HAG A water-spirit often incarnate in a the greater shearwater. and in the deep-water hagfish.

Anglo-Saxon, haegtesse (fem.), a witch. Related words are haegl, hail and haegl-faru, hailstorm, relating to her supposed ability to control the weather. This creature is the well-known black annis of southern England which was said to live with sloughs, marshes and stagnant streams. The hag is best known to mariners in the bird form, a gull-like animal whose upper parts are all dark brown, with a narrow white band at the base of the tail. These birds are only met by deep-sea fishermen who term them "hags" or "haglins". They are probably given this name because their dark bodies are thought to draw rain clouds and for their unappealing habit of eating the offal which fishermen throw overboard. The hagfish is an even less appealing incarnation of this sea spirit being a miniature version of the sea-serpent. Technically called "Myxine glutinosa" but more often named the "slime-eel", this sea-animal is a cyclostome rather than a fish, its closest well-known relative being the lamprey eel. The creature is rarely seen since it burrows in the mud at extreme depths, occasionally emerging to scavenge dead fish. Typically, it penetrates them with rasping teeth, and cleans out the flesh leaving the skin intact. It is considered the lowest ranking craniate vertebrate, ranging to no more than three feet in length. The upperside is coloured a mottled purple-black, the underside is a dirty white or yellow. The eyes and ears are rudimentary and to make up for this the head is surmounted by eigth tentacle-like feelers. The round mouth harbours a three-sides "tongue" completely covered with horny teeth. Myxine is an escape artist being able to knot its body and pull itself through finely meshed netting. It is also witch-like in its capacity to elude capture by secreting a huge mass of slime which makes it very difficult to handle. Most interesting of is the fact that it suffers no harm from extensive cutting, scratching or abrasion, having an immune system that prevents all infection. HAGGARD, OLD HAG

A mortal earth spirit corresponding with the Anglo-Saxon witch. The Middle English hagge is the Teutonic spirit hexxe, both being descendants of the Germanic haggediscs, better known as Odin's personal guard, the valkyra". Notice that these are the hags of Dis, the Celtic death-god, whose name is prefixed in words such as disaster, despair, etc. The witch-master used to be entitled the haggard (high hag). The hag was sometimes described as "a malicious female wood's elf" but others regarded her as a human witch. She was often identified with the night mare elf hence the expression, hag-ridden. "Hag" confers with the word "haw", a haw being the fruit of the pick-trees or hawthorns. Haw also described a hedge, the kind that hags preferred to guard their woods-cabins. The original Anglo-Saxon form for "hawthorn" was "hagathorn", and its association with witchcraft is remembered. Locally the Greater Shearwater is known as the hag. During the Beltane, which is the month of May, it is still considered unlucky to pick the blossoms of the plant that traditionally housed the spirits of the hags. "Pick flower, pick sickness", said Helen Creighton. In Lunenburg county, where one might expect to find the hexxen still active, Creighton noted that witch was the usual designation, although she did say that the latter word identified a male or a female practitioner. "We seldom use the word "hex" (indicating the craft of the hexxen) in Nova Scotia." In nineteen sixty-eight, Creighton candidly stated: "I have met and talked with a number of people who, in their communities, are thought to be witches. People were wary of them and hoped not to offend them, but otherwise they looked and were treated like everyone else." One hag had an acquaintance in Lunenburg who "used to go to her house two or three times a week." In those days it was believed that "those who studied the black books had to go out troubling (tormenting someone in the community. "I knew this woman who was a witch. She would be there in her house but her soul would be wandering. Well I was at her house one evening with two or three other men and her husband wasn't at home. While we was setting there she went to the stove to make a fire. "My gosh," she said, "I've got an awful pain in my side", and she put her hand to her side and we all though she had a real pain. Half an hour afterwards her husband drove up and come in the house. He said to her, "I drove over you (your familiar) just

beyond Sherses' place". The very time he said (he had run her down that was) the time she had the pain." At Blandford a respondent said that May Day was "witch day". At Upper La Have a woman suggested a means of identifying local hags: "Take the first egg laid by a hen on Good Friday morning and put it in the bosom of your dress, and then go to church. (All the witches) will have a milk stool on their heads or some other symbol (of the craft). They will know you have the egg so you mustn't let them get near you to crush it, because if they do, they will have power over you." When Will R. Bird toured East Port Medway he was told that: “Here and in Lunenburg county you’ll find right new houses built with two chimneys. One to use, and one for witches to go out. I’ll warrant you could find a dozen houses that still has witch brroms hung up in the kitchen. They’re made of so many switches of hazel, and so many of birch, all tied up in cxertain ways and they used to sell for three dollars. I knowed a man that made them all his life, and earned a tidy bit by it. He could cure cows of givin’ bad milk too. Used to draw a picture of the witch on a barn door and shoot it with a silver bulllet...There was a new schoolmarm went in there to teach one year, and made all manner of fun over witch brooms till she got the old feller mad. So he says to her, “I’ll show you what’s what. When you come out of school tomorrow noon and cross brook bridge you’ll blat like a sheep.” The woman laughed at this but the next day after crossing the bridge she found that she could utter nothing but “baa!” Standard medicine could do nothing to remedy the situation, until. the old witch-doctor agreed to “lift the spell.” In doing so he touched her on the head and gave her a white “pill.” Afterwards her first words were, Then it’s the truth. I can talk again. Help me pack my trunk.” Afterwards the ol;d man was heard to say that he was “glad he had found that peppermint in his coat pocket, else he wouldn’t have known what to try.” 1 HAAF A mortal sea-spirit incarnate in the harbour seal. Dialectic English, from Scandinavian models, notably the Sw. haf, and the Dan. hav, the sea. A term used to describe the European lager seal as
1Bird,

Will R., This Nova Scotia (1950) pp. 169-170.

well as a verb decribing fishing off the Orkneys and the Shetland Islands, north of Scotland. Corresponds with the English words half, hale and hearty. The seals of Iceland were sometimes referred to as the haf-kyn (half kin), a sentiment echoed in Dr. Hibbert's account: "With respect to the seatrows, it is the belief of Shetlanders that they inhabit a region of their own at the bottom of the sea. They here respire a peculiar atmosphere and live in habitations constructed of the choicest submarine productions. When they visit the upper world on occasions of business or curiosity, they are obliged to enter the skin of some animal capable of respiring in the water. One of the shapes they assume is that of what is commonly called a merman or mermaid, human from the waist upwards, terminating below in the tail of a fish. But their most favourite vehicle is the skin of the larger seal or haaffish, for as this animal is amphibious they can land on some rock, and there cast off their sea-dress and assume their own shape and amuse themselves as they will in the upper world. They must, however, take especial; care of their skins, as each has but one, and if it should be lost. the owner can never re-descend but must become an inhabitant of the supramarine (land) world." The "larger seal" is probably the common harbour seal as opposed to the more numerous grey seals. HEDLEY KOW An mortal earth spirit reincarnate as a cow or a human with cow-like features. Dialectic English, Anglo-Saxon, heofod, chief + cuu, from Danish and Swedish, confers with the Gaelic bo, a cow. The chief cow, reminiscent of the Gaelic goddess Boann or Boyne, literally, the fiery cow. The English word holy is related to heofod, thus the exclamation "Holy cow!" expressing either surprise or intimidation. Notice that "cuu" originated as an expression of the sound "moo", a noise often taken as a means of secret recognition among bog, or cow-people. Related to the local expression holy cow! These were the mythic elfs known in Scandinavia as the huldrafolk. Their leader was the goddess Huldra (sometimes called Frigga), who corresponded with Boann. Her kind usually kept to the back-country but sometimes sought the company of mortals to enjoy dancing on the village green. Although they were circumspect the cow folk had the tails of the

animals who were their taibhs, and these were sometimes seen trailing beneath the flowing white gowns of their females. They were also distinguished by their hollowed backs and the beautiful melodies which they sang from the mountain-sides. The hedley kow possessed the elf-king's tune, "which several of the good fiddlers knew right well, but never venture to play, for as soon as it begins both young and old, and even inanimate objects, are impelled to dance and the player cannot stop unless he can play the air backwards, or that someone comes behind him and cuts the strings of his fiddle." Young men were warned against the females, who had "stringed instruments that ravish the heart." NS, BM, p. 137: cow licking window bad luck. cow will give bloody milk. HOBOMOCO, HOBBAMOCHO The Hel-spirit as represented in Indian mythology. Wabenaki, It is said that “The Indians of New England paid their principal homage to Hobbomocho. They imagined he was an evil spirit, and did them mischief, and so out of fear they worshipped him, to keep him in good humour. (Rev. Henry White, 1841).Interstingly, Old Hob, is not unknown in English mythology and as he was equated with the Devil so was this creature. In our region the Devil was characterized as ghe was elsewhere. He was a shape-changer, varying in form from a boar through a bear to a deer; he frequently left giant foot or hand-prints in stone. He lent his name, in anglicized form to numerous rocks, caves, glens and hidey-holes throughout the region. The whites, confusing this spirit with their own Devil assumed that the aboriginals were Devil-worshippers, but the Indians knew nothing of Christian mythology until they were informed of it by the newcomers. The local aboriginals were at first loathe to worship the One God since he was represented as a god of love, truth, justice and understanding, and obviously not to be feared. Stir cream with knife,

HOHOHMEQ A mortal earth spirit of the Abenaki, characterized by his uncanny laugh.

The Maliseet "chuckling ghost", is certainly related to the Goodfellow and to the pucks and pooks of the English countryside. It has been suggested that their kind are not intentionally violent, doing men down following their job description rather than out of malevolence. Robin Goodfellow is known to have led men a circuitous route through the swamps as they came home "from making merry with their sweethearts." He sometimes met them as a walking fire, which had a hypnotic effect upon them, and they followed, "walking up and down until daylight" when he vanished with a hearty, "Ho, ho, ho!" Confers with the Anglo-Saxon haughmand. The late Dr. Peter Paul, a former chief of the old Lower Woodstock reservation in New Brunswick, suggested that their spirit did not act out of a sense of merriment and glee: "Whenever it was heard, someone on the reservation would die..." The voice of the hohoh man was described as "weird, not very loud, but it carried far at that time of night particularly over frozen ground. Stuart Trueman, who heard an imitation of the call, described it as "a croaking, unnerving noise. It sounded like nothing human definitely not the kind of omen that would bvode any good." Dr. Paul noted that the sound was invariably heard three or four days before a death and said that he had once heard it himself: "It was in the semi-dark (just after sunset). We always carried our water from a field, and had to walk seventyfive yards. There was a little wet snow and it was freezing on the ground. When I went to get a pail of water at the spring, taking a path through a field of turnips, I heard it - a strange sound - a very weird sound, almost guttural, like a duck being choked." At that he heard he was joinmed by Jim Sapper and two young boys of the village who had also heard this "funny laugh". That same night, Paul went to the outhouse between the hours of one and two a.m. and saw the shade of an elderly woman. When he returned to his own home he was met by kin-folk who told him that his grandmother had just died. In later 1930's excavators were digging out a the cellar-hole of an abandoned house when they came across the bones of a man. A pathologist at Saint johnestablished the fact that these bones had lain in polace for at least eighty years. Older poeople suspected that they may have been the remains of Noel Lalar, a former moose-hunting guide. He had been a reprobate, living "in sin" with an unmarried woman, drinking heavily and playing cards. No one knows if foul play was a part of his death but the church had refused to bury him in consecrated ground, which explains why he was buried close to the foundation of his former home. The Indians were convinced that a death-spirit projected itself through these bones producing

the ominous sounds, and most agreed that his remains should be transferred to hallowed ground. "They gave the bones a proper burial," noted Dr. Peter Paul. "And no one on the reservation has heard a chuckle since." HOODOO A mortal earth spirit known by his uncanny laugh.

Anglo-Saxon, gehaadod, hooded, in a monastic order, obscured from view; an invisible entity. Hoodie, the European hooded crow; their carrion crow; the European black-hooded gull, all considered creatures of ill-omen. Related to the English word doom. Maritime dialect (whoo-doo), from the English words hi, ho, hoo, heo, who, heugh or houve, or howdy, combined with doo or doodie. Hoo is an exclamation, a cry of excitement of elation. The related word heugh describes a crag, cliff, or glen with overhanging sides; also a shaft in a coalpit or a hollow in a quarry, and any living therein. Doo was once used to describe a doe, and this skin was used for doodie-bags, the bag-pipes carried by doodies or doodlers. The doodle bag carried without pipes had the same function as the duffer's bag or duffle-bag, which seaman referred to as their ditty-bag. All were used to transport loot, thus the doodie, the duffer and the diter were all known as thieves, cheats and cunning fools. A hoodoo is currently defined as an unlucky human or elf. This mythic creature corresponds with the imp or familiar of the witch, the droch chromhalaichean, the jonah, fred and the jinxer. The elfish hoodoos are known as hoihoimannen (hoo-hoo men) in Germany. They are illusive shape-changers, but frequently appear as two and a half feet men wearing large hats that obscure their faces; they carry whips and wear red capes. These forest spirits are like pucks and bogles, having a great interest in leading travellers from their intended path. To forward this hobby, they have the ability to generate rain, hail or snowstorms, mocking their victims with a cry of "Hoy! Hoy Hey! Hua!" Those stupid enough to mock this cry lose their lives. The French version of this elf is the houpoux (halloer), or loupeux, who resembles the English hooter and the Maritime whooper. This creature is a participant in the Asgardreia, or Wild Hunt, which fololws Woden at the Yuletide. The passing of the Raging Host, Woden's Wrath, or his Hounds was supposedly heard in the thunderstorms racing out

of the north, an omen of pestilence, misfortune and war. "It was thought that any so sacrrilegious as to join in the wild halloo in mockery would be immediately snatched up and whirled away with the vanishing host, while those echoing the halloo in good faith would be rewarded with the sudden gift of a horse's leg hurled at them from above. This, carefully kept to the morrow, would be changed into a lump of gold." Nicholas Wodan is himself a "hoo-hoo" man or "hoodoo", whose destiny is set by his ancient opposition to the wishes of the Scepen, the Allfather, or creator-god. Because of his miscegenation with the giants, he had perpetual bad luck and his race became mortal. Woden is destined to die at the end of time, killed in the jaws of the Fenris wolf. This spirit corresponds with the land-based jinxer and is also called the jonah, johnny-bad-luck or old jack. Individuals have sometimes been described as jonahed, jinxed or hoodooed, which means that witchcraft, or the black arts, have been used to replace the second soul or guardian spirit of an individual with a malignant spirit often termed an imp. Since the bad luck of individuals has been noticed to spill over onto their possessions personal effects, cars and sea-going ships have all been observed to take on the dark cloud that hovers over their owner. In times not-so-distant past it was considered that men were born with a guiding internal, or first soul; but also had, as their birthright a second soul, gifted on them by the pagan gods as a protector. Among seamen, this invisible cowalker was termed the fetch, but land-dwellers called him the runner. Whatever his name this invisible follower had the capacity to run into the past to obtain foresight which might benefit his host. He could also examine the past and bring back hindsight; or turn his telescopic gaze on the present in the interest of getting farsight. Those who were "gifted" were said capable of projecting their internal soul upon the external double, thus enabling themselves to see through his eyes. While in this state, their bodies fell into a trance state, which only ended when the internal soul returned. Most men were hardly aware of the machinations of their cowalker and experienced the espionage from the past and future as vague hunches, which they usually failed to act upon. Men who were natural leaders were guessed to have highly useful doubles, which could briefly incarnate themselves as a full physical twin or as the individual's totem bird or animal. During the months just after birth men were in danger of having their cowalker stolen and replaced by a changeling-soul, or imp. This explains why

