Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Master of Business Administration (MBA)


It gives me immense pleasure to present this concise Project Report to BV-IMR in partial fulfillment for the award of Post Graduate Degree in Business Management (PGDBM). I carried out a summer project work and wrote on the topic of ³Recruitment and Selection pattern for employees at American Express India Private Limited´ give clear picture of operation of AMERICAN EXPRESS INDIA PRIVATE LIMITED as a successful global financiers and financial services in India as well as many developed and developing countries across the globe having its headquarters at New York City. Founded in 1850, it is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is best known for its credit card, charge card, and traveler'scheque businesses. Amex cards account for approximately 24% of the total dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US, the highest of any card issuer and above all it is popular and familiar for its customer friendly attitude. The purpose of this study is to apprise readers¶ fraternity of business management stream to know how corporate conglomerates in the sector of financial services in general and AMERICAN EXPRESS in particular actually carry out their unique HR related functions in more fascinated and transparent while giving weightage for merits of budding professionals and how they chalk out their marketing strategies to retain talented skills and remain customer friendly for achieving success by accomplishing their goals despite utter competition among their competitors. Before presenting this project, at the outset I must say I have learned many broader concepts relating to Human Resource Management ± methods to retain talented heads and Sales and Marketing skills followed by corporates financial services theoretically. These concepts are only in the books, but I was delighted when I entered AMERICAN EXPRESS offices New Delhi to have the first hand experience on actual practice followed in HRD department, and Sales ± Finance service Credit card division Travelers¶ Cheque business - Marketing department

and its constant struggle to forge ahead as successful global ± regional and country financial service despite its competitors who are also leading in the Indian corporate financial service barons. Through this in-depth report I am sharing my experience with all has to how the AMERICAN EXPRESS employees¶ are fully satisfied with their job profiles and how their sales and marketing strategies have made them to be pioneers in their sphere of business with sole motto to be remain customer-friendly. Globalization and Liberalization and its aftermath, many economies all over the world have witnessed rapid changes in business horizons, and the financial services sector is not exception to this notion where business emerged not only as commercial entity but it has become economical and customer friendly. Simplified procedure for extending financial assistance to needy people in more systematic and transparent manner and extending card facilities to its valued reputed clients in their business have become buzzword and need of the present society. The two major aspects of present management education are theoretical approach and practical approach. Of these two, practical approach serves as the key of management course and is of vital importance in present scenario. It serves as a tool in shaping a future manager from amongst student fraternity of management to get an exposure on how the actual practice of HR related issues along with sales and marketing strategy that will steer the business entity and in this Report on AMERICAN EXPRESS how its service has been viewed by society and how it is reaching to new heights.


0 Research Methodology 3.9 Competition Information 1.5 Products offered by the Company 1.6 Limitations to the Study 3.2 Objective and Scope of the Project 3.10 SWOT Analysis of the Company 1. 12-13 13 20-21 22-23 23-24 25-28 28-32 2.CONTENTS Topic 1.1 Data Collection 3.11 Porters Five Forces Model of Competition 14 15-16 17-18 18-19 11 Page no.5 Overview of Data Collection Techniques 3.4 Mission & Vision of the Company 1.8 Company Values 1.0 Objective 3.1 Overview of American Express 1.7 Amex Guiding Principles 1.0 Introduction 1.2 Formation of the Company 1.7 Conclusion 4 34 35 36 37-38 38-39 39-41 42-50 51-55 56 .3 Historical Background 1.4 Type of Research and Research Design Used 3.6 Functions of the Company 1.3 Managerial Usefulness of the Study 3.

5 Human Resource Development 4.4 Scope of HRM at Organizational Level 4.3 Importance of Human Resource Management 4.2 Data Interpretation 86 87-97 98-103 Findings 104 Conclusion 105 Suggestions 106 Bibliography 107 Annexure 5 108-112 .0 Literature Survey 4.1 Data Collection 5.6 Staffing 4.7 Current Issues 4.8 Company History and Development 57 58 59-61 62 63 65 68-79 79-83 83-85 5.0 Data Analysis 5.4.2 Functions of Human Resource Management 4.1 Meaning of Human Resource Management 4.

INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Human Resource is a basic need of any work to be done. HR according to ARTHURLEWIS is that ³there are great differences in development between 6 .

and tried to find out which methods and various other information related torecruitment and selection and tries to come to a conclusion at what time mostly the manpower planning is don¶t . In thisproject I have tried to cover all the important point that should be kept in mind whilerecruitment and selection process and have conducted a research study through aquestionnaire that I got it filled with all the sales managers of AMERICAN EXPRESS INDIA PVT. CHAPTER I About the Company 1. American Express India has a well-articulated equal opportunity policy. It is said if right person is appointed at right place the half work has been done. Their selectioninvolves developing a list of qualified candidates. As a best practice inrecruitment. caste or gender. LTD.countries which seem to have roughly equal resources. what the various method used for recruiting the candidates and on what basic the selections is done. Recruitment highlights each applicant¶s skills. which lays strong emphasison hiring of individuals irrespective of age.1 Overview of American Express 7 .identifying qualified candidates. talents and experience. defining a selection strategy. so it is necessary to enquire into the difference in human behaviors´ The project report is all about recruitment and selection process that is an important part of any organization. race. thoroughly evaluating qualified candidates and selectingthe most qualified candidate.

American Express Company. This document describes how American Express achieves top performance in its three major service centers. and its Travelers Cheque Group is the world's largest issuer of traveler's checks. 8 . Amex cards account for approximately 24% of the total dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US. charge card. Founded in 1850. But the company's charge and credit cards are its bread and butter. the company still issues traveler's checks and publishes such magazines as Food & Wine and Travel + Leisure through its American Express Publishing unit. The company is best known for its credit card.American Express is a leader in delivering high quality services to its customers through integrated call centers. and network services provider. Its travel agency operations have thousands of locations worldwide. It is renowned for its service excellence. but it is better known for its charge cards and revolving credit cards. financial. it is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. the highest of any card issuer. sometimes known as "AmEx" or "Amex". strong brand equity and longterm customer loyalty.The company is one of the world's largest travel agencies. And yes. American Express has some 88 million cards in circulation worldwide. is a diversified global financial services company headquartered in New York City. American Express Company is a global travel. and traveler'scheque businesses.

97 billion. Company Profile 1. estimating the brand to be worth US$14. is a Roman gladiator whose image appears on the company's travelers' cheques and credit cards.Fortune listed Amex as one of the top 30 Most Admired Companies in the World.BusinessWeek and Interbrand ranked American Express as the 22nd most valuable brand in the world.2 Formation of the Company Origins 9 . adopted in 1958. The company's mascot.

the first president of American Express. Fargo and Company. and Fargo. Wasson & Company. its vice-president. New York. California. American Express Co. receipt. Soon after the new company was formed. proposed expanding their business to California. however. financiers and entrepreneurs from all over North America and the world flocked to California. and Fargo. 10 . were major figures in the young and fiercely competitive express industry. Adams and Company (later renamed Adams Express Company). entered the express business. Fearing that American Express's most powerful rival. founder of Wells and Company. Wells. Before either Wells or Fargo could pursue opportunities offered in the West. a partner in Livingston. would acquire a monopoly in the West. Butterfield. NYAug. Vermont native Henry Wells and New Yorker William G. Wells and Fargo decided to start their own business while continuing to fulfill their responsibilities as officers and directors of American Express. Wells. they had business to attend to in the East. and Fargo soon realized that their competition was destructive and wasteful. 1853 Wells. founder of Butterfield.Soon after gold was discovered in early 1848 at Sutter's Mill near Coloma. John Butterfield. and in 1850 they decided to join forces to form the American Express Company. Fargo watched the California boom economy with keen interest. the majority of the American Express Company's directors balked. In 1849 a new rival. drawn by the promise of huge profits. Undaunted. 6.

by issuing money orders. Zurich and Berlin.S. American Express started out in 1850 as a freight and valuables deliverservice for the rapidly expanding nation. This line of business took off rapidly and allowed the company to expand into Europe. American Express has become a global financial services powerhouse and one of this nation's most recognizable brands around the world. stock certificates and other merchandise. American Express honored these letters of credit in full.3 Historical Background More than a century and a half after its founding. More than 150. This provided a business opening for the company to ship larger parcels and valuable items such as jewelry. American Express decided to compete with the banks they serviced. 11 . In the late 1890s. Antwerp. the company had major offices in London. which allowed American citizens to fund their passages back home.000 Americans were stranded in Europe in 1914 at the outbreak of the Great War. where the American Express brand name became associated with security. These citizens flocked to the offices of American Express seeking funds after other European banks refused to honor their American letters of credit.1. capital and dependability. American Express then began focusing its efforts on this sector and used its connections to eventually enter the financial services arena. cash. The beginning of World War I forced American Express into the travel services businesses. The company took a turn when it began to realize more profit from a sector of its customer base that included banks and other financial institutions. Postal Service was unreliable at the time and only allowed shipment of lettersized envelopes. Soon thereafter. Paris. Banks placed a high value on American Express' secure and reliable delivery service for interbank transfers and drafts made between eastern cities and the growing western territories. The fledgling U.

but issued by invitation only to the wealthy and famous). in an effort to cater to the upper echelon of business travel. Vision of the Company To win the hearts. American Express issued its first credit card. Its traveler's check business meshed well with this well-heeled crowd of luxury globe-hoppers. Its platinum card debuted in the 1990s American Express continues to be a powerful global brand through the present day with an array of consumer products ranging from the Blue Card to the ultra exclusive Black Card. along with most other related services for passengers. based on the upfront fees and in how firm invested the float income. In 1966. The traveler's check business fueled the growth of the company over the next several decades. and wallets of our customers by providing extraordinary customer service. which caught on quickly in the booming postwar economy. In the 1950s. 1. minds. the company issued its first gold card. which isn't publicly advertised.In 1922. 12 . American Express jumped into the travel services business by providing luxury steamship travel around the world.4 Mission of the Company To be the most respected brand in the world.

American Express provides innovative payment. business-building insights. safer and more rewarding for consumers and businesses to purchase the things they need and for merchants to sell their goods and services. we help our customers realize their dreams and aspirations through industry-leading benefits. travel and expense management solutions for individuals and businesses of all sizes. An engine of commerce. We enable our customers to do more and achieve more. At American Express. Most of all. American Express makes it easier.Each day. and global customer care. access to unique experiences. We: y y are the world's largest card issuer by purchase volume process millions of transactions daily as the premium network for highspending card members 13 .

and a partner that provides business-building services to a worldwide merchant base. flexibility and financial control y provide commercial payment tools and expertise that help companies control their spending and save billions of dollars y offer marketing and information management insights that help merchants build their businesses y are customer loyalty experts with industry-leading rewards programs and platforms y operate the world¶s largest travel network serving consumers and businesses y y are recognized as the most innovative company in our industries are dedicated to serving our customers. encourage financial responsibility. information management and rewards capabilities -.combined with our leading-edge marketing. a processor of millions of transactions daily. 24/7. businesses and merchants worldwide -.enable us to offer an array of valuable services that enrich lives. global presence across the entire payments chain. We are the world¶s largest card issuer. Having this horizontal scale across payments gives us diverse opportunities to grow our business and drive innovation in the marketplace. around the world A Unique Service Company American Express is the only company with a strong. build business success.y help small business owners succeed by delivering purchasing power. Our direct relationships with many millions of consumers. the premium network for high-spending card members. and create communities of people with common interests. 14 . It¶s also a gateway to a broader array of services that further differentiate American Express.

1. services company. and uniquely powerful.This is what makes American Express a unique.5 Products offered by the Company: More Products & Services: Gift Cards: 15 .

American Express offers a broad array of products and services to individual and business clients around the world. one of the world's largest travel agencies and a global payments company that processes millions of transactions daily. We are.6Functions of American Express: As one of the world's leading service brands. All of our operations worldwide are categorized under these four umbrella organizations: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cards Travel Business Services Corporate/Enterprise Functions 16 . among other things.1.

and we have millions of business clients and card members worldwide. Our card businesses include: y y y y y y Consumer Card Services Group Customer Service International Global Commercial Card International Consumer Card Global Prepaid Services Service Delivery Network Travel: Exceeding the customer's expectations is a top priority for American Express. and we have millions of business clients and card members worldwide. Our travel businesses include: y y Consumer Travel Network Global Travel Services Business Services: Exceeding the customer's expectations is a top priority for American Express.Cards: Exceeding the customer's expectations is a top priority for American Express. Our business services groups include: y y y y Global Merchant Services Global Network Services International Small Business Services OPEN from American Express 17 . and we have millions of business clients and card members worldwide.

