In Atlantic Canada at least as much land has been lost to the ocean as has been gained from it since the last great continental glacier commenced its retreat. At that time it has been guessed that the mass of the Laurentide ice sheet was approximately the same as that now held in the Antarctic Polar Cap. There is evidence that the ice sheet pulled back haltingly as the forces of solar radiation and rising sea-water began to dominate the frozen water. There are also suggestions that the melting went faster on the Atlantic coast that elsewhere, the process beginning 18,000 years ago. At that time, the seas were much lower than at present, since the Laurentide Ice was not the only continental glacier tying up a huge mass of potential ocean-water. Douglas R. Grant has suggested that extensive ice domes may have existed on the continental shelves and that the maximum of glaciation may have seen ice standing very close to the continental slope. At that, his map of the situation in Quaternary Geology of the Atlantic Appalachian Region of Canada suggests that much of the Newfoundland Banks would have been dry land, as was the case the fishing banks east of Cape Cod. If Dyke and Prest’s maps (1987) of the paleo-geography are more nearly correct then that of Grant, the ice cover was less burdensome in the year 16,000 B.C. Their version of the past shows the Gulf of Maine filled with float-ice termed the Truxton Swell, but, excepting Labrador, the remaining glaciation is seen as an attachment of the continent. Anticosti Island is show free of ice by this date, as are portions of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton and the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland. The first in their sequence of maps shows thirteen major islands (half larger than Prince Edward Island) occupying the continental shelf. By 12,000 B.C. they are not substantially diminished in size in spite of the fact that the Gulf is shown free of all but marginal ice. By 11,000 B.C. all but two of these islands were extant, the more south-westerly having been lost to flooding, or subsidence, or some combination of the two. Archaeologists say that the land was inhabited by this time, the caribou-hunters having become well established at Debert, Nova Scotia. At that time, at least four of the Atlantic sea-islands were larger in land area than present-day Prince Edward Island. In the year 10,000 B.C. these same islands stood practically unchanged in back of land where ice was now restricted to a

small centres in northwestern New Brunswick and the uplands and highlands of southern Nova Scotia. Atlantis is supposed to have become submerged at about this time, and it is in the next thousand years that we see the beginning of the end for the sea islands. By the year 9.000 B.C., as the thermal maximum approached only three islands rival Prince Edward Island in size, the others, ranging downward to about the area of present day Grand Manan. By the year 8,000 B.C. when the world’s climate was extremely warm Sable Island is shown as the only remnant of the thirteen places which once stood within the Labrador Current. The fact that these map-makers fail to show Atlantic islands on their subsequent maps does no imply that they all disappeared from the world of men. The great fishing banks of the Scotian and Newfoundland shelves at least represent their remains, and they may have continued as very small islands (after the fashion of Sable) into historic times. We think it significant that parts of the Grand Banks chart no deeper than three metres in spite of the fact that they are eighty miles southwest of the nearest land. The more westerly St. Pierre Banks have shoals that are as close to the surface as seventeen metres

The first map of Atlantic Canada was penned by Juan de la Cosa in 1500 and supposedly represents the “Coast Discovered by the English,” as reported in John Cabot’s voyage of 1497. The newly discovered American coast was represented on that map as in the same parallels of longitude as southern Ireland and Bordeaux, France. If so, the northern extreme of the American map should be Newfoundland and the southern limit Cape Cod. Five islands were shown within this stretch of coast, but only one was flagged (indicating a landfall) and it was named Illa la Trenidat. Two others in Newfoundland waters were identified as Y. Verde (Green Island)

and C. Grago (Graois Island). Disappointingly, the Isle of Brazil is not located, but is often identified with the flagged point of land explicitly named as Mar Descubierto par Ingleses, the “Wetlands Discovered by the English.” In the de Cosa map, the coast is show trending more definitely westward than is actually the case, and it is almost featureless, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Gulf of Maine appearing as unnamed indentations. The cartographer William Francis Ganong has identified the other flagged landfalls (from east to west) as Cavo de S. Luzia, Cavo de S. Iorge and Cavo de Yngalterra, which he identifies with the present day Cape St. Mary, Cape Race and Cape Bauld. Y. Verde and C. Grago. are islands that seem to be associated with this last point of land, and are probably these places now known as Belle Isle and Groais (the last from the AngloSaxon, “indented, serrated”).