rustics made every effort to avoid exposing their children to the tragedy obeing "overlooked" by the "evil-eye" of a neighbour. If this happened, the individual became a jinxer, jonah or hoodoo, easily influenced by any of the witch fraternity, and devoid of conscience. Worse still, the malignant imp spread a dark cloud of iniquity and bad luck over its host and anything, or anyone, with whom it came in contact. Hoodooed men brought bad luck on the fishing grounds and were even blamed for the loss of ships on which they travelled. The names of those who inadvertently carried a taint of evil was well known in the smaller communities of yester-year, and these men were avoided on the highway and chased away from shipyards and mills, where their presence was known to presage loss by fire, lightning, flood or windstorm. It was also a tenant of belief that men had spirits similar to those of trees; hence the old habit of planting a birth-tree, to which the spirits of men migrated after death. In creating figureheads, our carvers sought the wood from the birth-trees of innocent children, since it was believed that these would become protective-spirits of the ships to which the figurehead was attached. Unfortunately, good, or at least non-malignant tree-spirits, could be driven from a ship, with invariable catastrophic results. Sometimes, this was accomplished through witchcraft, where a practitioner substituted a changeling-imp for the spirit of the ship. On the other hand, the witch sometimes called upon a virulent sea-spirit to destroy the craft and whwn that happened the taboos of sea-travel had to be carefully followed to benefit from the figurehead-spirit while avoiding the nets of rapacious seaspirits. The main prohibition was against turning the boat "widdershins" or in an anti-clockwise direction. If this happened some sailors claimed that the "shoaler waters of the ocean" rose beneath the keel, wrecking the ship. In certain quarters, it was said that sea-monsters clutched and crushed any ship that made this mistake; while in other places, it was suggested that the ship was pulled down by the weight of the souls of drowned sailors. Some losses at sea were due to inadvertent mistakes in the construction of the vessel. The rowan and hackmatack wood-spirits were known to be antagonistic to one another, so if these two woods were incorpoartated into a ship it was automatically hoodooed. A haunted tree provided very dangerous wood, particularly if it was once a hanging tree, or stood above the grave of a murderer or some very evil, or unhappy, individual. Homes and craft constructed from the salvage of vessels lost at sea invariably proved to be unlucky.

It is also a matter of record that the "little people", the old gods, the sea-giants, and others of their ilk resented the light use of any name which they considered their perogative. Thus the schooner "Devil" ended in very deep water in spite of the fact that she was a trim sailing vessel, seemingly with the very best prospects. She was launched in England in 1872 and placed under charter to the firm of Punton and Munn, who were based at Harbour Grace, Newfoundland. She was registered Preston England and one hundred and forty-eight tons and carried a crew of six operating under Captain Tullock. Wherever she was seen this new ship was counted as the best in craftsmanship, her hull being so finely finished men could not see the seams betweeen the planking. She was painted a startling black as far as the waterline and from there down her hull was blood red. At her bow was a very stiking figure, a creature with horns, tail and cloven hooves. The Devil does not exist in Hebrew theology, but when missionary/translators wished to transcribe the Bible in English they needed a name to describe the supreme protaganist of the Almighty God. The Anglo-Saxon "deoful" was selected being descriptive of a minor imp "full of Deos, or Teos, or Tues." Now Twes, or Tues, or Tyr, is the old European god of war, a very bloodthirsty sun/firegod. He is remembered in the second day of our week, and was always unwelcome in the camps of all but his supporters. This sinister ship was hard to staff, for God-fearing sailors thought she was ill-named and probably hoodooed. She carried an abnormally large spread of canvas and proved an expectionally fine sailer. Her accomodations were above those of most other ships in her class, but the first taint of illrepute became fixed to her. Nevertheless, on an early run from Labrador to Liverpool, the "Devil" managed a crossing in six days and eight hours, a record not approached by any sailing ship for many decades after. In port, old sailors shook their heads saying that this new craft must surely have had supernatural help. On longer voyages the captain and crew fought through entire voyages and knifings aboard ship were not an uncommon hazard of the passage. The name became intolerable to Christians on both sides of the ocean and at last the British Admiralty instructed the deletion of her uncanny name. When the nameboard "Newsboy" went up on her side she truly became a "jonah", for the devil-may-care spirit of the crew was seen to fade and on

her first ship into the Mediterranean, the newly-named craft went down in the deepest waters of that salt sea. While this might be thought of as "loss by misadventure", the "Favourite" was a ship supposedly sunk by witchcraft. In 1803 therre were no more than 5,000 people in all of Pictou County, Nova Scotia but 1,000 more were expected to ship out from Scotland in that year and some of these had booked on the "Favourite" which was berthed at Kirkcaldy and mastered by Captain Ballantyne. At the collection port of Ullapool one of the poposed emigrants was tending his cows at dockside when he spotted a rabbit-like animal slinking from cow to cow, sucking milk from their teats. He took up his muzzle-loader and attempted to fire on the creature but found his vision strangely distorted so that he could not take aim. Guessing that he might be dealing with a witch, he shaved slivers from a silver coin and repacked them with the shot. This time he had better success in tacking aim and when he fired, the thing limped off leaving a trail of blood on the summer beach. Inquiries were made the next day and an old lady, long suspected of witchcraft, was reported confined to bed with a gun-shot wound. When the man who fired the shot called upon the "witch" she refued to see him, but later declared that if he sailed on the Favourite it would be lost to the sea. Notwithstanding, the hoodooed ship set out and arrived at Pictou township, August 3rd, 1803 having made the crossing in five weeks and three days, a record at that time. All the passengers were landed and the cargo removed. The curse was all but forgotten when the ship suddenly sank below perfectly calm waters. Mariners who mulled over this situation decided that the "hoodoo" had acted as intended but the passengers had survived because of the fast crossing of the Atlantic. HORRIBLE A mortal earth spirit periodically reincarnate in men. Dialectic English from the Old French orrible, from the Latin horris, to shudder. A spirit that raises excitement, dread, and a sense of foreboding. Confers with horrid and horrific. The adjective horrid carries a greater sense of innate repulsiveness than horrible, while horrific is a bookish description, a synonym for horrifying.

The horribles were active in Prince Edward Island until the First World War, and have been described as "costumed clowners (disguisers or mummers) who would parade on New Year's Day." (Pratt, p. 75). Pratt's respondents said that the adults dressed for the occasion in "wierd masks or blackened faces" and appeared informally, and later publically, in the New Year's day parade. At Summerside, the horribles marched (appropriately enough) from the Soldier's Monument to Gallows Hill, the whole assembly of "sleighs, wagons, horses and clowns being termed the horribles parade." HORNED SERPENT A mortal sea spirit, having a horned horse-like head and a body like an eel. Anglo-Saxon, horn, see entry below + Anglo-Norman, serpent, any long cylindrically-shaped, limbless (or nearly limbless) reptile. Correponds exactly with the jipjakamaq of local Indian lore as well as with the British horn-eel. See horse-eels, below.

HORSE-EEL Mortal water-spirit having a horse-like head and the body of an eel. Anglo-Saxon, hros, horse + el, strange. Piast, peiste, payshtha, allphiast or ullfish are the traditional names given similar Irish sea-serpents that live in land-locked lakes. None of these words are derived from the Old Irish tongue, or Gaelic, but originate instead with the Norse language, "pieste" having the sense of "smelt-like or scaled" and "ull" or "all" referring to Ullr or Ollr, the winter-god and alter-ego of Odin. These "water-demons" were seen to have horse-like heads, hence the common English name. None of this species is restricted to water and one seen on land was described as "much larger than a horse with a long neck and sheep-like head. It had a tail and four legs, the hind ones the biggest." Estimates of length were eight to ten deet, while it was thought that the animal stood perhaps two-and-a-half feet tall. It was noticed that this horse-eel moved with a rolling gait, not unlike that of a walrus or seal. Helen Creighton reported one of this kind at Cranberry Lake, near

Sydney, Cape Breton: "It is an inland lake, about a mile in length and always full of water. One evening about thirty years ago (1927) a man was standing by the lake looking for cows when he was astonished to see something on the surface that looked like a horse's head. Then the neck appeared. In a moment the animal or sea serpent went under water...He judged it to be about twelve feet in length..." Again, Creighton noted that a man had gone to this same lake in 1949 intending to wash his car, but had fled when a horseeel emerged from the waters. More than a little annoyed this gentleman gathered a group of friends and some dynamite intending to blast the animal into the hereafter. By the time they were thoroughly organized it was winter and they gave up the operation after some abortive attempts to decide where it might be under the ice. Pictou Island lies in the Northumberland Strait, nine miles offshore from Pictou Township and a few miles north of the Dawson sighting. Here, bent grasses over an area of marshland on the south shore of the island convinced a group of locals that some large marine animal had come ashore. A few of the men suggested that the bent cat-tails and other plants gave the impression that a horse had been moving through the area, but there were no horses on the island. It was concluded that "it must be a monster from the sea that's made the crawlings to our pond." A group of brave but foolish lads went looking for this visitor and much to their horror came face to face with "the grand-daddy of all snakes". They quickly retreated to a hunting camp at the edge of the swamp and barred the door. After an uneasy night of listening for rustling sounds in the grasses the men arose from sleep, scattered gasoline and set fire to the reeds. When the oily smoke had dispersed they went searching the area for remains but found nothing that would suggest any large animal had ever been close at hand. HOUGHMAGAN, HAUGHMAND, HOGGEMAN, HOGMAN A mortal earth spirit periodically reincarnate in men at the time of Houghmanday. Middle-English, hough, an underground retreat, corresponding with howe, a hollow dwelling place, as well as with the common English words huge and ho. It is also a cowalker with the hook and the Anglo-Saxon word hock, which describes the heel sinew or hamstring of animals, and closely resembles their word hogge, the yearling on any mammalian species of animal. "Houghmagan" is seen written as "hoggman" or "hogman" and his

holiday in England used to be Houghmanday, Hockday or Hookday, which fell on the second Tuesday after Easter. Questioned about, it our ancestors said that it was a holiday set up to commemorate the overthrow of the Danes in England. The Hocktide actually consisted to two days, Hockmonday and Hocktuesday. On the first day, the women of the village used to take positions on either side of a well travelled road, and on signal pull tight a rope streetched across it. If this was craftily managed a passing man was tripped, captured and ransomed to his friends. On the second day this procedure was taken up by the men. There is suspicion that these "guests" were once bound and were formerly forced to play the part of the May King and Queen. In Scotland hogga is still used to describe a hill pasture and in Germany the hoggfolk were identified as the elfs of antiquity, literally "the hill-people" those who lived in the elfvehooggs (elf-hills). In old Scotia, the hoggeman was the duan na calluinn of Gaelic parts, appearing on the eve of the old New Year in an animal hide. We can only guess at the ancient rituals, but their remnants in Atlantic Canada are more strongly attached to the month of November than to the spring season. Compare with groundhog Hallowe'en night in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, may still see the spirit of the hogman although we doubt that this beast man prowls the countryside as was once the case. In the middle years of this century, children knew the words used in extortion, and used to make house calls, crying out "Hogmany! hogmanany!" In the earliest years when young "hogges" were involved in disguising food and ale were expected of the householder, but when this became a children's festival a few pennies were thrown at the door or candies were distributed. The significance of Hogmanay is made clear when one examines folk-practises in the Isle of Man, one of the former fortresses of the Celtic language. Here the Manx mummers "went the rounds" (like good devils) on Hallowe'en singing a Hogmanay song which began, "Let us in! Tonight is New Year's Night, the Hogunnaa!" In Gaelic-speaking regions fires were extinguished on this night and communal new fire created as a source for individual hearths. Animals were sometimes paraded through the smoke from the fire so that the evil spirits of disease or witchcraft might be driven from them into the flames. In primitive versions of this ritual, evil-spirits were loaded upon the shoulders of the person, or persons, selected to be burnt, in the interest of revitalizing men, the crops and the land. HOWDIE

A mortal earth spirit, a witch or the familiar of a witch. Anglo-Saxon, hol, a hollow or den; Middle English, hough, an underground retreat. See houghmagan, the male equivalent of this spirit. The word is also see as howdy or houdy and as hoodoo, sometimes combined with wife, as houdy-wife or hoodoo-wife. Confers with the Anglo-Saxon hold, faithful, friendly, kind, and has the connotations seen in the word household. Among the English a holder was a tender of cattle. The howdie of medieval times was a mid-wife, alternately described as human or as one of the fay-kind. Midwifery was one of the chief crafts of the fay. the sidh, the baobhean and witches. At the trial of the English witch known as Bessie Dunlop, she recalled a visit from the "Queen of Elfhame, a stout woman who sat down on the form beside her and asked a drink at her, which she gave. This woman told her that the bairn in her would die, but that her husband would surely mend of his illness." The howdies were consulted as diviniers but were also herabalists, who administered belladonna to pregnant women to prevent the muscular action of the womb when miscarriage threatened. While the howdie had a better reputation than the witch, they shared powers and Gillian Tindall has noted that, "greed or partiality" had a tendancy to blacken her craft. This writer has said that, "Practical and ritual witchcraft often had little in common, which is why one cannot generalize about what "witches" did, as if they all belonged to one secret society." Nevertheless, legally, and in popular opinion, these white-witches were as suspect as people who indulged in more complicated fertility rites. Whatever their individual merits, or demerits, the howdies were considered hoodooed, which is to say robbed of, or willingly parted, from their guardian spirit or cowalker. Creighton interviewed a Nova Scotian woman who claimed that children were particulary suceptible to the effects of witchcraft: "There was a spell put on me as a little girl. It was never taken off so anyone can witch me." This implied that the guardian was still resident but ineffective. These people were passive hoodoos, or bad-luck people, the rent-payers to hell, more often called jinxers or jonahs. The active howdies or hoodoos supposedly sought power in this world and surrendered their guardians of their own free will: "To be a witch you had to curse your father and mother and read the black art books...(Seabright, Nova Scotia). Those were the essentials of the rites in which the witch exchanged her "external soul" for a "familiar". The true familiar was

regarded as a imp or small "d" devil usually in the form of a domestic pet. The Church regarded these animals as a gift from the Prince of Darkness himself, and certainly they were highly regarded being handed down from one family member to another. They lived much longer than ordinary animals and were sometimes unattractive. One of our howdies had "a deformed thing with many feet, black of colour, rough with hair, about the bigness of a cat." Others preferred crows which had a proper reputation and were easy to tame. Ferrets and rodents were kept and toads were fairly popular. HUMMER A spirit display. of the air embodied in a persistent acoustical

Anglo-Saxon, hum, a sound reminiscent of the letter “m” extended. The geologist Clyde M. Bauer (1966) said it was like, “the ringing of telegraph wires or the hum of bees, beginning softy in the distance, growing rapidly plainer until directly overhead, then fading rapidly in the opposite direction.” The sound has also been compared with that of a giant pipe organ in the sky and with the echoing of distant bells, The sounds are sometimes heard in lowland areas near the sea, most distiinctly in the early morning orf a cloudless, windless day. C.W. Floyd, correponding with “Fate” magazine in 1961 said that the humming spirit at Bellmore, New York was most noticable indoors “it does have the sound of a motor, or ven may be likened to the buzzing of bees, or the noise of escapeing gas, or air... the hum can linger for hours at a very low pitch... It starts and stops abruptly...At times when the hum is quite clear I have been aware of a hot prickly feeling down my spine...It may last for several minutes...Also at times of humming, an odor of gas or fetid green plants is very strong. The odor can make on feel sick... In summer I thought that the green trees and shrubs might cause the odor but it is present in the winter...” HURLEYWAYN A mortal spirit of the air, often whirlwinds, tornados and hurricanes. observed embodied in

