, AFGTTLP, p. 178.

movement Sympathetic Magic: Witches were capable of casting spells or loosing charms which prevented animals from moving. moving Sympathetic Magic: People who changed residences were advised against transporting salt, a cat, or a broom. mug-up Sympathetic Magic: Individuals capable of raising storms expected a "mug-up" whenever they went aboard a ship. "Uncle Billy put a hex on one of the ships and was wrecked. They are afraid of him now and he always gets his due." Creighton, Bm< p. 57. In other times, alcoholic beverages were restricted to ritual use at the time of the pagan fire-festivals. "Strong drink" and its magical distortions of time and place were associated with god-spirits, little people, witches and devils, who could be propitiated with offerings of drink. In British tradition, many of the pagan ceremonies commenced with the pouring of a libation upon the ground, the first drink going to a nature-spirit. muin wapskw Magic Race: The Abenaki "white bear", whose flesh was fatal to mankind. Whitehead has noted that the polar bear concentrates Vitamin A in its liver to an extent that the organ is deadly when eaten by humans. In addition this bear is frequently parasitized by the trichina worm, whose consumption may lead to a painful death. The power of any animal in Indian legend is emphasized by describing it as white. The pole pole star formation, which in our legend is sometimes called the Great Bear, is named "muin" in Abenaki and has the same connotations. The adjacent little bear is similarly labellled as "muinjij". Like Europeans, the Indians observed that the Great Bear revolved about "oqwatnukewey kloqoej", the North Star, which appeared immobile in the sky and was considered the focus of great power.

mummer Sympathetic Magic: A guiser, janney, belsnicker or sandy. See Old Christmas. These people disguised themselves and made "house-visits". The host was often required to guess the identity of these neighbours, who expected to receive food or money in return for "entertainment." nail Sympathetic Magic: 1. White spots on the nail of the little finger pointed to a journey. 2. In Acadian villages the nails of a new-born child were not clipped until a year after birth. In Europe, as in America, the spirit of the individual was thought to drain away by degrees as hair and nails were clipped from the body, the final result being old age and death. A child was incapable of controlling his spirit, it was thus thought wise to avoid cutting his hair for at laest one year. Otherwise, it was thought that his genie, or wits, might escape, leaving him an idiot. name Wonder Work: A man with more than two Christian names was untrustworthy and unlikely to advance in his profession. "I was brought to be christened befor I could speak; so I cannot account for this terrible freak: My motherand father were both of one mind, and they said, "Let's give him all the names we can fimd." And so they consented, as wise as could be; and this was the handle they they stuck unto me: Jonathan, Joseph, Jeremiah, Timothy, Titus, Obidiah. William, Walker, Henry, Sim, Reuben, Rufus, Solomon, Jim. Nathanial, Daniel, Abraham, Roderick, Frederick, Peter and Sim; Hirman, Tyler, Nicholas, Pat, Christopher, Dib, Jehosophant and Whim..." Recitation by Carl Webber of Chipman recounted by Spray. WOTW, p. 10. Sympathetic Magic: To unintentionally mention an individual's name meant that the distant individual was thinking of the speaker. 11. Acadian children were often named after the saint of their birth day or were given a

Biblical name. "These given names were the only ones used in Acadian circles. The family name was used for correspondence, official papers and outsiders. In order to distinguishone person from another of the same name, they added that of the father or even his grandfather: Pierre a Jacques a Thomas etc." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 479. 12. Given names were the only ones used in polite socirty. H.A. Guerber has written that the god Odin "had no less than two hundred names, almost all descriptive of some phase of his activities." This is only partly the case; as fraser notes: "...the furtive savage conceals his real name because he fears that sorcerers might make evil use of it, so he fancies also that his gods must likewise keep their true names secret, lest other gods or even men should learn the mystic sounds and thus be able to conjure with them..." On this basis, pagans employed many pseudo-names for themselves and their gods, hence the above superstition. It was assumed that shadow-men or forerunners communicating with men brought indidividual names to human tongues by direct sympathetic magic. neck needle Sympathetic Magic: 1. Needles (or pins) placed in the four corners of a house protected against spirits and witches. 2. Needles were placed in the cream from bewitched cows to end the witching and call the witch. 3. A witch-bottle used to be constructed by placing two needles in a bottle of oil. 4. A darning-needle stuck into a door frame warded off witches. As mentioned elsewhere base metals, such as copper, iron and steel had a part in the defeat of the fay-people, and were throughly disliked by them. Pointed needles could prick people, so it was assumed they could also prick the shadow-men or familiars of the witch and fairy world. To be effective the points

had to face outward against the enemy rather than inward, where they might impinge the external spirits of the human inhabitants. Pins placed in bewitched milk fell into a liquid containing some of the familiar-spirit of the witch. Pricking this virtual individual, the pain was passed back to the controlling witch causing her pain. New Year's Eve 1. "After 12 o'clock on New Year's look in the mirror and you will see the man you are going to marry." Creighton, FOLC, p. 17. Sympathetic Magic: 2. Belsnicking took place through the entire Yuletide or Twelve Days of Christmas, starting with Mother Night (December 23rd). Participants were referred to as "bels nickles" or "peltz nickles" and travelled from door to door, extorting food and drink. After New Year's these disguised people changed their black costumes for white and carried guns in order "to fire the old year out and the New Year in." A former participant said that the visitors sang a song at each home, which translated from German as follows: I wish you a happy New Year, We stand now on your ground, Our guns and our pistols we have ready to fire; If you want us to fire, tell us. (Inhabitants would invariably shout "Yes!") You are satisfied for us to fire So we will blast away! In some parts, New Year's Eve was referred to as Old Year's Night, New Year's being reserved to the time following twelve midnight. Creighton, FOLC, pp. 59-60. 3. Children born on this evening were never dressed in white. 4. It was considered unwise to turn away the first carollers who appeared on New Year's Eve. 5. It was thought that calendars should never be hung before the eve of the New Year. 6. People who sewed on New Year's were likely to sew throughout the remainder of the year. 7. For good luck the "first-footer" should be a dark-haired

man carrying coal and a potatoe. Women and light-haired men were considered an omen of bad luck. 8. Cattle knelt and prayed on New Year's Eve at exactly twelve o'clock. Creighton, BM, p. 134. See also, cattle and Christmas. 9. In Acadian Cape Breton the final hours of this evening were marked by a tradition called "beating out the old year". "During the evening, young men would arm themselves with sticks, and in groups of three or four, approach someone's house. Once there, on a signal, they would pound their sticks heavily on various parts of the house, preferably near the areas where the girls would be. The people of the house would jump at every blow. One of the group would watch through the window for the master of the house. If he became angry and seemed about to come outside, the group would beat a hasty retreat and begin again somewhere else. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 499. 10. Acadian adults stayed up until midnight playing cards and singing. At midnight they went outdoors and shot off rifles, a traditiona called "burying the old year". Those present would afterwards shake hands and wish one another a happy new year before going home. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 499. New Year's Eve is now celebrated on the last day of December, but the Celtic people of Britain, who distinguished it as "Oidhche Challainn" or "Hogmanay", considered it part of the fire-festival named Samhainn, which took place on the first day of November. In a few places this is still referred to as Old New Year's Day. The Gaelic names for the eve of Old New Year's translate as the "Night of Servant of the Dog" and "The Hog Man's Time". Festivities were never restricted to Britain, the "Belsnickel" being decidedly Teutonic and traditionally taking place near mid-winter. It has been suggested that differences in timing are due to the fact that the Celts were a herding people, whose year was divided, simply, into winter and summer. Their Samhainn marked the end of the samhradh (ride of the moon-goddess "Samh") and the beginning of the rule of her alter-ego, the "Cailleach bheur", or winter-hag. In northern England and Scotland, this was the traditional time for

removing herds from the upland meadows to winter-pasture. While this was significant to them, it was unimportant to agricultural societies, where a chief event of the year was the seeming return of the sun to the winter sky. The Scandinavians and the Germans therefore celebrated the beginning of their year following the eve of "Mother Night" (December 23) rather than on the evening of October 31. To get away from pagan connotations, the Christians named this latter, All Saint's Eve or All Hallow's Eve, now abbreviated to Hallowe'en. The superstitions of New Year's Eve have become confounded with those of Hallowe'en since all of Britain eventually agreed on on January 1 as the first day of each new year. Sir James Fraser says that religious processions always took place at New Year's, "some worshipful animal being killed; and before or immediately after death he is promenaded from door to door, that each of his worshippers may receive a portion of the divine virtues that are supposed to enamte from the dead or dying god." He thinks the rite formerly "had a great place in the rites of European peoples during prehistoric times." A survival in folkcustom, which he mentions, was still practiced in the highlands of Scotland during his lifetime: "On the last day of the year, or Hogmanay as it was called, it used to be customary fora m,an to dress himself up in a cow's hide and thus attired go from house to house, attended by ypoung fellows each armed with a staff, to which a bit of raw hide was tied. Round each hose the hide-clad man used to run deiseal, that is according to the course of the sun (but presumably widdershins in pagan times?)...the others pursued him, beating the hide with their staves and thereby making a loud noise like the beating of a drum. In this disorcerly procession, they also struck the walls of the house. On being admitted, one of the party, standing within the threshold pronounced a blessing on the family...Then each of the party singed in the fire a little of the hide which was tied to his staff; and applied the hide to the nose of every person...This was imagined to secure them from diseases and witchcraft, throughout

the ensuing year." This ceremony was probably the transition between old pagan sacrificial rites and Atlantic Canada's practice of belsnicking. There is little question of the name of the god propitiated in the Teutonic version of Hogmanay. "bels" is the equivalent of the Gaelic "beal", which indicates any local god. "Nick" is universally recognized by folklorists as an abbreviation for "Nicolaus", an Eddaic name for Odin or Wuotan. This particular "nick" was sometimes identified as "old nick", or even, slightingly, as "old saint nick" to distinguish him for the more socially acceptible Good Saint Nick, who has become Santa Claus (the latter word is an abbreviation of Nicolaus). Whatever he is called, the "jolly old elf" remains associated with a very pagan season and is clearly the offspring of a pagan god-spirit. The individual belsnickles, who once imitated their god, were always a noisy crowd, intent on driving off witches. In old Selesia it was reported that: "...on Christmas and New Year's Eve they fire shots over fields and meadows, into shrubs and trees, and wrap straw around the fruit trees to prevent the spirits from doing them harm. The belsnicklers of Lunenburg, N.S. do not admit to this mission, but in Bohemia lads used to pour out of their homes on Saint Sylvester's Day, form themselves into circles, and pepper the landscape with shot, a process they referred to as "Shooting the Witches". As for children born in this period refraining from the wearing of white: It may be recalled that witches, fairies, and the gods all wore white undergarments, and presumably those so dressed were endangered, since "like begets like". Since the "first-footer" on New Year's Eve was a representative of an important god, it was, and is, bad luck to refuse him entry. The Celts naturally favoured dark-haired gods, since they had so much trouble with the light-haired viking gods and their adherents. New Year's Day Sympathetic Magic: 1. "In the old days, New Year's Day was one

of the most popular social occasions in Acadia." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 490. 2. "In every home, people would get up in the morning, shake hands and wish one another "a good and happy new year and paradise at the end of your days". The same ritual was repeated with neighbours and friends met at church and while visiting." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 490. 3. "One of the finest of traditions consisted of forgiving one another for past wrongs, of seeking reconciliation with anyone with whom one had quarrelled." Jean Claude Dupont, HDA, p. 278. 4. It was considered wise to greet this day wearing new clothing, since this would ensure that one would have attire throughout the year. 5. The day was one for giving small presents. In Acadian children received chocolatecovered candies, "nolais", or a few coins. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 490. 6. On New Year's morning the first vistor was often greeted with a bucket of cold water or with antagonistic shouts. Knowing this the Celts used to carry along a small dog or cat to serve as a scapegoat. 7. The first fire of the morning had to be kept alive through the day or misfortune followed. 8. Nothing was to leave the house on New Year's Day, including refuse. 9. First-footiong (described above) actually took place immediately after midnight, and strictly speaking, was a New Year's Day ritual. A dark-haired male visitor was always hoped for, a bachelor being preferred over a married man. In Acadia, "a fairly common superstition required that the first visitor to enter a house be a person of the male sex. Sometimes this meant paying the neighbour's boy a few pence to come in first in order to avoid having a woman do so, for if she did, it was the popular belief that she would bring bad luck to the family." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 490. 10. To have bare cupboards on this day suggested an impoverished year. 11. This was a day for visiting. Guests were served spruce beer, homemade wine or imported rum from the West Indies.

night Sympathetic Magic: It was unlucky to set a table after dusk.