In the Oliveriana map of 1510 Labrador appears, but is represented as Insula de labrador, an island rather than a part of the mainland. If this whole map is rotated ninety degrees counter-clockwise it makes a little more sense: Cavo de las pera then becomes Hare Bay and Croga’y the Groais Island, mentioned above. Baiaventura, now called Bonavista is located, properly, south of the long northern peninsula where the Long Range Mountains are found.

The so-called Lisbon map of approximately this date, treats the southern half of Newfoundland and lands on the western side of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Here the Avalon Peninsula is shown as an island separate from Newfoundland rather than adjoined by a narrow peninsula. On it we see C. Raffo, which is of course C. Rasso, the modern Cape Race which lies near Mistaken Point. There is a Baia de ras , but it is beyong Cape Bauld and is seemingly an unrelated place where there was also a swift passage of water. It would be my guess that maracade , mar a cade , “where one sinks in the wet,” might correspond with some part of mainland New Brunswick, possibly the Mirimachi. There is no question that C. de bretois is the lowland discovered the British, now entitled Cape Breton. The enigmatic xozacade , or x onz a cade , “one hundred and ten sinkholes” fits most of the landscape of Cape Breton. I. fagunata which is fortress shaped and a little south west is obviously the place where one went for “fagots.” This word had special reference to the fagus or English beechtree in ancient literature. It is hard to say anything of worth about the two remaining Atlantic structures, except to note that looks as if they were being artificially buttressed against the forces of the sea.

Reinel’s map, dating from 1521 is marginally more satisfying. The crest is that of Spain, and Tera Frigida, announces a cold land. The two basic land markers C. Raso and c. dos bretoês. There is a fairly good representation of Newfoundland on this map except that the Avalon Peninsula is still an island and the northern parts are still attached to Labrador. The remaining names on land are not easily attached to anything currently in use, but the large bay west of Newfoundland is obviously the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Ri, gramde, the “Grand River,” would probably be Fortune Bay which still has communities named Grand Bank and Grand Beach. Po da cruz, the “River of the Cross,” seems to be Placentia Bay. Of more mythic interest are two nearby places C: das XI virgês , the “Cape of Eleven Virgins, “ and the island called Omze myll virgês, the islands of Eleven Thousand Virgins.” This last place has special connection with Saint Ursula, a fifth century daughter of King Theonestus of Brittany. She was endowed with great beauty but refused all suitors until Aggripus, King of England, sent ambassadors to her court, asking that she consent to marriage with his

son Conon. Ursula said she would agree, but on condition that she be allowed ten virgin handmaidens as companions. These ladies were to have a thousand maidens as their helpers and the princess required an additional thousand attendants to met her personal needs. She also insisted that she should be allowed three years to visit the shrines of various Christian saints and that all the English court should be converted to the new religion. These conditions were so extreme that Ursula believed they would be rejected, but the English court gladly accepted all her demands. Eleven thousand virgin females were gathered to form Ursula’s retinue, which joined her on pilgrimage to Rome. On their return journey, Conon and Ursula stopped at the German city of Cologne which was besieged by Huns as they visited. These savage men made what use they could of the women and then killed them. The leader of the rapists promised to spare Ursula if she would marry him, but when she refused he drew his bow and put three arrows through her heart. As it was considered that all good Christians went west to the Lands of the Blessed, it was generally supposed that travellers might find these females dwelling apart on islands in the western Atlantic. Ursula was afterwards depicted as a crowned princess carrying the arrows of her martyrdom, and holding the red cross of England upon a pilgrim’s staff. She was illustrated as accompanied by at least ten attendants and after her remains were recovered in 1155, her relics inspired additional folklore. Ursula became the patron of the Order of Saint Ursula (the Ursulines) a congregation of nuns dedicated to the education of young women. In 1969 her feast day was reduced to a simple observance.