Middle English, hurlen, a gust of wind + wain, a wagon, a four-wheeled

vehicle of transport. Hurlen confers with with the Friesian word hurel, the English hurl, and our word hurry. A fairy of the hedges and wayside. Confluent with hurley-burley, which derives from hurly, a confusion and hurricane, a violent windstorm; also similar to whirlwind, formerly hurlewind, hurlpool, a whirlpool and the obsolete hurley-hacket, the old sport of sliding down hill in a wooden trough or on a sledge. Capitalized, wain is used to identify Wuotan's Wain, better known as the constellation of Ursa Major or the Great Bear. The hurleywayn was a spirit of the air, the species ruled by Balkin, lord of the northern mountains: "...he was shaped like a satyr and fed upon air, having wife and children to the number of tweleve thousand, which were the brood of the northern fairies (i.e. trow) inhabiting Southerland and Catenes (Scotland)...these were the companies of spirits that hold continual wars with the fiery spirits in the mountain Heckla, that vomits fire in Islandia (Iceland). That there speech is ancient Irish, and their dwellings the caverns of the rocks and mountains, which relation is recorded in the antiquities of Pomonia (on the main island of the Orkneys)...when the battle is upon the mountain of Heckla, the spirits of the air are then worsted, and great mournings and doleful noises are heard in Iceland, and Russia and Norway, for many days after. (Reginald Scot. 1665) After these glory-days, the hurleywayn became a resident of hedges and wayside. This creature was usually invisble and lived within local whirlwinds, which men used to acknowledge with a tip of the hat and friendly words. It was adept at stealing kisses from pretty maidens and had the disconcerting habit of materializing as a little old man, who threw himself in the path of any vehicle which happened along the road. Stuart Truman has informally tagged these spirits as "Little Old Men of the Sea" and some may have roots in this kingdom, but most are adherents of the storm-spirits. One of these was the little man in Ghost Hollow, on Wood Island off the larger island of Grand Manan, " a little fellow with an old-fashioned flattopped hat. He comes out, especially on a foggy night, and runs alongside your car and sometimes throws himself in front of it." Another of these took the middle of the road in Millerton. A Dorchester resident slammed on the brakes when a man seemed to materialize out of the fog. The car hit the hurleywayn and went on through him as if he had been a hologram. Not all encounters have taken place in the distant past. In nineteen seventy-two, a family was travelling home from Prince Edward Island to Fredericton when

they saw what appeared to be a young man emerge from the bushes, three or four miles south of the Princess Margaret Bridge, and wave frantically as if trying to stop them to attend an accident. They had to swerve wildly to miss hitting him, but when they looked back along the highway there was no one on the black-top. A year later the same family repeated the trip at exactly the same time of year and once again their phantom rushed out on the highways bringing them to a swerving halt. Years before that, Mr. Harold Young of Taymouth, New Brunswick, was driving in a buggy with his wife along the Nasshwaaak River along the hill that descends on MacPherson's Brook. He was surprised to see a small man keeping pace with the front wheel not very far away. Thinking to signal him to hop aboard Young tapped him on the shoulder with his buggy whip, which passed entirely through. There have been more unusual encounters: When John Bond descended the hill towards Palmer's Landing where he intended to meet the paddlewheeler, he first came uponahurleywayn. In a hospitalble mood, Bond roared, "Damn it man, no need to walk, come aboard!" As the stranger set his foot on the step-up he could not help but notice that he lacked a head. He whipped his horse into an inhospitable gallop down the hill. The only known casulty among these "hurricane-men" was a little fellow at Tetagouche Falls in the north of the province. It was his diversion to leap out of the brush at horses or walking people, laughing at either as they raced into the distance. One night, however, he fell beneath the horses hooves. His screams equalled that of a woods-whooper and he was never seen afterwards. The most formidable hurleywain is seen when the ocean is upset by “wind-spirits.” Hurricanes were once thought of as an imposition of forces from the outside world, and we have had a number of them. The Saxby Gale was in a class by itself. It was named after Lieutenant S.M. Saxby of the British Navy, a man who was an amateur meteorologist. He proposed the not entirely original theory that the earth’s tides were likely to be very high when the sun, moon, and earth were in conjunction, or lined up so that their gravitational effects are cumulative. Saxby was sufficiently alarmed that he wrote the “London Standard,” warning that an unusually violent storm might accompany this phenomenon, which was due to take place on or about October 5, 1869. Noticing that the Bay of Fundy was a region of high tides, he used the newspaper as a means of warning mariners in advance of the expected destruction. Saxby’s prediction, made in 1868, might have gone unnoticed but it was reprinted in the “Halifax Morning Chronicle.” Possibly as a result the

Admiralty warned the local dockyard to button down. Halifax was, thus, well prepared for the storm, but received nothing more than a few sea swells. The Atlantic shore of Canada was off the track of this storm, which formed in the Gulf of Maine and swept down the middle of the Bay of Fundy. “The Saint John Daily News,” reprinted a part of Saxby’s warning from the Halifax paper, and some places took notice, the wharves in Saint John and Portland being cleared of goods, and the stores moving their stock to upper floors. At that, they were unprepared for this manitou. On the evening of October 4, at 5 p.m., an easterly wind began to blow from the anti-cyclone which was forming. There was rain and then a cloudburst. The harbour of Saint John immediately became unsafe for vessels, and the “S.V. Coonan.” was thrown up against reeds Point wharf and reduced to timbers. By 9 p.m. it was reported that the night had become “as dark as Erebus, and the Empress Wharf shifted en mass. Some additional vessels went down and the suspension bridge below the Reversing Falls was blown away. Shingles, chimneys and tree branches were scattered on the wind until a lull came when the tide went out at 10:30 p.m. While things were bad enough at Saint John it was now seen that other communities along the Bay were harder hit. Railway tracks were damaged throughout the region and it was found that Sussex was the only place still in telegraphic communications with Saint John. The Saint Croix River area was a mess: Newspaper man James Vroom counted thirty buildings trashed by the great storm at St. Stephen. The Universalist Church at Milltown was in sticks and the Episcopalian Church in Saint Stephen no longer had a tower. Nearby St. Andrews was flooded at high tide, its vessels wrecked its wharves damaged. Neighbouring Eastport, Maine had forty ruined buildings and 67 vessels driven ashore. The “eye” of this localized hurricane passed right up the River valley and exited the world of men in York County on the morning of October 5. The reports from Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, were similar, and the fleet at Briar Island was totally wiped out. There was damage to houses and vessels in the Annapolis Valley and the Grand Pre marshes, at the head of the Bay, were flooded. A schooner carrying apples was found driven into a field at Canning. There were tides in the Minas that broke the Acadian dykes and carried away the land as the waters receded from the head of Minas Basin. The “Borderer” wrote that while the Tantramar Marshes had been

“proverbial for its high winds,” there had never been “such a destructive storm.” “It was intensely warm on Monday (Oct. 4); the weather looked unsettled, and in the afternoon huge black clouds darkened the sky and were driven north by a stiff wind. these increased to a gale which blew with great fury. In the morning the Marshes “were covered with a sea of waters, which carried away barns, fences, haystacks and cattle, all piling up around the edge of the upland, a collection of trees and debris of all kinds...Out of five barns on the Botford Marsh only one weathered the storm...In the rear of E. Cogswell’s a dozen stacks of hay and a large barn roof have been deposited...the sleepers and rails have been lifted from the railway and twisted over the marsh while water covered the Station House floor to a depth of six inches. We have been cut off from all communications but are apprehensive we shall hear of more serious results than what we witnessed here.” That night the Petitcodiac River’s tidal bore was at its worst, the wave-crest rising to nine feet. Coming up the river is was said to have been heard by folks a mile distant from the river. At that, the howling of the wind modified what might have been heard, and the darkness made it impossible to witness the effects of its rampage. A new bridge, thrown up across the Petitcodiac south of Moncton was carried off, and the toll-gate keeper narrowly escaped drowning. The bore roared into Moncton and a number of people had to retreat to their second floor, where they had to remain, no boats being on hand to carry them to high land. The Harris wharf, in that town, was covered by ten feet of water. Above Moncton a woman driving a horse across a bridge lost her life, while most of the O’Brien family died trying to pilot a raft across to Boundary Creek. As the storm moved off it struck Hartt’s Mill near Fredericton levelling almost every house. It then ravaged Fredericton, Newcastle, Chatham and the Miramichi River before blowing itself out. There was a fair bit of damage in New Hampshire and New York State, and reports of loss as far south as Albany. If this was a conventional hurricane it must have originated in the Caribbean, and missed the southern States by a wide margin before taking a crack at the coast of northeastern America. Most of our storm-manitous come in the spring or fall but there was a notable visitation of wind and sea-spirits on February 2, 1976. On that day the “Groundhog Day Gale,” ripped its way north on a route similar to that of the Saxby Gale.Again the storm grew with the incoming tide and the usually

placid upper bays became maelstroms that outdid the Old Sough. No boats were in the water because this was the off-season at Alma wharf, but the nearby breakwater, made of gigantic rocks was completely disassembled. Remember that moving water has 800 times the density of an equal volume of air, and the wind did considerable damage that day. Had the tide been higher when the storm what at its height all of the costal towns would have suffered as they did in the Saxby Gale, but the tide turned and the storm slackened leaving pulverized wharfs and sea-spray damage to tree as much as twenty miles inland. At Sussex, my wife and I struggled out in this storm to get flashlight batteries, before we realized its potential. We barely managed to claw our way back from the front street, leaning at 45 degrees to the wind. The storm was accompanied by some strange electrical displays, including balls of lightning which traced the rail road tracks and periodically exploded. On the low marshlands at Millstream, a little to the north, numerous mini-tornadoes raised water spouts, and one of these touching one edge of a large barn, caused it to implode, terrorizing horses and cattle, and their owners.

These dramatic visitations of weather have also been seen on the other side of the Isthmus of Chignecto. Like the Saxby Gale the “The Yankee Storm” blew in over Prince Edward Island with some advance notice. It was called the “Yankee Gale” or “Storm” from the number of Gloucseter fishermen who happened to be on the Gulf of Saint Lawrence Banks (northeast of Prince edward Island) at the time of the calamity. By late afternoon the ships fishing the seas between P.E.I. and the Magdalen Islands found themselves in a warm thick haze, which was not thick enough to obscure cloud formations of extraordinary colours and shapes. This was taken as a sign for concern but men were reassured when the Gulf of St. Lawrence became as calm as a millpond. Some fishermen felt apprehensive about the fact that not a single fish was taken by the hundreds of fishing vessels in the region but no one made a dash for port. As night came on a heavy swell arose out of the east, a peculiar situation since it was not wind-driven. Distant sounds could be heard over the water with a clarity that was not normal and as the sun rose it was seen that refraction played havoc with sight, objects on land and ships at sea appearing to float many feet above the surface of the water. More alarming was the thousands of sea-gulls which were seen moving toward the land. This was Friday, October 4th, and it is a tenant of belief in our region that

“Fridays weather is either the fairest or foulest of the month.” Assuming the worst some of the fishing boats made for port while others headed for deep water and put out their sea-anchors. When night came it was impenetrably black and by eight o’clock a breeze began from the north-east quarter. By midnight a vicious anticyclone was ripping in against Prince Edward Island and there was no letup that night, or the next day or night. The break came at Sunday noon, but it came too late for hundreds of fishermen and their boats. When the storm was at its worst, Islanders reported seeing ships dashed ashore by mountain-high waves and said that the sound of breakers was like that of cannon-fire. At Rustico, the residents stood by helplessly as a dismasted schooner was flung 300 feet from the tide line. Within a mile of this wreck, three other vessels were thrown into pastures that skirted the shore. When the storm had done its worst the people of Rustico found thirtysix bodies, most lashed to ship’s rigging, all half-buried in sand. A few men with the fleet actually managed to leap to the sand before their vessels fell down to be crushed like egg shells. From all the wreckage spread over Prince Edward Island only fifty had enough integrity to be identified by name. Most of the fishing craft existed as sticks of unrelated wood cast up on the shore. At Savage Harbour the lost craft were estimated to number thirty six schooners. Sixteen vessels lay broken between Richmond Bay and Cape North. There was never any true accounting of the hundreds of vessels lost in the Gale, but the locals and the Yankees were not the only losers as many European nameplates were found cast ashore. Of all the ships abroad at that time only twenty-two were salvageable after riding out the storm and all of these had fatalities. The gale of 1851 was so fierce that hardly any bodies were recovered with clothing intact. Like the Saxby Gale, this storm was driven by a peculiar spirit as its effects were only felt near Prince Edward Island. Prior to the storm nothing unusual transpired although October 3rd, 1851 was an exceptionally warm day for the time of year. The day opened bright and sunny and blue, but by afternoon a halo “of peculiar brightness” was seen surrounding the sun. This is still sometimes taken as a sign of storm within forty-eight hours

Again, on September 19, 1846 a storm swept the Grand Banks with

unprecedented ferocity. The losses from it will never be known as few records were kept at that time, but Newfoundland was hardest hit. At Marblehead the deaths were more easily tallied than those from remote outposts, and here we know that forty-three men failed to return from fishing. The shared character of all Atlantic storms is their power and changeability. Halifax has been known to pass through most of the winter with no more than light snowfalls, and suddenly find itself buried in two feet of the white stuff. Storms predicted to pass out to sea have sometimes shown a last minute interest in the land driving surprised fishermen before them in an unexpected rebirth. It has been estimated that Sable Island alone has claimed five thousand lives since the white men came to America. At Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, the population has never been much more than two thousand, partly due to the fact that it has lost four thousand fishermen to the sea since the 18th century. In Hindu theology, Mount Meru, in the Himalayas was the ultimate power-point. The Japanese had Fujiyama, the mountain goddess who dominated their landscape and theology; and the ancient Greeks, Mount Olympus. On Mount Siani, the God of the Jews gave Moses the tablets of The Law. Where men stood on lesser ground, they still sought out the greatest nearby rise, even if it was nothing more than a small island in a stream, to light their holy fires and conduct the rites of their religions. Among the Penobscots, one spirited mountain was Mount Kathadin, now standing within Acadia Park, Maine. Another was the Island of Grand Manan where Glooscap found the means to overcome death. Isle Haut, or “High Island,” in the Bay of Fundy near its division into Minas Basin and Chignecto Bay, was a third, and a fourth would be Cape Blomodin, overlooking the Minas, where Glooscap kept a camp and guarded an entrance to the underworld. HUSELOP The creator-god of the Maliseets. ILL-THIEF A mortal earth spirit, the Devil incarnate. English from the Old Norse illr, of bad intent + Anglo-Saxon, thoef, originally one who squats or crouches, confering with the obselete word thieveless, one without purpose, cold, bleak, listless, forbidding. A robber or the Devil, or some devil of a pagan religion. See entry under Devil.