"Ghoulies and ghosties and long-legged beasties" as well as viking marauders used to be abroad after dark, so sensible people did not attract the attention of wandering spirits by setting out food where it might be detected by shadow men. nikani-kjijitekewinu Magic Race: "One who knows in advance". The Abenaki equivalent of the European caul-bearer or fylgiar. See runner. "When Plawej falls on his face in the bowl of water he enters a trance, empowering the water to speak to him...It becomes blood...always an announcement of death." Whitehaed, SFTSW, p. 9. nine Numerology: After nine days a drowned corpse would surface. "Nine is a number of completeness and high achievement because it is the last and the highest of the series from 1 to 9. A human child is normally born nine months after conception. Nine also marks the transition from the lesser set to a higher sequence and is therefore the number of initiation. Initiation rituals frequently took the the form of a mock "death" followed by "rebirth". Cavendish, TU. p. 167.

nose Sympathetic Magic: 1. An itchy nose indicated a stranger might be expected. If the itch was on the right nostril, a man; the left, a woman. 2. "An itchy nose...meet a stranger, kiss a fool or be in danger." Unexplained sensations in the human body were attributed to the presence of the home shadows or runners, invisible presences representing the external spirits of men, fairies and god-spirits. Forerunners might knock on the walls of the house, or swing on the door, to announce the approach of the human, who was their birth-mate. If this didn't draw attention they might tickle the

nostril of the house-holder. Woman were traditionally associated with the kin of Tyr, the left-handed god of war, thus an itch of the left nostril led one to expect a woman. The stranger at the door frequently represented danger in days gone by. oak Sympathetic Magic: See also acorn oath Sympathetic Magic: The oath was a verbal promise made in the name of a god-spirit, or reverenced symbol, an immutable declaration. The oath was a self-directed promise as opposed to the curse, which hoped to heap danger and illness upon some enemy. The forms might be similar, for example a farmer might shout, "Go to hell!" to instigate a curse, but say,"I promise by the goddess Hel to..." A few examples of the oath: "By the powers of delft (death)... By the holy cross...By the cross of Christ...By the blessed iron...By the blessed and holy iron... By the contents of all the books in the world... By the stool I'm sitting on...By the pipe in my hand... The oath was once taken as a serious pronouncement with evil consequences if the promise was left unkept. Yule-tide oathmaking was done in Europe over the cooked corpse of "the boar of atonement" (representing the sacrificed god, Frey). The elder male of each family was expected to appear in public at the Yule feast, place his hand on the sacred dish and swear that he would be faithful to his clan and family and fulfill certain stated obligations. The example of the king and his nobles was followed by all present, ending with those of low rank. All oaths concluded with a toast to Thor, Bragi and Frey, the chief gods of this season. Bragi was the god of poetry, eloquence and song, and poets were called the bragamen and bragawomen, the toasts being contained in a ship-shaped vessel named the bragaful. As oath-taking proceeded it was not unusual for the guests to make extravagant vows, which some regretted in the morning. From Yule oath-taking

we have the expressive English verb, "to brag". Considering the consequence of unguarded bragging, the northern Europeans developed the art of the mock-oath. Several inconsequential oaths appear in the list of local phrases, although few Maritimers are aware of origins or significance. To swear "by the cross" was legitimate and made more powerful by crossing the forefingers of the two hands. To swear "by the five crosses" while crossing all the fingers of the hands as well as the thumbs was subterfuge and the oath-taker a knave. Pagans seldom used oaths such as "by the tree of Thor" or by "Odin's runes" without solemnity and the same held for Christians when they swore "by the cross of Christ" reinforcing this visually by crossing two straws or two sticks. The Celts considered iron magically dangerous and few thieves would steal it. As we note above, the metal is used to implicate the truth of a statement. Iron swords were carried by those who defeated the little people of Britain and were symbols of the gods Tyr, or Saxnot, a god of war and agriculture. The Saxons undoubtly swore "by the blessed iron!" with conviction but the Cymric-speakers and the Gaels were probably luke-warm in using it as an oath. If the circumstance of oath-taking was a matter of indifference, they would not depart from the promise. Swearing by "pipes", "stools" or "books" had to be suspect. Further, our ancestors developed the useful habit of slipping the word "never" into an oath in place of "ever", thus negating an oath such as, "I swear by all the gods that were ever known."

Old Christmas 1. Also called Old Yule, Yearmas, Epiphany or Three King's Day, preceeded by the Night of the Bean, Yearmas Eve, or Twelfth Night, January fifth, the last day of Christmas-tide, was the final day for taking down Christmas decorations if bad luck was to be avoided. 2. Mistletoe could not be hung before the start of Yule, and was best fed to the first cow calved in the New Year. It was good for a stolen kiss throughout the Yuletide but had to be burned no later than this night or else all who kissed under it

became enemies. 3. In some places it was customary to bake a cake containing a ring and a button. The person who found the button was predicted to remain unwed in the coming year, while the individual who got the button was said headed for matrimony. The Gospels say nothing of the nativity of Christ, and consequently the early Church did not celebrate his birthday. Christians in Egypt came to the conclusion that the sixth of January was the Nativity, and this date became entrenched in the east. At the end of the fourth century, the western Church, which had never recognized this date, adopted December twenty-fifth as the true date, and in time "Old Christmas" was abandoned by the eastern wing. A Christian writer said: "It was a custom of the heathen to celebrate on the twenty-fifth of December the birthday of the sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities...the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that Christains had a leaning to this festivity, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day and the festival of Epiphany on the sixth of January. Accordingly, along with this custom, the practice has prevailed of kindling fires until the sixth." Fraser, TGB, p. 417. This writer speaks of pagan celebrations at Rome, but the fire-festival was widespread throughout Europe. In the north this same period was named the Yule (Wheel) tide, from the presumed observation of the sun as a wheel in the sky. The twelve days of Yule were especially sacred to the gods Frey and Thor, and the month bearing the name "Yule" commenced on December twenty-third. Unable to quench this fire festival, the Christian missionaries encouraged drinking to the health of the Lord and this twelve apostles rather than Odin and his twelve gods. In most places the Yuletide was a time of liberty when all but criminal laws were suspended. That changed abruptly when the Night of the Bane had passed. In former times, the "Lord" of the Bane or Bean, who had been chosen by lot at the beginning of Yule, was either banished or sacrificed for the "benefit" of the land. Consequently

leaving any symbols of the festivities up after their time suggested law-breaking and was a dangerous oversight. This is the hidden reason for continuing to remove decorations of the Christmas season by the eve of Old Christmas. Old Cloutie Magic Race: In Gaelic communities the name given the Devil. Currently, a plum pudding steamed in a bag, but formerly this Gaelic word referred to the unbleached cotton used to contain the food. Pratt, DOPEIE, p. 35. In any case, the Auld Cloutie was seen as one who had stood to long in the steam. Old Cootie Magic Race: Another Anglo-Gaelic substitute for Devil. It will be noted that the use of "old" further trivializes the noun which is modified. The European coot is a duck-like bird which flys in a low erratic manner. This "old coot" is easily "winged" with stones and is hardly a "game-bird". An inept male human is therefore called "an old coot" and the ultimate parody for the Devil was to be referred to as the Old Coot. Old Donald Magic Race: Also spelled Old Donal. An Anglo-Gaelic designation for the Devil. The clan Macdonald, Lords of the Isles, were long contenders with the Stewarts for rule of Scotland. Some saw them as the Devil-incarnte, hence this nick-name. Old Hag Magic Race: The local name applied to the Scottish Alp or the Teutonic Hag. Edith Fowke says that, "THe "old Hag" refers to bad dreams usually about being chased by an evil creature, and the feeling of hearing and seeing something come into the room, being pressed on the chest and nearly suffocated, and being unable to move or cry out... CF, p. 94. She quotes Dr. Hufford as saying that such experiences are widespread and "probably related to narcolepsy."

Old Hornie Magic Races: Local name for the Devil. Mother Horn is one of several names given the old northern goddess Freya. According to myth she was the sister of the sun god, Frey, the daughter of the sea-god named Niord. She was the goddess of love, but no soft and pleasure seeking diletante since she frequently led the Valkyrs into battle. A goddess of fruitfulness she was central to a fertilty cult, which had the cat as a major symbol. The horns of animals (particularly the rhinocerous) are still used as aphrodisiacs and "horney" comes down to our time as a word connotating readiness for sexual activity. The Christains were very much opposed to sexual over-kill and neither Freya, nor her brother (who was her consort and mate) were much admired. She was ultimately declared a demon or a witch and was banished to a number of European mountain-tops. In Germany, Brocken is pointed out as her special residence, and the general trysting point for her demon-train, which is unbound upon the land on Valpurgisnacht. The swallowe, cuckoo and cat were sacred to Old Hornie, and these creatures were all supposed to have had demoniacal attributes. Further, to this day, coal black cats are identified as the familiars of witches. At the old fire-festivals, the central figure, representative of the god or goddess was frequently dressed in skins and wore a headpiece which sprouted horns. The source of this tradition is obvious. The ultimate incarnation of evil was always seen in terms of the matriarchal or patriarchal nature of a particular society, hence the current tendency to represent the Devil as masculine. Old Man Magic Race: Uncapitalized this is a means of identifyingany fatherfigure. Those in authority are frequently ridiculed behind their backs, "old" being a pronoun suggesting waning powers. The ultimate "Old Man" was, of course, the Devil himself. Old Man of the Sea Magic Race: Additional modifiers usually suggest lessened power,

and this creature, who Maritimers sometimes referred to as the "rowing man" was not the Devil but a little man said magically bound to a portion of the coast. He had something of the nature of a follower repeating the acts and treading in the footsteps of men who chanced on his property. If he materialized and turned to face a person this was considered an omen of death, but he usually satisfied himself with shocking those who were prudish by appearing in the nude. He sometimes acted as an outdoor poltergeist producing a fearful racket in the brush. Like the British hurleywain he liked to pace horse-drawn wagons and automobiles creating a fearful scene by diving between the traces or the headlights. When the driver braked not blood or any sign of the little man was ever seen. Some of these "old men" liked the prank of rowing an invisible boat toward shore. When men rushed to greet it after hearing the sound of oarlocks and the beaching, nothing was ever found. Old Nick Magic Race: A local name for the Devil. The Nixes, or waterpeople, inhabitants of lakes and rivers originated in continental northwestern Europe. All traditionally dressed in green and resembled men except for their green pointed teeth. "When any person is to be shortly drowned, the Nixes may be previously seen dancing on the surface of the water." Keightley, TFM, p. 259. This has been claimed as one of the surnames of the god Odin and is preserved in the family name Nixon or Nikkisen. "All humans who want to protect themselves from Nixen and River Men should keep in mind that water elves do not like steel..." Arrowsmith, AFGTTLP, p. 102. Old Reekie Magic Race: Again, the Devil. The huts of our ancestors were frequently filled with a "reek", or smoke, since they had no regular flues or chimneys. These unpleasant places reminded the earliest Christian missionaries of Satan's supposed home, hence the above name.

Old Scratch Magic Race: Common local name for the Devil. Grimm noted that "there was a being named Scrat or Schrat, Schretel. or Schretlein." This name was substituted for the Latin "pilosus" when translations were made into Old German. In either case reference was made to a house or a woods-spirit. Similar confluent words are found in all European languages and Keightley thinks these are "the origin of Old Scratch". omen Sympathetic Magic: A local designation for any omen of bad luick was "scriss". openings Sympathetic Magic: 1. All openings into a house had to be sealed to prevent ghosts, devils and witches from entering, and at least one exit had to be provided in exorcising them. 2. It was bad luck to create a new opening in an old house. It was observed that the spirits of men entered and exited through body openings (the yeyes, ears, nose, vagina, anus) and that devils took possesssion by these routes. The house built of living wood was regarded as an spiritual entity and its openings, from keyhole to doorway, as providing a way for the passage of its own or other spirits. Our ancestors did not make great distinctions between the organic and the inorganic, nor between the living and the dead, owl Sympathetic Magic: 1. "There was a woman at French Village was supposed to turn herself into a big owl. Some old fellar cut up silver and put it in his gun and fired at the owl and the next morning the woman was all cut up with flesh wounds." Creighton, BM, p. 42. 2. Aowl hooting near a house was considered a sign of ill fortune.

In this instance the owl was the runner or familiar of the witch, and any injury inflicted on it was thought mirrored back at the internal soul. palmistry Sympathetic Magic: It was considered unfortunate to attempt to read one's own palm in deducing the future. Palm Sunday "In the old days people brought their own branches (to the church) to be blessed. These were twigs from pine or fir trees, or from junipers or other wild plants which would keep for some time. These consecrated branches were placed in all the rooms of the house, in the barn and on boats, as protection against lightning, fire, the devil and sorcerers." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 494. pawkey peacock Sympathetic Magic: In some places peacock feathers were disliked as they were thought to be symbolic of the "evil-eye". See also theatre. "The peacock was considered during the times of chivalry, not merely as an exquisite delicacy, but as a dish of peculiar solemnity. After being roasted it was again decorated with its plumage, and a sponge dipped in lighted spirits of wine, was placed in its bill. When it was introduced on days of grand festivities, it was the signal for the adventurous knights to take upon them vows to do some deed of chivalry, 'before the peacock and the ladies'". Pinkerton's History of Scotland. Obviously these men considered themselves oath-takers under the gaze of nature-spirit. This rite resembled those before the boar of atonement, which see. peg Sympathetic Magic: It was considered technically possible to peg a witch to a chair by drilling a hole on the underside and driving a

peg into place while the witch was seated. Unfortunately, few witches would remain in plaace for the procedure, disliking the idea of going through life with a chair seat permanently anchored to their bottom. Seated people were thought to diffuse some of their spirit to the chair. The external soul, or familiar, of the witch found it difficult to resist entering small openings. Once on the other side it could be prevented from returning to the upper side of the chair if a peg was driven into the hole. Since the witch and her familiar struggled to reunite this left the chair-bottom physically entrapped between the internal and the external souls. Pennyroyal Folk Medicine, see abortion. phantom ship physic pin Sympathetic Magic: 1. To recover a pin was to find good luck. 2. A pin found pointed at an individual was a bad omen. 3. Pins and needles (usually nine in number) were placed in the heart of a bewitched animal to "call" a witch. 4. A magical number of pins was placed in a sod of earth from the pasture as a countercharm where cattle were considered bewitched. This was placed in water in an iron cauldron and the sod boiled to attract the witch. 5. If you think a woman is a witch, make her image and stick pins in it. That was done to a woman here (Port Medway, N.S.) and she was taken with severe headaches. Creighton, BM, p. 40. 6. As a countercharm against the witching of cows, a sod was cut and boiled, along with pins, in a little milk from the afflicted cow or cows. As the craftswoman stirred, she periodically removed pins and stuck them in the cuff of her dress "to keep the spell off and direct it into the witch's feet." 7. Pins could be given but never

lent. 8. Brides were cautioned against wearing pins in their trousseau. 9. If a pin fell to the ground and stuck upright a stranger was expected. 10. To ward of a witch an object filled with new pins was placed in the chimney way. Pins were originally made of silver and represented very good luck if they were found on the way. Even steel and iron pins had untility since their points were thought to prick the external souls, or familiars of witches. Notice that they were frequently boiled in an iron cauldron, a metal very much disliked by god-spirits, devils and all the fay kind. Where the pins were placed in the heart of an animal killed by bewitchment it was assumed that witch-spirit had led to the death. If the heart was taken soon after death, some of this spirit lingered and pricking the heart of the beast was thought to do the same thing to the witch. Boiling the heart sympathetically caused the witch to fall into a fever. Naturally she responded by coming to the farmstead where she attempted to obtain a grace, or favour, thus destroying the countercharm. The use of a sod goes back to the business of taking evil to earth, the evil familiar being absorbed within the turf and succumbing to death when it was returned to the earth. This symbolic death was believed to reflect on the internal sopul of the witch, killing her. Notice that the woman who used pins as a talisman directed them away from her own body, since they might otherwise prick her runner and cause illness. Some practising witches wore heart shaped pin-cushions, termed "person-bags" as part of their costume. When they quarrelled with people the expression, "I'll stick in a pin for you!" was understood as a potent threat. pig Sympathetic Magic: l. Some mariners would not transport a pig on a ship's maiden voyage. 2. Pigs were always given a pseudonym at sea, eg. Mr. Dennis, Turf-Rooter, Mr. Gruff, little feller, ringedtail snorter, junk, hog. 3. It was thought lucky to butcher at least one pig and a "creetur" (cow) every fall. 4. At Centreville, N.S.,