The maps of 1525 were all influenced by the “discovery” of what is now New England by Estevâo Gomes. Alonso de Santa Cruz, Castiglioni and Salviati all produced very similar maps in that year. Salviati’s map gives Cape Cod more than its due, showing the admittedly extensive sand shoals arcing northward as far as the Penobcot River in Maine. The Bay within the hook was then Baya de s: xual rather than Cape Cod, and the place named Sant Juan baptista may be near present-day Boston. The only place easily matched with a modern day equivalent is C: de muchas yslas, “The Cape of Many Islands,” generally taken as located in the lower reaches of the Penobscot River, where there are, indeed, numerous islands.

The situation a little further east is reflected in the Wolfenbuttel map of 1525 where Cape Breton is represented, but not named, attention being given instead to Tierra de los bretonos, “The Land of the Britons.”

Cap Rasso appears as usual at the south of Newfoundland. C. de S: palos may be near St. Paul’s Inlet on the north western side of Newfoundland. The only significant additional detail on this map is the appearance of Y. des: Juhan, or “John’s Island,” a name later used to identify Prince Edward Island.

In Maggiola’s drawing, made a couple of years later, the borders of the land are similarly delineated with the Point of the Cross and the Islands of the Hundred and Ten thousand Virgins inserted from earlier maps. The only change here is the beautification of John, whose island is moved a bit south and named Iâ de S. Joan. This is not an essential change “Joan” being a feminization of “John.” Not shown on our insert is the region just south of Boston which is referred to as Costa de S. Iorge, “ Coast of St. George,” the other extreme being C. de breton. Notwithstanding these English references, Maggiolo planted the flag of France midway between Cape Breton and Florida in the extreme south. On his map the entire territory is entitled Francesca, or “Little France.”

Weimar’s map, published in this same year, shows a continued Spanish interest in New England which is shown as Tiera de Estrevam Comez. A footnote explains that he was there in 1525. On this map, and others of this date, Cape Cod is not named although its hook-like shape is easily identified. Wolfenbuttel's map is virtually identical as is that of Weimar. All identify the Penobscot as emptying north of the Cape of Many Islands, but the former identifies the river as R: des: mazia Arenales, not overly helpful since it suggests nothing more than a river near the seashore. The required Land of the Britons appears at the right of most maps of this date. The Ribero map of 1529 is, essentially, a copy of all these others and the same may be said of the Agnes map of 1530. Viega’s map centres on the region between Cape Breton and Cape Race but is, in many respects, a cruder representation of the New World than some earlier maps.

By 1535 Giacomo Gestaldi has managed to separate Terra Nvova, the “New Land” or Newfoundland from Labrador and La Nvova Francia, “New France., but the island appears fragmented the Long Range portion being represented as an entirely independent Iso La de De Moni, or “Isle of Demons.” The headland of Bonne vista , now “Cape Bonavista,” is similarly isolated as is the case with the familiar Cap de raz. Bacalaos or “Cod” Island is similarly treated. There are numerous islets southwest of the complex which represents Newfoundland and these include a new entry Isola de Brertoni, possibly “The Island of the Brothers.” As we have indicated elsewhere this may correspond with Saint Brendan’s Isle. On this map C. Breton is represented as an island apart from the mainland of New France, but C. de Breton,, now shown as a promontory of the island is shown a number of miles westward along the coast. Terra De Nvrvmbega, the “Northern Shaded Country,” is decidedly New Brunswick and a portion of New England. The mythic island of Briso which has drifted ashore just south of Le paradis may be Grand Manan which is decidedly the largest island in these waters. The Saint Lawrence River is unnamed but obviously confluent with at least two rivers including (we suspect) the Penobscot (far left) a well-known Indian portage route. Historians have

long puzzled over the tongue-like ocean trails shown on maps from this time forward. They have been interpreted as representing sea-trails leading to buried treasure and as delineating the fishing banks (which were always more extensive than this would suggest). This is, in fact, a sea within the sea, indicating the flow of the Labrador Current, which mariners could tag if they wanted a fast, but not necessarily safe, ride south. Note the designation Levante, at the upper right. This word indicates anything rising with the sun (in the east). It is the equivalent of the word “east,” just as Ostra indicates “west.” It is well known that this current divides about Sable Island and this place is indicated as Isola délla Rena, the “Island of Backwaters.” It is also generally known that the Current peters out in the Bay Of Fundy because of extreme tidal mixing in this basin.