JACK A mortal water-spirit often found incarnate as a crow-like bird. Also known as the Jackdaw. Jack is a familiar English nickname for John and confers with Jacob, Jackey, Jake, all of which match the Gaelic Ioin or Ian. A jack was a man of the folk, thus jack-tar, a common sailor and the local jack-boat or jack-ass, descriptive of a schooner having very full an ungracious lines, an unpretentious or common boat. Jack was a name frequently applied to servants, thus sailors of low rank were also called jacks-afloat or jacks-at-sea. Websters dictionary defines Jack and Jill, or Gill as "the proper name for any common lad and lass." A jack-blunt was any person of "uncultured speech and uncivilized directness." A jackof-all-trades was one forced into and out of various livelihoods, through "ill manners, conceit or stupidity." See main john, johnny-bad-luck, janney and jonah, all of which confer. Jackdaw combines this familiar name with a variant on the Anglo-saox daeg, or day; the Middle-English daw, or dawn. The verb dawen meant to raise, waken or revive through a loud noise. Thus jackdaw, the very common corvine bird of Europe, similar to, but smaller than, our American crow. It is not dissimilar to the American grackle, to whom the name has also become attached. The creature nests in buildings and has been noted for pilfering small articles. An intelligent animal it can be trained to imitate the human voice. By extention, a daw is also a light-fingered querrilous person. The jack-schooners or jack-boats of Maritime Canada were termed two-spar boats in the Newfoundland ports. All were said to be 40 to 50 feet "from stemhead to taffrail." They were "gaff-rigged on both masts and usually carried a longish bowsprit."2 One of the products they brought back from the West Indies jakey, or Jamacia ginger, a product packaged in four inch high, squat grey earthenware jars fitted with pottery lids; the latter tied in place with the leaves of a local plant. To preserve the ginger during the long journey north, it was placed in alcohol. This liquid was supposed to be Lewis J., South Shore Phrase Book, p. 62. From "The National Fisherman," March 24, 1982.
2Poteet,

decanted and the ginger washed and allowed to dry before being used. During the prohibition era, some Maritimers threw away the ginger and consumed the alcohol, ocassionally with fatal result, since the liquor contained many impurities. Long after this practise ended the term "jakey" continued as a descriptive for any unusual source of drinking alchol. Preferred prohibition drinks of this century included melted and strained shoe polish as well as "blackbirds and canaries" (pure vanilla extract and lemon extract respectively). But at Sussex, New Brunswick, this last drink was commonly called "jakey". In Poteet's book dealing with the dialectic English of Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, he notes that kicking up jack, identified "a rowdy but not an infamous party." In that region jakey was also well-known being described by this author as "a fruit-flavoiured alcoholic drink based on a substance meant for food preparation." Pratt gives jack blunt as the characterization for "a plain-spoken person", which is to say one used to speakinhg his mind. The spirit which carries the expanded title Jack O' Lantern was never restricted to the swamplands of Atlantic Canada, his precursor being the British Jack O'Lanthorn. This is the disengaged cowalker of a man separated from him by a traumatic death and forced to wander hoping for an eventual reunion or reassimilation into the fay-kingdom. Also known as Will O'The Wisp (which see), Hob Wi' Lanthorn, Kit Wi' Canstick (candlestick) or Joan-In-The-Wad this spirit was distinguished by the hypnotic light which it carried. An interviewee at Mahone Bay told Creighton that "If you see the Jack o'Lantern you have to follow it, and the only way you can get back (from fay-land) is by turning your coat inside out." This act is also proof against witchcraft, it being noted that evil-spirits (and peasant-class humans) alwys wore their hide-coats with the fur turned inward. Reversing a coat showed allegiance with the dark forces. Nancy Arrowsmith emphasizes the fact that, "These flames are not elves, but lights carried by elves. These spirits are animated by the souls of men, women and children. As such, they come closer to being "ghosts" (in the modern sense of the word) than any other elves." Carole Spray has noted that "marsh fire" is commonly observed in in Atlantic Canada: "...the Acadians refer to it as "feu follet" (literally, the dancing fool) and it was believed that a sorcerer could change his body into a "feu follet" and follow people around...The Malecite Indian called the fire-balls

"Esk-wid-eh-wid" and they are believed to be forerunners of death."3 JACK O'LANTERN A sea-spirit always seen carrying a lantern. Middle English, John of the Lanthorn. See entry immediately above. A sub-species of this spirit. The Anglo-Norman lmatern is derived from the French lanterne, and originally identified any light which was located so that it was protected from the effects of the wind. Thus niches were cut into French cemetary stones to carry the "dead lights" which were lit to provide company for the daed. JANNEY A mortal water-spirit reincarnate particularly at the the time of the Yule. in men and women

English proper name, probably from the French Jeanne, the Old French Genes, and the Latin Joanna. Possibly derived from the Roman god Janus, "the keeper of doors", a two-headed spirit, that regarded both the past and the future. A jean was, formerly, a small silver, nearly worthless coin minted in Genoa, Italy and widely used in England in the 14th and 15th centuries. Also the name given a twill-woven cotton cloth worn by povertystricken folk. Jean-of-apes, a silly, bold, vulgar girl "of the people", corresponding with the male jack-of-apes or jackanapes. The name has variants in Jean, Joan and Janet and is the female equivalent of Jack (see entry immediately above). The Newfoundland janney correponds exactly with the belsnicker, the horrible, and the callithumpian of the other Atlantic Provinces. Barney Moss says that the business of mumming or janneying was "widely practised in the outports of Newfoundland." Also, in local dialect, a joan is a log used as a shock-absorber between a boat and a float or wharf. JILL A female water-spirit, the equivalent of the male Jack.
3Spray,

Carole, Will O' The Wisp, p. 16.

Also seen locally as jillic, jillock, gillock, jillpoke, joan. Defined in the Prince Edwrad Island Dictionary of English as "A small quantity of liquid, usually alcohol," or as "A container for such liquid." In the past, the name also suited women "of coarse cut and habits." In the language of lumbering a jillpoke was an awkward unpredictable individual, or a bad-luck-jenny (see bad-luck-johnny). Alternately, it was thought of as a spirit personified in the "key-log", at the centre of a log-jam on a New Brunswick river. JINKER A sea-spirit regarded as the source of all bad luck on the water. Middle English jink, sometimes corrupted to jinx, corresponding with tink, perhaps from the Anglo-Saxon, tin, the metal. An obsolete word, to move quickly as in dancing, to frolic, to play tricks, to cheat. Jinker, an individual involved with any of the above. Tinker, an imitative word meant to reflect the metallic sound of working with tin products. Today, tin is obtainjed by smelting the ore called casserite but the metal has anciently existed as tinstone, a native mineral first mined in Cornwall England. The metal does not readily oxidize and was found useful in coating iron and copper, especially where this metal was to be used in ship-building. The early tinkers were intent on protecting their monopoly and discouraged unexpected visitors by spreading the rumour that they were wonder-workers. This seems to have been the case with most metalworkers of that day for there is a suspicion that the dwarfs of Scandinavia may have been "a people of small stature but great in craft and ingenuity, who took ocassion to represent themseleves as beings who worked magic, creating crystals and purifying metals from the bowels of the earth." The Cornish tin-miners had no underground mines, although they did use natural caverns as storage places. The tin ore they had was obtained amidst sand and pebbles dug up from the mores or taken from stream beds. These were crushed by hand on large flat stones and the rough ore smelted in primitive furnaces to get at the metal. It has been estimated that this industry was in place some time before the Christian era.

Having this wealth to guard, the Cornishmen set false lights for unknown vessels, which usually came to a bad end on their rocky shores. The native population soon found an extra industry in retrieving flotsam and jetsam, and this continued until fairly recent times, the "pirates of Penzance" taking over this business from their ancestors. Jink is our local word jouk, "to dodge, duck, hide, or avoid; to trick deceive or cheat; to tease or bully; to bounce (a child) on the knee." It is probably closely related to jullic, jillock or gillock, a small quantity of alcohol, which in turn confers with the proper names Jill, Joan, John and Jack (which, see). In our parlance a jinker or tinker was an individual involved with marine salvage operations, sometimes creating the wrecks on his own initiative. Today the two words are understood more metaphorically as the metal remains of ships lost at sea. By extension, reference is sometimes made to illegal acts, thus tinkers may be thought of as undersized fish or lobsters. These words are also used, along with junkers and scraps, to indicate catches of little value. The Razor-billed Auk is also termed a tinker or noddy. JIPIJKAMAQ A mortal sea spirit usually seen as an eel-like creature with the head of a horse. Abenaki, Micmac dialect, jipijkam (m), jipijkamiskwa (f). Literally, the horned-serpent people. Similar to the horse-eels, nucks, sea-serpents, merpeople, and the travelling forms of the Fomors and Vanirs of European myth. Shape-changers also seen as humanoids living in villages beneath the sea. Also termed the “underground panther-people.” Individuals were sometimes referred to as “the great lynx.” Sometimes the ocean-going formn has been described as “horned, bearded, four-legged, having a long tail with spikes growing from the back and the tail.” The Micmac "sea-worms" are collectively known as the jipijakamaq, those who "live as humans in the world beneath water." They were described as "snake-like, having one red horn and one yellow, both objects of great power." Like the caps of the merrows, these objects were focal points in shape-shifting, and were coveted by human magicians who wished to alter their form or project an animal body upon friends or enemies. The backbone of the horned-serpent was also sought as far west as British Columbia.

There it was said that a brave killed Solchukoluk, and took a signle vertebrae, which invested him with great power. He passed it to his descendants, one of whom, willed it to Napoleon Bonaparte of France. The talisman was thus entrusted to French seamen and finally found its way toi the emmperor, who accepted it and thereafter experienced a number of great battles. Unfortunately it was left at home on his Rusiian campaign and was lost before his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. The jipijkamaq were a powerful tribe being capable of swimming through rock as if it were water. When they did this the ground trembled with earthquakes and uncanny grating sounds issued from the earth. Long-lived, but not immortal, the serpent people sometimes carved deep ruts as they "swam" through rock and soil. When they rested it was often in the form of individual hillocks, thimble-like mountains which remained dormant for many centuries before erupting into activity. Aside from this, they had the capacity to appear as absolutely normal men and women and in this form sometimes married and bred with humans. In alomost all of these respects, the jipijakamac were exactly like the Celtic Fomors. The most powerful magic-brokers among the Indians thought themselves capable of assuming this form and many said they could control the horned serpents using the flute-like "alder whistle". Employing such beasts or adopting them as familiars was a dangerous process, and people who married the Jipjakamac were frequently converted to their species through sexual acts. Men and women who survived this intercourse of spirits, often had their children abducted to the deep sea. Those who wished to join the ranks of the sea-people could do so through a simple act of magic. Finding the land-trail of a Jipjakimac of the opposite sex, a human had simply to lie outstretched within its track for a short period before conversion took place. Unfortunately, this shape-shifting was irreversible unless some powerful magician set up counter-charms. Because the horned-serpent people dwelt apart from men, and had no interest in fashion, their clothing tended to be somewhat arachaic. In one of the old tales, a Micmac man was apprised of their identity by the fact that the girls he spied upon were "dressed in costumes of an older time." They were playing ball at the side of the sea, and when he was spotted, all dived back into the water. The young man was disappointed at their unfriendliness and decided to conceal himself to await their return.

Being a magician, he reduced himself in size and hid himself beneath the single down-curled leaf of a jack-in-the-pulpit. After a time, the girls regained their courage and recommenced their game. Hoping to take one of them as a wife, the lad sprung out of hiding, but was too slow to make a conquest. A second time, he hid within a hollow reed, and on this ocassion managed to grasp the had of a very pretty "water-fairy" before she could return to the lake. This woman begged for her release, explaining she was married, but promised to bring a sister to him as a bride. He allowed her to go, and she kept her promise. When a child was born to the newly-married couple, the wife begged her husband to travel with her into the land beneath water so that she could show the newborn to her mother and father. As the man followed his wife into water he was fearful of the strange countryside, but as they went deeper, the land began to look "much as it did in the upper world." They came at last "to a large village in the midst of wooded country odf great beauty." The husband found that his mate's father was a chief of the lodge, and he and his child were warmly welcomed. Things in the underwater world seemed perfectly normal except for the fact that "the chief and his wife had the form of a fish below the waist and of human beings above." Also, "the father was the ruler of many kinds of fish living in the village." The family passed a pleasant holiday in this remote world, but on the return trip they were pursued by a huge shark. So that her husband and child would be saved, the mer-woman baited the blood-thirsty animal away from them. "The man did as directed, and so reached the shore. With the child he sat there for a long time. But his wife did not appear. At last he knew she had been captured by the shark, and so went sorrowfully home."4 In R. Montgomery Martin’s A History of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton (1827), we read: “The Indians have a story that a huge animal raised its head out of the water of the Middle Barrasoi of Aspy Bay, near Cape North, and so terrified them, that it was long before any would venture thither again.” JOHNNY BAD LUCK A sea-spirit that often attached itself to men with

4Clark,

Ella Elizabeth, Indian Legends of Canada, Toronto (1991), pp.

118-119.

catastrophic results. Anglo-Saxon, baeddel, hermaphroditic, effeminite; loc, an enclosure, possibly from the Old Norse, luuki, a hole in the ground, from Loki, the god of underground fire. Johnny, a diminuation of John (see Main John and Jack). Also note the Anglo-Saxon, luccan, to fasten, or lock and the Middle English lukken, which corresponds with liege. Related English words include Luke, luck, looker, and lucre. The English family name Locke is of similar origin. The English equivalent of our Indian Summer is named St. Luke's Summer when it occurs at mid-October. Otherwise it is Allhallow Summer (about Nov. 1) or Mart summer (Nov. 11). In the local dialect of Maritime Canada, johnny makes reference to any black bird, and is similar to jonah (which, see). An individual plagued by consistent failure. Loki was the Old Norse contriver of discord and mischief, a one-time member of Odin's Aesir. He was an adroit, cunning sex and shape-changer, the father (and mother) of a number of uncanny monsters. He contrived the death of Baldur, Odin's favourite son, and was hunted down by his former friend Thor, and afterwards chained within the earth. There, he supposedly lies beneath the fangs of a snake, which drips poison in his face, and his reactions to this torture are felt as earthquakes at the earth's surface. Loki fathered Hel, the Fenris wolf and Iorgungandr, the world worm but in horse-form he was impregnated by a stallion and gave birth to Odin's famed eight-legged steed. It may be significant that Glooscap's twin brother Malsum was also said to be an hermaphroditic giant. As noted elsewhere, Jones is the Welsh equivalent of John or Johnny, and the Old Man of the Sea, or mid-oceanic god, is sometimes personalized as Davy Jones. Thus, Bad Luck Johnny as this sexchanginging Loki-like sea-spirit and bad-luck-johnnies were thought of as his adherents among men. See Joner for a more complete explanation of this creature. JOUK Another name for the sea-spirit commonly known as the jack, joner or johnny. Anglo-Norman, jough, from the Old French jouquier, the French, jucher, to sleep on a perch or the branch of a tree, to roost, to slumber in a

bower. Laterally, to dodge, duck, hide or skulk about. Also to bow as a courtesy to one's betters, to fawn over, or cringe in the presence of a superior. A place of retreat or shelter. "A common fellow." See jinker. Also seen spelled juke this word is defined by T.K. Pratt as averb, "To dodge, duck, avoid, hide; trick deceive or cheat." A trickster after the fashion of Loki or the local Indian god Malsum. See joner. JONER A spirit which attached itself to certain men making them the focii of evil, ill-will and ucommonly bad luck. Anglo-Norman, Jona, a variant of the personal name John. The Hebrew equivalent Yonah indicates a dove. It will be recalled that this was also the name of a Biblical prophet, who commanded by God to go to Ninevah and convert the population, disobeyed and fled by ship in the opposite direction. During a tempest, the prophet suggested that the mariners cast him overboard to rid themselves of the curse of God. When they did the seas became calm, but Jonah was further punished by by being swallowed by a whale. Within this beast, sometimes described as a leviathan, or seaserpent, Jonah lay entrapped for three days and nights, finally being vomitted up on the shore. After this experience he id as he was instructed. Thus, some say the Jonah is "any person dogged by bad luck while on the sea." See also hoodoo, Main John, jack, jill, jouk, johnny-bad-luck, fetch. The joner or jonah also has pagan roots, the name being the equivalent of the Gaelic Iain or Eoin and the Welsh Owain, a personalized form of Jones. All are similar to the Gaelic ian, a bird, particulary a seabird. In Cymric, or Welsh, legend Owain ab Dyffd (Owen of the cantrell of David) is described as the earliest discoverer of the lands in the western sea (America), a man whose luck was so patently bad his name is little remembered. As Davy Jones (see earlier entry under this heading) Owain can be attached to the earliest pagan gods of the sea, in particular Llyr, as well as his Gaelic counterpart Ler, and the even better-known Norse god Hler, who the Anglo-Saxons called Aegor. It was once considered that all men and women were gifted by the gods from whom they happened to trace descent. Thus some people had their birth-right from Kari or Myrrdyn or some other god of the air. Men who were