one man would go out of his way to avoid meeting a pig or a hoodooed woman on the road. Creighton, BM, p. 118. 5. Men were discharged from vessels for saying "pig" at sea. 6. Canadian sailors had a pig tattoed on the knee during World War II. In explanation they said: "A pig on the knee means safety at sea!" 7. "The theory of the pig's heart in witchcraft goes into the swine's being sent into the sea in the Bible. All animals with a cloven foot or who chewed the cud are eatable but when the devils went into the sea, something had to be taken from them and they lost the cud, but they still have the cloven hoof..." Creighton, BM, p. 20. Divination: 8. The spleen removed from a dead pig was used to forecast the weather. If the organ was regularly shaped an "even winter" was expected but if one end was withered it was assumed that winter would "run out" earlier than usual. The origin of the Middle English "pigge" but it is said related to the Danish "big" and the Low German "bigge". All of these words once had the sense of "youthful, a creature having great power", later narrowing as a description for a "young swine". Sir Francis Palgrave noticed that these are similar to the Swedish "poika", a boy, the Anglo-Saxon, "piga," also a boy, and the Danish "pige", a young girl". Thomas Keightley added other related words: The Anglo-Saxon, "poecan", to deceive or seduce; the Low Saxon, picken, to gambol; "picklen", to play the fool; the Danish "pukke", to scold, not to mention, "Puck, Pook, Phooka, Spook, Pawk, Puckle, Bug and Bog, Lugh, Lob and many other uncanny creatures whose names derive from various languages. The word trail is long but leads finally to Loki Lucharman (Playman or Playfellow), the ultimate "pig". The young and powerful Loki was one of the three elder gods of the north, an elemental, the spirit of fire, his brothers being Kari, god of the air and Hler, god of the waters. When his realm was invaded by Odin and his kind he alone was invited to join the mortal gods, making thirteen thrones at their high council. While Thor represented hard work and productive activity, Loki was the god of fun and games, whose michievous

bent finally led him into evil and malevolence. Loki played an important role in the creation of man, endowing him with motion and blood and fiery passions. He mated with the giantess Angurboda producing three nearly uncontrollable offspring: Hel, the Fenris wolf and the world-worm named Iormungandr. He stole Sifs golden hair, was wayward in providing Odin's ransom from dwarf captors, and delivered the goddess Idun into the hands of an amorous giant. These indiscretions were overlooked but after he killed Baldur, the god of the sun, he was banished to the underworld to await the final end of the Nine Worlds of the North. Although no shrines were erected to this evil god, the last day of the week, once known as Laugardag, was sacred to him. The Anglo-Saxons demoted Loki to the status of god of underground fires and renamed his day Saturday, after Sataere, "the thief in ambush", a Teutonic agricultural god, who has his roots in the playfellow. Because Loki was generally disliked, so was his pig familiar, and mariners refrained from "speaking of the devil", believing that the mere mention of his name might conjure his presence. Of course, men of the Royal Navy considered themselves the "devil's own, thus their use of a pig tattoo as a talisman against evil happenings at sea. Trouble with pigs is not restricted to Maritimers. "Among fishermen of the northeast Scotland, one does not mention pigs at sea. Just as touching wood can prevent evil on land, so at sea if a pig is mentioned (especially when baiting lines), one touches iron. Even in Church, it has been reported, whenever the story of the Gadarene swine is retold, the stalwart fishermen wopuld reach for their bootnails and mutter "cauld airn"". Ashley, SPAL, p. 33. An old Scottish grace goes as follows: "Bless the sheep for David's sake, he herdit sheep himsel'; Bless the fish for Peter's sake, he gruppit fish himsel'; Bless the soo (sow) for Satan's sake, he was yince (once) a soo himsel'." KIng Jame's proposed banquet for the Devil was "a loin of pork, a poll of ling, with a pipe of tobacco for the digestion."

pismire Magic Race: "A spoil sport or meddler", Pratt, DOPEIE, p. 113. A rude designation applied contemptuously and not used in polite conversation. Appears to relate directly to piss+mire, the latter being an archaic name for ant, and distinguishing the peculiar smell of British anthills. The word was formerly used to describe an emmett, or ant, or one of the "little people" of the British Isles. Similar to the Gaelic pishrogue. pochan Magic Race: Local designation for a small boy. Usually used affectionately. DOPEIE, p. 114. Possibly related to the OF "pochier", to thrust, dig at, or interfere with others; a brat; but as likely to be a mispronounciation of bogan, a synonym for bogeyman. point Sympathetic Magic: If pie was served, point towards the recipient, he was to receive a letter. Creighton, FOLC, p. 20. In the above instance the point of the pie represented an arrow, indicated the direction of flow of information. Poisson d'avril April Fool's Day. Anyone who succumbed to a prankster would hear the words "Poisson d'avril" (April fish) or "largue ta ligne" (let out your line, i.e. you've been tricked). "There were other tricks as well, such as attaching a piece of cardboard cut out in the shape of a fish to the victim's back, and letting him walk around for hours in public...The custom is still observed." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 495. poplar Sympathetic Magic: "A camp built of popple wood was bad luck

because Christ's cross was made of popple." Spray, WOTW, p. 4. prayer book Sympathetic Magic: Sleep with a prayer book under the pillow for a witch charm." Creighton, BM, p. 38. This is another instance of the use of Christian symbols as pagan talismen. pregnancy Sympathetic Magic: 1. A child born with a strawberry birthmark had a mother who ate strawberries while pregnant. 2. If the child was not born when predicted then he would not enter the world until after the next full moon. 3. If a pregnant woman crawled under a fence it was expected that the child might be born with the umbilical cord twisted about the neck. 4. A pregnant woman was warned against crossing running water since she was then destined to give birth within ten days. Creighton, FOLC, p. 16. 5. A woman frightened during pregnancy "should grab herself at the hips so the child won't be marked in the face." Creighton, BM, p. 142. 6. Pregnant women were advised not to make fun of any infirmity of others while carring the baby, since this defect would appear in their own child. Creighton, BM, p. 142. 7. A baby conceived before menses would be a boy; one after, a girl. 8. Girls were born early; but boys, late. 9. Children born on the incoming tide would be successful; those on the outgoing-tide, criminals. 10. Children born on a bed-tick containing the feathers of any wild bird would have wander-lust. 11. A child born with two teeth in place would be a poet. Creighton, BM, p. 143. All of the above superstitions are based on the old geometric axiom that "things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another." In the case of #5 it was assumed that the child was marked by falling suddenly downward in the womb, thus the woman would try to catch him before fright did damage. A child born with teeth in place was considered precocious and thus likely to have

genius in the use of language. puirt-a-beul Sympathetic Magic: Gaelic mouth music, which see. Joe MacNeil was not an active singer but knew of at least one hundred wordtunes current in his part of Cape Breton. puoinaq Magic Raqce: Abenaki power-broker, somewhat similar to the witch doctor. A master magician. Sometimes spelled buoinaq. See also the related kinap and mentu. "Puoinaq were often feared, and many tales tell of how they were abandoned by their People or diven out or killed by other puoinaq...Puoinaq are ShapeChangers capable of handling enormous Power. They excel at manipulating reality." Whitehaed, SFTSW, p. 9. rabbit Sympathetic Magic: For good luck walk some considered it wise to walk up a stirway backwards on the last day of each month; afterwards saying "rabbits" before speaking to anyone. Creighton, BM, p. 135. rag tree Sympathetic Magic: A murderer who killed his girl friend and her child using rags as the instrument of death has his deed remembered in a tree near Gannett Settlement, N.S. which "grows" rags. "They may be taken down at night, and the next morning they will be there...in the snow of winter or soft earth of spring there is never a footprint to be seen." Creighton, BG, p. 166. rain Sympathetic Magic: 1. Rain on the flood, will come in a scud; but with rain on the ebb, stay safely in bed." 2. "When wind blows from the south; rain rises from the mouth." 3. "On July 15, if Mary goes over the hill and gets her skirts wet, it will rain for 40 days." Creighton, FOLC, p. 104. 4. Evening red and morning gray, will put

the traveller on his way; but evening gray and morning red, will bring the rain upon his head." 5. "Rainbow at night, sailor's delight; rainbow in morning, sailor's take warning!". 6. If the pan on the stove boiled dry rain was implicit. 7. To promote rain: a spider was killed, ferns or heather was burned, an umbrella carried or the garden watered. 8. A halo around the moon predicted rain. 9. Smoke hanging close to the ground, swallows flying low or a greenish sky at the horizon all indicated precipitation. 10. When animals gathered at one side of a pasture or gulls flew inland ionclement weather was expected. rabouteux et ramacheux The Acahisn "joiners" or "splicers", able to reset dislocated limbs and set broken bones so that they would knoit without trace of damage. red Sympathetic Magic: Red haired people had bad tempers. "flamer: a red-headed individual. A rough-tempered person, usually a woman or a high-strung or wild-acting person or domestic animal. Pratt, Dictionary of Prince Edward Island, p. 56. reflection Sympathetic Magic: 1. When ultra clear reflections were observed in pools of water bad luck or bad weather was expected. 2. New-born children were prevented from seing their reflection in a mirror for a year. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 479.

rent-payer Sympathetic Magic: In Gaelic parts the "rent-payers to hell" were termed the "droch-chomhalaichean", and were recognized as proverbially unlucky, individuals dogged by bad weather, accident and poverty. In sea-going villages they were termed the "Jonahs"

and, if possible, were excluded from sea-going vessels. When the "rent-payer" chanced into a mill or place of business all work ceased and it was suggested that he "journey over", otherwise anything from minor injury to earthquake might take place. Travellers particularly disliked seeing women at the start of a journey, see travel, but were even more rattled when they encountered an unlucky person. Fortunately there was a counterpart in persons born with the fylgie or caul of second sight, whose presence was always welcome on land or at sea. Christian clergymen were members of this tribe in the eyes of seamen, who would avoid transporting them especially on the maiden voyage of a ship. Bad luck was often named after the rent-payer, hence: "...at Eastern Passage or Devil's Island (n.S.); grey socks were considered a jonah." Creighton, BM, p. 122. The luck which surrounded a man might pass from him to a wooden sailing vessel, thus: "Some ships were considered bad luck ships, along with the men who skippered them." As these "bad-luck men" did not seem to be especially evil people it was once assumed that they had offended a deity and were suffering his notice. In referring to them as "rent-payers", the oldtimers equated them with witches and the little-people, who: "And aye every seven years pay teind to hell." This appears to derive directly from the old pagan practice of setting aside money to purchase a criminal or imprisoned enemy for periodic sacrifice to a pagan god. request Sympathetic Magic: It was considered futile to refuse a witch anything she desired since the animal or product requested was never of further use to the legitimate owner. retirement Sympathetic Magic: To ward off bad luck railroad men and miners would not name their actual time of retirement.

return Sympathetic Magic: 1. Returning home after starting on a journey was thought unfortunate, and those who did so were advised to stop and count to ten before continuingh on their way. 2. Guests who left personal property in a house were certain to return. Creighton, FOLC, p. 22. 2. To insure the return of a member of the family socks were boiled in milk. Creighton, BM, p. 44. It was formerly considered ill-advised to travel, since strangers were not welcomed in medieval villages. It was noted that that visitors carried evil spirits as an invisible entourage, and that afterwards disease tended to rage due to their influence. On returning home. it often appeared that travellers had taken on evil spirits from other lands as communicable diseases came with them. Returning home after starting on a journey often brought this effect prematurely, and those who stopped to count the time, usually continued on their way. The animals of a farm were psychically connected with their humans. Some of their spirit went into the milk and into socks boiled in milk. Therefore, socks treated in this manner served to remind a man or woman of former affiliations and draw him home. revanter Wonder Work: The dead were thought to warn relatives of their recent departure by making a brief appearance as a "revanter". Those with debts, or incompleted work in the mortal world, often became wraiths who haunted their old homes or places of work. Mr. Sandy Stoddard of Lower Ship Harbour, N.S. told Helen Creighton that he was returning to walking to meet friends at a hunting camp, and crossing a sand spit when he saw a "man" coming towards him: "His face and hands were white and I realized then I knew him all right, only he'd been dead for two years. I was too surprised to speak, but I intyended to if a ever sawe him again, but I never did..." Creighton, BG, p. 149. In other times, men were thought gifted with an internal soul

deposited within the body until death, and a related external soul, carried by an invisible runner, shadow, home man, or guardian angel. Those with the two-sights of witchcraft were supposed to be able to see this counterpart and to move into it at will, using it to travel instantaneously into the past, the future, or remote lands, while their souless body remained behind. At death, it was this runner, which appeared as a revanter. The unemployed shadow man became a haunt if his dead counterpart had unfinished business on earth. ring Sympathetic Magic: It was bad luck to remove a ring from the finger of a corpse, particularly where he or she had stipulated a wish to be buried with it. Poltergeistic activity usually followed and could only be terminated by punching a hole into the coffin and returning the object at midnight. Divination: "Dipping the ring" required a wedding band and a human hair. A glass was partially filled with water and the ring allowed to sink to the bottom and then brought to a position just above the surface of the water. As the ring broke the surface of the water it usually swung wildly and hit the inside of the glass. If it struck three times this was considered to indicate that the person whose hair was used would wed within three years. If the ring failed to strike the side, that person would remain unmarried. This type of divination was attempted on Hallowe'en or on the Quarter Days. right Sympathetic Magic: 1. Mariners were careful to step aboard ship right foot first. Starting anything with the left foot gave honour to the Teutonic god Tyr, whose major interest was warfare. Mariners thought that this action drew attention to various unwelcome creatures standing at the left side of darkness. rooster

Sympathetic Magic: If a rooster crowed at the threshold of a door it indicated that a stranger would visit. rose Sympathetic Magic: 1. If roses were observed to bloom in the fall and epidemic was predicted for the following year. 2. The blooming of the Scotch rose out of season meant there would be a shipwreck involving local people. 3. It was bad luck to scatter red rose petals on the ground. 4. Wild roses were recommended for planting about the gate leading to a cow pasture as they were known to ward off witches. rowan In vain might midnight hags colleague To witch poor crumbies milk, if she Had only o'er her crib a twig Cut from the rowan tree! -Evan McColl, 1885

Sympathetic Magic: 1. Red rowan branches were placed in the pens of sick and/or bewitched animals. 2. Red rowan berries decorated the kitchens of housewives who wished to keep fay people at bay. 3. It was unlucky to use rowan wood as fuel. According to Gaelic legend, red berries were the food of the gods and were not intended for human consumption. In the remote past all of the plants which produced red berries were believed to impart eternal life and were found on a small island in the northern sector of Lake Awe. A woman who had heard of their reputation persuaded her son to defeat the dragon-guardian of the island and bring home the berries. Unfortunately, the red berries proved poisonous, but the seeds from them spread the plants to the mainland. Similar stories are told elsewhere in Europe. In each case, the magic berries having been purloined, they have become

a defense against god-spirits. rowing man rune runner Divination: Knowledge of the past, the future, or distant events in the present used to be obtained through the conjuration and use of a god-spirit known as a runner, or shadow man in English communities, as a fylgiar in Scandanavian lands and as a taibh in Gaelic parts. This invisible herald was referred to as a forerunner if he sought information concerning the future and was called a hindrunner if his specialty was the past. Divination of the former was referred to as foresight, while knowledge of the latter was termed hindsight. Those who wished to spy on events taking place many miles away sought the use of the farrunner, who specialty was farsight, sometimes called telescopic sight. It used to be said that these were the Fates, or Nornir, "maids who come to each child that is born, and shape its life, and are of the race of the gods...The good Nornir and well descended shape a good life; but as to those who meet with misfortune, it is caused by malignant Nornir." As a rule people did not notice their invisble doubles, who in later myth were distinguished as male and female. Occasionally the shadow man might take the form of a totem animal travelling either before or after the individual or flying above as a bird. The Christians did not banish these supernaturals, giving their duties to guardian angels. Especially prominent individuals might have the shadow man assist at their birth, and illuminaries, such as Saint Patrick, had more than one guardian. The best runners were unobtrusive, but some were flawed, creating humans who tripped "over their own shadow". The shadow man was expected to announce the arrival of his human by knocking about the hallways of homes about to be visited. Sometimes he would swing a door open and shut several times, jiggle the latch string, knock on the door or kick at the walls while awaiting some action.