Information.7 AMERICAN EXPRESS GUIDING PRINCIPLES 18 . personnel and technologies are in place to ensure the Company's continued growth and success.Corporate Functions: The Corporate Functions at American Express work across multiple lines of business to make sure the right strategies. Our Corporate Functions include: y y y y y y y y y American Express Interactive Corporation Affairs and Communications Finance Global Advertising and Brand ManagementHuman Resources Legal Publishing Risk. and Banking Strategic Planning Group Technologies 1.

As the landscape changes.At American Express. We show the same care and commitment to service in our communities. Today's leaders navigate a world that is undergoing continuous change. This service ethos comes to life every time we help a customer ± whether with a simple. everyday request or in an emergency situation. develop and retain talented employees 19 . so do the tools leaders need to harness that change and improve organizational and individual performance. We appreciate the impact that talented leaders can have on business and society as a whole and we dedicate significant resources to attract. service has been a hallmark of our company throughout its 160-year history.

it is part of our individual responsibilities as citizens of the world. At American Express. We do this by supporting visionary nonprofit organizations that are: y y Preserving and enriching our diverse cultural heritage Developing new leaders for tomorrow 20 . It shapes relationships with our neighbors and with other communities around the world. we believe that serving our communities is not only integral to running a business successfully. At American Express. we believe that respect for and celebration of our diverse cultural heritage promotes human understanding and economic development in an increasingly interdependent world. The mission of our Corporate Social Responsibility program is to bring to life the American Express value of good corporate citizenship by supporting diverse communities in ways that enhance the company's reputation with employees.Cultural heritage forms our individual. customers. business partners and other stakeholders. local and national identities.

Distinct.It's hard to put a label on the Blue Box because American Express is unique. Quality 21 .8 Company Values Our Blue Box Values reflect who we are and what we stand for and clearly state our commitment to customers. providing access to products. 1. quality. people. from our brand to our business model. integrity.y Encouraging community service where our employees and customers live and work COMPANY CEO ± Mr. insights and experiences that enrich lives and build business success.American Express is a global services company. No other company is built like us. Customer Commitment We develop relationships that make a positive difference in our customers' lives. teamwork and good citizenship. Ken Chenault A heritage built on service and sustained by innovation.

across boundaries.9 Competition Information: Demand for banking services is closely tied to economic activity and the level ofinterest rates. encourage their development and reward their performance. Integrity We uphold the highest standards of integrity in all of our actions.We provide outstanding products and unsurpassed service that. Good Citizenship We are good citizens in the communities in which we live and work. Smaller banks can compete successfully in segments where customer 22 . and good risk management. together. Large economies of scale exist in some segments of the industry. to meet the needs of our customers and to help the company win Respect for People We value our people. Personal Accountability We are personally accountable for delivering on our commitments. deliver premium value to our customers. 1. A Will to Win We exhibit a strong will to win in the marketplace and in every aspect of our business. which has encouraged industry consolidation. Teamwork We work together. The profitability of individual banks depends on marketing skills.efficient operations.

NY Foster City. What's more. government takeovers. Wasserstrom said he expects the aggressive marketing of Visa's Signature card. rivals Visa International and MasterCard International are fast encroaching on its high-end turf. and involuntary mergers.service or knowledge of the local market is more important. aimed at upmarket customers. IL MasterCard Incorporated Visa Inc. banks to issue its cards. The lucrative fees AmEx charges merchants are under attack. slow demand for loans and increased government regulation may result in a long recovery period for the banking industry. Although the financial climate has improved. Purchase. CA Who are American Express Company's 23 . Many banks and thrifts aggressively offered adjustable rate and subprime mortgages during the housing boom of the early 2000s only to find themselves saddled with loan defaults and extensive losses when the housing bubble burst.S. UBS card analyst Eric E." Top American Express Company Competitors Companies Location Discover Financial Services Riverwoods. to slow AmEx's earnings growth. Deep exposure to subprime mortgages and mortgage-backed securities caused bank failures. and it has been slow to sign up U. In a July 12 report. former general counsel for Citibank cards: "AmEx has to be scared for a bunch of reasons. Adds Duncan MacDonald.

and provides summary analysis of its key revenue lines and strategy.10Swot Analysis of American Express The American Express Company-SWOT Analysis company profile is the essential source for top-level company data and information.Amex operates primarily in North America and Europe and in the Asia Pacific region. NY New York. payment services. United Kingdom New York. WA London. financial advisory services and banking service.Competitors? From refining your strategy to uncovering new opportunities. solid information about a company¶s competitors can be critical. NY Bellevue. It is headquartered in New York 24 . CA 1. payment services. financial advisory. NC McLean. NY San Jose. its products are offered in about 200 countries. American Express Company-SWOT Analysis examines the company¶s key business structure and operations. Hoover¶s subscribers have access to a complete analysis of American Express Company's main competitors with details in key categories. Competitor on file Competitor on file Competitor on file Competitor on file Competitor on file Competitor on file Competitor on file Competitor on file Charlotte. history and products. VA New York. American Express (Amex or ¶the company) is a leading global provider of travel related global provider of travel related service.

699 million in 2008.581 million in 2008.1% over 2007.7% over 2007. particularly in China Financial services product expansion Divestment of AEB and AEIDC 25 .365 million in the financial year ended December 2008. The company recorded total net revenues of $24. its products are offered in about 200 countries.841 million in FY2009. New Your and employs 58. a decrease of20. history and products. a decrease of 32.300 people.1% over FY2008. American Express Company SWOT Analysis examines the company%u2019s key business structure and operations. The company recorded total net revenues of $28. a decrease of 37. The net profit was $2. payment services. American Express (Amex or 'the company') is a leading global provider of travel related services. an increase of 2. a decrease of 13. and provides summary analysis of its key revenue lines and strategy.5% over FY2008. New York and employs 66. The net profit was$2.9% over 2007. It is headquartered in New York City.City.523 million in the financial year (FY) ended December 2009. Strengths American Express Company . The operating profit was $3. The operating profit was $2.000 people. Amex operates primarily in North America and Europe and in the Asia Pacific region. Opportunities Expand into point-of-sale debit card services y y y Global expansion.130 million in FY2009.7% over FY2008. a decrease of21. financial advisory services and banking services.SWOT Analysis company profile is the essential source for top-level company data and information.

y y y y y

Lack of point-of-sale debit card services. Declining Traveler's check business High interest coverage ratio increasing the company's risk profile Lack of merchant acceptance Higher merchant fees passed on to consumer

y y y

Interchange fees associated with legislative rulings in Europe Heavy competition from other financial institutions Financial turmoil in capital markets

The history of American Express is a vivid example of the invisible hand of the market steering the direction of a company. Starting as a freight forwarder, the founders learned quickly that it was much more profitable to transport small parcels for banks rather then larger freight. The innovation that they showed when they introduced money orders and travelers cheques is the very embodiment of the definition of business purpose. They created customers.

SWOT Analysis
1. Diversity. The company has added different products and services over the years. This diversity has made it able to spread financial risk over different channels.


2. Innovation. The company history is a study in innovation. It has pioneered many of the financial products we take for granted today, and consistently found ways to improve delivery of its services.

1. Credit and financial businesses are at the mercy of the credit market as well as consumer confidence. If consumer spending is off, as it is right now, and credit is tight profits will be down. 2. Size. The credit crunch has caused American Express to take measures to limit their default rate and minimize losses. As one of the largest credit card companies, they receive a great deal of attention in the press. This could end up hurting their corporate image many years after the economic crisis has passed.

1. American Express remains a relatively stable financial service company in comparison to some of its counterparts. This could be a tremendous plus for them when the economy begins to recover and customers have fewer choices in the industry. 2. Taking steps to limit risk, and becoming a leaner company could help the company to become even stronger.

1. Tighter regulations and government intervention could make the financial services industry much less profitable in the future.

2. As the US economy begins to affect the global economy, American Express may find itself a victim of anger and backlash around the world.


1.11Porter's Five Forces Model of Competition
Assessing the Balance of Power in a Business Situation The Porter's 5 Forces tool is a simple but powerful tool for understanding where power lies in a business situation. This is useful, because it helps you understand both the strength of your current competitive position, and the strength of a position you're considering moving into. With a clear understanding of where power lies, you can take fair advantage of a situation of strength, improve a situation of weakness, and avoid taking wrong steps. This makes it an important part of your planning toolkit. Conventionally, the tool is used to identify whether new products, services or businesses have the potential to be profitable. However it can be very illuminating when used to understand the balance of power in other situations too.

Understanding the Tool:
Five Forces Analysis assumes that there are five important forces that determine competitive power in a business situation. These are: 1. Supplier Power: Here you assess how easy it is for suppliers to drive up prices. This is driven by the number of suppliers of each key input, the uniqueness of their product or service, their strength and control over you, the cost of switching from one to another, and so on. The fewer the supplier choices you have, and the more you need suppliers' help, the more powerful your suppliers are. 2. Buyer Power: Here you ask yourself how easy it is for buyers to drive prices down. Again, this is driven by the number of buyers, the importance of each individual buyer to your business, the cost to them of switching from your products and services to those of someone else, and so on. If

5. 3. Threat of Substitution: This is affected by the ability of your customers to find a different way of doing what you do ± for example. and they offer equally attractive products and services. if you supply a unique software product that automates an important process. then you can often have tremendous strength. because suppliers and buyers will go elsewhere if they don't get a good deal from you. On the other hand. powerful buyers. If it costs little in time or money to enter your market and compete effectively. Competitive Rivalry: What is important here is the number and capability of your competitors. If substitution is easy and substitution is viable. If you have many competitors. 4. then this weakens your power. Threat of New Entry: Power is also affected by the ability of people to enter your market. then new competitors can quickly enter your market and weaken your position. if there are few economies of scale in place. then they are often able to dictate terms to you. If you have strong and durable barriers to entry. then you can preserve a favorable position and take fair advantage of it. if noone else can do what you do. people may substitute by doing the process manually or by outsourcing deal with few. These forces can be neatly brought together in a diagram like the one below: 29 . or if you have little protection for your key technologies. then you'll most likely have little power in the situation.

and summarize the size and scale of the force on the diagram. An easy way of doing this is to use. Then. and then check against the factors listed for the force in the diagram above. or "--" for a force strongly against you (you can see this in the example below). mark the key factors on the diagram. 30 . for example. a single "+" sign for a force moderately in your favor.Using the Tool: Brainstorm the relevant factors for your market or situation.

Bear in mind that few situations are perfect. Michael Porter. however looking at things in this way helps you think through what you could change to increase your power with respect to each force. it has become one of the most important business strategy tools. What¶s more. to analyze the attractiveness and likely-profitability of an industry. Example: Martin Johnson is deciding whether to switch career and become a farmer . if you find yourself in a structurally weak position.he's always loved the countryside.Then look at the situation you find using this analysis and think through how it affects you. This tool was created by HarvardBusinessSchool professor. March . and wants to switch to a career where he's his own boss. The classic article which introduces it is "How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy" in Harvard Business Review 57.April 1979. pages 86-93. He creates the following Five Forces Analysis as he thinks the situation through: 31 . Since publication. this tool helps you think about what you can do to move into a stronger one.

Intense competition puts strong downward pressure on prices. y Competitive rivalry is extremely high: if someone raises prices. 32 . they¶ll be quickly undercut. again implying strong downward pressure on prices. y There is some threat of substitution. y Buyer Power is strong. new competitors can come into the industry easily.This worries him: y The threat of new entry is quite high: if anyone looks as if they¶re making a sustained profit. reducing profits.

you can quickly assess the strength of your position and your ability to make a sustained profit in the industry. Maybe he'll need to specialize in a sector of the market that's protected from some of these forces. The Threat of Substitution: The extent to which different products and services can be used in place of your own. Key points: Porter's Five Forces Analysis is an important tool for assessing the potential for profitability in an industry. By thinking about how each force affects you. Competitive Rivalry: The strength of competition in the industry. this looks like a very tough industry to survive in. y The Threat of New Entry: The ease with which new competitors can enter the market if they see that you are making good profits (and then drive your prices down). it is also useful as a way of assessing the balance of power in more general situations.Unless he is able to find some way of changing this situation. and by identifying the strength and direction of each force. 33 . You can then look at how you can affect each of the forces to move the balance of power more in your favor. With a little adaptation. y y y Buyer Power: The power of your customers to drive down your prices. or find a related business that's in a stronger position. It works by looking at the strength of five important forces that affect competition: y Supplier Power: The power of suppliers to drive up the prices of your inputs.