"born to the land," were more often seen as the offspring of Loki or Lugh, or one of the numerous fire- or land-gods. "People of the sea" often took the name of a important sea-deity, thus we still find men whose family name is Morgan (sea-white, after the goddess Mhorrgan). We see also, Macclure (the son of Ler); and the Germanic Himmler (the son of Hler). Similar attachments are suggested in the family names Murdoch (sea-warrior) and Murray (sea-man) and in personal names such as Morag (sea-queen) and Muireall, or Muriel (sea-silver). In Gaelic lands, Mhorrigan was considered to be the goddess who determined the fates of men and the gods through their birthright. Her Norse equivalent was Norn, their goddess of destiny. In the prose Eddas we are informed that the people called the nornir were of the alfar (elfs) who dwelt within, or near, Urdar fountain (the ocean) beneath the great worldtree named Yggdrasil. Out of the halls of the Nornir "came the maids that shape the lives of man-kind. Not of one race are they, some of the nornir being of the Aesir-kin (god-kin); some of the alf-kin, some too the daughters of Dualin (the svartalfar, or dark elfs). There are many nornir, enough so that one comes to each child at birth, to shape its life...which they do very unequally. For some have a good and full life but some little wealth and praise; some a long life, others short. The good nornir (i.e. the liosalfar, or light elfs) come to the well descended and shape a fortunate life; but as to those who have great misfortune, that is caused by the coming of a malignant spirit." The alfar were said to assist prominent persons in an easy birth, and men and women meant for a huge destiny were sometimes given more than one guardian-spirit (later referred to as a "guardian-angel"). At the very least, this invisible alter-ego of men became an external-soul, bestowing "gifts for good or evil" as a birth-right, occasionally foretelling the future of the being with which it happened to become associated. Among sea-men this little associate was often referred to as a fetch (see entry under this name), from its habit of fetching information from future times. Truly gifted individuals could put the fetch to amazing use, being able to send it into the past to seek history and sending it into the distance to report on events happening in real time. These individuals were able to project their primary soul upon the fetch and thus make observations through its eyes. Commplace men were never able to interact in this way with their guardian, and the information they got from it was perceived as vague hints or forebodings of danger.

Gifted men and women were sometimes identified at birth by a characteristic look which they shared with the sea people. A widow's peak, (sometimes called a devil's peak) was the growth of a V of hair between the eyes and this was considered a genetic trait. The old sea-giants often posessed a single eye with a harbouring eyebrow, thus the growth of what seemed a single eyebrow on a small child was considered a mark of attachment to the old gods. The presence of extra fingers or toes was thought to be a marker, expecially if they happened to be slightly webbed. Scaley, fish-like skin was a similar indicator, as was birth with the head of the child still contained within the amniotic sac, or "sac of waters." The latter happening was thought to indicate the birth of a person with special psychic gifts and children with a caul were advised to guard them at all costs since they were the resting place of the external soul. Children born with eyes of differing colours were thought "gifted" provided that the two colours eventually merged into one. At the time of birth, the fetch was considered a weak-spirit, easily displaced by an evil creature from the land of the dark elfs. Thus, for the first seven months after birth, some rustics guarded their children from the "evil-eyes" of their witch-neighbours supposing the child's guardian might be stolen. Special care was taken of cauls, which were sometimes placed under the hearth stone until the baby matured. Adults typically carried the caul on their person, it being thought to completely protect the individual against death from drowning. Since water is antagonistic to fire and the caul represented the powers of the ocean-gods, it was also noticed to be an infallible amulet against fire or lightning in any ship or building in which a caulbearer happened to be resident. For these reasons master-mariners sought the company of these lucky men aboard their ships while the witch fraternity attempted to gain the cauls for their own protection. It should not be thought that these were entirely Old World ideas, rather these were (and may still be) the common beliefs of Maritime sea-side folk. The joner, joaner or jonah is, surprisingly, absent from the Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English, but does appear in Poteet's South Shore Phrase Book. He defines "Joner" as "A Cape Sable expression for a Jonah, a jinxed (unlucky) car or boat." Helen Creighton recorded another use: "No grey socks or mittens were allowed on fishing boats at Eastern Passage or Devil's Island; grey socks were considered a Jonah." It should be noted that black was also a tabooed colour among men at sea. It was long supposed

that "like attracts like" thus waving a white cloth at the sea was likely to raise the wave spirits, while moving grey or black objects in the sky might enliven similarly coloured storm/wind-spirits. The folklorists miss the point that the joner was often a spirit-haunted human, whose vehicle(s) suffered from disaster by association. Helen Creighton was a personal believer in guardian spirits (see her introduction to Bluenose Magic) and noted the spiritual relationship between organic and inorganic matter when she interviewed a Port Greville fisherman: "Some ships were considered bad luck ships (as were) the men who skippered them." Elaborating, she found another respondent at Tiverton, who said: "Some vessels don't seem to make money though they've been tried by the best skippers known. There seems to be no reason for it. but I've seen it many times."5 Of course, there are reasons for everything in the old pagan theology, and a joner in the shipyard during the construction process might be suspect. Joe Neil MacNeil mentioned the fact that workers were very frightened at the idea of having the "droch-chromhalaichean" (roughly, the rent-payers to hell) arrive unexpectedly at their place of business. "They used to talk about unlucky people coming around while they were working. If they were working with (sharp-edged) tools of any kind. whether it was a mill or whatever...things would begin to go (dangerously) wrong." In the end they would be forced to approach the joner and forcefully recommend that he "journey over." It was even considered unlucky to meet these "unlucky ones" on the road, particularly at the beginning of a journey to town or the local market. In these situations, men would often reverse the direction of their wagon and refuse to do anything for the remainder of the day. If it chanced that a ship progressed to launching in spite of the interest and attentions of a joner it often floundered on coming down the ways or went to the bottom on its maiden voyage. This was not the only possibility for the loss of a vessel to mythic powers of the sea. No boat builder would offend the rules of his craft by incorporating rowan wood into a ship where juniper, or hackmatack, had also been used. The spirits of these woods were seen to be at odds and the cause of trouble at sea. Then too, workmen had to be selective in taking building-wood, avoiding hanging trees and those that shielded graves of the
5Creighton,

Helen, Bluenose Magic, both quotes, p. 125.

unquiet dead. If men happened to incorporate an uhappy spirit into a ship, this was perceived by spirits of the sea, who soon gave it rest on the bottom. Not so long ago, the figurehead was considered an embodiment of the spirit of the ship as a whole, and its material had to be carefully chosen and cured before it was carved into a life-like coloured figure. In the great shipbuilding centres of Flanders the wood selected for this purpose was that believed possessed by the souls of innocent children. In those days, birthtrees were planted for each new child and when he or she died it was claimed that the soul migrated into the growing wood. These spirits were not driven out at the cutting of the tree, but only passed on when it rotted into the earth. In the interval these spirits took over the matter of foretelling disaster through dreams they instilled in the captain. Again, it was rumoured that this spirit nursed sailors through illness and even helped them at work. In parts of Europe these invisible protectors were entitled the "klabautermanniken" and every care was taken to see that they remained happily aboard ship. They were, of course, very content in the presence of the caul-carriers, but distressed at the presence of women and/or joners. If the figurehead elf left, it was said that the ship was certain to sink. This spirit sometimes roamed the quarterdeck, that portion of the ship extending from the stern to the mainmast, traditionally the preserve of officers. Even today an officer boarding the ship will salute the seemingly empty quarterdeck. In the days when Roman Catholicism was more in vogue, a crucifix was hung from the quarterdeck rail, possibly to suggest the presence of a converted pagan spirit, now recognized as a "guardian angel." The trouble with joners was the malicious nature of their replacement spirits which could put even the most noble figurehead to route. It was never possible to steal a fetch without replacing it with a changeling imp. Those who "overlooked" children with this in mind left behind a minor malignant spirit, which might belong to a tribe at war with the spirits of the sea. In this case, ships often floundered when possessed by these substitutes, which passed to the ship from a joner. In 1947, Helen Creighton interviewed Mrs. J. at Eagle Head, Queens County, Nova Scotia. This woman explained that she had been robbed of her birthright as a small child: "There was a spell put on me when I was a little girl. It was never taken off, so anybody can witch me." On at least two ocassions, this lady found herself fighting off the psychic incursions of local witches, but her own uncanny second-soul gave her some advantage and she was able to mount magical counter-attacks, one of which resulted in the

death of a protaganist: "I took the pig's heart and filled it full of newpins and puit it in the oven and baked itslowly for three days. Igot news that this man (who was a practising witch) was then just barely alive. I kept it there for three more days longer and on the sixth he was a corpse. I just had the heat on good enough to make him suffer, but after he died I burned the heart in the stove." Asked if she had no feelings of guilt over the matter, Mrs. J. quickly returned, "He deserved to die. It says in the Bible, "thou shalt not suffer a witch to live." Bear in mind that the joners are remorseless since imps are without conscience. The joners were not blamed for their condition but they were certainly never as welcome as the those born under "the cap of luck" (the caulbearers) and were often marked by their encounter with the dark forces. Some were seen to be cross-eyed, while others were noted to have "a frozen limb" or a facial tick, physical health being seen as a measure of the usefulness and vigor of the fetch. Most of the people who lived under a dark cloud full of disasters were aware of their problem and were sometimes able to relish the irony of their position. Joe Neil MacNeil tells the tale of a man whose first wife died leaving her daughter to contend with a step-mother. Soon after the wedding the new lady of the house was on her way to the market when she met her stepdaughter walking in the opposite direction. Aware of the old saw, that the the first person met on a journey might bring "luck or not", she addressed the younger woman: "Well, I shall expect a good trip, or blame you if things go badly since you are the first I have met this morning!" The girl smiled wryly: "You may expect very little, since I am not considered one luckily met!" "How's that?" questioned the other. "It was certainly true with my father, for I was the one he first met on the road on his way to fetch you!"

Elsewhere it has been mentioned that the jack is a variety of joner and that he is frequently incarnate in the jackdaw, or black-bird, often seen as a crow or raven. While it is often said that shearwaters and gulls are not to be feared being "the souls of old sailors", black birds are symbols of a darkening sky and voracious sea-dieties such as the Mhorgann and Rann. Their imps lust after the souls of dead men, which explains the local fear which seamen have of black birds winging over the ocean. Thus, at various communities along the coast, Creighton was informed that "Fishermen don't like a crow to cross their path." These birds may be thought to represent the incarnate

spirit of a joner, or a witch, the latter being a species of this order. At Moser's River a man advised the folklorist that, a fisherman "will turn his boat right round so it won't cross his bow." It was always thought better to turn back to the wharf after such an encounter, but the last gentleman suggested spitting into the ocean in propitiation of the gods of the weather at sea. KAHKAHGOOS The spirit of the crow. Wabenaki, is represented bearing. The killing the crow. KAQTUKWAQ A mortal spirit of the air, usually seen as a huge bird. Abenaki, Micmac dialect, kaqtukwaq, the thunder-people, the word has an animate case ending and is always plural. These differ from the shapechanging kulus, individual magicians who take a occasionally take similar, in the fact that their alteration of form was not completely predictable or controllable. They have been characterized as, "Persons who live as most people do...But their power-shapes are those of great birds, and when they fly and beat with their wings, the people down below on Earth World have storms. Kaqtukwaq are akin to the Thunderbirds of Northern Woodlands and Plains cosmology; they are often portrayed as helpful to the People." Parsons, 1923. These creatures are not the "kulus", individaula human magicians who assumed an eagle-shape to carry out their own ends. Spirits of the air, the kaqtukwaq lived mostly after the fashion of ordinary Micmac tribesmen, "but their Power shapes are those of huge birds, and when they fly and beat their wings, the people down below on Earth World have storms." This is surprisingly akin to descriptions of the Norse storm-giants; further, the kaqtukwaq are found on the western coast, in the plains and the Great Lakes region. Micmac. The Passamaquoddy is kahkahgooch. “The crow as always peeping, spying, bewgging, pilfering, and talePassamaquoddies have peculiar superstiti0ons as regards See corby.

One description is reminiscent of a war-plane and pilot: An Ojibway elder who had some knowledge of the thunderbird men, said that his ancestors had seen white men making an attempt to attract the birds. Knowing that the thunderbirds were the enemies of the great land-serpents (the horned serpent-people), they assembled a decoy, "a great serpent that was hollow inside." The thunderbirds were interested, and dropped from the heavens upon this dummy, the heavens erupting "in showers of lightning." They failed to fly away but were pulled into the hollow interior and stored. "When the white men had enough they took of the heads and put them into pots," finally decanting juices that were a source of electricity. This powerjuice was transferred to a waiting flying-machine of different design. The strangers then took to the air and shot down several other thunderbirds from the sky with a ray of light." This is indeed suggestive, as is the contention that Kluscap called upon the Thunderbird people to transport various species of animals to earth from Star World. In the end he found them to dangerous to leave among men and shattered them with his power belt. Nevertheless, like Thor, the big birds were usually friends of men: "As birds they flew up to the skies, making a great deal of noise with lightning..." When Micmac hunters became lost in their campground eight of the "thunderers" turned out to give assistance and as they were about to depart, the grandmother of the tribe came to see them off. "Don't you be too fast, too loud, remember that you are the ones who make the big lightning." Each human climbed onto the back of one of the shape-changers and were quickly flown to their own wigwams. The thunderers were very like Kluscap himself. When they wished to eat they called up their clouds and gathered lightning, and by clapping their hands discharged bolts of energy against animals they wished to kill. The "wasoqotesh", or light-energy, was seen to be potent against huge stones and tall trees, but the thunderers had difficulty focusing their weapons upon the god-like Kluscap because of his personal magic. It was rumoured that the bird-people knew the taste of human blood, and preferred it to that of other animals. Unfortunately for them, they were not often able to kill one of the People, as the spirits of the Micmac were protected by the shadow of the Great Master. KEESOOKBOK MINEOTA A water-spirit, who the French called “La Grand Source.”