In the elder days it was always considered impolite to close a door quickly behind a guest, for fear the shadow man might be kept out or squeezed between the door and the frame. During his life a man or woman might see his shadow materialized, but this was of no consequence unless the creature turned to approach him, that being a omen of death. In the latter case, it was hoped that the god-spirit would not appear bloodied, an indicator of a gruesome end. Some individuals were able to see and/or hear their runners throughout life, and could project themselves, briefly, into this double an abilty known in some places as the "gift", and among Gaels as the "da shealladh" or "two-sights". The abilty to use the shadow man as a familiar, thus observing tokens or visions, was credited to those born with eyes of differing colour, which became the same as the child aged, and to those born with the amniotic sac, or flygie, still in place over the head. The gift was often referred to as "the second sight", because foresight was generally of more interest than "the first sight" or details concerning the past. A person born under the caul, or veil, immediately became a hoodoo or jonah if a malignant or untutored mid-wife burned the caul. If this was avoided, the lucky baby was promised an interesting life, free of want and worry. A boy born with a caul was was desirable on ocean-going ships since it was believed that he could not drown and that a ship could not sink if a veil happened to be aboard. While mariners carried their veil in a pocket, some landsmen protected it by burying it beneath the stone doorstep, believing this would prevent their house from burning. Girls who kept their caul were promised great ability as a seamstress if they took a single stitch in it as soon as they were able to hold needle and thread. Lord Larbolt, who studied the phenomenon of the two sights in 1652 found that it was not restricted to a particular age, sex or class and that most people who were able to divine the future through vision or sound were not particularly happy with the "gift". It was generally noted that the vision persisted only as long as it might be regarded without blinking or distraction. Those who were timid saw the past or future for a briefer span than those who were unafraid of the

result, which often involved a death in the community. Several unusual foresightings have occurred: A phantom train ran at Barrachois, Cape Breton for several months until its physical counterpart ran down a man at the crossing where it characteristically faded from view. Fraser, FONS, pp. 45-46. Mountain Rory, a noted witch from Antigonish County, N.S., detailed the work and looks of a gypsum mine long before it was developed in 1928. Fraser, FONS, p. 37. Years before similar works were installed at Iona, in Victoria County, a wooded cove was "the haunt of the spirits of present-day workers; their machinery and railway trains...So frequent were these occurrences that people in nearing the present location of the plant, used to get into the water and wade past it; for the belief was that spirits might not touch you while you were in the water." Fraser, FONS, p. 49. It should be noted that the shadow-men are realted to various sea-spirits, and that the caul-wearer was considered favoured by this clan since the amniotic sac was known to be filled with water. "And people might hear a sound as if somebody were on the threshold. They weren't hitting the door at all, you understand, there was no knock on the door but you would hear the stamping as if somebody put his foot on the threshold though no one was there. And they would say. "It won't be long before a stranger comes to the house. Did you not hear the footfall?" MacNeil, TTUD, p. 210. salt Sympathetic Magic: 1. Salt was considered to ward off the Aog, a soul-seeker who plagued human dead. 2. Salt blessed by a Catholic priest was considered a remedy against the evil-eye. This was eaten by cattle and worn in a bag as a talisman by men. Fraser, FONS, p. 68. 3. People were warned not to salt another person's food. 4. Spilling salt was bad luck, relieved by throwing a bit over the left shoulder. In some places the procedure had to be repeated three times. 5. Witches were unable to step over salt, so a small amount was sometimes placed beneath the doormat to protect the house. 6. Bags of salt were sometimes

tied about the necks of men and cattle "to keep witches from riding". 7. Some "experts" said that witches left their skins behind while travelling in the familiar form. If this could be found and sprinkled with salt it was believed that the witch would be injured. "Here (Darmouth, N.S.) a witch once once discarded her skin...and my father claimed he got the skin and put salt on it and the woman walked with a limp for the rest of her life." Creighton, BM, p. 49. 8. To bind a witch to herr chair, salt was thrown upon it. 9. Salt was the first condiment placed on the table. 10. A pinch of salt was added to the butter churn to "help the butter come." 10. Salted cakes were eaten by unmarried women since it was thought the man they would marry might come in a dream proffering a glass of water. Also held by the Acadians, see Daigle, TAOTM, p. 487. 11. The Gaels believed that it tempted fate to carry salt from an old home to a new. Salt, like iron, was unknown to the aboriginal peoples of Europe, who were defeated and declared the god-spirits, devils, or fay of the land. Since they seemed averse to its use, it was declared useful as a countercharm. It has been noted that witches did not make use of salt at their sabbats. Sam hill Sympathetic Magic: A corrupted anglicized form of the name, Samhainn, one of the two most important fire-festivals of the Celtic Year. Employed by my grandfather as a mild curse. See Hallowe'en. Satan's stain Wonder Work: "She always had a watchful eye on me lest I should swerve from duty, keeping me always on my guard before Satan could place his stain one me." Song composed in Gaelic by Archibald Macdonald of New Boston, Cape Breton, on the death of his wife. Dunn, HS, p. 94. At the sabbat new admissions to witchcraft were recognized by

having the candidate devote his body and soul to the devil of the coven. 'after this the devil would put his mark upon them, usually by a scratch from one of his claws. It was painful and took some time to heal, leaving a red or blue mark behind. This was the origin of the "witch-marks" for which seventeenth-century witchhunters searched so diligently." Tindall, HOW, p. 44. Saturday Wonder Work: 1. On Saturday Mary, the Mother of God, visited every kitchen in the land, thus care was taken to see that everything was in order anticipating this visit. 2. Although it rained throughout the week, some sunlight was guarnteed on Saturday, "in honour of our Blessed Lady". 3. Saturday was an excellent day to embark on a sea voyage. Saturday is rather unfortunately named after a personification of Loki, the god of mischief. It is generally thought that the last day of the week was given over to Saturn, but actually it was Sataere, "the thief in ambush". It is doubtful that the Virgin Mary had a keen interest in household activities, but in northern Europe she is known to have displaced Bertha, the White Lady, an agricultural deity, who lived "in a hollow mountain" and tended the shadow children of the unborn. These she led from place to place, instructing her infant troop in the care and watering of plants. She was the legendary ancestress of many of the European royal families, and the mythical mother of the emperor, Charlemagne. She was claimed as progenitor of the German royal family, who explained that she appeared before them, in their palace, before any personal or national calamity. He shadow was last reported in 1884. She was a goddess of spinning, and from this preoccupation developed the "reine pedauque", or splayed foot, which is widely represented in art depicting her medieval descendants. She was naturally regarded as patroness of this craft and was said to "flit through the village, at nightfall, during the twelve days between Christmas and January 6, peering into every window to inspect the spinning of the household. The

maidens whose work had been carefully performed were rewarded by a present of one of her own golden threads or a distaff full of extra fine flax; but wherever a careless spinner was found, her wheel was broken, her flax spoiled, and if she had failed to honour the goddess by eatingh plenty of the cakes baked at that season, she was cruelly punished..." Guerber, TN, p. 57. Since this took place during the Yuletide which was confiscated by the Christians, the goddess was deliberately confounded with Mary, "The Mother of God". scissors Sympathetic Magic: 1. The individual who dropped a pair of scissors always allowed a second party to retrieve them to prevent a quarrel. 2. A witch was unable to pass over scissors placed at the threshold with their points facing upward. If she did manage to pass it was claimed that, "her spirit was weakened." The sharp cutting-points of scissors endangered the runner who was the external soul of each inmdividual. Once, the person who picked up a glove or a thrown knife, or other sharp object, was considered to have accepted a legal obligation to duel. scortching Sympathetic Magic: As a countercharm milk was burned on the stove, a procedure certain to call the witch responsible for blighting the cows. For the familiar of a cow to lessen the flow of milk it had to enter the udder of the cow. Milk from this source carried with it some of this external spirit. Scortching the milk, scorched the familiar and through it, the witch was damaged. The witch naturally responded to this call, hoping to have the countercharm offset through a favour or grace. scriss Sympathetic Magic: Local designation for an omen of bad luck, a

curse, an unwelcome group of people.

scrofula Sympathetic Magic: "The King's Evil" was ended with the touch of a seventh son of a seventh son. Dunn, HS, p. 43. This disease was formerly decribed as "tuberculous in nature, a swelling and cheesey degeneration of the lymphatic nodes, especially those of the neck. It is associated with the chronic inflammation of the skin and the joints and is most common in childhood." See seven. sea-gull Sympathetic Magic: 1. The spirits of dead sea-men took the form of sea-gulls or storm-petrels. 2. It was bad luck to injure either of these two species. A man from Cape Sable Island, N.S., annoyed by a low-flying gull grabbed the scavenger and cut off its legs. As the years past, neighboured noted that his hands were badly twisted by arthritis, and at the time of his burial it was agreed that they resembled the claws of a gull." Creighton, BG, p. 104. Among my Fundy island relatives the storm petrels were referred to as Mother Carey's Chickens, which see. sea-sepent Magic Race: 1. Sea-serpents have been sighted in Cranberry Lake near Sydney, Cape Breton. Thew observer saw something "like a horse's head" moving across the water."Then the neck appeared. In a moment the animal or sea-serpent went under water, turning itself over so that the last he swa of it was its tail. He judged it to be twelve feet in length." Creighton, BG, p. 155. 2. Creighton also interviewed a fisheramn who sighted one in the Bay of Fundy near Victoria Beach, N.S. "...it stood up forty or eighty feet in the air and had a head like a horse and eyes like saucers..."

Creighton, BG, p. 156. See also Lake Utopia Monster, and nuck. sea-weed people Magic Race: The sea-weed "men" were thought to have been invisible little spirits who used the wind to construct mannikins of seaweed or grasses. Their control of nature was tentative and these images diassembled in a short time. Will Lowe, a fisherman at Moser's River, N.S. observed one of these while visiting on Toby Island during the lobster season. While waiting for the return of his co-worker he was three times awakened by noises in the night. Finally, he left his shelter to confront, "a man all covered with eel grass." He laughed thinking his friend had created an elaborate hoax, but as he watched, "the figure dissolved before his eyes, and in a moment there was nothing left of his visitor but a pool of water and some eel grass." Creighton, BG. p. 142. See also moss people. second Sympathetic Magic: To take a second or double serving, forgetting one still had food on the plate meant that a hunrgy stranger would visit. selling Sympathetic Magic: It was bad luck to sell any object obtained as a gift. separation Sympathetic Magic: Those who had a third person pass between them would quarrel. See also telephone pole. September Numerology: People born in the seventh month were destined to have foot ailments and be hypercritical. See seven. seven Numerology: 1. Among the Scot's highlanders of Nova Scotia, the

"seventh son" of any family was thought to be able to cure disease by stroking the afflicted part of the body. Fraser, FONS, p. 25. 2. If a use was not discovered for an object saved for seven years it had to be destroyed by fire. 3. Trees were thought to produce exteremely large crops of nuts in seven year cycles. 4. The seventh son of a seventh son was thought gifted with healing abilities. Daigle, TAOTM, p. 479. Seven was an uncanny number. The tale of the fall of Jericho in the Bible (Joshua, chapter 6) illustrated its reputation as a focus of magical power, and this was frequently reinforced particularly in the book of Revelation. The pagans believed that the cycles of life and death, of growth and decay, centred on the waxing and waning of the moon in the sky. The moon's cycle was observed to consist of four phases of approximately seven days each, heance the origin of months having four weeks of seven days each. Seven came to be regarded as a number governing the major rhythms of life on earth, especially the menstrual cycle in women, on which all human life depended. Like those born with the caul, seventh suns were considered capable of seeing and making full use of runners or shadow men. Seventh sons could cure a tootache, burn, or nosebleed, or stop bleeding from a wound by touching the afflicted part. sewing Sympathetic Magic: 1. To mend a garmet while it was worn meant that the sewer would die poor or have lies told about her. It was cautioned that if this could not be avoided, the thread had to be held between the teeth while working, to avoid the loss of memory or even intelligence. Creighton, FOLC, p. 21. 2. A dress left with basting threads in place was unpaid for. 3. Sewing a button on a garment on Sunday prompted bad luck, and the button would have to be replaced by Monday. "If you sew on Sunday, you'll have to take every stitch out with your nose in Hell." Creighton, BM, p. 163. 4. The bride who sewed on her own wedding dress would afterwards sew all of her own clothing. 5.