4. To search or headhunt people whose skill fits into the company¶s values. 2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. 3. To learn what is the process of recruitment and selection that should be followed. To study the recruitment and selection procedure followed in American Express. To study the various sources of recruitment followed in American Express.2. 35 .


economical. financial problems. Different methods to test the aptitude of the candidates for the desired position and placing them in different processes based on their skills. 3. Or in other words we can say that secondary data is the data used previously for the analysis and the results are undertaken for the next process. Secondary Data: Data was collected from books. 37 . magazines. social. research is required and a methodology applied for the solutions can be found out. web sites. It is the data which has been collected by individual or someone else for the purpose of other than those of our particular research study.1 DATA COLLECTION: Primary Data: Primary data was collected through survey method by distributing questionnaires to branch manager and other sales manager. going through the records of the organisation.2 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF THE PROJEC T: The primary objective of the project is the Recruitment . These problems in life call for acceptable and effective solutions and for this purpose. Selection and Placement of Personnel. Research was carried out at American Express IndiaPvt . It includes Recruitment Procedure to be adopted while selecting suitable candidates for different profiles in the company. etc.Ltd to find out the ³Recruitment and selection process´ 3. The questionnaires were carefully designed by taking into account the parameters of my study.CHAPTER II Research Methodology In everyday life human being has to face many problems viz.

For e. In other words.The project is based on testing tools to be be used while hiring candidates in the company. but it is not. from responses to broad and generalizing questions. The problems of a poorly defined questionnaire do not end here. computer awareness and personal interview by the HR Department. Is this dissatisfaction with the learning of the software.g. written aptitude tests. of the ease of learning the software? Is it important for the users to learn the software quickly if they learn it well? What is meant by the software's performance? How accurate must the measurements be? All of these issues must be narrowed and focused before a single question is formulated. but continue on to the analysis stage. Objective of the study: The importance of well-defined objectives cannot be over emphasized. questionnaire's to analyze the employee behavior. Brief Introduction. The questionnaire designer must clarify what is meant by user dissatisfaction. Consequential. The questionnaire may lack a logical flow and thereby cause the participant to lose interest. the power of the software. A good rule of thumb is that if 38 . let alone its solution. A questionnaire that is written without a clear goal and purpose is inevitably going to overlook important issues and waste participants' time by asking useless questions. An objective such as "to identify points of user dissatisfaction with the interface and how these negatively affect the software's performance" may sound clear and to the point. what useful data you may have collected could be further compromised. how would it be possible to reach insightful conclusions if one didn't actually know what they had been looking for or planning to observe. It is difficult to imagine identifying a problem and its cause.

however they are not equally suited to measuring all types of data.3 MANAGERIAL USEFULLNESS OF STUDY Questionnaires are quite flexible in what they can measure. Every step needs to be designed carefully because the final results are only as good as the weakest link in the questionnaire process. they can be used to correlate performance and satisfaction with the test system among different groups of users. then you haven't spent enough time defining the objectives of the questionnaire. Although questionnaires may be cheap to administer compared to other data collection methods. are finding it difficult to write the questions. 3. It is important to remember that a questionnaire should be viewed as a multi-stage process beginning with definition of the aspects to be examined and ending with interpretation of the results. Subjective vs. the researchers control over the environment will be somewhat limited. Often they are the only feasible way to reach a number of reviewers large enough to allow statistically analysis of the results. Go back and do this step again. Scope of the Study: Questionnaires are an inexpensive way to gather data from a potentially large number of respondents. We can classify data in two ways. The questions should follow quite naturally from the objectives. Objective and Quantitative vs. A welldesigned questionnaire that is used effectively can gather information on both the overall performance of the test system as well as information on specific components of the system. If the questionnaire includes demographic questions on the participants. When a questionnaire is administered. they are every bit as expensive in terms of design time and interpretation. This is why questionnaires are 39 .

Questions may be designed to gather either qualitative or quantitative data.inexpensive to administer. questionnaires are better suited to gathering reliable subjective measures. For example. such as user satisfaction. This loss of control means the validity of the results are more reliant on the honesty of the respondent. and interpretation. of the system or interface in question. In general. but that qualitative questions require more care in design. if a group of participants are asked on a questionnaire how long it took them to learn a particular function on a piece of software. it is likely that they will be biased towards themselves and answer. By their very nature.4 Type of Research and Research Design Used: The Steps used in the Survey Project were : 40 . but in particular questions that assess a qualitative measure must be phrased to avoid ambiguity. Qualitative questions may also require more thought on the part of the participant and may cause them to become bored with the questionnaire sooner. A more objective usability test of the same function with a similar group of participants may return a significantly higher learning time. we can say that questionnaires can measure both qualitative and quantitative data well. administration. but the cost of such a questionnaire can be much higher and offset their economic advantage. Consequently. the word "easy" and "difficult" can mean radically different things to different people. 3. More elaborate questionnaire design or administration may provide slightly better objective data. with a lower than actual time. Any question must be carefully crafted. on average. it is more difficult to claim complete objectivity with questionnaire data then with results of a tightly controlled lab test. In general. quantitative questions are more exact then qualitative. For example.

The more specific you can make your goals. If your goals are unclear. The next thing to decide is how many people you need to interview. representative sample will reflect the group from which it is drawn. the results will probably be unclear. The larger the sample. Statisticians know that a small. If you conduct an employee attitude survey or an association membership survey. The first is deciding what kind of people to interview. the target population may be less obvious. the population is obvious. If you do not interview the right kinds of people. Selecting Your Sample There are two main components in determining whom you will interview. 1. 41 .1. Researchers often call this group the target population. Some typical goals include learning more about: y y y y y y y y The potential market for a new product or service Ratings of current products or services Employee attitudes Customer/patient satisfaction levels Reader/viewer/listener opinions Association member opinions Opinions about political candidates or issues Corporate images These sample goals represent general areas. Correctly determining the target population is critical. The goals of the project determine whom you will survey and what you will ask them. If you are trying to determine the likely success of a product. you will not successfully meet your goals. the easier it will be to get usable answers. Establishing Goals The first step in any survey is deciding what you want to learn. the more precisely it reflects the target group.

the rate of improvement in the precision decreases as your sample size increases. You must make a decision about your sample size based on factors such as: time available. budget and necessary degree of precision. if you recognize bias exists you can intuitively discount some of the answers. Totally excluding all bias is almost impossible. The consequences of a source of bias depend on the nature of the survey. For example.000 only doubles the precision. The Survey System (and this Web site) includes a sample size calculator that can help you decide on the sample size (jump to the calculator page for a general discussion of sample size considerations). a survey for a product aimed at retirees will not be as biased by daytime 42 . 1.However. The following list shows some examples of biased samples. For example. however. to increase a sample from 250 to 1.Avoiding a Biased Sample A biased sample will produce biased results.

you will want to ensure that the percentage of men and women in your sample reflect their percentages of the general population.interviews as will a general public opinion survey. For example. and so on. at a shopping mall. 1Quotas A Quota is a sample size for a sub-group. you may want to ensure that you have enough users of each brand to be able to analyze the users of each brand as a separate group. It is sometimes useful to establish quotas to ensure that your sample accurately reflects relevant sub-groups in your target population. Interviewing Methods Once you have decided on your sample you must decide on your method of data collection. If you are doing telephone or Web page interviewing. 43 . Personal Interviews An interview is called personal when the Interviewer asks the questions face-toface with the Interviewee. A survey about Internet products can safely ignore people who do not use the Internet. Alternatively. men and women have somewhat different opinions in many areas. outside a movie theater or polling place. If you are interviewing users of a particular type of product. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. you probably want to ensure that users of the different current brands are represented in proportions that approximate the current market share. They let you create automatically enforced quotas and/or monitor your sample during interviewing sessions. The Survey System's optional Sample Management or Internet Module can help you enforce quotas. on the street. 1. Personal interviews can take place in the home. If you want your survey to accurately reflect the general population's opinions.

For example. where travel time is a major factor. phenomena) and about the settings in which they occur. Particularly with in-home interviews that have been arranged in advance. If data are collected haphazardly. 44 . The ability to find the target population. In the collection of data we have to be systematic. 3. It draws its clientele from a specific geographic area surrounding it. People may be willing to talk longer face-to-face than to someone on the phone. y Longer interviews are sometimes tolerated. This is particularly true of in-home interviews.Advantages y y The ability to let the Interviewee see. feel and/or taste a product. and its shop profile also influences the type of client.5 OVERVIEW OF DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES Data-collection techniques allow us to systematically collect information about our objects of study (people. y Each mall has its own characteristics. it will be difficult to answer our research questions in a conclusive way. objects. Disadvantages y Personal interviews usually cost more per interview than other methods. These characteristics may differ from the target population and create a non-representative sample. you can find people who have seen a film much more easily outside a theater in which it is playing than by calling phone numbers at random.

mapping. For example. scaling 3. or for identifying increases in the incidence of certain diseases.Example: During a nutrition survey three different weighing scales were used in three villages. The researchers did not record which scales were used in which village. although it may not necessarily have been analyzed or published. unpublished reports and publications in archives and libraries or in offices at the various levels of health 45 . census data.5. It was therefore impossible to conclude in which village malnutrition was most prevalent. After completion of the survey it was discovered that the scales were not standardized and indicated different weights when weighing the same child. Analysis of health information system data. Various data collection techniques can be used such as: y y y y y y Using available information Observing Interviewing (face-to-face) Administering written questionnaires Focus group discussions Projective techniques. Locating these sources and retrieving the information is a good starting point in any data collection effort.1Using available information Usually there is a large amount of data that has already been collected by others. analysis of the information routinely collected by health facilities can be very useful for identifying problems in certain interventions or in flows of drug supply.

. telling their experiences and how they cope. They can be involved in various stages of the research. In designing such instruments.and health-related services. watching and recording behavior and characteristics of living beings. it forms part of a study in which other data collection techniques are also used. objects or phenomena. For health information system (HIS) data. however. may be a study in itself. patients suffering from serious diseases. This will save time and reduce error. e. for example. The advantage of using existing data is that collection is inexpensive.g. from the statement of the problem to analysis of the data and development of recommendations. and the data may not always be complete and precise enough.* In order to retrieve the data from available sources. 3. However. or too disorganized. Key informants could be knowledgeable community leaders or health staff at various levels and one or two informative members of the target group (e. The use of key informants is another important technique to gain access to available information.5.2 Observing OBSERVATION is a technique that involves systematically selecting. adolescents on their sexual behaviour). Other sources of available data are newspapers and published case histories.g. the data compilation sheet should be designed in such a way that the items of data can be transferred in the order in which the items appear in the source document. or their relatives. it is important to inspect the layout of the source documents from which the data is to be extracted. it is sometimes difficult to gain access to the records or reports required. the researcher will have to design an instrument such as a checklist or compilation sheet. Usually.. 46 .

whether community members share drinks or food with patients suffering from feared diseases (leprosy. They can also check on the information collected through interviews especially on sensitive topics such as alcohol or drug use. 47 . For example. For example. who now observes hospital procedures µfrom within¶.Observation of human behavior is a much-used data collection technique. Observations can also be made on objects. or stigmatizing diseases. openly or concealed. It can be undertaken in different ways: y Participant observation: The observer takes part in the situation he or she observes.g.g. but as they are time consuming they are most often used in small-scale studies. AIDS) are essential observations in a study on stigma.. a doctor hospitalized with a broken hip. TB. more accurate information on behavior of people than interviews or questionnaires. Observations of human behavior can form part of any type of study. µmystery clients¶ trying to obtain antibiotics without medical prescription). the presence or absence of a latrine and its state of cleanliness may be observed. Observations can be open (e.. but does not participate. Observations can give additional. They may serve different purposes. (For example.) y Non-participant observation: The observer watches the situation. µshadowing¶ a health worker with his/her permission during routine activities) or concealed (e. Here observation would be the major research technique.

either individually or as a group. in nutritional surveillance we measure weight and height by using weighing scales and a measuring board. include how teenagers started sexual intercourse. and the actions they take in the event of unwanted pregnancies. Answers to the questions posed during an interview can be recorded by writing them down (either during the interview itself or immediately after the interview) or by tape-recording the responses. or by a combination of both.g. For example. The investigator should have an additional list of topics ready when the respondent falls silent. the responsibility girls and their partners take to prevent pregnancy (if at all). The two extremes. These may..If observations are made using a defined scale they may be called measurements. Measurements usually require additional tools. high and low degree of flexibility..5. We use thermometers for measuring body temperature. 3. The sequence of topics should be determined by the 48 . (e. Interviews can be conducted with varying degrees of flexibility. the investigator may use a list of topics rather than fixed questions.g. who made the decision and who paid).3Interviewing An INTERVIEW is a data-collection technique that involves oral questioning of respondents. when asked about abortion methods used. are described below: ‡ High degree of flexibility: For example: When studying sensitive issues such as teenage pregnancy and abortions. e.