The Rotz map of 1535 is similar to the Gastaldi in its partition of Newfoundland. this map-maker appears to have had a better grasp of the nature of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the river beyond, and places C: bretons on Cabo bretôs following modern convention.Rotz has managed to squeeze four mythic isles into the space between Cape Breton and Cape Race: Ille de berton, “Isle of the Brothers;” Ille Verte, “Green Island;” the Isle of the Virgins; and I: santana,, “Island of Healthy People.”

The Gemma Frisius globe of 1537 requires some translation and guesswork: The top of the globe appears to have been mapped in the cold months as the polar regions are shown as a single land mass, with Greenland shown at the extreme top, right. The idea of a north-west passage about the Americas dates from this time, the entry being marked Fretum arcticum sive triusrarrû per quod lusitania orientem & ad Indos & moluccas na vigare conati sunt. More simply: “The narrow Arctic strait by which one attains Lusitania the orient & the Indies & the Moluccas by effort of will.” At a guess we would identify Terra Corterrealis as Baffin Island. The Terra per britannos invento, or “Land discovered by the British” is decidedly Hudson’s Bay.

Notice the two designations Anorôbega and Anorombega , “Belonging to the

north shaded land,” within Baccalearvm Regio. the Region of Codfish, a designation usually reserved for Newfoundland or Labrador. We are suspicious that this map-maker has somehow confused Cape Breton with the general promontory of southern Labrador as the designation Promnotoriu agricule feu cabo del labrador, “Promontory of the agriculturalists or Cape of the farmers,” is used elsewhere to identify a part of Nova Scotia. Mercator's map, drawn in the following year, shows two Norumbega following the models noted above but in the more northern location the spelling has become A norumbega.. The southernly A norombega appears to correspond with the earlier Penobscot once identified as near the Cape of Many Islands.

The Vaz Dourado map of 1540 is interesting in that Cabo Bretao has been extended to all the countryside from the Penobscot top Cape Breton. On this map Sablon, or “Sable Island” makes an early appearance, but this map is, in most respects, a retreat to earlier forms and information. A new addition is the Baie dos Fumos, “the Bay of Smokes,” possibly modern Cape Smoky on Cape Breton Island or Pictou Harbour, which had a reputation for smoke issuing from burning underground tar-pits.

The Desliens map, published in 1541 is a better representation of eastern North America. Here all of the east has become terre des bretrons, the “Land of the Britons.” Otherwise this map is not very significant except for the unique spelling of Norumbega: Anoranbegue and the first appearance of the R. grande, possibly the first notice taken of the Bay of Fundy under this name.

The Santa Cruz map, which appeared in this same interval, represents Nova Scotia as Isla de S. Ivan, “Isle of Saint John,” while showing C. breton as a portion of the more northerly mainland. Here the Tiera de Bretones appears to be in the vicinity of present-day Quebec. The islands of virgins are still seen southwest of Plancentia Bay, but only one additional mythic island is represented in the waters due south of

Newfoundland, and it now has a name formerly given to the Maritime Provinces I de Juo Estevez.

In the Morgan Atlas of 1542 Nova Scotia has something of the look of a peninsula but the Bay of Fundy is still absent, but possibly represented in a minor indentation of the coast entitled R: de fundu. In this drawing the mythic islands of St. Croix and de berton appear in linguistically altered form and the isles of virgins seem to have become the I: de plaisance or “Isles of pleasure.” The Santa Cruz map retains the old form of showing the Penobscot as north the “Cape of many islands,” but the river is now called R. d las gamas, “River of Whales.” The Ulpius Globe, of this same date, is almost indecipherable because of its small scale, but it does credit Verrazana as the founder of eastern North America, and claims that the place should bear his name or that of Nova Gallia, roughly, “New land of the Foreigners (i.e. French). This is one of the few maps to omit Cape Breton although it does have Cavo de Brettoni in the traditional location. This map shows the land, or place, called Flora , “Flowering Place,”moved from an older location south of Cape Cod to what is now New