To break a needle on an article of personal clothing meant that the person would not live to wear the garment out. Clothing was considered to share some of the spirit of the wearer, and pins and needles were believed to prick the external souls of men. The danger to the internal soul was thought most pronounced when the clothing was mended while worn. It was reasoned that any psychic damage to runner, would reflect upon the condition of his human counterpart. shadow Sympathetic Magic: Many Maritimers believed that any injury inflicted on a person's shadow would fall ultimately upon him. Thus, to drop an axe upon a shadow hand would injure the human hand. This superstition was founded on the ancient belief that the shadow was a runner, the external soul of the individual to whom it was attached. At times it was observed that the shadow was absent, and during these periods, it was assumed that he was running into the future or the past, or examining present events at a distance, to forewarn his human counterpart of possible dangers. The shadow man or home shadow was supposedly visible to witches and "gifted" individuals, who could project their internal soul into this external familiar using it to travel instantaneously in time and place. The shadow appears related to the European doppelganger a creature who looks like the original human but leads an independent existence. "Reports are heard from time to time of one man being recognized by friends at the same time in two widely separated places. The record for such appearances is probably held by Johannes Teutonicus, who one day in 1221 was seen celebrating Mass at Mainz, Halberstadt, and Cologne, all at the same hour. Fortunately these doppelganger did not meet, for Germans believe that if a man meets his double face to face, he must die." Ashley, SPAL, p. 5. The existence of more than one home shadow or guardian angel is not uncommon, Saint Patrick having consorted with two, who

were given to him at birth. shaking Divination: A shaking sensation in the arms meant one would soon undertaking carrying a casket. shark Sympathetic Magic: A shark trailing a ship was a bad omen. These hungry sea-scavengers were thought to sense any potential meal. In Scot's mythology these creatures were believed to be under the direct command of the Cailleach Bheur, or Winter Hag, who appears to be a female personification of Odin. It was said that as her power failed in Februrary, she sent her wolves and her air-sharks out across the land to remind people that she was not yet impotent. sheep Wonder Work: Skilled witches travelled invisibly at night and sometimes "put their own marks on sheep". Creighton, BM, p. 60. Folk Medicine: Sheep dung tea was recommended for most diseases. Pratt, DOPEIE, p. 131. Sheila's Day Wonder Work: Sometimes spelled Sheelagh, March 18. Snow which fell after Saint Patrick's Day was entitled "Sheila's gown"; she was generally associated with storm and foul weather. Halpert, AFSFTM. shellfish Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was an ill omen to eat shellfish in months lacking the letter "r". shingles Sympathetic Magic: If the rash from shingles surrounded the trunk of the sufferer he would die.

A ring, or circle, symbolized a completed act and thus, in the above case, termination. ship-builder Sympathetic Magic: A ship-builder would not sail on his own craft during her maiden voyage. shoe Divination, Sympathetic Magic: 1. At Hallowe'en, or on an of the Quarter Days it was usual for people to attempt to determine the "dirction in which one's lover was to be found by throwing a shoe over the roof-top. The direction in which the shoe pointed on landing was considered decisive. 2. Squeaking shoes were said to "complain" because they had not been paid for. 3. Shoes were thrown after mariners to and tied to bridal vehicles to bring good luck. 4. To cure leg cramps shoes were turned upside down beside the bed at night. 5. Witches were repulsed by shoes beneath a bed if the toes pointed outwards. shovel Sympathetic Magic: It was thought a bad omen to carry a shovel through a house. Shovels were used to dig graves, hence the above belief. shuffle-the-brogue Sympathetic Magic: A lumberman's game in which the camp sat about a man selected to be "It". A shoe was passed beneath the men's legs. Someone in the circle would lob the shoe at the victim, who was forced to guess who had thrown it. If he succeeded, the person who was responsible became "It", if not he was open to more torment. Spray. WOTW, p. 5. sidh Magic People: The "little people" of Ireland and Scotland, who are

supposed to have come with the settlers to Atlantic Canada. "The early settlers of Nova Scotia brought with them from the old lands a belief in the existence of fairies (sidh, pronounced shee or shay). The whole district which the town of Inverness now covers was formerly called the Shean (from the Gaelic Sithean, meaning the house of the sidh). In this district there was a small hill, shaped something like a large stack, where the old people used to see the "little people" in thousands." silver Sympathetic Magic, Charm, Talisman: "silver coins were powerful against witchcraft". 1. An elderly woman possessed a "magic coin" through inheritance. When neighbourhood animals became ill, she went to a spot on her farm where two brooks met. Here she would use the coin to inscribe a cross on the water, "saying at the same time words of the Sign of the Cross". Collecting water from that place she would give it to sick animals. After the lady's death a family conclave was held to decide who would take charge of this powerful talisman. silver thaw Sympathetic Magic: The appearance of a silver thaw was said to indicate storm. This condition is described as the "silver freeze" or "silver frost" in Pratt's Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English but "silver thaw" is the common usage in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Usually the effect occurs in the winter when there is an overnight thaw which allows the fall of rain. Towards dawn this freezes spreading a glittering sheath of ice over exposed surfaces. sin Sympathetic Magic: 1. "Many people connect dancing and cardplaying with sin." Creighton, BG, p. 93. Honouring this connection is the superstition that the Devil is a gambler. 2. To cross the fingers while telling a lie negated the sin.

The Anglo-Saxon word "synn" is still much used but it is not widely known that word relates to the Teutonic goddess Syn, whose name was once a synonym for "truth". She was at first the guardian of the door to Frigga's (the consort of Odin) palace. She symbolically presided over all tribunals and trials in the northlands, and whenever anything was vetoed it was declared that "Syn has turned her eyes from it!" With the advent of Christianity synn came to have the current meaning of "a transgressor of the truth." sing Sympathetic Magic: To sing at the table was a bad omen. "Sing before you eat, cry before you sleep." sky-people Magic Race: Creighton reported that one of her interviewees noted "a man who came down from the sky." On the ground he commented: "I came down like thunder and I'm going back like thunder." BG, p. 166. This creature corresponds with the Kaqtukwaq of the Abenaki. sleep Sympathetic Magic: 1. To sleep with the head pointing toward the north courted death. 2. A lumberman who slep with his head facing downstream risked drowning. 3. A man who went to bed leaving an axe embedded in wood would have an uneasy night. Smoky Joe Magic Race: A resident of the New Brunswick woodlands. A little one-eyed man who frequently hired on with human crews for the fall cutting. He was able to perform an uncanny amount of work but was disliked for his abilities at fortune-telling and sleight-ofhand. Where he worked, mysterious accidents and spontaneous fires were common. One of this race, working in the Kilmarnock woods, claimed that he had participated in Cromwell's wars while a resident of Great Britain. Smoke Joe frequently disappeared with the first snow of winter, leaving no tracks of his passing. The

following summer was invariably hot and plagued by forest fires. This creature appears to correspond with the Gaelic "Fear Dearg" which has also been described as a little forest-dweller with a dark complexion. The name translates as "red man", and like Smoky Joe, he had the habit of appearing on the scene in the midst of a severe thunder storm. In some regions he was known as the "Munster". He has been described as "a little old man about two and a half feet high, with a red sugar loaf hat and a long scarlet coat...his hair was long and gray, and his face yeloow and wrinkled. He went over to the fire (which the family had quitted in their fear), sat down and dried his clothes, and began smoking a pipe which he found there. The family went to bed and in the morning he was gone." Unfortunately this seemingly harmless addition to the farmstead usually became fond of a particular place and would knock for admittance at a set hour each evening. If the door was not opened to him an accident, involving the residents or cattle, invariably happened on the morning. "On the whole, however, his visits brought good luck, and the family prospered...(because of his presence)." Keightley, TFM, p. 369. snake Sympathetic Magic: 1. Snakes were generated from horse-hairs which fell into puddles. 2. To kill a snake sympathetically put down an enemy. 3. Children were advised to kill the first three snakes they saw, thus being enables to "conquer all enemies". Creighton, BM, p. 137. 4. People were to kill the first snake seen in the spring season so as to be free of enemies throughout the year. "The first snake you see in the season is an enemy unless you kill it." Creighton, BM, p. 137. 5. The hair of the witch turned to snakes at her will. This could ocassionally happen to ordinary women if they were influenced by standing in the light of a full moon, which see. 6. Snakes were thought immune to infection. 7. A dead snake found lying upside down was immediately inverted to prevent serious floods. 8. Snakes seen moving sluggishly in the summer presaged a lean harvest.

The Anglo-Saxons distinguished themselves as "the coiled serpent people", the builders of mounds having this configuration. The Celts of Britain unquestionable identified snakes with these Teutonic conquerors, thinking that these animals were familiars of this people. sneeze Sympathetic Magic: 1. "Sneeze on Monday, sneeze for danger; Sneeze on Tuesday, for a stranger; Sneeze on Wednesday, expect a letter; or on Thursday, for something better; Sneeze on Saturday, sweetheart's coming; Sneeze on Sunday..." 2. "Once a wish, Twice a kiss; Three times a letter; Four, something better." Creighton, BM, p. 155. 3. At a sneeze one should say, "God bless you!" 4. Sneezes invited the Devil. Those who sneezed were advised to throw salt over the left shoulder to prevent his entry. 5. It was unlucky to sneeze at the dinner table. Sneezes were seen as involuntary exits of the internal soul through the the mouth and nose, and hence times of danger. snow Folk Medicine: 1.On Easter morning it waas traditional practice to collect any snow that had fallen and melt it. This was preserved as a cure for witchcraft and less specific ailments. 2. The fall of huge wet flakes meant the storm would soon turn to rain, but tiny fluffy flakes were seen to presage a heavy snowstorm. 3. The fall of snow used to be termed "God's dandruff" or "Mother Goose's feathers." song Sympathetic Magic: It was bad luck to sing at sea, and storms arose at the singing of tragic folk tunes such as "The Ghostly Sailors" or "Young Charlotte". Creighton, BM, p. 125. The sea-spirits considered themselves the ultimate musicians and

disliked human competition. Singing of death, naturally portended death. soot Folk Medicine: Soot taken from the chimney was mixed with water and fed to animals for a cure against indigestion. Apparently it was not always a useful remedy as a Karsdale, N.S. farmer noted: "We did this once when a critter was bloated. It jumped ten feet up in the air and came back down dead!" soul sortilege speak Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was unlucky to "speak" (loud hail) a ghost ship. 2. It often proved fatal for mariners to state the time of their final voyage. 3. It was considered unlucky for miners to speak of their date of retirement. 4. It was bad mannered and dangerous to call upon the Devil for help. "Speaking" the dead was considered to draw the attention of Ran, the marine goddess of death. Since it was felt that the seapeople possessed clairaudience it was always considered unwise to reveal one's plans. Former attitudes may be expressed in the World War II phrase: "Loose lips sink ships!" Miners had similar respect for the kobolds or bodachs of the mine who did not like to see men end their attachments to the underworld. There is an old saying: "Speak of the Devil and he is sure to appear!" According to legend, Ike Foley of Middle Musquodobit, N.S., was prone to swearing and impetuously requested the Devil's help in removing a huge stone from a river because it was impeding a log-drive. Ike was summoned after dark by a loud voice which spoke three times from the direction of the river. He refused to answer but the next morning the rock was removed and that winter he fell through the ice at the place where it had

rested. After his drowning, the "devil's chains" were heard at that place. See also swearing. spell Wonder-Work: 1. Spells were easy to place on those "who were getting on too well." Creighton, p. 20. 2. Children were easy subjects for spell-binding, and once bound, these became jonahs or hard-luck individuals, who were easily re-bound by any individual, witch or amateur spell-caster. "If a spell is put on you as a child and is never taken off anyone can witch you." Creighton, BM, p. 20. 4. A witch-spell could be broken if she was compelled to thrown two buckets of cold water over the afflicted individual or animal. The word spell originally indicated the recitation of words to magic effect. The countercharm suggested above was aimed at surprising the invasive familiar into a retreat from the body of the possessed individual. spider Sympathetic Magic: 1. People who had spiders crawl on their body expected to receive something new. Creighton, BM, p. 137. 2. Killing a spider generated rain. spirit Magic Race: "When Sebastian died, when his last breath came, the whole shape of him came out his mouth like he was a young man, no longer old and wrinkled, and it just went out the door. Just before he died three little taps came to the door...Sebastian's mother was seen twice by two women after she died." Tancook Island, N.S. Creighton, BG, p. 79. This word is from the Latin "spirare", to breathe or blow, and hence the essential unseen ingredient or breath of life. Our ancestors supected that the dwelling place of the spirit was directly beneath the breast bone, where it could be observed

fluttering like a caged bird. They also suspected that this "soul" had an external counterpart housed in an invisible body which they referred to as the runner or shadow man. When witches flew off to their rites they projected their external souls upon these runners, who were then called familiars. Other common men who were gifted were able to see visions of the past or present through the inadvertent and unplanned union of their internal and external souls, which travelled as forerunners or backrunners. 1. In some places a spirit was considered as a vocal creature of the unseen world as distinguished from the ghost, which could always be seen but never spoke. 2. An individual, badly used during his lifetime, was likely to reappear as a haunt. spirit, unclean Sympathetic Magic: Sometimes referred to as "noisy spirits", and synonymous with "poltergeist". They were considered the effect of diabolical possession, the usurpers being open to banishment if rites of exorcism were conducted by a cleric having the gift or similar special powers. spit Sympathetic Magic: 1. "If when running you should take a pain, bend down, pick up a stone, spit on it and put it back with the spit next the ground. The pain will disappear." Fraser quoting an interviewee, FONS, p. 25. 2. "It is bad luck to spit into the hold of a vessel". Creighton, FOLC, p. 15. 3. Fishermen spit on their bait for good luck. Creighton, BM, p. 121. 4. A newborn child was made lucky if the mother spit on it. The first superstition had the intention of taking the injury "to earth". The earth itself was, formerly, considered full of god-spirit to which minor pain-spirits were naturally attracted. Spitting into the hold of a vessel symbollically placed water within the ship. It was guessed that this might attract larger quantities of sea-water, sinking the ship durings travel.

sprain Charm: "Sprains were cured by saying a rhyme over the injured member." Fraser, FONS, p. 26. Sympathetic Magic: Sprains might be treated by placing a bracelet of white thread, bearing seven knots, directly over the injury. Fraser, p. 26. "If knots were supposed to kill, they are also supposed to cure. This follows from the belief that to undo knots causing sickness will bring the sufferer relief. But apart from this negative virtue ...there are certain beneficial knots to which the power of postive healing is ascribed. Pliny tells us that some folk cured diseases of the groin by taking a thread, tying seven or nine knots on it, and then fastyening it to the patient; but to make each knot effectual it was necessary to name some widow as each knot was tied..." Sir James Fraser, TGB, p. 281. In the above instance, the pain spirit was assumed caught up in each knot as it was tied. In some instances the knots were finally untied and blown upon. When the last was undone the string was thrown into water after which the injury quickly cured. squirrel Divination: If squirrels stored a large reserve of nuts a harsh winter lay ahead. Saint Columa's Cake Divination: A barley, rye or oat-cake baked by the Gaels on the eve of Saint Columba's Day (June 9). A small silver coin was placed in the dough, and the cake was toasted over rowen, yew, oak or some other sacred wood. The chilkd of the family who found the money in his portion was given the crop of lambs for that year. stag-boots Sympathetic Magic: It is unlucky to wear stage-boots (cut-down hip waders) aboard a fishing vessel.