Though in principle one may speak of loosely structured questionnaires. It is often possible to come back to a topic discussed earlier in a later stage of the interview. ‡ Low degree of flexibility: Less flexible methods of interviewing are useful when the researcher is relatively knowledgeable about expected answers or when the number of respondents being interviewed is relatively large. Then questionnaires may be used with a fixed list of questions in a standard sequence. or if the topic is sensitive. 49 . one may conduct a larger survey on water use and satisfaction with the quantity and quality of the water. The unstructured or loosely structured method of asking questions can be used for interviewing individuals as well as groups of key informants. in practice the term questionnaire appears to be so hooked to tools with precategorised answers that we have decided to use the term interview guide for loosely structured tools. For example: After a number of observations on the (hygienic) behavior of women drawing water at a well and some key informant interviews on the use and maintenance of the wells.flow of discussion. The instrument used may be called an interview guide or interview schedule. It is frequently applied in exploratory studies. in reality there is often a mixture of open and pre-categorized answers. In that case we will still use the term questionnaire. A flexible method of interviewing is useful if a researcher has as yet little understanding of the problem or situation he is investigating. which have mainly fixed or pre-categorized answers. However.

50 . The questions can be either open-ended or closed (with pre-categorized answers).4 Administering written questionnaires A WRITTEN QUESTIONNAIRE (also referred to as self-administered questionnaire) is a data collection tool in which written questions are presented that are to be answered by the respondents in written form. 3.6 Projective techniques When a researcher uses projective techniques. y Gathering all or part of the respondents in one place at one time.5.5.12 informants to freely discuss a certain subject with the guidance of a facilitator or reporter.5 Focus group discussions (FGD) A focus group discussion allows a group of 8 . giving oral or written instructions.3. A written questionnaire can be administered in different ways. or y Hand-delivering questionnaires to respondents and collecting them later.5. 3. such as by: y Sending questionnaires by mail with clear instructions on how to answer the questions and asking for mailed responses. she asks an informant to react to some kind of visual or verbal stimulus. and letting the respondents fill out the questionnaires.

etc. .5. They are also very useful in FGDs to get people¶s opinion on sensitive issues. It can be used to present the placement of wells. distance of the homes from the wells.7 Mapping and scaling Mapping is a valuable technique for visually displaying relationships and resources. what would you do? Such techniques can easily be combined with semi-structured interviews or written questionnaires. It gives researchers a good overview of the physical situation and may help to highlight relationships hitherto unrecognized. . I would. A researcher may ask the informant to complete in writing sentences such as: ² If I were to discover that my neighbor had TB. . for example. . In a water supply project. mapping is invaluable. 3. 51 . other water systems.. Mapping a community is also very useful and often indispensable as a pre-stage to sampling.For example: An informant may be provided with a rough outline of the body and be asked to draw her or his perception of the conception or onset of an illness. ² If my wife were to propose that I use condoms. Or she may ask the informant: Suppose your child suffered from diarrhoea. I would. Another example of a projective technique is the presentation of a hypothetical question or an incomplete sentence or case/study to an informant (µstory with a gap¶).

(Also see the literature list at end of this module. The informants would then be asked to explain the logic of their ranking. 52 . the following table points out the distinction between techniques and tools applied in data collection. more such techniques will be presented. In a separate volume on participatory action research. Mapping and scaling may be used as participatory techniques in rapid appraisals or situation analyses.) Rapid appraisal techniques and participatory research are approaches often used in health systems research.Scaling is a technique that allows researchers through their respondents to categories certain variables that they would not be able to rank themselves. they may ask their informant(s) to bring certain types of herbal medicine and ask them to arrange these into piles according to their usefulness. Differentiation between data collection techniques and data collection tools To avoid confusion in the use of terms. For example.

Data collection techniques and tools 53 .

Advantages and disadvantages of various data collection techniques 54 .

µWhat¶ and µHow¶ are important questions. focus group discussions. in the nature and causes of certain problems and in the consequences of the problems for those affected. Flexible techniques. opinions. such as y y y loosely structured interviews using open-ended questions.II. and participant observation are also called QUALITATIVE research techniques. attitudes). They produce qualitative data that is often recorded in narrative form. µWhy¶. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES involve the identification and exploration of a number of often mutually related variables that give INSIGHT in human behavior (motivations. IMPORTANCE OF COMBINING DIFFERENT DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES When discussing different data collection techniques and their advantages and disadvantages. The answers to questions can be counted and expressed numerically. it becomes clear that they can complement each other.or postcategorized answers to questions are an example of QUANTITATIVE research techniques. Structured questionnaires that enable the researcher to quantify pre. Researchers often use a combination of flexible and less flexible research techniques. 55 . A skilful use of a combination of different techniques can reduce the chance of bias (see below) and will give a more comprehensive understanding of the topic under study.

The second. the first. testing the relevant findings of the exploratory study on a larger scale. and association of certain variables in a study population. A study could be designed to address this problem. In this example. qualitative part of the study would be used to focus the survey on the most relevant issues (mothers¶ feeding behaviors and reasons for these behaviors) and to help phrase the questions in an optimal way in order to obtain the information that is needed. quantitative part of the study would be used to find out what proportion of the mothers follow various practices and the reasons for their 56 .20 mothers. have unsatisfactory food intake once they fall ill. and y FGDs with women in the study area to discuss findings and possible questions arising from the survey and to develop possible solutions for problems detected. Both qualitative and quantitative research techniques are often used within a single study. For example: It has been observed in country X that children between 1 and 2-1/2 years. who have already started to eat independently. µHow many?¶ µHow often?¶ and µHow significant?¶ are important questions.QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH TECHNIQUES are used to QUANTIFY the size. to find out whether they change the feeding practices for childrenin this age group when they suffer from (various) illnesses and how mothers deal with children who have no appetite when they are sick (exploratory study). containing the following stages: y Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 2 to 5 groups of mothers or in-depth interviews with 10 . distribution. y A cross-sectional survey.

making data analysis more complicated.behaviors and whether certain categories of children (e.. the younger ones or children from specific socio-economic categories) are more at risk than others. Do the conclusions make sense to women in the study area? Have certain aspects been overlooked when interpreting the data? What remedial action is feasible to improve practices related to feeding sick children? It is also common to collect qualitative and quantitative data in a single questionnaire. and y do not use inappropriate statistical tests on quantitative data generated by small-scale studies. 57 . Researchers collecting both types of data have to take care that they: y do not include too many open-ended questions in large-scale surveys. qualitative part of the study would provide feedback on the major findings of the survey. The third.g.

² open-ended questions without guidelines on how to ask (or to answer) them. These sources of bias can be prevented by carefully planning the data collection process and by pre-testing the data collection tools. Possible sources of bias during data collection: 3.1Defective instruments.6 Limitations to the Study BIAS IN INFORMATION COLLECTION BIAS in information collection is a distortion in the collected data so that it does not represent reality.6. y Weighing scales or other measuring equipment that are not standardized (see section 1). ² vaguely phrased questions. ² µleading questions¶ that cause the respondent to believe one answer would be preferred over another. or ² questions placed in an illogical order.3. such as: y Questionnaires with: ² fixed or closed questions on topics about which little is known (often asking the µwrong things¶). 58 .

by phrasing questions on sensitive issues in a positive way. by taking sufficient time for the interview. even if it is true. Their use as interviewers would certainly influence the results of the study.2 Observer bias: Observer bias can easily occur when conducting observations or utilizing loosely structured group. In a study soliciting the reasons for the low utilisation of local health services. for using a tape recorder and transcribing the tape word by word. and by assuring informants that the data collected will be confidential (see Module 10B). There is a risk that the data collector will only see or hear things in which (s)he is interested or will miss information that is critical to the research. Moreover it is highly recommended that data collectors work in pairs when using flexible research techniques and discuss and interpret the data immediately after collecting it. For example: in a survey on alcoholism you ask school children: µDoes your father sometimes get drunk?¶ Many will probably deny that he does. and training and practice should be provided to data collectors in using both these tools.3 Effect of the interview on the informant: This is a possible factor in all interview situations.3.6. 59 .or individual interviews.6. Observation protocols and guidelines for conducting loosely structured interviews should be prepared. It is also important to be careful in the selection of interviewers. Such bias can be reduced by adequately introducing the purpose of the study to informants. Another possibility commonly used by anthropologists . The informant may mistrust the intention of the interview and dodge certain questions or give misleading answers. 3. one should not ask health workers from the health centres concerned to interview the population.

it is important to report honestly in what ways the data may be biased. Another common information bias is due to gaps in people¶s memory. to prevent them. to a certain extent. 60 . Harm may be caused. A mother may not remember all details of her child¶s last diarrhoea episode and of the treatment she gave two or three months afterwards.4 Information bias: Sometimes the information itself has weaknesses. we need to consider whether our research procedures are likely to cause any physical or emotional harm. asking. for example. For such common diseases it is advisable to limit the period of recall. If the researcher does not fully succeed. by: y violating informants¶ right to privacy by posing sensitive questions or by gaining access to records which may contain personal data. Medical records may have many blanks or be unreadable. this is called memory or recall bias.6 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS As we develop our data collection techniques.3. y observing the behaviour of informants without their being aware (concealed observation should therefore always be crosschecked or discussed with other researchers with respect to ethical admissibility). for example. in a TB defaulter study the percentage of defaulters with an incomplete or missing address should be calculated. This tells something about the quality of the data and has to be recorded. By being aware of them it is possible. For example. 3.6.6. µHas your child had diarrhoea over the past two weeks?¶ Note: All these potential biases will threaten the validity and reliability of your study.

) until the end of the questionnaire. By then the interviewer should have built a rapport with the interviewee that will allow honest responses to such personal questions. sex. etc. and y failing to observe/respect certain cultural values. y y ensuring the confidentiality of the data obtained. In general. education. If sensitive questions are asked. it may be advisable to omit names and addresses from the questionnaires. Other General Tips: In personal interviews it is vital for the Interviewer to have empathy with the Interviewee. Several methods for dealing with these issues may be recommended: y y obtaining informed consent before the study or the interview begins. rather than personality. Choose your Interviewers according to the likely respondents. Mail and Internet questionnaires should do the same. although the rapport must be built by good question design. about family planning or sexual practices. For 61 .y allowing personal information to be made public which informants would want to be kept private. Exceptions to this rule are any demographic questions that qualify someone to be included in the survey. Interviewers should try to "blend" with respondents in terms of race. gender. Leave your demographic questions (age. income. language. and learning enough about the culture of informants to ensure it is respected during the data collection process. or about opinions of patients on the health services provided. for example. not exploring sensitive issues before a good relationship has been established with the informant. etc. traditions or taboos valued by your informants. age.

example. The number of lines you should have depends on the question. You want to make it attractive. Many products have a wide range of secondary uses that the manufacturer knows nothing about but which could provide a valuable source of extra sales if approached properly. Eye tracking studies show the best place to use for answer spaces is the right hand edge of the page. Leave a space at the end of a questionnaire entitled "Other Comments. 62 ." Sometimes respondents offer casual remarks that are worth their weight in gold and cover some area you did not think of. many researchers limit some surveys to people in certain age groups. should always leave sufficient space for handwritten answers. In one third world market. Lines should be about half-an-inch (one cm. This is especially important on paper. Do not have an interviewer ask a respondent's gender. Have the interviewer fill in the answer themselves. These questions must come near the beginning. A single answer choice on each line is best. you also want to make it easy for your data entry personnel. Three to five lines are average. unless they really have no idea. Using the right edge is also easiest for data entry. computer direct and Internet surveys. but which respondents consider critical. If you are creating a paper survey. It is much easier for a field worker or respondent to follow a logical flow across or down a page. Always consider the layout of your questionnaire. either horizontally or vertically. Try to keep your answer spaces in a straight line. a major factor in the sale of candles was the ability to use the spent wax as floor polish . Paper questionnaires requiring text answers. easy to understand and easy to complete.but the manufacturer only discovered this by a chance remark.) apart.