Wabenaki, keesookbok, a summer spring, a warm spring as opposed to, utkuboh, a winter, or cold, spring. It was said that springs of the summer kind often had green margains even amidst the snows of winter. This spring was located on the inturn of Rocky Point, at the entrance to the harbour of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. In times long past a chief came to visit a friend on this island, bringing with him a son named Sunfells and a daughter called Mineota. The trio visited happily in a summer encampment with their friends and each day the young man went off into the woods seeking game. The island shaman, who was their host, warned all the newcomers against crossing a nearby stream after dark, explaining that it was the residence of a water-manitou, who hated the light but was likely to vent his temper against men once darkness had fallen. The son promised his father he would avoid this place, but coming back after dark could not resist taking the quick route to the fires of home. The splashing of water awakened the evil water spirit who immediately drowned the youngster. Seeking retribution his father hid by the river bank and on a subsequent evening tried to bring down the spririt with an arrow. When the manitou was grazed, rather than killed, he unleashed flood waters upon the land. Realizing his complicity in the trouble of the islanders, the chief consulted his shaman friend to see what might be done. The medicine man brought back word from Glooscap that a sacrifice of his daughter was needed to placate the water-god. The lady in question flung herselff into the flood and soon the waters sunk to their normal level. Glooscap appeared before the grieving father, noting that the girl’s spirit could not be returned to the land, but said that her sacrifice would be remembered in a standingstone he would erect on the river bank. Many miracles were wrought by the spririt of Mineota acting through this stone, but in 1663 the French government sennt Captain Doublet to establish a fishing station on Prince Edward Island. They came upon the stone, and overnight it disappeared as Glooscap had said it would in the presence of white men. By magic the Stone of Mineta was reduced in size and hidden within the waters of the spring which came to be called La Grand Source. There, safe from the prying eyes of the whites, the stone retained its magical-powers of regeneration and healing, being brouight to the surface by a diver when it was needed. In the 1700s, Marie Grenville and her mother came to the island seeking her father, a privateer who had come ti L’isle Royale to recover treasure he had buried there. He was not found as he was captured in these

waters and transported to London to be hanged. The mother and daughter remained encamped near La Grand Sopurce, and Madame Grenville apparently recovered the treasure for it was said that she always carried a pouch filled with gold coins. The couple were shunned by the French colonists, it being noted that the older woman controlled the weather and sold favourable winds to fishermen. They got along much better with the Indians, Marie eventually becoming one of the wives of the Micmac chief Kaktoogwasee. In winter, the Micmacs always retreat4ed to the mainland, but the women remained encamped on Isle Royale. On spring, the chief returned to find the campsite empty and the women dead on the beach. In desparation, the chief had the Stone of Mineta brought up from the spring, drew the required magical circle around it and his dead wife, and called upon the life-source to restore her. When her left hand was placed upon the stone she breathed again, but the stone itself crumbled to dust as Glooscap had promised if it was used to help any white. Shortly after a disgruntled tribesman killed the chief with a arrow through the heart and the grieving Mineta went insane with lonliness. Shunmned by her former Indian friends she was finally taken by the French colonists, who tried her for witchcraft and burned her alive upon Rocky Point itself.

KELPY A sea-spirit seen reincarnate within or upon water as a creature very like the classical centaur. Also kelpie, from the Gaelic cailpeach, a heifer, steer or colt, confers with colpa, a young cow or horse. This creature resembles the English colepexy, whose name is similarly derived. Also like the English grant, the shopiltee, the galoshan and the tangy (the last three have separte entries. Cailp, or kelp, was also applied to the oarweed in which these creatures lived. The kelp plant, of the species Laminaria, was formerly gathered by the Scots, and wholesaled as a component of glass, soap, iodine and fertilizer. T.K. Pratt says that kelp is locally termed "the poor man's weather glass," since the brown algae held on land becomes sticky at beginning of a rainy season.

The kelpy, tangy, shoopiltie, bellcoat, or chaffinch is one of the waterhorses. The first two designations were used in northern England and

Scotland, the shoopiltie was native to the Shetland islands and the last two were common in England. Keightley said that "there is no being in the Irish rivers answering to the nis or kelpie". While they thanked their guardian spirits for lacking this "treacherous water demon", the Irish possessed the equally violent phooka, "wicked, black-looking, bad things, that came in the form of wild colts, with chains hanging about them. They did great hurt to the benighted travellers. The shoopiltie was especially violent, a Shetland pony in shape equipped with a huge penis and testicles and accused of mugging, abduction, robbery and rape. The kelpy is the only species known in the lakes, river and salt waters of the Atlantic Provinces. The creature is named for the intertidal kelp, or oarweed, beds which were his preferred hiding place. The kelpy is known to have generated mysterious lights over water and to have groaned to keep men from their deaths by drowning. If these warnings were ignored, the kelpy concluded that suicide was intended and helped the victim to that end. Kelpy Cove in southeastern Cape Breton is named after this formidible sea creature. Shirley Lind of Joggins, Nova Scotia, told the tale of a Minudie Village man who used a kelpie as a familiar: The young man had a girlfriend in Sackville, New Brunswick, thirty-five miles distant. His friends disbelieved his frequent excuse that he could not travel with them as he went to see her each night. This seemed impossible as it was before the days of an automobile and he had no horse. A wild black stallion was seen travelling in both directions alonmg the village road and these same young men decided to rope him. One night they managed this and took him to a blacksmith shop where he was shod. The next morning the young man failed to show up in time for work so his friends enquired about his health and found him at his mother's house sick in bed. Suspecting he was faking illness, the boys stripped away his bedclothes and found horseshoes nailed to his hands and feet. This is very like Helen Creighton's tale of the two travelling men who paid to stay at an inn on Nova Scotia's south shore. They had just managed sleep when they were awakened by the sounds of heavy footsteps passing around their bed. Lighting a lamp, they discovered a mare in the room with them, and soon roused the klandlord for an explanation. He was unable to explain this strange event and could not identify the horse as belonging to anyone in the village. At this, the two salesmen decided to claim the animal and awakened the local blacksmith to see the animal fitted with shoes. In the morning they found in the blacksmith's stall, instead of the mare, a young

kelpy-woman with iron shoes nailed to her bare hands and feet. One authority reports: "In Hampshire they give the name of Colt-Pixy to a supposed spirit, which in the shape of a horse "wickers" (neighs) and misleads horses (and their owners) into bogs, etc." NS, Inverness Co., Fraser, p. 87: two meetings. KILLMOULIS An earth spirit bound to mills. Middle English killen, to strike; akin to cwellen, to qwell , to kill + moulin, directly from French, from Latin, molinum, a mill. Confers with mould. The killmoulis was the spirit who haunted mills. He is characterized as a brownie or bodach with an enormous nose and no mouth (Hence, we suppose, the expression: "Stuff it up your nose?") This brownie could be a helpful worker but his sense of fun tended to over-ride his contributions, so that he often killed the mill. Mills were formerly considered haunted by malignant creatures, since people were frequently stricken with the "dancing-sickness" after eating rye products. This elf-king's tune response to eating bread was formerly credited to evil spirits such as the killmoulis, but the perpetual dancing is now blamed on ergot. Ergot is a fungal disease of rye, and other grain crops, in which the grains are replced by black or purple club-like bodies. In cases where this material was ground with ordinary rye, several poisonous compounds were introduced into bread producing the disease called ergotism. This had as symptoms the severe contractions of the muscles of the arms, legs, and the uterus, contraction of the terminal arteries, hallucinations and other unpleasant effects, terminating in a coma and death. The active cause of ergot poisoning is no longer thought to be a cohabiting killmoulis, but ergotinine, a crystalline alkaloid extract from ergot which is haemostatic. KINAP, KENAP A human imbued with supernatural possession by an external spirit. physical abilities after

Abenaki, Micmac dia., plural kinapaq. Men whose physical strength or perceptions are superhuman. They are named after Kji-kinap (the Greatpower). The kinap are sometimes born to power but some develop their abilities through force of will and training. "They can outrun the wind. They dive deeper, hold their breath longer and let it out as storms; they tear trees in half and carry a ton of moose meat on their backs. When they dance their feet sink deep into the earth with each stamp of a foot. Some of these were the nikani-kjijitekewinu, those who no in advance, while other possessed the "second-sight". Even blind kinaps could predict the future and could see distant happenings although they might not see events close at hand. Peter Toney (1894) said that a group of Micmacs out torching fish were almost totally annihilated by a group of Kenebec braves. As a result, the Nova Scotians put together a war-party to march into Maine: “The party was led by the kenap whose name wasKaktoogo , “The Thunderer.” Being a mighty puoin as well as a warrior, he could render himself invisible and invulnerable and thus they fell before him.” Another of this kind Sak Piel Saqmaw, also known as James Peter Paul a one time resident of Schubenacadie. When he was an elderly man, walking with the assistance of a cane he came upon boys who were playing at pulling apart the two sides of a widely branched tree. “He put his cane down and puit his hands one on each side of the crotch and then he ripped that whole big tree in half.” Later at Pictou Landing men were straining at the task of moving a whole house down the road on rollers. When they saw James Paul arrive, the Indians immediately moved away.. Paul went up to the house, “and touched it with his cane. He just touched it and then said, “Now.” (After that) The house just moved along for the men as easy as anything.” Nowlan, p. 43: chief who refused to die.

KING TIPPER A spirit incarnate in men at the Yule and in springtime. Also seen as King Tipper, Old Tippie, or Old Tipp. Dialectic English, from the Middle English tipen, to overthrow or overturn, from the Low German tippen, to tap lightly) . A polite form for the spirit

variously known as tib-cat, tippy-cat, tippy-bob, tabbie, tippie, tippler or tittie. This creature was personalized as Old Tittie, Saint Tittie, Saint Tit, Queen Tit, and King Tippler. The word confers with the obsolete English tittie, a young and annoying sister and with tittle. to whisper tattle or gossip". It may derive from the Anglo-Saxon titt, a teat or nipple. Saint Tit had a festival-day in parts of Atlantic Canada, the day being vaguely sited within the Yultide. Promises made on this day were as valid as any agreement made "on the tenth of Never." "Titty" and "Suckim" were favourite names for witch-familiars and in earlier times tib-cat defined a woman of loose morals, while a tip was a dram of alcohol. A tippler affected an alcoholic gait, while a tippy-bob was a person who dressed inappropriately for a place or occasion. Tipt was formerly a word used to identify a "sloshed" person, but tippling was understood to involve constant inebriation falling short of complete intoxication. In our past, bootleggers used to offer a "teddy or a tippy of (moon)shine", the beverage served up in a long-necked twelve to sixteen inch green bottle. According to Pratt, "Guys used to stand on the streets in Summerside (Prince Edward Island) calling "teddies and quarts" meaning they had them fopr sale...You'd get a gallon for six dollars, you'd get a teddie for a dollar and a half, thirteen ounces...it was in old green beer bottles but was only teddy when filled with shine." In Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, tibby is a name given a hag or witch. The business of tipping, or tippling, was never confined to a single season, being enacted at Easter to establish the King Tipper (from Germ. tippen, to tap lightly, as in toasting with drinks.) of villages in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia. Toasting was originally a part of this rite, it being considered that the god-spirit was highest in the man who stood upright through the greatest consumption of ale. Drinking may have gone on behind the scenes of our local tipping contests, but outwardly they were decent enough to attract Christian ministers as participants. In the Celtic tales, a Breton giants bragged that he was imortal unless someone happened to crush his soul-egg, "which is in a pigeon, in the belly of a hare, in the belly of a wolf, in the belly of my brother, who lives a thousand leagues away." Of course, the hero did smash the egg! Some similar theory of opposing external souls has to be suppossed in the Nova Scotian egg-tipping contests. Opponents travelled about with bags filled with eggs, but usually reserved one thick-shelled specimen for duels.

Challenges were issued with the words, "How are you for a tip?" The pair then "got cracking", the winner taking all the remaining eggs of his opponent. The final victor gained all the eggs left to be had, and the distinction of being named King Tipper. It is noteworthy that battles betweeen Uller and Odin sometimes took place at Easter, Ostara (or Eastere) being a name for Odin's wife Frigga. Odin himself was the original Humpty Dumpty,being quite mortal and breakable, and even entitled the great Ygg (Egg). We think it must also be recalled that Odin's Aesir were originally opposed by the Vanir, or sea-giants, who fought them to a draw. It may also be significant that the giants alone possessed the secret of making alcoholic beverages, and that this was taken from them by Odin and his kind. Eventually, the newcomers killed all but one member of the giant race, but he retreated to the extreme north and raised the race of frost-giants, who continued to fight with the land-gods. These strange local traditions may very well celebrate an ancient battle between water and fire, winter and summer, or death and ressurection, for the German goddess Ostara is "considered a spirit of the erath, or more correctly a symbol of Nature's ressurection after the long flood of winter. This goddess was so dearly loved of the old Teutons that even after Christianity had been introduced they retained so pleasant a recollection of her, that they refused to have her degraded to the rank of a demon, and transfered her name to their great Christian feast. It had long been a custom to celebrate this day by the exchange of presents of coloured eggs for the egg is the type of the beginning of life. The early Christains continued to observe this rule, declaring, however, that it was also symbolical of The Ressurection. In various parts of Germany stone altars may still be seen, which are known as the Ostarastane, because they were dedicated to the goddess. They are yet crowned with flowers (ca 1890) by the young people who danced gaily around them by the light of great bonfires- a species of popular gamnes practised until the middle of this century, in spite of the priest's denunciations and of the repeatedly published edicts against them."6 Speaking of this very peculiar Lunenburg ceremony, folklorist Helen Creighton noticed that the eggs were often spoken of as laid by a hare although "Originally the hare seems to have been a bird, which the ancient
6Guerber,

H.A., The Norsemen, pp. 55-56.

Teutonic goddess Ostara transformed into a quadruped. For this reason the hare is able to lay eggs on her festival at Easter time." Here we have to add that Odin was Ygg and that the latter name is incorporated into the Old Norse word "yggle" (eagle, an egg-laying animal). The eagle was more than a symbol of Odin, being considered his totem animal. It was observed that Odin took this form whenever he stood on the top-most branch of "yggdrasil" (Ygg's horse, more commonly called the world-tree). In pursuing the custom, local men always added a spruce bow to their cap, evergreens being the common means of honouring the old pagan gods, whose spirits rested in tall trees. In addition, contestants carried cabbage leaves or carrots "for the rabbit who laid the eggs," a probable refernce to Odin's continuing reproductive powers in spite of hius displacement by the Christian God. At Upper Kingsburg, in Nova Scotia Creighton found that eggs laid three days apart were taken up on the theory that they had the strongest shells. Often the tippling started on Good Friday and continuing through the week-end, extending in some places into Easter Monday. Two or three dozen eggs were usually carried by contestants and in some places the aim was to smash the opponents egg at both the top and the bottom. Fifty years ago, when these practises still went on, eggs sold at 10 cents a dozen, but farmer sold his thick-shelled eggs at 25 cents each. Some egg-terrorists blew out the contents of the shell and refilled the egg with a plastic-like resin. Some people coloured their eggs with onion skin (yellow) or the dyes decanted from red tissue paper etc. Substitutions. Fights over eggs. We have seen brief references to similar activities among the Germans of Ontario. At London it was said that competitors made the practise more interesting by draining the shells and refilling them with sticky maple syrup. It is an interesting side-note that those who consummed eggs once thought that as they assimilated the spirit of the egg, so too the shell assumed some of their spirit. Thus, eggshells were always carefully buried after eating, "to prevent enemies from making magic with them..." KIPPY An water-spirit similar to the black cat. Anglo-Saxon, cype, a basket for catching fish; a sharp or pointed stick for catching fish; disorder, confusion, excitement. Kippen, frisky or lively. Kip, a pointed hill like those favoured by the elfs; a bed for the night, a loding

house, particularly in a brothel. All similar to the Icelandic kippa, to cast out a lure and then snatch it away. Kitty is a variant as is kittle, difficult or ticklish. In the Maritime Provinces, formerly, a well-dressed or attractive man or woman; currently, a woman who is "a real dresser." Notice also kittardy, as defined by the Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English: "A half-witted or simple-minded person." We have also heard kittle, a gossip. All similar to kitty, dilsey, trappy. tippy. kittardy, and kitten in their general meaning. Still in use are cat, a quart container filled with gin and kitten, describing a halfpint or pint container of the same liquid. It may be guessed that these individuals were formerly the principals in pagan festivals. See tibby for a more complete description.