"Stage" boots were known to have little utility beyong getting the wearer to and from the outhouse. Most were leaky retirees from a long life at sea. To fishermen, leaky boots symbolized leaky boats, and were considered an omen of bad luck. star Sympathetic Magic: 1.If the big-dipper was overturned in the sky, rain was expected. 2. The direction taken by a "shooting-star" was believed to prognosticate the direction of wind on the following day. Notice the relationship of the first superstition to the idea that it was bad luck to turn anything upside down aboard ship, an act loosing symbolic waters and storm. stair Sympathetic Magic: The bad luck of meeting on a stair could be cushioned if the two individuals crossed fingers star Sympathetic Magic: "A Norwegian barque was once lost in Petpeswick (N.S.) Harbour and was sunk. Since then it has often been seen before a storm entering the harbour either as a vessel, or as a huge light light a big star..." Creighton< BG, p. 125. stone Sympathetic Magic: It was always good luck to wear a birthstone. 2. During World War II Canadian pilots picked up a pebble before leaving on missions and replaced it on the ground after landing. To fail in this was thought to court death. The ancients set great store on the magical properties of precious stones, such being used as amulets long before they were worn as mere decorations. Among the Celts, the snakestone was ground to a powder and sprinkled on sanke-bites. The wine-coloured amythest, whose name means "not drunken" kept its

wearer sober, while magnetite was worn by brothers who wished to live in unity, their interests being drawn together by its magnetic properties. The most famous Celtic stone was that known as "Lia Fail" which sang when a person worthy od kingship stood upon it, declared the innocence of a party by causing him to whiten, and declared the sterility of certain women by exuding blood. It has been suspected of being a "theophany of the soil divinity, the only divinity to recognize his master (in this case the King of Ireland)." Eliade, PICR, p.222. This same author has noted that, "stones, rocks and menhirs are places where fairies came and ity is to them that offerings were brought. No real worship was given to them but there was always somthing to ask them for." PICR, p. 225. In certain parts of Europe people were cured of illness by being passed bodily through the great holed-stones. Comape this with a similar local rite relating to trees. Stone of Mineota storm Sympathetic Magic: 1. Restless cattle seen at dusk indicated storm. 2. Dreaming of dead relatives was another storm indicator.

stranger stretch Sympathetic Magic: To stretch before a trip meant it would not be undertaken that day. suit-case Sympathetic Magic: A black suitcase was considered a jonah if brought aboard ship. Quite simply, anything black was symbolic of storm, while a black suitcase was seen as a storm-carrier.

sun Divination: 1. If the sun crossed "the line" on March 21st amidst storm, three additional months of "winter" was predicted. 2. Sundogs seen in the morning indicated a storm at sea. Those observed in the afternoon pointed up windy weather. Mariners disliked seeing the "dogs" in winter because the wind was always coupled with low temperatures. 3. A beautiful sunset on the last Friday of the month meant the following month would be one of good weather. Creighton, FOLC, p. 103. 4. If the sun was setting her "backstays" over the ocean one might expect wind and rain. 5. If the sun rose tinged with red wind was expected. "Red sun in the morning, sailors take warning; red sun at night, sailor's delight. 6. A rainbow seen in the morning pointed to three days of squall at sea. 7. To have the sun shine on Good Friday indicated a hot dry summer. 8. Ships were always turned "with the sun", or clockwise, a counter-clockwise turn being considered ominous. In agricultural communities the year was divided into quarters following periods of solstice and equinox. At the winter solstice the sun had its briefest stay in the sky and at the summer its longest. The spring and fall equinoxes were equidistant between these times. Those interested in omens watched the weather very carefully at the equinoxes when it was thought that the weather of the daylight hours prognosticated the weather to be expected in the coming three months. Sunday Divination: 1. Bad luck could always be promised those who worked on Sunday. 2. Fingernails were not cut on Sunday. 3. To sneeze on Sunday before breakfast was to hear of a death before the week was complete. 4. To sneeze on Sunday was to invite the company of the Devil for the week. 5. Those who insisted on working on Sunday would spend the afterlife eternally working at that particular job. A spirit-man is supposed to continue cutting, sawing and hauling operations at Sackville, N.S. because he was killed while logging on a Subnday.

The Anglo-Saxon "Sunnandaeg" was devoted to sun worship long before it was taken as a time to honour the Christian God. "It is not everyone that can see the elves; and one person may perceive them dancing while another sees nothing. Sunday children as they are called, are remarkable for possessing this property..." Keightley, TFM, p. 81. supernatural Sympathetic Magic: To speak of a supernatural experience would generate another of that kind. swallow Sympathetic Magic: 1.If a swallow's nest was intentionally destroyed, cow's would give milk containing blood. Fraser, FNS, p. 24. Primitives identified the soul as an internal animal which could be felt "flying about" just beneath the breast-bone. When individuals were in hallucinogenic trances it appeared that this "bird of life" was elsewhere so it was assumed that the soul might absent itself from the body without causing death. A German warlock said: "I cannot die, for I have no heart in my breast. In a certain church lives a bird and in it my heart. So long as the bird lives I live. It cannot die of itself, and no one can catch it; therefore I am immortal." Any bird or other animal, which entered a home where it was not normally resident, was suspected of being a witchfamiliar and this was considered an extremely bad augury. In ancient Greece the bird would be caught and a holy oil poured on its tail before release, a rite supposed "to make the curse fly away." In Atlantic Canada, it is assumed that not all believers understood that destroying the swallow's nest was the equivalent of ravaging the home of a witch, and likely to bring retribution. 2. "When the barn was being cleaned, I remember my father telling the men, "Don't touch those swallows' mud nests under the eaves. They're our insurance." Wylie McGinley, once of Chipman, N.B.,

quoted by Stuart Trueman, Telegraph Journal, July 15, 1989. Questioned on this, McGinley said this was not to ensure keeping down the mosquitos, but "it was believed swallows would not build in a place that might burn down..." swear words Sympathetic Magic: These were profane oaths or curses intended to make mockery of the god being implored. Local examples include: "by the old horned spoon, Lordy old cock-robin Christ, Holey Old Jesus, by cracky, by the rattley-eyed Jesus, by the rory-eyed Christ, by sweet humpbacked Jesus, by the holy old twist." 1. Profanity attracted the attention of the Devil, who often responded by claiming his own. 2. Swearing an oath as a jest did not exonerate the oath-taker. A fisherman At French Village, N.S., laughingly promised his two fish to "The Devil, if we meet him!" On the road they encountered"a great big animal larger than a dog. But we didn't give it the fish!" Creighton, BG, p. 107.

sweeping Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was unwise to sweep after dark. 2. To sweep after dark indicated a drowning at sea. Creighton, BM, p. 127. 3. Some mariners considered it unlucky to sweep after six o'clock in the afternoon. 3. Sweepings should never be swept over the sill into the yard. Sweeping was the perogative of house or sea-spirits in the hours after dusk. To preempt the minor duties of kaboutermanikins, kobolds, brownies or bodachs was thought to make them angry and retributive. switch Sympathetic Magic: Witches could be chased off with switches. Men were thought closely related to the tree-spirits and able to obtain their help by cutting their own "witch-wands" for use as

countercharms. talisman tea Sympathetic Magic: 1. Bubbles floating on tea represented money, which might be "collected" by transporting them on a spoon to the mouth. Care had to be exercised to prevent the bubbles from touching the sides of either spoon or teacup. 2. A tea leaf floating at the surface was termed a "visitor". To determine which door he might enter the handle was turned away from the body and the liquid stirred. If the leaf came to rest nearer the bowl he would enter by the back door and was probably a tradesman; if nearer the handle, the front, and a person of importance. 3. Those who left a cover off a teapot expected visitors. 4. It was unlucky to thank a person for reading tea leaves. 5. Before reading a fortune in the tea leaves the cup had to be inverted and turned three times in a counterclockwise direction. 6. Tea was never stirred with a spoon. When coffeee became popular this rite was extended to that beverage. Bubbles, having a circular shape, were taken as symbolic of coins. In removing fay treasure one had to be careful to keep it from the sides of the money pit, thus this figurative necessity. Teazer Light Sympathetic Magic: The light of a phantom, or fire-ship said to haunt Mahone Bay, N.S. The "Young Teazer" was a Yankee privateer trapped by the British in Mahone Bay. A young officer burned her to the waterline rather than surrender. Since she carried powder, the resulting explosion shattered windows as far distant as Blanford. Since that time, the apparation has been seen as a fire-ship, local fishermen having to veer hard to avoid collision. Some claim to have seen the crew in the burning rigging although physical incidents have occured. See fire-ship.

telephone pole Sympathetic Magic: People who walked on opposite sides of a telephone pole or a fence post were expected to quarrel. theatre Sympathetic magic: 1. It was bad luck to whistle in a dressing room. 2. It was considered an ill omen to place a hat on a bed or shoes on a table. 3. Peacock feathers were not permitted on stage. 4. It was thought unfortunate to quote from Shakespeare's Macbeth or Hamlet, and the former was never referred to by name. 5. Misfortune followed speaking the last lines of a play in rehersal. 6. Real flowers were not permitted on stage noe were they accepted as a tribute if passed over the footlights. 7. Yellow and green costumes were avoided. 8. Crutches were unlucky if used on stage. 9. Knitting on stage was considered an evil omen. 10. Umbrellas were excluded from the stage. 11. Squeaky shoes and canes were considered lucky props. 12. In hit plays the costumes worn on opening night were pressed into continuous wear. 13. To trip on making a first entry was fortunate. 14. Dancers spit into their shoes before putting them on.

thirteen Numerology: 1. The thirteenth day of any month was an unlucky time to take a fishing boat to sea. 2. Miners disliked entering the underground on the thirteenth day of the month. 3. To seat thirteen at a meal meant one would die before the year was out. The number thirteen is persistently regarded as unlucky, possibly because of Odin's difficulty with Loki, the thirteenth member of his Aesir. It is noteworthy that Jesus also had twelve useful compatriarts and the traitor, Judas. thistle

Divination: In deciding between prospective mates, our ancestors took thistle tops from the bull or the spear thistle and chipped away all of the purple bloom from a number equal to the contendors. Each was named and placed beneath the pillow, that which re-grew a purple top representing the true love. The naming of objects was considered to imbue them with some of the spirit of the person or animal who was named. In the above instance it was presumed that the shadow man or runner of the named individual would force the growth of the plant to make his human known to the future loved one. three Divination: 1. A house fire occurring after midnight on Sunday was an omen that three more would follow. 2. Three lights burning in a single room would cause a ship to upset at sea. 3. Three brothers aboard a vessel brought fatal results to the ship. Two brothers promised danger but three, a calamity. 4. In the mines if one man was killed before Christmas two more might be expected to die. Christmas was a bad time for accidents. 5. If three knocking sounds were heard in a mine the workers would come to the surface and suspend activity for the day. 6. "Three times a bridesmaid, never a bride." 7. To break a dish meant two more would follow. "Misfortune comes in threes." 8. Lost objects could be found after reciting the Lord's Prayer three times. 9. Lighting a third cigarette from a single match was unlucky. 10. If three individuals were photographed together the one in the centre would be the first to die. The number three has extremely rich symbolism: It has a connotation of completeness, since, initially, counting left off with the number two, three being an indication of any greater quantity. Medieval Christian numerologists noticed many uses of the number in Biblical lore, for example the three gifts of the magi, the three days between the crucifiction and ressurection, and recurrent references to the God as a Trinity. Three-fold deities are much

older, Osirus, Isis and Horus having been found and ancient Egypt; the edler gods, Loki, Hler and Kari in Scandinavia; and Morrigan, Medb, and Macha among the Celts. Richard Cavendish considers three, "the luckiest of numbers, since it stands for the godhead, truth and perfection", but the above superstitions suggests that the number is jealously guarded as the sole perogative of the pagan gods. thunder Sympathetic Magic: 1. Thunder soured milk. 2. Thunder was "God rolling potatoes" or "angels bowling. Sky gods who controlled the storm are prevalent in European myth, the most notable being Thor, or Donar, who rode out of the northern sky. The Celtic counterpart is found in the goddess Bolg, or Boann, (whose name appears in the River Boyne) and in Taranis (whose name derives from the Gaelic "torann" (thunder). The ancient pagans believed in the literal presence of sky gods who were usually associated with intense storms, the oak tree and various bird which were thought to presage the weather. The Christians transferred his or her attributes to the "One God", where they survive as superstitions. tide Sympathetic Magic: Meat obtained from animals killed on the rising tide was supposed to swell; that on the falling tide, shrink. Dwellers at the sea could not help but notice the periodic tides. The inflowing tide was seen, not merely as a symbol, but as the potential cause of prosperity and life, while the ebb was discerned as a real agent of failure, weakness and death. The Breton peasant was very sure that plants sown while the tide was receeding would fail to reach maturity and that cows fed on it would bloat and die. Throughout Britain, it was long assumed that the elderly could not die until the tide was completely out and could not be born until it was at full flood.