It also slows the data entry process when working with paper questionnaires. or computer screen space. consider whom you are studying when you create your questionnaire. They also can avoid a long series of very repetitive question and answer choice lists. as in the second of the following examples. Questions and answer choice grids.The Survey System lets you create a Questionnaire Form with the answer choices in two columns. As always. Unfortunately. are popular with many researchers. Creating the form that way can save a lot of paper or screen space. but you should recognize doing so makes the questionnaire a little harder to complete. Look at the following layouts and decide which you would prefer to use: An alternative layout is: 63 . They can look attractive and save paper. they also are a bit harder than the repeated lists for some people to understand.

It is easier to read. and a good researcher will save their cost many times over by knowing how to ask the correct questions. 64 .The second example shows the answer choices in neat columns and has more space between the lines. Surveys are a mixture of science and art. if you are using a paper questionnaire. The numbers in the second example will also speed data entry.

the questionnaire becomes a powerful and economic evaluation tool. However. 65 .3. allowing the collection of both subjective and objective data through the use of open or closed format questions. Modern computers have only made the task of collecting and extracting valuable material more efficient. Questionnaires are versatile. If it is determined that a questionnaire is to be used.7 Conclusion Questionnaire design is a long process that demands careful attention. One forms a hypothesis and an experiment that will help prove or disprove the hypothesis. A questionnaire is a powerful evaluation tool and should not be taken lightly. a questionnaire is only as good as the questions it contains. the greatest care goes into the planning of the objectives. There are many guidelines that must be met before you questionnaire can be considered a sound research tool. Design begins with an understanding of the capabilities of a questionnaire and how they can help your research. One does not collect data and then see if they found something interesting. When these guidelines are followed. The majority deal with making the questionnaire understandable and free of bias. Questionnaires are like any scientific experiment. Mindful review and testing is necessary to weed out minor mistakes that can cause great changes in meaning and interpretation.


Conceptual Discussions


Literature Survey


Human Resource plays a crucial role in the development process of the modern economics. ARTHUR LEWIS observed

³There are great differences in development between countries which seem to have roughly equal resources, so it is necessary to enquire into the difference in human behaviors´

Human resource management is the management of employees skill, knowledge abilities, talent, aptitude, creativity, ability etc. different terms are used for denoting Human Resource Management. They are labour management, labour administration, labour management relationship, employee±employer

relationship, industrial relationship, human capital management, human assent management etc. Though these terms can be used differently widely, the basic nature of distinction lies in the scope or coverage and evolutionary stage. In simple sense, human resource management means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements.



Functions of Human Resource Management

Strategic planning, organizational evaluation, CountyBoard relations, policy recommendations, supervision of department staff

Health insurance, dental insurance, life insurance, disability insurance, retirement benefits, vacation, sick leave, paid holidays, section 125 plan, donor program, educational incentive, uniform allowance, and others.

Salary and benefit surveys, job evaluation, job descriptions evaluation, job descriptions

(iv) Employee relations:
Disciplinary processes, incident investigations, complaint/grievance procedures, labor-management relations.

(v)Employee services:
Enrollment in benefits, employee discounts for recreational spots, resolution of enrollment or claim problems, employee newsletter. Educational assistance, employee service awards


safety compliance and training. safety records and other administrative files. workers compensation claims. background investigations. 69 . payroll records. insurance receivables. total package costing. testing administration. accounts payable. post-offer employment testing. compliance with timeliness standards. departmental budget. employment interviews. insurance fundmanagement. (x) Performance appraisal: Employee files. Insurance receivables. rights upon return to work. (vii)Health and safety: Employee assistance. total package costing. (viii)Leaves of Absence: State and/or Federal Family and Medical Leave rights.(vi)Fiscal: Staffing budgets. insurance fund management. supervisory training. light duty assignments for temporary periods (ix)Payroll Administration: Computer-based or manual evaluation systems. (xi) Record-keeping: Job posting. County approved leaves of absence. litigation files. drug testing. advertising.

unemployment compensation. severance benefits.(xii) Recruitment: Recruitment is defined as a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures fir meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ to employ effective measures for attracting the manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an effective workforce. exit interviews. searching for prospective employees and stimulation helps too apply for jobs in an organization. the management has toperform the function of selecting the right man at right job and at the right time. (xv) Training and development: County-wide needs assessment. development of supervisory and management skills. (xvi) Salary and benefits: Salary/wage plans. (xiv) Separations and terminations: Rights upon termination of employment. Supervisory newsletter.employee training and workshops. employee benefits 70 . Benefits orientation for new and transferring employees. (xiii) Selection: After identifying the sources of human resources.

This can distort traditional wages and salary relationship in organization.4. resulting in unavoidable consequences. when recruitment fails to meet organizational needs for talent. the poor quality of selection means extra cost on training and supervision. Further inmore . 3: Make sure that there is match between cost and benefit. Thus theeffectiveness of the recruitment process can play a major role in determining the resources that must be expended on other HR activates and their ultimate success. 71 .3 Importance of Human Resource Management 1: Attract highly qualified and competent people 2: Ensure that the selected candidate stays longer with the company. atypically response is to raise entry level pay scales . 4: Helps the organization to create more culturally diverse workforce Whereas.

4.4 Scope of HRM at Organizational Level 72 .

Motivational activities and entertainment. Appraisal and increment. Induction-involves the information to the new employees about the company.4.involves motivating the employees to improve their productivity. job. 73 . 2. This Department includes number of function which are as follows: 1. 7.5 Human Resource Development This department looks after the needs and Requirement the present employees. soft skills and process related to training. Process and policies±it contains all the rule and regulations that need to be followed by the employees. 6. 3. Training and Development±it includes technical. Key Result Area (KRA)±it is the measurement quantifiable of output for the roles of is in the formal feedback to the employees about their performance and the conduct of work 4. departments etc 5. Roles and responsibilities-that every individual employee needs to fulfill.

partners. these principles should guide the work of all American Express employees: y We must offer a superior value proposition to all of our customer groups. 9. Employee separation-includes resignation and dismissal. Computerization 11. or 74 . Helpdesk 12. 10. travel or banking clients. 13. About HR Operating Principles No matter what job titles we hold or what part of the business were in or where we are in the world.8. Employee verification-take place at the time of joining of the new employee. Project trainees 15.take place when a new employee joins the company. merchants and other business. y All the above head are included in the human resource development and involves the over all development of individual employees which in turn increases the overall profit of the company. Surveys 14. Counselling and grievance handling-both are different as counselling is basically helping out in personal problems whereas. Joining formalities. we must provide the best value of any competitor in the marketplace for the price we charge²whether were servicing carmembers. With every product and service we offer. grievances Handling involves the handling of complains that the employees has towards the management.

no matter their job title or level. 2010 Priorities Our 2010 mantra is to: y y y Drive Growth Drive Efficiency. They focus more on growth rather than on responding to crisis conditions around us. There's another very important point to understand about these priorities. and Deliver Superior Service These priorities are a fundamental change from last year. driving efficiency and delivering superior service. Absolutely everyone in the organization. y We must support the American Express brand.and our inherent company values. In other service. They reflect our improved position from a year ago. Any business action we take must be in step with the core tenets of our brand -. we must be focused on doing business as efficiently possible so that we continually generate savings to invest in our future growth. personal recognition -. has contributions to make in driving growth. but they also recognize that growth will not come easily in an environment shaped by a still weak economy and increased regulation.any other American Express customer. y We must have best-in-class economics. 75 .

76 . If we don't deliver superior service. we want to: Involve you. That¶s why we have to deliver on all of these priorities simultaneously. if we don't manage our expenses carefully and free up funds to invest in our future. the hiring manager.Each of these three priorities is critical and affects the others. because unless the right type of people are hired. Recruitment has been regarded as the most important function of the HR department . we will hurt our ability to grow. 4.6 STAFFING Staffing Philosophy: Creating peak performance by putting the right people in the right jobs is a critical staffing goal. y y To ensure that we hire the best available talent. in each step of the process Enable you to make key decisions quickly. and y Have HR professionals available to offer professional advice Employee Recruitment Process Overview (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) Manpower Requisition Form Recruitment Plan Budget Sourcing Selection Process Joining (VII) Post Recruitment Data Updating RECRUITMENT Recruitment is ³hiring´ of employees from outside. we will lose customers and the revenues they bring. organization chart and control system would not do much good. For instance. even the best plans.

Accordingly the purpose of recruitment is to locate sources of manpower to meet the job requirements and job specification. namely : 1: Direct method 2: Indirect method 77 . Edwin B Flippo defines recruitment as the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for the jobs in the organization. ³It is the process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. It is defined as a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of staffing schedule and to apply effective measures for attracting the manpower to adequate number to facilitate effective selection of an effective workforce Yoder points out that recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employee effective measures to attracting that manpower in adequate number to facilitate effective selection of an effective workforce.´ Methods of Recruitment Dunn and Stephens summaries the possible recruiting methods into three categories. The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their application are submitted.Recruitment is the discovering of potential applicant for actual or anticipated organizational vacancies. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected.

whereas the advertisement of the blue color jobs usually confine to the daily newspaper. clerical employees. and mannered exhibits. and lower level administrative employees. Advertising is a very useful for recruiting blue color and hourly worker. and using mobile offices to go the desired centers. professional. Other direct methods include sending recruiters to conventions and seminars. Advertisements in newspapers and or trade journals and magazines are the most frequently used methods. Senior post is largely filled with such methods. This is mainly done with the cooperation of the placement office of the college. Local newspaper can be good sources of blue collar workers. INDIRECT METHOD Indirect method involves mainly advertising in newspapers. One of the widely used methods is sending the recruiters to different colleges and technical schools. on the radios. and technical employees. setting up exhibits at fairs. employees contact with public. 78 . in trade and professional journals. as well as scientific. The main point is that the higher the position in the organization the more dispersed advertisement is likely to be. firms directly solicit information form the concerned professors about student with an outstanding records. The search for the top executive might include advertisement in a national periodical.3: Third party method DIRECT METHOD The direct method includes sending of the recruiters to different educational and professional institutions. Sometimes. technical magazines and brochures.

indoctrination seminars for college professors. THIRD PARTY These include the use of commercial or private employment agencies. but also in which newspaper having a local. and friends and relatives. They charge a small fee from the applicant. three main points need to be borne in the mind before an advertisement in inserted. State or public employment agencies are also known as the employment or labour exchanges. They specialize in specific occupation. to visualize the type of applicants one is trying to recruit.wide circulation. computer staff. to decide where to run the advertisement. state or a nation. engineers and executives. Private employment agencies are the most widely used sources. Employers inform them of their personnel requirement. state agencies. accountant. or why should the reader join the company. Third. Second. while job seekers get information for them about the type of job are referred by the employer. to write out a list of advantages the company offers. technical workers.According to the Advertisement tactic and strategy in personnel Recruitment. and placement offices of schools colleges and professional associations recruiting firms. not only in which area. First. general office help. 79 . salesmen. management consulting firms. are the main agencies for the public employment.

Objective of recruitment 1: To attract with multi dimensional skills and experience that suite the present and future organization strategies. 3:Number of candidates retained in the organization after six months. Professional organization or recruiting firms maintain complete information records about employed executive. especially those short listed. 2: To induct outsider with new perspective to lead the company. 4: Number of candidates at various stages of the recruitment and selection process. 80 . ³raiders´.Schools and colleges offer opportunities for recruiting their student. They operate placement services where complete biodata and other particular of the student are available. and ³pirates´ by organization which loose their personnel through their efforts. 3: To infuse fresh blood at all levels of organization. These firms maintain complete information records about employed executives. Evaluation of the recruitment method The following are the evaluation of the recruitment method 1: Number of initial enquires received which resulted in completed application forms 2: Number of candidates recruited. These firms are looked upon as the ³head hunters´.