The Alfonso map of 1544 is of interest for the substitution of Riviere de norumbergue in place of R. d las gamas. On this map the land is generally called Terre de La franciscane, “land of the frenchmen.” Sebsatian Cabot’s map is centred about his explorations in the Cabot Strait and Gulf of Saint Lawrence. It also omits Cape Breton, but in its place notes cryptically that this is prima tierra iusta., “the place properly called the first landfall.” Three mythic islands appear on what is now continental shelf, their spellings somewhat altered from previous notations: I: cruz; del bertó and de Juansfnof.. Cortesao’s map, produced in this same year, shows an additional Atlantic island. Both maps have moved I: de S: Juan, or Prince Edward Island into its historic position, no longer confusing it with the peninsular Nova Scotia.

In the Vallard map of 1547 the Cape of Many Islands has become cap de la crois while Whale River has become Whale Bay.

From the standpoint of mythology the Gestaldi map printed in the next year, is more interesting since it has a full complement of strange islands dotting the Oceanus Occidentale. This sea-chart harks back to earlier days, representing a Brisa I as immediately south of P Real in the land of Norumbega The Island of Brothers has become corrupted as Breston I., but is in its traditional position due south of Newfoundland. Notice that orbellande, the “beautiful golden” island is very much displaced to the east as is the case with ye: verd and Maidas . The cluster of islands, further south, in a parallel with Florida, appear to be islands actually discovered off the coast of Africa.

The fact that Cabot had charted Isle Saint John properly, due north of Nova Scotia did not prevent map-makers from perpetuating the earlier idea that Nova Scotia was this island, and it appears in the old location in the Guilierrez map of 1550, where it is referred to as Ye de la Jn. The northern mainland has Cape Breton represented on it as C brreton. Aside from this there is a very interesting configuration of the Islands of Virgins, which is represented as a, more or less, triangular atoll. These islands are in approximately the same place on the “R.G.S.” map but are called the Isles of Pleasure.

On the Harleian map Cape Breton has become corrupted to read C. berton, and this model is followed by Lopo Homem in 1554, where the word becomes C dos bertois. Here, the mythic islands again appear as sea-fortresses, one of which is now identified I de S brandon, or “Brendan’s Isle.” The Rio canadaro map follows this form in its architectural representations of four islands in the ocean.

The La Testu map of 1555 has north-eastern lands described as Coste de La Flovride, “the Coast of Flowers.” The River of Whales has become Baie des illes , “Bay of Islands,” on this map, which represents Nova Scotia as the island called Ille sainct tehan . Cape Breton is now cap a breton. The Burin Peninsula of Newfoundland is correctly show in relation to the actual island of Sainct pierre, a place not previously delineated. The Peninsula itself is called Sainct Lorens, “Saint Lawrence,” another addition to local nomenclature. Of more interest is Les Vierges, which are shown in intimate association with the Island of Saint Pierre. There is nothing currently above water in this location although the St, Pierre Bank is extremely shallow at just this place.

The Pseudo Agnes map of 1556 is a move away from geographical reality, and is reminiscent of drawings made twenty years earlier, but it does better justice to the Saguenay F or S: lorenzo, which we now call the “Saint Lawrence” River. Here we observe what is now Quebec and Ontario represented as La Nova Francia, or “New France. Fortunately the marker points of C. Breton and Capo de ras are in place, otherwise it would be very difficult to make much of the islands scattered about in the eastern ocean. The mainland of New England and Maritime Canada is reasonably straight forward. The baya dell iysolot, is the somewhat disguised Penobscot Bay, the “bay of many isles.” In this vicinity we see the name arcadia.. As mentioned elsewhere this place-name conotates death, treasure and danger On the Agnes map this new name is applied to the land between the Penobscot and the Saint Croix rivers. The land beyond, in New Brunswick, is called Angoulesme, reflecting the modern New England. Not far offshore one finds the island of Brisa, with its numerous Celtic connections in myth. Note that the Labrador Current leads directly to it, suggesting that it may be Grand Manan, where this stream within the