Tit's Day Sympathetic Magic: Tit or Tibb's Day was a pagan feast and recuperation day following Tit's Eve (which see). At one time it was the first day of the month and celebration termed Yule. In revised Christianized form Tit's Day was described as the day following the final Ressurrection and Judgement Eve, a day after time when accounts were beyond settlement. To have a Maritimer promise that he would repay money on Tit's Day meant that the loan-agent could not expect to recoup money in this or any other world. This feast day clearly belonged to the pagan deities Thor and Frey. C.L. Apperson, the writer of English Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases has guessed that this was "a day neither before nor after Christmass" and that "tibb" is synonymous with "never". Desultry attempts were perhaps made to give the day a Christian veneer by referring to it as Saint Tit's Day, but the connotations of the word made this unsuccessful. Certainly The Old English Chronicle does list a Saint Tibba, circa 963, but Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1870) insists there was never a legitimate saint who bore this peculiar name. The Oxford English Dictionary regards the word as a "hypocoristic" (i.e an abbreviated and endearing) form of the name Isabel, but they do not explain how it came to be the equivalent of "a girl or lass, a sweetheart, and a strumpet. Tit's Eve Sympathetic Magic: Also known as Saint Tit's Eve, Tibb's Eve, Tip's Eve, or Tipsy Eve. The evening of the twenty-third day of December. This holiday was known in some parts as the Mother Night and followed the shortest day of the year. In former times, the overindulgence on this night marked the beginning of Yule, which see. It has been guessed that the word "tit" may have

descended from the Icelandic "tittr", which at first described a small song bird and was extended from that to anything of small size including all teat-like projections, such as the human nipple. Fire festivals always included a lively amount of sexual activity which probably led to the creation of the Middle English verb "titten", to slap, pinch, squeeze, tease, pull, jerk or twitch." The excesses of Tit's Eve resulted in secondary meanings for "tit" or "tib", including "an inferior horse, a nagging woman, a jade, a whore, a small morsel or bite of food. The phrase "tit for tat" had an origin in early "lover's quarrels" where relalitory blows followed the usual squeezing and pinching of the human breast and other parts. toad Sympatheic Magic: 1. People who picked up toads contracted warts. 2. To catch a toad, salt was thrown on it. 3. It was bad luck to kill a toad. Folk Medicine: 3. In spite of the above advice farmers thought that "fedder bone on the hoof" could be corrected by splitting the body of a toad and binding it to the injury. Toads were kept by witches as familiars and as ingredients for many of their potions. The formula for catching a toad was thought equally useful against god-spirits and the fay. Among some Indian tribes the frog, or toad, was thought to harbour a benevolent water-spirit, which ensured the purity of water and hence the health of crops. On the other hand, many of the British tribesmen feared and loathed them as emissaries of witches and the Devil. Aside from the fact that they were likely to cause wartss, they were generally supposed to have a poisonous tongue (after the fashion of certain snakes). Any farmer who felt that his cattle were bewitched burned a toad alive at midnight, a rite certain to draw the witch to his side. Sir Walter Scott wrote of a family treasure known as a "toadstone", an amulet "sovereign for protecting new-born children and their mothers from the power of fairies..." This gemstone was supposed found in the

head of certain aged toads, and had the additional power of indicating the presence of poison by changing colour when placed in a suspect drink. token tools Workmen whose tools struck accidentally on the job would work together during the coming year. tooth Sympathetic Magic: 1. To have teeth set far apart meant that the possessor would travel. 2. If a cat or dog swallowed a human tooth, that person would grow a cat or a dog tooth in its place. 3. The fairies exchanged money for teeth lost by children. 3. People who had a tooth extracted were warned from sticking their tongue into the opening for fear one made of fairy-gold would grow there. 4. In some places it was considered lucky to bury an extracted or fallen tooth. A few of the ancients were adverse to discarding body parts, preserving all against eventual reuse in a reincarnated form. At the least, they arranged for the careful return of these parts to the god or goddesss-spirit of the earth, anything less leaving them open to the danger that teeth, hair or spittal might serve as the base for a spell or charm which could be used against them. Naturally, the fairies were anxious to exchange cash for teeth, since this gave them magical control over a human. tobacco Sympathetic Magic: Tobacco was a preferred commodity for propitiating all of the fay. At Saint John's Reversing Falls, the Maliseets believed that a spinning log trapped in one of the eddies represented a demon who was appeased by shooting arrows, with tobacco pouches attached, into it. Again, the ghosts of woodsmen were often seen presenting a pipe in an

appeal for tobacco, and the living frequently complied with these requests.

toothache Folk Medicine: 1. Sufferers used to go into the woods and drive a "rusty nail" into a tree while chanting: ""May you be there, all pains and aches." Fraser, FONS, p. 26; 2. A prophylactic against tootache was to chew wood from a tree which had been struck by lightning; 3. Christian (or pagan) prayers could be written on paper and placed in the mouth directly over the aching tooth. Fraser, FONS, p. 27. 4. In Gaelic places the "eolas an deideidh" (charm for a toothache) was recited. Gods, such as Thor, were thought to take temporary rest and recreation in the form of the oldest and highest trees in the forest. The fact that these were often struck by lightning was considered proof that the thunder god favoured the tree. Chewing the actual substance of a potent tree god was seen as a useful act. towel Sympathetic Magic: Two people who used the same towel invariably quarreled. travel Sympathetic Magic: 1. Meeting a woman on the road was bad luck, but if she happened to be red-headed an immediate turn about was advised. Fraser, FONS, p. 28. The ancient Germans believed that women were holy and consulted them as oracles. In the most extreme cases they were venerated as living reincarnate goddesses. In pagan times one did what he could to escape the notice of deities who might embody themselves in an unassuming form. It should be noted

that there was once reason to fear the "fire-haired" Norns of northern Europe, "whose principal occupations were to weave the web of fate for both men and the gods." In that matriarchial society, the power of divination was thought restricted to women and their predictions were never questioned. Also known as the Vala, Idises, Dises, or Hagedises, they officiated at forest shrines and rode with the armies of their people, urging them to victory. Their rites included blood sacrifice of enemies, wild dancing and the plunging of their arms into tubs of collected blood. Quite naturally they were greatly feared and propitiated. In Germany the present-day witch is still identified as a "hagge" and her kind are supposed to have been too powerful to kill; thus, the Christians banished them to the mountain top called Brocken, from which they ride forth on the eve of Valpurgisnacht. 2. It was traditionally certain that one would never again see an individual if their train or ship was watched until it was out of sight. 3. It was bad luck to turn back while travelling.See also visit. 4. All supernatural creatures had the capacity for instantaneous travel; thus, "...suddenly this woman appeared and walked up to mother, stroked her on the cheek and said, "Emma, how fat you are getting!" They did not see the witch either coming or going. The next morning the mother could neither open nor close her mouth and the imprint of the witch's hand was on her face. She could not speak but a gypsy prescribed a gargle and oil..." Creighton, BM, p. 63. 5. It was considered lucky to have an old shoe thrown after one on starting a trip, "whether going hunting or to find a sheeep that had strayed. MacNeil, TTUD, p. 211. treasure Sympathetic Magic: 1. The knowledge of buried treasure was better than possession, since the latter rarely brought joy or good luck. 2. Treaures were grotected by spirits known as guardians created by interring a corpse with the valuables. The guardian had boring work and might plead with humans to remove the treasure, but he (or she) was bound to make every effort to secure it. 3. Some said that guardians, and the treasure, could

only be unbound it new blood was spilled. One guardian thus admitted, "Theres money here and I want you to get it," but added, "You've got to draw blood from two twins." Creighton, BG, p. 49. The author herself thought that blood from two lambs would have sufficed. 4. According to local legend, pirates set the following charm upon their booty: "Devil take the keys to this till rooster plough and hen harrow." Kevin Bond of Codys says that this has been attempted in New Brunswick. Creighton was told of a man from Rose Bay, N.S., who completing this step, "found a chest full of money and jewels and never wanted again all the rest of his life." 5. Some individuals favoured binding the guardian by inscribing a circle about the site. 6. Midnight was considered an appropriate hour for retrieving treasure and digging had to take place without speech. The guardian was bound from physically interfering with the diggers unless they spoke, although he might present a good light and sound show. 7. Live frogs have supposedly been removed from treasure pits. 8. Dreams were frequently led to treasure troves, and instructions given in them were taken seriously if the same dream was repeated three times. 9. Lights hovering above the ground and rocks whiich fell from the sky to the ground were thought indicative of treasure. 10. Treasure came to the surface "for a bath" in seven-year cycles. 11. The noise of thunder, falling rocks or cracking ice frequently accompanied attempts to retrieve objects from a money-pit. 12. It was sometimes believed that the treasure chest could be secured by throwing a coat over it. 13. It was almost universally supposed that trasure could only be obtained after the seekers had either added a coin to the trove or taken one from it. 14. In the event that the "niceites" were not observed the considerable physical force of the guardian would be unleashed in which case the treasure chest would sink back into the earth, seekers might be transposed to some other location, blasted with energy, chased by a presence or otherwise harried. tree

Sympathetic Magic: 1. Certain venerable trees were saluted, on passing, with wishes and song. 2. In parts of the countryside, individuals attributed their good fortune to the presence of certain trees on their property. In at least one case, the owner used to place a nosegay beneath his tree each May Eve. 3. At Scotsburn, N.S., stood seven elm trees through which children passed alternately, touching each and wishing as they passed. 4. It was thought ill-omened to have a fruit tree bloom twice in a single year. 5. It was bad luck to plant a weeping willow. Divination: 6. When the bark was thick on the north side of a tree a harsh winter lay in store; if the bark was thin and white the winter would be mild. 6. To cure illness certain species (e.g the alder) were split lengthwise and the patient passed through. Men were considered to have arisen from trees and the gods often took their rest in the form of an elderly tree, thus the salutations. May Eve was the night before the Celtic fire-festival known as the Beltane and thus a sensible time for giving special honour to one of the pagan gods. In older times orchards were the site of carolling (round dancing) and cider-soaked toast was left in the branches for the benefit of the hob-robin, or hob-goblin, a descendant of some earlier nature-spirit. In those times, it was considered necessary to place a dead animal at the roots of a newly planted fruit tree if it was expected to bear. See also apple. "...the peasantry believe that in and under the elder-tree dwells a being called Hyldemoer (elder-mother), with her ministrant spirits." Before a Dane would cut one he would chant three times: "Hyldemoer, Hyldemoer; let me take some of thee, and I will in time give of mine in return. If this was omitted he would be severely punished...The linden or lime tree is also a favourite haunt of the elves...and not safe to be near after dark." See also various species names. Mircea Eliade does not note the passing of children through trees , but the act is surely associated with "that of placing the sick child for a moment in a crevice in the ground, or a hole in a rock, or the hollow of a tree..." According to her the function was to transfer the child's illness to tree. rock or ground

and to symbolize rebirth. See PICR, p. 251. trouble Sympathetic Magic: The effects of witchcraft were referred to as troubling and had a meaning similar to "blighting", "hexing", "charming" and "enchanting". trow Tuatha daoine Magic Race: Gaelic, pronounced "tootha danan", translates as the "people of the goddess Dan. The name given the god-like wizards defeated by the modern Irish, or Milesians, in the remote past. They were afterwards known as the Daoine sidh or little people. turned coat turlutex Acadian equivalent of mouth music. two Sympathetic Magic: 1. Turing up a "deuce" in a card game was bad luck. 2. Taking a two-dollar bill was briefly considered illomened. Twelfth-tide, Twelfth Night Sympathetic Night. Epiphany in Christian times, December 5th. "The only tradition...in Acadia was the Twelfth Night Cake. In some regions, the cake contained a ring, a medal and a button. When the cake was cut, it was said that the person who found the ring would be married soon; the person who found the medal had a religious vocation; and the person who found the button would remain a bachelor or an old maid. In other areas, a white beran and a kidney bean replaced the ring and the medal. It was arranged thatthe white bean would be found in a girl's peice and the kidney bean in a boys's. This couple became the king and

queen, presided over the evenings festivities and led off the dancing." Daigle, TAOTM, p. 491. tylwyth teg umbrella Sympathetic Magic: 1. Umbrellas were never opened indoors for fear of bad luck. 2. It was considered bad luck to pick up one's own umbrella. 3. Umbrellas were bad luck aboard a ship. 4. Umbrellas were considered bad luck when placed on a table or hung over a doorknob. 5. To drop an umbrella was bad luck unless it was recovered by a second party. 6. There is at least one record of an umbrella having served as a witch-wand: "Mother N. went out and saw the heifer lying there...she took an umbrella and swung it around her head three times by the handle, and when she swung the handle the third time, she pointed the handle right at the heifer...And when Anthony came over he couldn't get the animal up, and her one leg was broken, and Grandfather Frederick had to kill that animal right where she laid." Creighton, BM, p. 59. Umbrellas originally had wooden handles and were seen as having some of the properties of a magic rod, wand or staff. To open an umbrella anticipated storm and storm symbolized more general bad luck. No one wanted storm aboard a ship, thus umbrellas were excluded from shipboard. Utopia Monster Valentine's Day "Until 1935" (this day) was an occasion for the exercise of popular satire and sanctions...the time for ridiculing eccentricities or pretensions, for offering cutting reminders of foolish acts or idiosyncracies, or even for wreaking small vengeances. It was the occasion for mailing anonymous caricatures or drawings with certain featuresor words added to make the references more

pointed. Lauraine Leger, LSPEA, p. 72. visit Sympathetic Magic: 1. Visitors to to an unknown residence were expected to pause on the threshold and wish for luck. 2. In some places the visitor ceremoniously fell backwards toward the door while wishing. Creighton, BM, p. 160. 3. To visit and leave something behind meant that the person would return at a later date. Formerly, visiting unknown neighbours was a dangerous business, thus calling upon a god for assistance was thought sensible. It was assumed that those who faced their exit while entering had the best chance of escap[ing a hostile blade. Of course the earliest guests were frequently hostages, who later descended on their host to get back anything which had been left behind. wake 1. At death the body was covered with a white sheet, and mirrors and windows similarly shielded. 2. A candle burned near the body at all times. 3. Unless a boy was decomposing it was not placed in the homemade pine coffin until it was time to leave for the church. 4. Wakes were held for several consecutive nights, a midnight supper being served. walking Sympathetic Magic: It was bad luck to change sides while walking. wart Sympathetic Magic: 1.Individuals with the gift were able to transfer warts to a pea, which they would then tie in a rag and dispose of by throwing into a well. As the pea disintegrated, so would the wart. Fraser, FONS, p. 25; 2. Blood from a wart used to be placed on a cloth, which was then dropped ona frequently travelled path. Another individual picking up the cloth out of

curiosity became the new "owner" of the disease. Fraser, p. 25; Alternately, blood could be squeezed out on pebbles, which were then placed in a bag left on the road to be picked up by some less knowledgeable person. Fraser, p. 25; 3. Raw meat could be rubbed over the warts and then buried. An incantation, such as "Take this with you and rot in the grave!" assisted the process. As the meat decayed the warts were supposed to disappear; 4. "Another certain cure was to tie knots above the warts, corresponding exactly to their number, and then throw the string after a passing funeral procession. All of the above superstitions presume that the wart is a result of the spells or charms of witchcraft, at the least a magical blight caused by the presence of an unwanted visitor-spirit. These are traditional means of taking this spirit "to earth". wash Sympathetic Magic: Cows were sometimes unbound from blights by boiling silver in water and using it to wash the animal from head to foot. water Divination: 1. It was thought impossible for winter to take a serious grip on the land until the rivers and streams were full of water. 2. Certain springs (e.g. the Wilmot springs in Nova Scotia) were thought to have curative properties. 3. None of the fay races could cross moving water. 4. Sea monsters could not pass from salt to fresh water. 5. The water from a "boundary stream" (where two properties met) was taken into the mouth on Hallowe'en Eve and held there while the person made his first visit to a home in the community. Approaching closely without making himself evident, the individual would listen for inside talk being especially attuned to names. It was believed that the first name heard would correspond with that of the person destined to be a future mate. "I heard a story about three people, three girls, who went down to the stream and took up water. The three of