4: To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. 6: To seek out non-conventional development grounds of talent 7: To devise methodology for assessing psychological traits. 8: To search for talent globally not just with in the company. 5: To search or headhunt people whose skill fit the company s values. 10: To anticipate and find people for position that doesn¶t exists yet. Factors affecting Recruitment There are two types of factors that affect the Recruitment of candidates for the company. It is through recruitment that many individuals come to know about the company and eventually decide whether they wish to work for it. The recruitment process should inform qualified individuals about the job so that applicant can make comparison with their qualification and interest. 81 . 9: To design entry pay that competes on quality but not on quantum.

Preliminary Assessment: The short listed candidates go through a preliminary round of interviews.1: Internal factors: These includes Company s pay package Quality of work life Organizational culture Company s size Company s product Growth rate of the company Role of trade unions Cost of recruitment 2: External factors: These include .Information system Recruitment Process The actual steps involved in recruitment follow a well defined path: Application shortlist: In this step. legal and government factors .Supply and demand factors .Employment rate . we shortlist the resume received from various sources based on the suitability for the requirement. This interview lays more emphasis on functional 82 .Political.Labour market condition .

Medical Evaluation:Candidates who are selected by Colgate are asked to undergo a medical test. 83 . To have more data on the functional skills. the candidates may be given a business case for analysis and presentation (This is done for certain positions only). Final interview: Here the candidates who successfully clear the first round of interview go through another round of interview with one or more of the functional heads.competencies.

84 .

6: Comments on image projected. 2: Number of suitable candidates for selection. 85 .Evaluation of recruitment process The following are the evaluation of the recruitment process: 1: Return rate of application sent out. 3: Retention and performance of the candidate selection. 4: Cost of recruitment 5: Time lapsed data.

physical examination and final employment decision to hire. Selection process or activities typically follow a standard patter. It is the system of function and devise adopted in a given company to ascertain whether the candidate¶s specifications are matched with the job specifications and recruitment or not. employment test. each department screened and hired its own employees. The traditional selection process includes: preliminary screening interview. Also it is a process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire those with greater likelihood of success in job. The objective of selection decision is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates. In some companies.SELECTION Selection is a negative process and involves the elimination of candidates who do not have the required skills and qualification for the job proposed. background investigation. Many mangers insisted on screening their own employees as they thought no one else could do that as efficiently as they themselves. 86 . completion of application form. Organization for selection Until recently the basic hiring process was performed in a rather unplanned manner in many organizations. beginning with an initial screening interview and concluding with final employment decision. comprehensive interview.

With increased governmental regulation on selection process.But now selection is centralized and handled by the Human Resource Department. The organization decides whether or not to make a job offer and how attractive the job offer should be. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE SELECTION 87 . it is important that people who know about these rules handle a major part of the selection process. . . .It is easier for the application because they can send their applications to a single centralized department. This type of arrangement is also preferred due to some of these advantages: . . .The applicant is better assured of consideration for a greater variety of jobs.It helps operating managers to concentrate on their operating responsibilities. a selection process involves mutually decision making.Hiring cost is cut because duplication of efforts is reduced. Ideally. .It facilitates contact with applicants because issues pertaining to employment can be cleared through one central location.It can provide for better selection because hiring is done by specialist trained in staffing techniques. This is especially helpful during the chief hiring period.

2: Fairness: During the selection process the interviewer does not select the individual on the basis of his knowledge and hence the right type of the candidates is not selected. This ways the purpose of effective selection process of effective selection process is defeated as they have to select that individual whether or not he is capable of the job.Someone should have the authority to select. 88 . ESSENTIAL OF SELECTION PROCEDURE . 3: Pressure: The people from the HR department and also have a lot of pressure from the top management and from other top class people for selecting the candidates they want. But due to some reason the main purpose of effectively selecting candidates is defeated.The main objective of selection process is to hire people having competence and commitment towards the given job profile. This way he does not see through the caliber or the efficiency of the individual and many times it leads to the selection of the wrong candidates. These reasons are: 1: Perception or the Halo effect: Many a times the interviewer selects a candidate according to the perception he has or he made up while talking or looking at the individual. that is being offered.

7 Current Issues: News (Press Releases) Ken Chenault: Justice Department's Lawsuit is a Bad Deal for Consumers NEW YORK. American Express Company Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Kenneth I. not more. The Waqshington Post. Why Amex is fighting Justice's bad deal for credit card holders By Kenneth I. Friday. alleging that our rules prevent consumers from getting a lower 89 . Chenault. Department of Justice's civil antitrust case "does nothing for consumers" and "will eventually lead to less competition.Multi correlations . FACTORS EFFECTING SELECTION DECISION Includes: .Organization and social environment .There must be sufficient number of applicants from whom the required number of employees to be selected. 2010 -In a Washington Post op-ed. Chenault outlines the reasons why the company believes that the recently announced U. American Express.There must be some standards of personnel with which a prospective employee may be compared. .. the Justice Department sued Visa.Successive hurdles 4. This week. MasterCard and my company." Full text of the article appears below. October 8.Profile matching . 2010.October8.S.

the government's remedy would allow merchants that sign a contract and post decals to show which credit cards they accept to then ignore the contract's ban on discrimination by pressuring their customers to use a different card when they pay. not more.price when they shop. Merchants accept plastic because they know many customers often want to use credit. Visa and MasterCard quickly settled and agreed to follow a complex set of remedies developed by government attorneys. Card acceptance brings higher sales. even those that support the Justice Department. prevents fraud or counterfeiting. And. But this will not lead to lower prices overall for consumers. and protects against losses when a customer doesn't pay his or her bill. you might be offered a small discount for putting up with the inconvenience. The government remedy does nothing for consumers. In return. Nothing in the government's lawsuit requires them to do so. Merchant associations. Perversely. As it is. charge or debit cards at the checkout counter. Let me explain why. merchants are already allowed to offer a discount or incentive to customers who pay by cash. which is typically between 2 and 3 percent of the purchase price. merchants agree to welcome cards at the point of sale and to pay a fee. the Justice Department is heading down a path that eventually leads to less competition. 90 . In theory. We chose to fight. whatever its intention. checks or debit cards. Very few do. won't commit to lower prices.

virtually all American Express customers carry another card in their wallet. Given the sheer size of their customer base.The net result of this "bait and switch" is an unhappy customer who was pushed to use a backup card that didn't provide the customer service. including more business from higherspending customers who carry our cards. Earlier court rulings found that Visa and MasterCard have market power that allows them to unfairly dominate the payment industry. most merchants do business with them because they have to. By contrast. the government lawyers who enforce those laws are doing just the opposite by offering a solution that favors the two dominant networks. Only in Washington could that be called a consumer benefit. Their choice recognizes the superior value and service we provide. but those that do appreciate our overall service and value. Antitrust laws were designed to promote competition. American Express customers don't have to use our card. Unlike the dominant networks. buyer protection. Merchants don't have to do business with us. Here's how. but they choose to do so. But in this case. Only a small percentage of their card holders also carry an American Express or Discover product. benefits or rewards that he or she prefers. and you'll see the flaw in the 91 . we require that they not discriminate against our card. Compare the two different business models. In return. American Express is a network of choice and the smallest in terms of merchant acceptance.

By contrast.government's thinking. free market competition and the ability to deliver superior products and services to our customers. When dominant parties gain even more market share. We think their case is weak and we intend to fight it. That's the real cost of government intervention. no one will be able to negotiate freely or fairly with them. costly battle with the government. If the government is allowed to do away with the protections we build into our merchant contracts. This is a fight worth fighting. The Justice Department is supporting bad policy and disguising it with vague promises of consumer benefit. The writer is chairman and chief executive officer of American Express Co. but what's at stake are some important issues: consumer choice. ARTICLES ABOUT THE AMERICAN EXPRESS COMPANY IN THE Year 2010 92 . the net result would be more business for the two dominant networks. It is difficult to steer Visa or MasterCard holders to American Express because those consumers don't carry our card. The inevitable result would be higher costs for merchants and less value for consumers. It's never easy to take on a long. it's possible to pressure our customers toward one of the backup products they carry deeper in their wallet. Visa and MasterCard already control 70 percent of the market.

93 . A version of this article appeared in print on October 5. October 22.The Mundane Credit Card Gets a Modern Makeover By TARA SIEGEL BERNARD Cards will soon have lights and buttons that allow users to choose to pay for items with reward points or credit. on page B1 of the New York edition.S. on page B1 of the New York edition. bolstering earnings. but remained below levels reached before the recession. 2010. A version of this article appeared in print on October 22. Profit Climbs 71% at American Express By ASSOCIATED PRESS Spending on American Express cards rose 14 percent in the quarter. Proposes Settlement With MasterCard and Visa By ANDREW MARTIN The Justice Department has a proposed deal with two of three companies it sued for anticompetitive practices. 2010 U. 2010.

big names on Wall Street usually take home far more than bankers like Stumpf. 2010.E.E.¶s Strike Gold in Stock Options By NELSON D. Stumpf is making twice as much as Lloyd C Blankfein.O. on page BU1 of the New York edition. 94 .Some C. A version of this article appeared in print on April 4. whose bank's biggest bus. Top Pay List For Bankers: Fresh Names By ERIC DASH Some of highest-paid financial executives in America work far from Wall Street at companies that have largely avoided outcry over return of hefty paydays. who was paid $18. 2010 Credit Cards and Reluctant Regulators By GRETCHEN MORGENSON If credit card issuers try to find ways around new rules on fees.¶s received early last year.O. February 11. on page BU1 of the New York edition. 2010. SCHWARTZ The market¶s climb has had a multiplier effect on the value of stock options that some C. how well would a federal agency enforce them? A version of this article appeared in print on January 17. John G Stumpf of Wells Fargo. who has become symbol of new period of Wall Street riches.7 million in cash and stock for 2009.. his counterpart at Goldman Sachs. tops list..

2010 . financial and network services provider and one of the world¶s most widely recognized brands. Today.PR Newswire 4. 2010 . ‡ 1850: American Express is established as a freight forwarding company. American Express has developed into a company that creates and sells global payment and financial products around the world.Business Wire American Express Appoints Toby Eduardo Redshaw as Executive Vice President and Chief Information Officer November 5.Press Releases for American Express Company from the Last 90 Days: American Express OPEN Recognizes Business Owners for Government Contracting Success with Victory in Procurement (VIP) Awards November 6. 95 .Business Wire American Express and SAP Join Forces to Launch Integrated Payment Solution October 18. 2010 . its commitment to the highest quality products and superior levels of customer support remains unchanged. American Express is a global travel.8 Company History and Development: From its beginnings as an express company forwarding freight and valuables across the American frontier. While the products and services of American Express are constantly evolving.

Blue Box logo introduced. First exclusive American Express overseas office: 6 Rue Halevy. ‡ 1915: ‡ 1919: Travel Department started. ‡ 1986: Corporate Headquarters moved to World Financial Center.‡ 1858: Headquarters building completed at 61 Hudson Street. Brazil becomes first bank in the world to issue an American Express-branded credit card. The American Express Company. incorporated in Connecticut. US$727 million (Re-branded as American Express Financial Advisors in 1995).. designed for a select group of American Express¶ best customers in the United 96 . ³Executive Credit´ Card introduced (became the Gold Card). American Express¶ first interactive on-line service is introduced. The Centurion Card is introduced. Paris. New York. ‡ 1891: ‡ 1895: American Express invents the Travelers Cheque. the largest privately-owned building in the city. of Sao Paulo. ‡ 1958: ‡ 1966: ‡ 1975: ‡ 1984: American Express Personal Card introduced. ‡ 1996: BancoCredito de Nacional. Inc. New York. IDS acquired from Alleghany Corporation for approx. ExpressNet. ‡ 1999: Euro Travelers Cheque is introduced. ‡ 1987: ‡ 1995: Optima Card introduced. Platinum Card introduced. now known as American Express Bank. USA.

American Express is truly a global company. New York.S. the number one airline card issuer based on number of partners and the number one Cards Reward Program based on enrollees. Singapore and Tokyo. The company has more than 1700 travel service locations in over 130 countries serving customers¶ travel needs. Green Bay. in addition to other corporate offices in Albany. American Express is the number one global charge card issuer. and offering products and services in more than 200 countries. Wisconsin. employing over 84. London. and in 22 of the top 25 markets around the world. a new credit card designed to expand the company¶s revolving credit business and attract new customers in the U.S. American Express is the world¶s largest single card issuer. American Express launches Blue. We also are the number one corporate card issuer in the U.Kingdomand the United States. American Express Financial Advisors has 179 field offices (located in all 50 states in United States). with 77 offices in 40 countries. shopping and security benefits. The Cards are currently issued in 43 currencies (including cards issued by banks and other qualified institutions).000 people worldwide. American Express Bank operates primarily outside the United States. based on purchase volume generated by our nearly 55 million cards worldwide. by combining financial. One of American Express¶ truly unique assets is its local market 97 .