KISIKU KLOQEJ The foremost star-man, incarnate in the North Star. Abenaki, Micmac dia., literally Old Man Star, the Pole Star; alternately known as Mouhinchich, the Great Bear. The three closest stars were called the Little Bears and were supposed to be pursuing hunters, "but they have not yet be able to overtake it." LeClerq,(ca. 1680). The Old Man Star was named "The one who seldom blinks" and ten neighbouring stars were declared "the Bear's Den." This pole star was noticed to be immobile in the night-sky. Since other stars wheeled abouty it in subservience it was assumed the focus of some Great Spirit, possibly that of the ancient creator god. According to the Abenaki myths all stars once had names and were as animated as men or animals, the Milky Way being described as "The SpiritRoad". Ruth Whitehead goes even further noting that "all animals were (at) first stars living up in the sky." According to the myths they were brought to earth by the thunderbird men at the request of Glooscap. The stars were shape-changers and some men were considered to have been stars, or were destined to become stars through reincarnation. Micmac belief parallels Old Norse mythology, for Odin was said to be, or at least have his permanent residence in the Pole Star, which was referred to as "Odin's Wain (wagon)." The hunters who pursue the creator-god star have parallels in the fierce Norse "wolves" that dog the stars, the sun and the moon of the Europe. Occasionally, these spirits close on either the sun or the moon and there is

an eclipse, but to this point, both have survived although the following monsters lust for the end of time. In the final battle the colossal Fenris wolf is destined to slay Allfather Odin, its wide jaws finally crushing out "all the space between heaven and earth." There are inklings of space visitations in the tales of the star-men. Alden Nowlan told one of these in Nine Micmac Legends (1933): When the Old Ones still occupied their camps, two beautiful young sisters were overtaken at night in the woods. As they slept, they dreamed of two young men and when they awakened they found the pair before them in the real world. Evbentually they married and camped with these two men, but they were both intrigued and bothered by the fact that the men had prohibited them from lifting an perfectly round flat stone that lay a few yards from their wigwam. Eventually curiosity had its way and they did overturn the stone. "What they saw made them start back and cry out with fear. For the stone was like a trapdoor (in the sky)... Far below they saw the village of their childhood surrounded by the forest in which they had fallen asleep." They knew immediately that they had been abducted into World Above Sky and complained to their husbands. The space-travellers were not unreasonable and suggested they would return the girls to Earth World. This process involved singing them down the world-tree which was known as a dangerous process. The men advised that the women should kep their eyes shut against vertigo until the heard the sound of squirrels chattering on the face of their own planet. One did as instructed, but the other did not and plunged to earth as a fireball. The star-men were sometimes referred to as "spiders" since it was suspected that they built webs in the sky and lowered themselves from the stars on long life-lines. Like the girl who fell to earth, many of them had accidents and their bodies, igniting with the friction of air, were seen as meteor-traces The gates in the sky were well known, the chief being identified as the evening star, which showed an inertness in its lack of a twinkle. Other flat lights in the sky were also seen as trapdoors and these have been identified as the other planets. KITPOOSEAGUNOW The son of Kukwu and a mortal Algonquin woman. Wabenaki, Micmac dialect, “the one born after the mother’s death.”

One of the giant kin, Kitpooseagunow was placed on a raft destined for the underworld when his father decided he could not care for him. The twelve year old succeeded in passing through Ghost World, and emerged on the Bay of Fundy reborn as a powerful maguician. His mortal blood made him yearn to clear the world of all evil. As he progressed against various enemies he grew in stature to twelve feet, and became somewhat conceited. He had not heard of Glooscap. but when the two met they engaged one another in magical and physical feats. The giant had to admit Glooscap’s superiority, but like his father before him, became a friend to the culture-hero. KNOCKY-BOOH An earth spirit corresponding with the German poltergeist. Also seen as knowie-booh and knockie-boogey. From the AngloSaxon verb cnocian, perhaps imitative in origin, intended to represent the sound of a blow, or blows, being struck + booh, an interjection meant to create fear or surprise." The first source of this word is possibly the Gaelic cnoc (pronounced knock), a rounded hill while the latter word may relate to their bo, cow. The cnocs were modest rounded hills used as the sites of fire-festivals; they may be compared with laws, which were flat-topped hills where law-making and judiciary activities took place. Cnocs were also traditionally the dwelling places of the mythic side-hill people who the Gaels called the sidhean. Refered to locally as knocky-balls, an obvious phoentic variant. The klausbauf is considered a very devillish individual of this kind, with "horns, long fingers and a long nose" and the nether parts of a goat or some other male animal, and they may well be house-bucks, but it is difficult to be certain for they are normally invisible. The human forerunner is not one of this tribe, since he only knocks to announce the death of his human counterpart. Other Germanic spirits in this class include the knicker-knocker, knockerling, pulter klaus (pulter Nicholas, or Wuotan), the ekerken, klopferle and poppele. Those that reside in mines include the tommy knocker, or bodach of the mine, and the Welsh coblynau. The knockers may warn of death (in a general rather than a particular fashion) when they give three loud, distinct raps. Although they may be independent entities some are considered to be overactive cowalkers of the living or revanters of the dead.

There are more local reports centering on this spirit than any other, and while the most obvious characteristic of the knocky-booh is "poltering" or knocking from within the walls, or floors, of a house, these invisible spirits often reveal their presence in an offbeat manner: In Scottish Cape Breton the perception is often that of a shrill bagpipe sound invariably followed by news of a death in the community. Helen Creighton interviwed people who heard them as galloping horses, phantom walkers, or simply as the sound of objects being dropped without echo or the usual reverbrations. In a few instances beautiful music was heard or the tinkling of cow bells but the sound was more likely to be that of assembled human voices or even a protracted scream. Richard Hartlan of South East Passage, Nova Scotia, noted: "I never heard of knock-a-balls until I visited the Smith family at Blanche (Nova Scotia)...They are knockings (there) which have no natural explanation." A woman she interviewed said, "If we took the Bible and opened it we wouldn't hear a sound but, if we closed it we would hear knockings. THe reason we heard these sounds was on account of a girl named Cordelia. One time a fellow had been cast away from a ship on the shore near here and he stayed around these parts for a while. He took a shine to Cordelia and went around with her bur, when he wanted to marry her, she wouldn't have him. He got mad then and said he would send something to annoy her. It was then that we bagan to hear the knock-a-balls. When they first started, the rest of us was afraid, but the girl wasn't. She would ask questions and it would knock out the answers. We supoposed he did it through a medium. One night a friend of hers slept with her and she got frightened because it knocked beside the bed. Other things happened too like my gun being thrown rattle thrash across the room and all the wood falling from the woodpile, Mainly though it followed Cordelia. It would follow her down the stairs and even to the barn. People came around to hear it and it stayed in the room with her, so she couldn't have done it herself. "My father wasn't frightened of anything and he asked...Are you from the devil? It said, "Yes," (Three knocks meant yes) Then he said "Are you from the Lord?" and it didn't answer anything. Only (then) the Bible opened (and) the noise would stop." 7

7Creighton,

Helen, Bluenose Ghosts Toronto (1976) pp. 276-277.

In the above case the unwanted spirit had a suspected genesis and a short but noisy career, but this was not always true. An elderly gentleman at East River, Tiverton, Nova Scotia, had no idea why his home was "haunted" by ghostly footsteps, doors that opened and closed without cost and softly tinkling cow-bells but he enjoyed the company and like a few others regarded the knocky booh as an omen of good fortune.8 Some people felt that knockies were revanters (which see) or ghosts of the uneasy and unquiet dead. This was thought to be the case at Thorne's Cove in Nova Scotia which had a reputation as a house where slaves had been cruelly treated and a peddlar murdered. At times doors rattled, latches lifted without human help and strange noises were heard, "like the jumping and shuffling of two men" fighting for theri lives. Mr. Abram Thorne who noted that "only certain ones would hear and see them. Others would live in the house for years and never hear a thing." Although spirits of the dead were implicated in some od the stories which have been recounted it appears that cowalkers could be roused to seek vengeance on behalf of the person they represented in the spirit world. A case in point was at Oyster Pond, Nova Scotia, where residents of a home experienced the feeling of an icy hand coming to rest on their face. From time to time they observed water running from an unprimed puimp and heard violent noises as window panes shook withouit cause. NS, Oyster Pond, BG, p. 252: hand like ice over face. Shaking window pane; running pump. One person who lived nearby suggested that nobody could live peacefully in this haunted house because "because there was a family once who had turned their own father out (of the place) and treated him cruelly. When he was still alive things began to happen." As we have already noted victims were not considered the sole source of poltergeists. A Charlottetown, BG, landholder noted that "the spirit of a person who oppressed the poor might be around for generations." and pointed to episodes of door-slamming and moaning in his own home as a knocky-booh inspired by the mean-spirit of a man who had been parsimonious. At Saint Croix, Nova Scotia, Helen Creighton was told about problems at a house where an Englishman nmaed Stanley had murdered a farmer named Freeman Harvey. Since the murderer was a small man he found it difficult to conceal the deed and as a stop-gap measure beheaded his victim,
8Creighton,

Bluenose Ghosts, p. 252.

placed the head under a wooden bucket and the body beneath a number of potatoe bags. In the week that followed he let it be known that he had purchased the Harvey farm and rented rooms to a family named Fisher. Almost immediately the Fishers heard sounds of wrestling from the front hall where the murder had occured, but when they came to investigate the sounds would migrate to an adjoining room. Shortly after blood stains were seen throughout the front hall, all showing through a heavy layer of fresh paint. Although Stanley made repeated efforts to cover them no whitewash or paint appeared capable of disguising what had happened. Stanley confessed and was punished for the crime but the blood stains could never be removed until the house burned to the ground.9 A prototypical knocker haunted the Reinsborough house in the countryside near Moncton, New Brunswick. It stamped its feet, sang exuberantly and was finally driven to a single room after a failed exorcism. The Earl Stevenson house at Moulies River, also in New Brunswick, was the scene of house-jarring crashes in nineteen fifty-five. Mrs. Stevenson described these "racketing spirits" as producing a sound "as loud as plane crashes I had heard in England in the Second World War." When Joan tapped on the walls, she was answered. Fortunately the epidemic of noise ended after two weeks. The Allan Hartlings of South East Passage, Nova Scotia, had troubles with lifting door-latches and the noise of preserve jars upsetting in a storage room although no damage was ever found. In this case, the spirit was so persistent the family reacted by surrounding the original "haunted" structure with a number of unafflicted ells and lean-tos. A more widely publicized case involved the Louis Hilchie family at nearby Eastern Passage, which is near Dartmoth. There, starting the day before Christmas in nineteen thirty-four, there occured a sequence of very startling eevnts: At first the Christmas tree jumped unexpectedly into the air. The next day a kitchen sideboard went airborne, crashed into the stove and bounced off hitting the ceiling. Next the washing machine broke its moorings and began skidding back and forth across the floor. Cupboard doors opened and closed and the ingredients for making a cake flew into a mixing bowl without help from human hands. The police were called in after five year old Robert Hilchie was neasrly brained by a hammer that came flying through the air. All that the law-officers could do was watch in amazement as a bucket of lard levitated its way down the stairway from the
9Creighton,

Helen Bluenose Ghosts Halifax (1976) pp, 256-257.

second floor landing between the two Hilchie girls who were playing on the floor. Earl Beatty, Maritime manager for United Press went to the house for a story. As he and a fellow journalist approached the place they were greeted by a huge metal hoop that came flying at them across the lawn. There were no markings in the snow to suggest that anyone had picked up the hoop, and the two visiting newsmen were disconcerted to discover that neither of them had the strength to lift it. From the above it might appear that all the action took place in Nova Scotia, but although more incidents have been reported from that province the knockies are well known in New Brunswick: At Lewisville, Stuart Trueman reported tales from a house bedevilled by the sounds of clicking heels, crying and "noises like fighting, or pushing furniture around..." At Lincoln, on the Saint John River, he was told of a house filled with "loud creaking," and "cracking noises, as if boards were being pulled apart, like wreckers tearing (at) a house." At Barnaby River, a dead resident had his place taken by a very physical knocky-booh. Sounds of an invisible wrecking crew began with the internment of the body and a neighbour, visiting the house was met by "a blast of wind blew me right out the door..." This house was offered for sale at $900 but there were no takers. On remote Cheyney's Island, which is southeast of Grand Manan Annie Foote heard recurrent "pounding, whistling, talking, singing. I thought it was someone working on an uncompleted camp near by; but it was locked, and no one was there." On the Keswick a suicide occured on August 11 at precisely 11 pm. On the anniversary of this date a window in the room where the death took place brusts outward with great violence but no logical explanation. While many of our residents have been cowed, or even driven out, by such activities, some have displayed a formidible forbearance. Ryan's Castle poltergeist used to reside in a massive stone building immediately northwest of Saint John. In the hey-day of activity doors opened and slammed shut and knives went flying across the rooms to the horror of those unfamiliar with the situation. The owner of the residence simply advised his guests, "It's only mother. She'll be gone shortly." Flying knives are modest manifestations, several houses having served as racecourses for invisible galloping horses or other animals includin dogs, cats, rats and pigs. In some places electrical appliances have behaved erratically and lamps have been smashed, seemingly in a spontaneous fashion. On completely isolated Green Island, in Mahone Bay, lightkeepers have seen a rubberbooted walker as forerunner the forerunner of storm; but

this was not as terrifying as the very real destruction of storm doors on winless nights, the sounds of untraceable steps to as far as the door of lighthouse; and the actual smashing of light on three separate occasions. The winding chain that drove the old mechanical turning mechanism has fallen with the sound of a truckload of tin being dumped. The fire has roared in a fuelless stove; pans have rattleds; there have been sounds very like that of bowling. Tenders have hear shingle nails being driven when there were no carpenters about and have invriable heard three knocks before shattering of the glass globe that housed the light. The invisible knocky-boohs like to move lumber, glass and barrels, but from the times they drop these commodities, are not very good at it. In a jest-full mood they like to whip bedclothes from the beds of sleepers and will even engage in tugs of war over the ownership of sheets. They have also been known to levitate blankets and sheets above a sleeping human or even give the bed a good shaking if the cold air doesn't bring him to wakefulness. At Seabright, Nova Scotia, an ingenious spirit regularly knotted clothes on the line and pleated the sheets while men and women slept. Maritimers have heard creatures from the unseen world crawling on their roofs, have experienced the sound of a rock-like phantom rainfall, heard invisible woodpiles fall and have stood aghast while windows raised or fell without human aid. Men have exorcised, abandoned, fenced off and demolished houses, or parts of houses, affected by virutant haunts but even the destruction of a haunted house has not always eliminated the problem. When one such house was removed from Devil's Island in Halifax Harbour the wood was incoroprated into other buildings and bad luck followed. The owner of the new structure wryly reported that something untoward always occured on the twentieth day of each month. Things are not always as they seem: Residents of one Truro dwelling were bothered by a errie sounds which seemed to focus on the fireplace. They might have hired an exorcist or a psychic but instead took on a carpenter, who knew something of old country ways. It was once commonplace to cement harps into the old stone-built fireplaces, relying on the rush of air up the chimey to produce pleasant if random melodies. Sure enough the workman found remnants of a harp just out of sight beyond the iron kettle swing, its strings either broken or loosened so that it produced nothing more than a banshee wail. Of course, the production of uncanny sounds was never beyond the ability of a good ventriloquist, and we know that they occasionally passed through the area. As early as 1809, the Royal