them proceeded toward the hopuse...someone (within) at the table called out to someone else...and the name called out was the first name of their future husbands...all the husbands turned out to have the same name..." MacNeil, TUD, p. 207. "the cult of water, and particularly of springs held to be curative... displays a striking continuity. No religious revolution has ever put a stop to it; fed by popular devotion, the cult of water came to be tolerated even by Christianity, after the fruitless persecuting of it in the Middle Ages...the cult seems to have lasted from the Neolithic until the present day...In England springs near some of the prehistoric barrows are held by local inhabitants to be miraculous or beneficent." Eliade, PICR, p. 200. Water was the medium of the elder god named Hler, Ler or Llyr, and was onced considered peopled by a host of magical creatures who might lend their powers to man if propitiated. Thus, in earlier times there was a custom of throwing cakes and garlands upon water and fertility rites of "throwing shirts, trowsers and shifts into the deep." Although some of these habits persisted into the nineteenth century participants "did not really know their object in doing so." These were not always benevolent forces, the Fomors and the Vana being accused of cannibalism, sexual assault and attacks against summer; thus the need for full streams before their power could fall upon the land. wave Sympathetic Magic: Certain witches waves their hats in the air to raise storms that prevented ships from leaving harbour, or drove them ashore. Creighton, BM, p. 56. As the hat disturbed the local air in a minor way, it was assumed that the motion would extend to the harbour-front, raising a storm, which would prevent the ships from leaving or create chaos. weather Divination: 1. It was believed that the weather seen during each of

the twelve days of Yule corresponded with what might be expected during the twelve months of the year. wedding Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was customary to fire guns at weddings. 2. In some places the bride and groom were restricted from the first dance at the reception, in other regions they were served first at the banquet and expected to lead the dance. Divination: 3. Place wedding cake under the pillow to dream of a mate. Noise making at weddings was meant to offend, and drive off, evil spirits and witches. well Sympathetic Magic: Individuals who used a common drinking vessel to share water from a well would become involved in a relationship leading to marriage. whistle Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was thought bad luck to whistle on Sunday. 2. "A whistling girl or a crowing hen, will certain come to a bad end!" white Sympathetic magic: 1. It is unlucky to wear anything other than white mittens aboard a fishing boat. 2. White rocks in ballast brought bad luck to a ship. 3. Seeing a white horse was lucky provided the viewer thumped his open left hand with his right fist; uncurled the fingers of that hand and kissed them; slapped the knee with closed fist; thumped the left hand again and made a wish, Creighton, BM, p. 135. 4. On seeing a white horse it was protocol to bow three times, spit as it passed, and avoid looking at the tail. Creighton, BM, p. 135. 5. On seeing a white horse people were advised to cross two fingers of the right hand and recite "White horse, criss-cross; Money 'fore the days out!" One then had to spit and make a wish. 6. Others advised that the

chant should be: "Lucky, lucky white horse, lucky, lucky lee; Lucky, lucky white horse, bring good luck to me!" Similar to Creighton, BM, p. 135. 7. Those exposed to a white horse were advised to keep their fingers crossed until they encountered a dog. 8. Alternately, the viewer might lick his fingers, touch the palm of the hand, stamp the hand and wish. 8. In general, white horses were considered good luck. 9. An individual who lost three wives was considered "white-livered". The word white correponds with the old Anglo-Saxon "whit", which is synonymous with "witch". White linen was the clothing most commonly associated with witches, god-spirits and the fay. White Gift Day white lady Magic Race: 1. The white lady walked beaches before storms without leaving tracks in the sand. Her passage was an omen of storm. Creighton, BG, p. 182. 2. The white or gray lady often materialized near flood swollen streams to warn humans of bridges which had been swept away. She never spoke but her wraith-like presence upset horses and dogs. 3. The woman in white sometimes walked on the ocean and carried a light which led fishermen home through storms. 4. This spirit sometimes knocked three times at the door of families where the death of an absent relative had occured. See revanter and runner whistle Sympathetic Magic: Whistling aboard ship will cause an excess of wind or some other form of bad luck. Creighton, FOLC, p. 15. Music at sea was considered the perogative of the undersea peoples, who considered themselves the ultimate musicians. Human competition was never appreciated and sea-demons were likely to raise the wind in response. It may also be supposed that a tiny whistle was seen as leading to the larger whistle of the wind

itself. whooping cough Sympathetic Magic: Mare's milk was recommended for whooping cough. Dunn, HS, p. 42. whore's egg Sympathetic Magic: Name for the marine animal known more generally as the sea-urchin. This echinoderm is a flattened sphere completely covered with spines. As a collector-diver of living biological specimens I had hands completely filled with these troublesome "needles", which took about four years to work their way free of the skin. Fishermen also had trouble with them! Since they had no cash value and were a genuine annoyance they received this extremely graphic name. As we've noted elsewhere, Christianity was opposed to the fertility cults and their missionaries suggested that overindulgence was likely to lead to physical problems, but this is an overstatement! widow's peak Sympathetic Magic: If a woman possessed a widow's peak she would outlive her husband and vice versa. A few individuals have hair which peaks in the area between the eyes, in imitation of a medieval headdress favoured by alchemists and the Devil. Although the fay were not considered immortal they were thought to live unusually long lives, thus the above superstition. wight, wicht or wichtlein Magic Race: A Germanic name formerly applied to people in general, but later narrowed to identify "a species of being that greatly resemble the dwarfs...all about three quarters of an ell high. Their appearance is that of old men with long beards." Keightley, TFM, p. 229. "Wight, answering to the German "wicht" seems to have been used in the time of Chaucer for elf or fairy,

most probably for such as haunted houses or it may have had the signification of "witch"... Keightley, TFM, p. 319. Infrequently used in Germanic areas of Maritime Canada.

will o' the wisp wind Sympathetic Magic: 1. Wind would not change direction before the change of the tide. 2. "when wind comes from south; look for rain from the hake's mouth." 3. A hard blow from the northwest was always followed by three days of severre storm. 4. It was said that a wind that went to bed with the sun would rise with it. 5. "When wind rises 'gainst the sun; trust it for another run. 4. When the wind travels with the sun; fine weather has just begun. 5. Southern winds were thought to carry rain. winter Sympathetic Magic: 1. Severe winter weather followed when animals grew heavy coats of fur. 2. When the nut harvest was unusually large a hard winter was predicted. 3. "Onion's skin very thin, mild winter coming in. Onion's skin thick and tough, coming winter, cold and rough." Ashley, SPAL, p. 14. 4. Skunks making an early retreat from the woods to the barns was considered a bad omen. wish Sympathetic Magic: 1. This word was sometimes employed as a synonym for curse, spell or blight or blessing. "It was claimed that my French grandmother put a wish on the Lusbys (of Amherst) because Mrs. Lusby did her a kind act. She wished she would walk on gold and prosper, and she did. If she disliked you, however, her black curses would be on you. Creighton, BM, p. 63. 2. It was considered "improvident" to wish oneself elsewhere after dark. Fraser, FON, p. 52.

The last is associated with the thought that the shadow man or runner of the individual would be instantaneously moved to that location. This was considered rash since any harm which came to the apparition would transfer to the human. In one Antigonish, N.S. home a "grown lad" named Malcolm was awakened by "a great pressure on his chest". He was amazed to see the wraith of his sister, Mary, kneeling upon him with an umbrella opened over her head. She began pounding him on the chest and he only managed to drive her off by using great force. When he wrote asking his sister what she had been doing at that time, she replied she had been walking a distant stree in Montreal in the pouring rain protected by a umbrella. She was "very lonely in the big city, and had wished with all her heart that she was with Malcolm." She had a few bruises to show for the encounter, which might have been avoided by saying, "I wish..., but not with a night's wish!" Fraser, FONS, p. 53. witch Sympathetic Magic: 1. Witches obtained their craft by cursing their parents, signing a blood contract with devil and reading black art books. 2. Witches were addicted to borrowing, and those who lent fell within the power of her spells. 3. Our colonial witches were of either sex and could bewitch or "do down" cattle, people and their possessions. 4. These individuals practiced witchcraft, sometimes termed magic. 5. The witch was incapable of passing over a broomstick before dark and could not cross running water. 6. Witches "cant live unless they are tormenting someone; they are still doing it (1947). Creighton, BM, p. 21. 7. Those who set countercharms against the craft expected three visits from the witch. In each instance she attempted to borrow or extract a favour. If successful, her spell or charm continued; if she failed, she was no longer able to have power over the individual. 8. It was considered bad luck to talk about witches. 9. Accepting any gift from a witch was bad luck. The local description of the witch does not differ greatly from the

medieval characterization, viz: "Witches, sorcerers and soceresses are people who deny God, and who renounce him and his grace; who have made a league with the Devil; have given themselves up to him body and soul; who attend his assemblies and sabbaths; and are given poison powder; and as his subjects, receive comands from him to injure and destroy men and animals; who through devilish arts stir up storms, damage the corn, meadows and the fields; and confound the powers of nature." This is, of course, a particularly Christian point of view, and there is strong suspicion that witchcraft was a decayed version of some older faith, the rites preserved as folklore. An Italian equivalent for witchcraft is "la vecchia" or "the old religion". "The truism that the god of the old religion becomes the devil of the new was particularly true of Christianity; since it admitted only one god all the "spare" ones from the older faith had to become either saints or devils. Thus the wood and tree spirits were metamorphosized into devils - or fairies, which were akin to devils." Tindall, AHOW, p. 33. Incidentally, the term witch derived from the Anglo-Saxon "wicce" (fem) and "wicca" (mas), and originally identified people who lived on embayments of the ocean. It can be guessed that the derogatory parts of their "craft" were first noted by their Norman conquerors, who took England in the Conquest of 1066. witch-bottle Sympathetic Magic: A countercharm used against witches. Consisted of a common bottle filled with a liquid (salt water, fresh water, or urine from the victim). It was considered that any action taken against the bottle would damage the witch. Thus, if it was sunk in a deep ocean trench, she would drown; if the water was boiled away she would become dehydrated; and if buried, she would suffocate. Sometimes new pins and/or needles were placed in the bottle to create a particularly virulent charm. witch's egg Sympathetic Magic: Name given to a small yolkless egg. Also sometimes the sea-urchin or whore's egg.

witch-doctor's tree Folk Medicine: A young ash tree wedges apart for the passage of a sick child, bore the above name. In remote mythology men and women are thought to have been tree spirits given "souls", motion, senses, and "blood and blooming complexions" by the elementals or elder gods of the north. The man was thought to have arise from the ash tree, and the woman from the elm. A little less remotely, ash trees were considered to contain nature spirits, whose force could be tapped with good result, as suggested above. witch-hazel Sympathetic Magic: Once considered a useful liquid for keeping witches at bay. witchmaster Sympathetic Magic: An elder witch, who possessed sufficient power to control other witches in the district. Ordinary citizens applied to him for countercharms, provided upon payment in kind or money. wolf in the tail Sympathetic Magic: This was the name given indigestion in cattle. It was thought cured by splitting the cow's tail and filling it with coarse salt and/or pepper and turpentine. woman Sympathetic Magic: 1. It was bad luck to have a woman aboard ship. 2. It was good luck to have a woman aboard ship, Creighton, BM, p. 123. 3. Women were unwelcome at the christening of a boat. 4. Women were unwelcome in mines. 5. Fish would not bite for boats carrying women. As noted elsewhere, the first witches might be of either sex, but

in medieval times when witch-burning was in vogue, women were found to be easier victims, and the witch is now inexactly defined as, "a female practitioner of magic." In the not-too-distant past men still excluded women from their company on the suspicion that they might be witches. woman in white Magic Race: See white lady. wood Sympathetic Magic: 1. Wood shavings left on the deck of a ship brought bad luck unless quickly brushed overboard. 2. To protect themselves those who boasted were advised to knock on wood if they wished to survive. Sailors once put unusual faith in the power of the ship's figurehead. In the great shipbuilding centres of Flanders, it was the custom to plant guardian trees (see runner, shadow man) at the birth of every child. The fate of such trees was considered intimately entwined with their life and longevity. At death childsouls were thought to enter and become resident in their tree. These trees were especially sought for figureheads, since the spirits, termed "klaubermannikins" took on the duty of ship's godspirit, warning against disaster, helping the sailors at their work, and repelling forces of illness and witchcraft. In some parts of Europe, peasants asked the pardon of resident tree spirits before felloing it. Working with wood was seen as an indignity to the tree, the shavings being disposed of before the tree spirit became annoyed and antagonistic. Knocking three times on wood is a means of contacting and propitiating tree spirits. word Sympathetic Magic: Individuals who vocalized the same word at the same time were to link their little fingers while saying: "May your wish and mine never break."

word, written Sympathetic Magic: 1. Individuals who wished protection from the fay, or any general evil, often had spells written on paper which they carried pinned to an innner article of clothing. 2. A traditional means of ending an infestation of rats was to write the unwanted creatures a letter suggesting a better farm where they might find residence. The paper was then greased to make it edible and pushed into a rat-hole. Once digested, the animals usually got the idea that they were not wanted. Among those who cannot read and write, written language has always appeared as no less than magically bound words transferred to strange symbols, bound on paper. Uncritical observation suggested that magicaians used spellers, or witchwands to unbind these words, releasing them to the air as spoken words. "The alphabet in itself has a quality of mysticism and power for the illiterate. They tend to treat the written word as if it had some virtue per se; there are recorded instances, both in past centuries and among simple people today, of a scrap of paper with words on it being regarded as an amulet by someone who is actually ignorant of what the words say." Tindall, AHOW, p. 119. worm Sympathetic Magic: To eliminate worms, angle worms were tied in a bag at the waist or neck. As these animals died, it was believed that the internal worms followed the example. wreck Sympathetic Magic: Those who built homes of wood salvaged from the wreckage of ships were always troubled. yarn Sympathetic Magic: 1. Farmers who discovered their animals wound about with yarn knew that they had been charmed and would die. One countercharm was to place the animal on its

back and light a circle of fire about it. Creighton, BM, p. 42. 2. A wool-ball ghost haunted a home in Nova Scotia: "My mother told me...that a wooll ball came in the front door and ran along the room." Creighton, BG, p. 165. 3. Far more eccentric was the kitten seen near the "Ghost Place" at Eagle's Head, N.S. which came "down out of the sky, not straight, but sideways", pursing a ball of yarn. Creighton, BG, p. 165. Divination: 4. An individual wishing to have a vision of a true love was advised to runa ball of yarn down into a well on a darked night, whicle chanting: We'll wind and bind our true love to find. The colour of hair, the clothes he'll wear, on the day we wed." Afterwards there would an appropriate dream. To tie knots about, or encircle animals or objects with string, thread or rope, was considered anti-social. Such acts of homeopathic magic were considered equivalent of crossing the air, an action intended to thwart the free-flow of natural spirits in the neighbourhood. In the above case, the physical binding of the animal was seen as symbolic of the psychic binding of its spirit.