98 . All over the world. American Express maintains its ongoing commitment to the development of valuable products. the highest quality service. These partnerships not only benefit local businesses and American Express in terms of business development.knowledge and global presence. the company contributes to local economic development through the introduction of new products and services. and deepest levels of customer support. the company is committed to working closely with local business partners. Grants are made under three program themes that reflect our company values and complement our business priorities: community service. cultural heritage and economic independence. technological know-how and people development. In all of the markets in which we operate we take our role as a corporate citizen seriously and are active participants in community and philanthropic projects. The company¶s local capabilities are backed by the strength of an extensive global network. they also bring consumers a wider choice of products and services. In markets around the world. marketing skills. Wherever American Express operates.

Chapter 4: 99 .

Selection and Placement of Personnel in American Express.1 Data Collection The Objectives of the Project was Recruitment. 100 . The data for the desired candidates for a suitable profile was collected through Questionnaires.DATA ANALYSIS 5.

Before these steps are examined in detail. This is made possible by nearly universal coverage (96% of homes have a telephone). Determining the Sampling Group 3.Produce the reports Data Collection Methods Used (I) Telephone Surveys Surveying by telephone is the most popular interviewing method in the USA. it is good to consider what questionnaires are good at measuring and when it is appropriate to use questionnaires.Test the questions 6.Ask the questions 7. Establish the goals of the project .Whom you will interview 3.How you will interview 4. Pre-test the questionnaire. 101 .What you want to learn 2. Choose interviewing methodology . Conduct interviews and enter data . Analyze the data . Writing the Questionnaire 4.What you will ask 5. 1. Interpretation of the Results This document will concentrate on how to formulate objectives and write the questionnaire. Determine your sample . if practical .The steps required to design and administer a questionnaire include: 1. Defining the Objectives of the survey 2. Create your questionnaire . Administering the Questionnaire 5.

makes complex questionnaires practical by offering many logic options.Advantages y People can usually be contacted faster over the telephone than with other methods. can combine survey answers with pre-existing information you have about the people being interviewed. It can automatically skip questions. such as The Survey System. Interviewers can also ask for clarification of unclear responses. the results can be available minutes after completing the last interview. y Skilled interviewers can often elicit longer or more complete answers than people will give on their own to mail. email surveys (though some people will give longer answers to Web page surveys). Consequently. perform calculations and modify questions based on the answers to earlier questions. y Some software. If the Interviewers are using CATI (computer-assisted telephone interviewing). y You can dial random telephone numbers when you do not have the actual telephone numbers of potential respondents. y CATI software. many people are reluctant to answer phone interviews and use their 102 . It can check the logical consistency of answers and can present questions or answers choices in a random order (the last two are sometimes important for reasons described later). Disadvantages y Many telemarketers have given legitimate research a bad name by claiming to be doing research when they start a sales call. such as The Survey System.

the best response levels are achieved from 103 . You will need to wait several weeks after mailing out questionnaires before you can be sure that you have gotten most of the responses. This.something that is not possible over the phone. Disadvantages y Time! Mail surveys take longer than other kinds.m. eliminates many immigrant populations that form substantial markets in many areas. y Mail surveys allow the respondent to answer at their leisure. this problem is getting worse. y The growing number of working women often means that no one is home during the day. in effect. response rates to mail surveys are often too small to be useful. but not their telephone numbers. response rates vary from as low as 3% up to 90%. Since over half of the homes in the USA have answering machines. As a rule of thumb.answering machines to screen calls. This limits calling time to a "window" of about 6-9 p. y The questionnaire can include pictures . This is the only kind of survey you can do if you have the names and addresses of the target population. Even in well-educated populations. (II) Mail Surveys Advantages y y Mail surveys are among the least expensive. y In populations of lower educational and literacy levels. y You cannot show or sample products by phone. they are not considered as intrusive as other kinds of interviews. (when you can be sure to interrupt dinner or a favorite TV program). For this reason. rather than at the often inconvenient moment they are contacted for a phone or personal interview.

Another is to follow up a questionnaire mailing after a couple of weeks with a card asking people to return the questionnaire." rather than payment for their time. increasing the time needed to complete your project. Another possibility is to include the people who return completed surveys in a drawing for a prize. However. lowering your response can save on postage using this mailing method. Another way to increase responses to mail surveys is to use an incentive. Many people will consider their time worth more than a dollar.000 questionnaires. could lead to a biased sample). depending on your target population. be sure to say that the dollar is a way of saying "thanks. Also bulk mail moves slowly. you may also have to pay a second (and third) use fee . because many people associate "bulk" with "junk" and will throw it out without opening the envelope. If you do so.000 people.highly-educated people and people with a particular interest in the subject (which. You may want to check with your local post office about bulk mail rates . (III) Computer Direct Interviews 104 . you need to mail 10. One way of improving response rates to mail surveys is to mail a postcard telling your sample to watch for a questionnaire in the next week or often cannot buy the list once and re-use it. most researchers do not use bulk mail. The downside is that this doubles or triples your mailing cost. One possibility is to send a dollar bill (or more) along with the survey (or offer to donate the dollar to a charity specified by the respondent). Any of these techniques will increase the response rates. A third is to offer a copy of the (non-confidential) result highlights to those who complete the questionnaire. and you estimate a 10% response level. If you have purchased a mailing list from a supplier. Remember that if you want a sample of 1.

Different interviewers can ask questions in different ways. The National Institute of Justice has also found that computer-aided surveys among drug users get better results than personal interviews. Computer-aided interviewing is still novel enough that some people will answer a computer interview when they would not have completed another kind of interview. Disadvantages 105 . The Survey System's optional Interviewing Module and Interview Stations can easily create computer-direct interviews.These are interviews in which the Interviewees enter their own answers directly into a computer. These automatic skips are more accurate than relying on an Interviewer reading a paper questionnaire. leading to different results. Advantages y y The virtual elimination of data entry and editing costs. Some researchers set up a Web page survey for this purpose. and so on. The computer asks the questions the same way every time. Employees are also more often willing to give more honest answers to a computer than to a person or paper questionnaire. y Response rates are usually higher. They can be used at malls. offices. y The elimination of interviewer bias. Recent studies of potential blood donors have shown respondents were more likely to reveal HIV-related risk factors to a computer screen than to either human interviewers or paper questionnaires. The Survey System can ensure people are not asked questions they should skip based on their earlier answers. You will get more accurate answers to sensitive questions. y Ensuring skip patterns are accurately followed. trade shows.

The novelty element of an email survey often stimulates higher response levels than ordinary ³snail´ mail surveys. Advantages y Speed. y y y There is practically no cost involved once the set up has been completed. whereas Web page surveys can include complex logic. You can attach pictures and sound files. The Survey System¶s Email 106 . y As with mail surveys. Disadvantages y y You must possess (or purchase) a list of email addresses. This method may grow in importance as computer use increases. More people have email than have full Internet access. email surveys are limited to simple questionnaires. computer direct interviews may have serious response rate problems in populations of lower educational and literacy levels. An email questionnaire can gather several thousand responses within a day or two. (IV) Email Surveys Email surveys are both very economical and very fast.y The Interviewees must have access to a computer or one must be provided for them. Many programs have no check to eliminate people responding multiple times to bias the results. This makes email a better choice than a Web page survey for some populations. On the other hand. Some people will respond several times or pass questionnaires along to friends to answer.

g. So email surveys do not reflect the population as a whole. especially older people and those in lower income and education groups. y You cannot use email surveys to generalize findings to the whole populations. but also significant sampling limitations. y Email surveys cannot automatically skip questions or randomize question or answer choice order or use other automatic techniques that can enhance surveys the way Web page surveys can.Module will only accept one reply from each address sent the questionnaire. Many email programs are limited to plain ASCII text questionnaires and cannot show pictures. Email questionnaires from The Survey System can attach graphic or sound files. it is not universal and is even less so outside the USA (three-quarters of the world's email traffic takes place within the USA).. Many ³average´ citizens still do not possess email facilities. Although use of email is growing very rapidly. cost. and flexibility advantages. It eliminates duplicate and pass along questionnaires and checks to ensure that respondents have not ignored instructions (e. even when matched on demographic characteristics. People who have email are different from those who do not. At this stage they are probably best used in a corporate environment where email is common or when most members of the target population are known to have email. They have major speed. such as age and gender. These limitations make software selection especially important and restrict the groups you can study using this technique. You may want to send email questionnaires only to people who expect to get email from you. (V) Internet/Intranet (Web Page) Surveys Web surveys are rapidly gaining popularity. 107 . giving 2 answers to a question requesting only one). y Many people dislike unsolicited email even more than unsolicited regular mail.

y Web page questionnaires can use colors. y You can show pictures. Many people who will respond to an email invitation to take a Web survey will do so the first day. can combine the survey answers with pre-existing information you have about individuals taking a survey. instead of to a person or on paper. y There is practically no cost involved once the set up has been completed. y On average. such as drug use or sex. y A significant number of people will give more honest answers to questions about sensitive topics. such as The Survey System. These features can assure better data. fonts and other formatting options not possible in most email surveys. y Web page questionnaires can use complex question skipping logic. randomizations and other features not possible with paper questionnaires or most email surveys. A questionnaire posted on a popular Web site can gather several thousand responses within a few hours. Some Web survey software can also show video and play sound. Disadvantages y Current use of the Internet is far from universal. Internet surveys do not reflect the population as a whole. when giving their answers to a computer. y Some Web survey software. and most will do so within a few days. Large samples do not cost more than smaller ones (except for any cost to acquire the sample). people give longer answers to open-ended questions on Web page questionnaires than they do on other kinds of self-administered surveys.Advantages y Web page surveys are extremely fast. This is true even if a sample of Internet 108 .

Surveys of the general population usually will not. Businessto-business research and employee attitude surveys can often meet this requirement. y People can easily quit in the middle of a questionnaire. be sure your survey software prevents people from completing more than one questionnaire. y If your survey pops up on a web page. y Depending on your software. You may also want to restrict access by requiring a password (good software allows this option) or by putting the survey on a page that can only be accessed directly (i. The Survey System can produce paper questionnaires that can be scanned using Remark 109 . (VI) Scanning Questionnaires Scanning questionnaires is a method of data collection that can be used with paper questionnaires that have been administered in face-to-face interviews. you often have no control over who replies . A Web page survey may be the only practical way to have many people view and react to a video. there are no links to it from other pages).users is selected to match the general population in terms of age. They are not as likely to complete a long questionnaire on the Web as they would be if talking with a good interviewer.e. cruising that web page may answer. gender and other demographics. there is often no control over people responding multiple times to bias the results. Another reason to use a Web page survey is when you want to show video or both sound and graphics. mail surveys or surveys completed by an Interviewer over the telephone.anyone from Antarctica to Zanzibar. In any case.. At this stage we recommend using the Internet for surveys mainly when your target population consists entirely or almost entirely of Internet users.

Other software can scan questionnaires and produce ASCII Files that can be read into The Survey System. Scanning is more accurate than a person in reading a properly completed questionnaire. These include: 110 . y Scanning is less forgiving (accurate) than a person in reading a poorly marked questionnaire. Scanning programs have various methods to deal with text responses.Office OMR (available from CRS). Disadvantages y Scanning is best-suited to "check the box" type surveys and bar codes. Requires investment in additional hardware to do the actual scanning. Summary of Survey Methods Your choice of survey method will depend on several factors. Advantages y y Scanning can be the fastest method of data entry for paper questionnaires. but all require additional data entry time.

state who you are and why you want the information in the survey. If you cannot give yourself a satisfactory answer. except to those in which you are certain that all respondents will have a clear answer. unless the previous two groups are very short. If you are sending emails that ask people to take a Web page survey. Ask yourself what you will do with the information from each question. In most cases. place your questions into three groups: must know. KISS . put your main introduction or welcome message in the email. Discard the last group. People responding to mail or Web surveys cannot easily ask ³What exactly do you mean by that?´ if they do not understand a question. useful to know and nice to know. When practical. Start with an introduction or welcome message. these are wasted answers as far as the researcher is concerned. Allow a ³Don't Know´ or ³Not Applicable´ response to all questions. personal questions are sometimes best handled by mail or computer. Sometimes ³Don't Know´ or ³Not Applicable´ will really represent some respondents' most honest answers 111 .keep it short and simple. If necessary. Avoid the temptation to add a few more questions just because you are doing a questionnaire anyway. Phone interviews cannot show pictures. this message can be in a cover page or on the questionnaire form itself. A good introduction or welcome message will encourage people to complete your questionnaire. Intimate. but are necessary alternatives to avoid frustrated respondents. leave it out. In the case of mail or Web questionnaires. If you present a 20-page questionnaire most potential respondents will give up in horror before even starting. where anonymity is most assured.Questionnaire Design General Considerations The first rule is to design the questionnaire to fit the medium.