ocean actually degenerates. As we have said the Island of Demons, in the far north, is likely Baffin Island. It is noteworthy that this was also the island which the Norse referred to as Helluland, a frontis for the very dangerous Nifhelheim, or “Hel’s home.” Note that the modern Table Head Point opposite the northernmost tip of Newfoundland was entitled capo de grad. Seamen must have approached land from this quarter, for this descriptive has the sense of “a step, an advance against an enemy,” the first step towards the extension of an empire. The partitioned mass of Newfoundland has places that can be attached to modern locales but Ye de brion, the “Isle of brion, does not attach itself to any part of western Newfoundland. This name is unquestionably Anglo-Saxon, the Gaelic form being brionn, a lie or a dream. The closest word in English is brangle, now largely obsolete; it has the same sense as wrangle, confusion (as in a dream).

The “Remarkable Italian Map” of 1562 is noteworthy for its retreat from geographic detail, but it does have some interesting name-changes. At the extreme left one finds C. de arenas , the “Cape of Weirs”, now Cape Cod, and at the right, C. Breton. Looking westward we see, once again, the C. de molte isole. “the Cape of many islands,” here detached from the R. Gamas, or “River of Whales,” which is further along the coast. Note that the adjacent R. de S. Antonio terminates near the site of a township labelled lepedra . Unfortunately this name tells us little about the place except that it is “charming, agreeable,” or “pleasant.” The R. Fondo is often associated with the Bay of Fundy, but this chart seems to represent it as Golfo Quadrante. Lago, the “Lake,” possibly thias ispresent-day Grand Lake, New Brunswick, is shown accessed through the Rio grande, the latter, perhaps, the Saint John River. This being the case, all of Arcadie

is within New Brunswick. In this version of geo-history the mythic Bressa is in southern Nova Scotian waters.

For even more confusion note the Ortelius map from the year 1564: Canada is represented here as an island in a vast northern sea. Terra de Norvmbega corresponds very roughly with modern New England, which is separated from Canada proper by the much enlarged Golfo des Games. There are little clues suggesting that this island is New Brunswick, another “Canada” being represented northwest of this land. The Rio grande is likely the Bay of Fundy, and we know that Terra Nvova is not Newfoundland but Cape Breton, for it bears C. Bretois in the southeast, while Cape Race is one more island toward the east. To create greater trouble some New Brunswick place names have unaccountably slid down the coastline into Cape Breton. The mythic islands are fairly well represented, but widespread. The Y. fagunda may be seen south of Terra Nvova with Y. di S. Brandas a bit southeast of this place, as is Y da grasa (Green Island)? Brions Island is north of Cape Breton as is the very real Sable Island.

The Luis map drawn and published about the year 1563 shows several mythic islands, but on our copy the only one named is Y. alvez, far to the southeast of Newfoundland.

The Zalterius map of 1565 is very like maps of the year 1562, but here the Rio grande has become the R. S. Lorenzo , the “Saint Lawrence River,” which is also seen as an unnamed northern river of huge dimensions. In this classic case of confusion the St. Lawrence lies within Larcadia which is directly attached Terra de Baccalos , Quebec, and Terra Della Labrador. Uncertain where Cape Breton lay, Zalterius represented it as south of Cape Despair. He scattered the mythic isles about Grand, which appears to represent Newfoundland, in the north he named Y. di Demoni, in the south Y de Orlando, Verde, Maida, and Brazil. He was less certain about the location of Cape Race and represented it as an island

south of the Land of Codfish.

The Mercator map of 1569 represents the first step towards realism in map-making but mythic places remain: On this map notice the village of Norombega in the countryside of Norombega. It is no longer on the Bay of Many Isles but on the r. grande, which is later associated with the Bay of Fundy rather than the Penobscot River. In this map the island called Briso is shown further east than before very close to the island and the cape named Breton. The mythic islands are three, in the ocean south of Newfoundland. Do breton is familiar, as is Y: de Juan estevêz, but arredonda is new to the scene. I think this last descriptive has the sense of a steep-faced “plump”island. The Ortelius map of 1570 is close in configuration to the Mercator map but it pushes Norvumbega a little further in the direction of Cape Breton and omits the island of Juan Estevan (John Stephen). This map shows Estoitiland, on Hudson’s Bay with one of the Fortunate Isles and the Island of Demons in close proximity. A map of Novia Francia from this same series reinstates As Virgines and brings back the old convention of representing the oceanislands as fortresses. The Ilha da Fortuna is still in place south of Estotiland but the Isle of Demons has been transmutated into I d”Arnoredos , “Isle of Northern Refuge.” The southern continental shelf is dominated by the island of St. Brandon, the isle S. Cruz and the Faguna al