You will rarely want to include ³Don't Know. many people will abandon a questionnaire that asks them to specify their income. include ³Other´ or ³None´ whenever either of these is a logically possible answer. For example. For the same reason. without offering a "decline to state" choice. or behaviors. but you should allow the interviewer the ability to accept them when given by respondents. computer direct and Internet surveys these four choices should appear as appropriate. On paper. Examples of each kind of question follow: 112 . numeric open end and text open end (sometimes called "verbatim").to some of your questions.´ ³Not Applicable. if you have no interest in distinguishing between them. You may want to combine two or more of them into one choice. you should usually allow these answers. When the answer choices are a list of possible opinions. Question Types Researchers use three basic types of questions: multiple choice.´ ³Other´ or ³None´ in a list of choices being read over the telephone or in person. Respondents who feel they are being coerced into giving an answer they do not want to give often do not complete the questionnaire. preferences.

Examples of these kinds of questions are: 113 .Rating Scales and Agreement Scales are two common types of questions that some researchers treat as multiple choice questions and others treat as numeric open end questions.

The other issue is how the order of questions or the order of answer choices could affect the results of your survey. Ideally. In telephone or personal interviews they help build rapport with the interviewer. 114 .Question and Answer Choice Order There are two broad issues to keep in mind when considering question and answer choice order. These kinds of questions encourage people to continue the survey. Grouping together questions on the same topic also makes the questionnaire easier to answer. the early questions in a survey should be easy and pleasant to answer. One is how the question and answer choice order can encourage people to complete your survey.

good software can help with this problem. at least they will have answered most of your questions. Separating related questions with unrelated ones can also reduce this problem. Question order can affect the results in two ways. positive to negative and excellent to poor scales should be presented in those orders. The other way question order can affect results is habituation. If you are using telephone. One is that mentioning something (an idea. If people quit at that point anyway. When using numeric rating scales higher numbers should mean a more positive or more agreeing answer. For the same reason. Answer choice order can make individual questions easier or more difficult to answer. This problem applies to a series of questions that all have the same answer choices. Software should allow you to present a series of questions in a random order in each interview. an issue. This technique will not 115 . It means that some people will usually start giving the same answer. In some cases you may be able to reduce this problem by randomizing the order of related questions. though neither technique will eliminate it. Whenever there is a logical or natural order to answer choices. without really considering it. use it.Whenever possible leave difficult or sensitive questions until near the end of your survey. after being asked a series of similar questions. Always present agree-disagree choices in that order. when they might not have thought of it if it had not been previously mentioned. a brand) in one question can make people think of it while they answer a later question. People tend to think more when asked the earlier questions in the series and so give more accurate answers to them. Any rapport that has been built up will make it more likely people will answer these questions. computer direct or Internet interviewing. Presenting them in disagreeagree order will seem odd.

At other times. not just to particular questions near the end of a series.g.g. there are kinds of questions. The order in which the answer choices are presented can also affect the answers given. questions have answers that are obvious to the person that is answering them (e. This applies mainly to level-of-agreement questions. ³My supervisor gives me positive feedback´) and others so that a high level of agreement means dissatisfaction (e.g. This technique forces the respondent to think more about each question. the few minutes extra work may be a worthwhile price to pay to get more accurate data.eliminate habituation. ³My supervisor usually ignores my suggestions´).Good .. sometimes answer choices have a natural order (e.. the order in which the answer choices are presented is not likely to affect the answers given.g. However. in which the answer choice order is more likely to affect which 116 ..Fair . One negative aspect of this technique is that you may have to modify some of the data after the results are entered. You can word some statements so that a high level of agreement means satisfaction (e. However. because having the higher levels of agreement always mean a positive (or negative) answer makes the analysis much easier. Another way to reduce this problem is to ask only a short series of similar questions at a particular point in the questionnaire. but will ensure that it applies equally to all questions in a series. or Excellent . ³Which brands of car do you own?´). As mentioned previously. followed by No. In these cases. particularly questions about preference or recall or questions with relatively long answer choices that express an idea or opinion. Yes. People tend to pick the choices nearest the start of a list when they read the list themselves on paper or a computer screen. Then ask one or more different kinds of questions. People tend to pick the most recent answer when they hear a list of choices read to them. If so. you should use that order.Poor).. A third way to reduce habituation is to change the ³positive´ answer. and then another short series if needed.

have your software present these kinds of answer choices in a random order. instructions to skip questions. If that is not possible. It can help you see if the interviewees understand your questions and give useful answers. Preliminary test of the Questionnaire The last step is to carry out preliminary testing of the questionnaire design is to test a questionnaire with a small number of interviews before conducting your main interviews. you should not combine the results from the preliminary test with the results of post-test interviews. etc. If you change any questions after a preliminary test. at least have a few people. This kind of test run can reveal unanticipated problems with question wording. computer direct. other than the question writer. you should test the survey on the same kinds of people you will include in the main study. If you are using telephone. 117 . try the questionnaire. but choosing sensible questions and administering surveys with sensitivity and common sense will improve the quality of your results dramatically. or Web page interviewing.choice is picked. Ideally. The Survey System will invariably provide you with mathematically correct answers to your questions.

5. 118 .2 DATA NTERPRETATION QUESTION: What are the sources for recruitment and selection? About 73% of the managers say that they prefer both internal as well as external source for recruitment and selection where as only 9% go for internal source and 18% go for external sources.

Question: Which method do you mostly prefer for recruitment and selection preferred way of recruitment? About 65% of the mangers go for direct recruitment and selection and 32% go for indirect and only 3 % go for third party recruitment way 119 .

120 .Question: When do you prefer to go for manpower planning? Around 50% of the managers go for Quarterly manpower planning and 20 % do not follow any pattern they donthave any fixed time where as 20% go for yearly.

121 . 33% go for data bank.Question: What are the sources for external recruitment are preferred? In American Express. 34% of managers go for campus interviews. 25% from the casual application that are received and only 8% go for any placement agencies.

30% prefer to take telephonic interviewswhere as only 20% go for video conferencing and rest 10% adopt some other means ofinterviews 122 .Question: What form of interview did you prefer? Most of the manager Prefer Personal interviews.

Question: How do you rate the HR practices of the company? 50% of the managers feel that HR department is good where and 30%say that s its very good where as 20% says its average and only 10% manager feel it s bad 123 .

Mostly the manpower planning is done Quarterly and 20 % do not follow any pattern they don¶t have any fixed time.FINDINGS In this blue chip corporate conglomerate American Express. About 65% of the mangers go for direct recruitment and selection and less number for mangers prefer indirect or third party. About 73% of the managers says that they prefer both internal as well as external source for recruitment and selection. most of the employees have high opinion about the functioning pattern adopted and being practiced. CONCLUSION 124 . And most of the middle level and operative level managers prefers personal and face to face interviews while 30% of them prefer telephonic interviews and 205 of them opt for video conferencing interviews and remaining 10% of them some other of interviews. American Expressprefers to go for campus interviews and even casual application that are received for recruitment but they hardly prefer placement agencies.

Ltd. vision and mission to some extent.This part of the Report presents the summary of the study and survey was carried out with total care and observation and microscopic study done in relation to the Recruitment and Selection in American Express India Pvt. The conclusion drawn from this study and survey of the company reveals that the prevailing practice being carried out by the company in regard to Recruitment and Selection process are totally transparent and is not demoralizing the ambitions and level of aspirations possessed by the new entrants are getting boosted further morale is high compared to other flag ship companies. SUGGESTIONS 125 . and dynamics and job profiles so that main objective of selection of the candidates could be achieved. Despite this ugly part still most of the employees were satisfied with the prevailing practice but feel suitable changes are required in accordance to according to the needs and conditions of working situation with changing scenario. goals. However recruitment process has a great impact on the working of the company as young ± smart and budding professionals with new idea in their mind enters in the company. thoughts and conceptions that are being practiced by other corporate conglomerates and strategic HR managerial concepts should be brought in. That is why the search or headhunt of people should be of those whose skill fits into the company¶s values. modified and tailored according to the personnel¶s psyche. But sad part of the story is that the recruitment and selection process under practice at American Express to some extent is not done objectively and therefore bias creep in often which will hampers the future career of the employees. Last but not least the company¶s selection process is no doubt commendable but still company should strive for overall excellence and this will be accomplished only if the company will switch over to new ideas.

If the manpower requirement is high and the recruitment team of the HR department alone cannot satisfy it. Time management is very crucial but essential and as such it should not be ignored at any level of the recruitment and selection process.. This extreme step is applied or followed only when need arises and situation decries for the same. The recruitment and selection process should be carried out from the company¶s side and if the workload will be high and HR department could not meet the exigencies then they would take the assistance of outsourcing agencies or through placement agencies as the end of the last resort. The recruitment and selection procedure should not to lengthy and time consuming which will hampers for the selection of talented and skilled personnel who may or may not adhere to these encumbrance. then attempt should be made for back sourcing or outsourcing and take help from the placement agencies if the situation so arises and is need of the hour. BIBLOGRAPHY 126 .. The candidates called for interview should be allotted proper and scheduled timings and it should not overlap with each other.Manpower requirement for each department in the company is well identified and well conceptualized with proper planned strategy well inadvance.

Gupta (2005) y www.y Pardeshi y C.B Mamoria and S. Himalaya Publication. y K. Personal Management Text and Cases.Aswahthappa (2001).com y Resource and Personnel Management y Human Resource Management. Dr. (2005). Gankar (2004).com 127 .B.P.


Name of the Organization: -American Express India Pvt. Ltd.

Name Of the HR Manager: RichaPathak Workforce (No. of Employees): 2200 Nature Of work: Customer Service through different channels

Q1: When are the resources need and forecasted?

Quarterly Monthly Annually Not fixed

Q2: How is the resource need forecasted? ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««. ««««««««««.

Q3: How do you rate the recruitment procedure?

Short Average Long Very Long Cant say

Q4: What is the process you follow for recruitment and selection? People explain the same in brief?


«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««

Q5: Which method do you mostly prefer from the following for recruitment and selection?

Direct Method Indirect Method Third Party

Q6: What sources you prefer for recruitment and selection? Internal sources External sources Both

Q7: What are the sources for internal sourcing among the following -:

Present permanent employees Present temporary employees Retrenched / Retired / employees Deceased / disabled / employees

Q8: What are the sources for external recruitment among the following

Campus interviews Placement agencies Private employment agencies Public employment agencies Professional associations

if any please mention «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Q9: Which is the most successful method for recruitment? ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 10: How many rounds of interviews are conducted? 1-3 3-5 More than 5 Q11: Are you satisfied with round of interviews conducted? Yes No To some extent Cant say Q12: What form of interview did you prefer? Personal Interview 131 .Data bank Casual applicants Other.

Telephonic Interview Video Conferencing Any two (then tick those two) All three Q13: Are you satisfied with the interview process? Yes No To some extent Q14: If no then what is the reason? And suggest the measures to be taken for improvement? «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««« Q15: Are you satisfied with the present method being followed by the company for recruitment and selection? Yes No Q16: If no. to make improvement? ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 132 . what steps would you prefer.

19: Do you conduct any of these test? Psychometric test Medical test Reference test check Other (specify) ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« Q20: How do you rate the HR practices of the company? 133 .««««««««««««««.. «««««««««««««««««« Q17: Are the aptitude test conducted Yes No Till some extent Cant say Q18: If yes then it is for Fresher Executives Other (specify) ««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««« ««««««« «««««««««««««««««««««««««.

Very Good Good Average Bad 134 .

THE END 135 .

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