de Jan Alvarez, The Ortelius map of 1570 is very similar but Estoitilant has a Middle English spelling and is close by Y das demonias and the additional Drageo, Island of “Dragons.” Noróbaga is still in its traditional place as are the three islands of Arredoda, Dobretan and Juan. Due south are the islands of Santana and the Sept cites, the latter supposedly discovered a full century earlier. The same holds for Brasile, shown here in its old location not far west of Irlant. In mid-ocean note the much displaced island of S. Brâdam, which modern map-makers position off the east coast of Newfoundland. An even later map, designed by Martines in 1578, also places Islant Brazille in Old World waters.

Lok tried to rationalize the discoveries of Verrazano, Cartier, Cabot and Corte Real with a map-offering in 1582, but sadly his effort was retrogressive: He thought that Norombega was an island, the south of which was discovered by J. Cabot in 1497. He notes that the north was “recovered” by Jac. Cartier in 1535. Fortunately things took a better turn with the Vaulx map of 1584 but the Bay of Fundy was, surprisingly, still lost to men, perhaps represented in a minor indentation named the b. des ballaynes, or “bay of whales.” The earlier Spanish form R. de games, literally the “River of the pods (of whales),” may be seen a little further

south.. The Wytfliet map of 1587 was not well drawn, and transposed the Y. fagundas to the position once reserved for the Virgins.

In 1592 the Mollineux Globe began to suggested the Bay of Fundy in R. Menan, but unfortunately mislocated it at the Strait of Canso. A traditionalist he called the northeast Norombega and located a city bearing that name at the headwaters of the R. Granda.. Following an old, and incorrect model, he located I. S. Ioan south of Nova Scotia. The mythic islands of Aredona, Dobretan, S. Cruz and Jan are show stung out like beads across the sea south west of C. de Breton. In this same year Panicus managed to get a better hold on the shape and position of the Bay of Fundy, and transposed Penobscot Bay into the R. Grande Norombega. In so doing, he dragged Norombega proper as far west as the R. de Bar or Petitcodiac. Planicus managed to represent Brendon’s Island as S. Bardam, but had less trouble spelling S. Cruz.

This did spell the end of misrepresentations: The Thomas Hood map issued in 1592 failed to notice the Bay of Fundy, placed Y de. S Jua back in waters south of Nova Scotia, sited Prince Edward Island as the island of Alizai, and named a nearby island Briani. This cartographer also recognized the resilient Virgines, which he seems to have equated with Cape Breton Island. By 1597 Wytfliet had pretty well tidied up the Sinus S. Laurenty region but continued to show the mythic islands of fortuna, Demomas and fagundes, the latter replacing the Islands of the Virgins. Y breton is still in place, but the land of Brize has ceased to drift and become part of mainland Nova Scotia at what is now Canso (misnamed C. de Breton on this map). The continuing state of chaos is illustrated in the Hakluyt map of 1599 and the Langren, of 1601. Fortunately Champlain, Lescarbot and company went to work soon after that and for a short time, the Grand Bay de Norumbega became la Baie françoise On Marc Lescarbot map, dated 1606, Norumbega has become the name for the present-day Penobscot, but the mythic isles have not been relocated, and all are swept away. Lescarbot’s map is a bit out of proportion, and Cape Breton Island

is named Bacaillos, undiscovered.







By 1524, with the change in land ownership Mallebarre is seen renamed Cape Cod while C. Breton is reinstated as C. Brittan. Sir William Alexander renamed Norumbega, or Acadia, New Scotlande and recognized the Grand Baie de Menane or the Baie françoise, as Argyals Bay. While the mythic islands are absent from Alexander’s map it will be noted that his cartographer recognized the various shoals which are known to be the remains of the ancient islands of this coast.