Gazette of Fredericton advertised: "Ventriloquism. For Six Nights (positively no longer) At the House of Mrs. Cock's." The body of the ad went on to promote "Mr. Rannie, Ventriloquist" who was informing the populace of neighbouring Saint John that he would soon be in town displaying his "singular power of Nature." Although he represented himself as the only person "in Europe or America possessing this inestimable gift" it is unlikely that this "Black Art" was untended by lesser men and women. Nevertheless, there were cases which were inexplicable and we particularly recommend Roland Sherwoods tale of the highly unusual adventures of Esther Cox of Truro Nova Scotia (briefly cited elsewhere) as well as the tale of the Caledonia MIlls knocky-booh which is represented in the work of several writers. KRISKRINGLER The Christianized spirit of the Yule. German, Krist, Christ + kringle, to bend one's will to that of another; to shrink away; to crouch in servility, humility or terror. Similar to the English, cringe. Similar to the belsnickle, horrible, mummer, callithumpian or calluinn man. The leading spirit of the host of Christmas-tide maskers once commonly found in Atlantic Canada. The kriskringler is particular to Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia. Poteet describes the act of kris-krinklin as "mummering or dressing in costumes and masks and begging treats door-to-door at Christmas tide. The krsikringler is essentially a stand in for the pagan god Woutan, who the Anglo-Saxons called Woden KUKWEES, KOOKWAYS Cannibalistic earth spirits incarnate as giants. Abenaki, Micmac dia., pronounced kukwesk; sometimes written kookwees, confers with Passamaquoddys canoos; the word has something of the sense of kaqtukwaq “thunder.” "Giants covered with hair. They crave human flesh. The sound of their screams cause death." Kukwees was the name given the northeastern bigfoot by the Micmac

Indians of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. They were also known west of the Saint John River, where the Woolastook tribesmen identified them as the "canoose". An aboriginal described them as, "giants covered with hair. They crave human flesh and the sound of their screams cause death." Like all of the hairy-bodied "devils", the kukwees was a cavern-dweller whose lair was found in the deepest forests. The tribes of the east concurred with the ancient Celts and the Norse in recognizing the giants as a race who had occupied their Earth World prior to the Great Flood. Again, it was thought that they were the losers in some ancient quarrel and thus bound to the underworld. Kluscap inadvertently released them when his laser opened a gate in Perce Rock, but he remained in Earth World until they were either killed or imprisoned beneath the earth. The village named Canoose, located in southwestern New Brunswick may be a memorial to them or may locate the place where the last of them "disappeared into the earth." While they walked the surface world they were a dangerous foe, because they possesssed great physical strength. The Micmacs used to avoid the "screaming death" by rendering "qamu", or moose fat, which they used to stopper their ears against sound. Those whose sense of hearing was acute sometimes took the extra precaution of rolling themselves several times within their sleeping robes. At that it was said that the "Sounds of Power" would strike men and women like a physical blow in spite of every precaution. The kukwees were said to scream three times coming into a battle, each sound being less lethal than the last. Fortunately the processs could not be repeated without recharging of the giant's vocal cords. At that they remained a hazard for the Indians said that the kukwees used whole trees as their spears and arrows. Like the Fomors,the kukwess cannibalized men in the belief that this added to their accumulated spirit. Like the Celtic giants, they were also accomplished shape-changers using outer garmets as the focus for their power. Ordinary men sought these "Robes of Power" in order to acquire the strength of the former wearers. Although the robes were oversize for men it was noticed that they grew to fill them when they first tried them. In doing so, the possessor became possessed: "Their Power fills him; their knowledge and strength come to him." Like the wendigou, the kukwess were "those who are always hungry", and therefore appear to be personifications of famine. They sometimes lived for brief spells with a human of the opposite sex, but this was usually a dangerous match for the latter. When Kitpusiaqnaw's kukwess grandmother permitted her son to marry a human woman he felt he could not live without

the "old bear" refrained from eating her until the boy had tired of his new toy and given permission. This old kukwees dearly loved her husband and after she had eaten him she mused, "My poor old man, the dear old fellow, he had a very sweet liver!" KUKWU The giant spirit whose bad temper produced earthquakes. Wabenaki, Micmac dialect, earthquake. One of the kukwees, or “giants,” a creature noted for his tendancy to stamp his feet during temper tantrums. He accompanied Glooscap, when the latter made public entrances and exits. In a moment of reason the giant married a mortal woman who was able to control the trembling of the earth, but she died leaving him alone to raise their son Kitooseagunow. Realizing he was likely to be a violent parent, Kukwu placed the child on a raft on a river that travelled through Ghost World. Mourning the loss of his wife, the thunder giant moved from the Maritimes, which is why others now suffer from the effects of his tantrums, while this region is largely untroubled by trembling earth. KULU The bird-spirit form of certain skilled human magicians. Abenaki, Micmac dia., thunderbird; "a monster in size, into the form of which certain chiefs, who were wizards, powwows and cannibals, are able to transform themselves, retaining their intelligence, and able at will again to resume the shape of a man...These birds are described in some legends as able to carry a great number of men on their backs at once, along with immense piles of fresh meat; they have to be fed every few minutes with an whole quarter of beef, which is thrust into the mouth while they are on the wing." Silas Rand, 1848. These creatures resemble the kaqtukwaq (which, see). "The Indians (tell a tale) of a boy who was carried away by a large bird called a Gulloua, who buildeth his nest on a high rock or mountain...the gulloua came diving through the air, grasped the boy in her talons, and although he was nearly eight or ten years of age, she soared aloft and laid him in her nest, food for her young." (John Gyles, ca 1690.)

In 1894 Susan Barss of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, told Silas Rand of this remarkable shape-changer, "a remarkable bird. a monster in size, into the form of which certain sanguinary chiefs, who are wizards, powwows (sic buoinaq) and cannibals, are able to transform themselves, retaining their intelligence, and able at will again to resume the shape of men..." These birds were described as able to carry a great number of men at one time, along with immense piles of meat: "...thye had to be fed with a whole quarter of beef, which was thrust into the mouth, while they are on the wing." Kulu-men were known to the Woolastooks (Maliseets) as well as the Micmacs, and while John Gyles was a captive among them he spoke of the "gulloua", "a bird who buildeth his nest on a high rock or mountain. A boy was hunting with his bow and arrow at the foot of a rocky mountain, when the gulloua came diving through the air, grasped the boy in her talons, and although he was eight or ten years of age, she soared aloft and laid him in her nest, food for her young." If the kulus required food on the wing, they remained voracious, and could be cannibalistic, when they were on the ground. One of their chiefs ate his own kind: "he goes round and round the circles (of wigwams) eating first one, and then the next, and then the next." Men usually tried to kill them but some argued for their lives; thus young Kulusi suggested, "Do not kill me. And when I am full grown I can fly you over great distances. I will take you to places from which you can find the most beautiful women from which to choose a wife. I will take you to World Above Earth..." It is clear that the kulus and men were one species for the man who was promised a beautiful wife married a kulu-woman and they had a child. The baby was peculiar in his tendancy to shape-change into a bird without warning, but he could be reconstituted as a man at a touch from the father. Kulusi lived for a time in Sky World, where he shared a wigwam with this man, his wife, the wife's sister, and the child but they were forces to leave the World Above Earth: "The two women, the little baby, the man, all sit on the back of Kulusi in his Great Bird Shape, and they hold on to all those bundles of furs and things, and Kulusi leaps from the cliff into the sky, into the clouds. Lower and lower he sails down the wind, until they can see the Earth World below. The land rushes up towards them, growing in their eyes until they see the old camp, and wigwam of the young man's family. The old

people are still alive. They are glad to see their son again. They welcome his wife and sister, they play with the baby. And the People of that camp make a feast. They make a feast for the young man and Kulusi and they are eating and dancing and playing. They are eating dancing all night long." KWEEMOO The air spirit which served as Glooscap’s messenger. Wabenaki, Micmac dialect, the loon.

LITTLE FOLK Earth-spirits, the diminutive inhabitants of the hollow hills. English, always plural, from the Anglo-Saxon, lytel, initially thin, later a short or unimportant person; folc, a group of related people forming tribes and possibly a rudimentary nation. Little is sometimes combined with the Anglo-Norman, people, which suggests a more varied collection of individuals the basis of a nation. Confers with the Anglo-Saxon lytig, lying or deceitful and lot, deceit. Obsolete meanings of the word include few in number, or small in dignity, power or efficiency. The related word little-good (little god) is a rarely seen former designation for the Devil. The word litting, a small child or animal, is also archaic, but litter is strill used. This comparative identifies the folk variously known as the fay, elfs, sidh, or mikumweesu, who are individual described under these headings. LOLLYGAGGER An slothful sea-spirit sometimes incarnate in men. Anglo-Saxon, lollard, confering with loller, an idle fellow, an indiffereent toiler. Similar to the Icelandic lolla. to act lazily and lolla, laziness and to the Old Danish word lollen, to sit by the fire. Resembling the English words lill and lull, tp hang loosely, droop or dangle + gag. Also, lall, to cry out. The equivalent of the Middle English gaggen, to retch, to stop up someones mouth, to silence by authority of person or simple violence. To choke. A word imitative of the sound of choking. Gaggle and giggle are related words.

Locally seen written as lallygagger. In the Prince Edward Island Dictionary of English lolly is defined as "soft, semi-congealed ice or floating snow", material difficult to move through and promoting lallygagging among oarsmen. In the days of sail the presence of lolly in the Northumberland Strait separating The Island from Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick, meant a torture of paddling and poling extending the passage to as much as seven hours. Often men found they could not fight the forming ice nor walk home across a solid surface hence enforced sloth. In the earliest days it was considered that all such difficulties could be laid to the inspiration of antagonistic nature-spirits. Similar to lallygigging, a sport described by Poteet: "The Chester (Nova Scotia) version of "lollygagging"; what the boys and girls do in lover's lane." LOUP GAROU A shape-changing wolf-man. Acadian French, loup (lu), m.,wolf, waster; garou, wer(e), m., man; alternately a bear spirit similar to the English bugbear. Father Chaisson makes one brief reference to this creature which is otherwise not very evident in local folklore. "Another form of sorcery known in Acadia involved werewolves, who had sold their souls to the devil and were transformed into beasts at night and prowled about the villages terrorizing the inhabitants. In most areas...these unfortunates could not be released until they were wounded and a drop of their blood shed; while at Baie SainteMarie, on the other hand, such an event would make it impossible to escape their condition. LOX A mortal earth spirit of the Abenakis; the wonder-worker known widely as a trickster. Abenaki, lox, the wolverine, "a very fierce and mischevious creature, about the bigness of a middling dog, having short legs, broad feet and very sharp claws, and in my opinion may be reckoned a species of cat. THey will climb trees and wait for a moose and other animals which feed below, and when opportunity presents, jump upon and strike their claws in them so fast

that they will hang on them till they have gnawed the main never in their neck asunder, which causes their death..." - John Gyles. The description was correct, but Gyles was speaking of a member of the weasel or polecat (poultry cat) rather than the true cat family. The Woolostook name for this animal was "carcajou", or black devil, a name they extended to white men who cheated them. This creature is sometomes considered synonymous with Malsum the evil twin of the god-hero known as glooscap. The Abenaki character personalized as Lox is similar to Nanabozho of Chippewa mythology and the Wisakedjak (Whisky Jack) of the Crees. He is Coyote on the western plains and Raven among tribes of the Pacific coast. These shape changers appeared in human or animal form. In human disguise, the trickster was sometimes benevolent toward mankind, but in totem form, he was a model for malicious mischief. It has been noted that Glooscap "the main character in the stories of the Micmacs and the Malecites ...appears only as a benefactor and as a human or superhuman being, never as a trickster or an animal." This is because the culture-hero had his alter ego in the twin brother known as Malsum, who he finally fought and killed. While Glooscap aided the creator-god in inspiring men and the useful animals, Malsum struggled mightily to raise up a small mound of clay and only succeeeded in creating Lox. If this animal was small, it incorporated all of Malsum's jealouy and hatred for his brother. Like the Norse god Loki, or the tale-bearing squirrel that infested the branches of their world-tree, Lox served his master by spreading the rumour that Glooscap and Malsum were one and by gathering men to rise against him. At this, Glooscap destroyed his brother but was apprently unable, or unwilling, to bring down his single creation, thus Lox continued to spread dissent and damaging gossip among men. Speaking to the subject, a Passamaquoddy noted: "Don't live with mean people if you can help it. They will turn your greatest sorrow to their own account if they can. Bad habits (such as those entertained by Lox) get to be devilish second nature. One dead herring is not much (to bear), but one by one you may get such a heap as to stink out a whole village."10 Lox's approach to humour is made apparent in his interaction with Mrs. Bear, a middle-aged widow, who house-mate was another woman of somewhat advanced age. One night as the two ladies lay asleep "witusoodijik" (heads to
10Anastas,

Peter, Glooscap's Children, p. 49.

feet) with their backs to the fire, Master Lox, The Indian Devil, crept in under the wigwam bringing with him long sapling pole. Seeing some potential for mayhem in their positions, he lighted the end of the pole in the fire, and touched the burning point first to the foot of one woman and then to the other. Mrs. Bear woke up and accused her companion and then the other awoke and levied a counter-claim of distress. Soon the two were fighting, and at this Lox fled to the outside of the wigwam where he burst from laughter and fell down dead. In the morning, the women had given off warfare and finding the corpse of some animal in their yard decided to cook it for breakfast. They skinned Lox, hung the kettle to boil and popped him in. Feeling the scald, the Devil came to life and leaped clear of the kettle, grabbed his skin in passing and retreated into the greenwood. At that, Lox had time to consider a parting trick. As he left he kicked over the pot sending scalding water into the fire, which threw up ashes blinding Mrs. Bear. John Gyles reported: "The wolverines go into wigwams which have been left for a time, scatter things abroad, and most filthily pollute them with odure. I have heard the Indians say that this animal has sometimes pulled their guns from under their heads while they were asleep and left them so defiled. An Indian told me that having left his wigwam, with sundry things on the scaffold among which was a birchen flask containing several pounds of powder, he found at his return, much to his surprise and grief, that a wolverine had visited it, mounted the scaffold, hove down bag and baggage. The powder flask happening to fall into the fire, exploded, blowing up the wolverine, and scattering the wigwam in all directions. At length he found the creature, blind from the blast, wandering backward and forward, and he had the satisfaction of kicking and beating him about. This, in a great measure, made up their loss, and then they could contentedly pick up their utensils and rig out their wigwam."11 Fierce, malicious, and diabolically cunning, this animal eventually became the bane of white travellers and trappers. In 1791 the Scottish writer Patrick Campbell noted that one of these beasts had entered a trappers hut, untied a carefully secured bundle of furs, and hild them "piling them under snow in heaps in a thousand different parts of the place." John, Memoirs of Strange Adventures, Odd Deliverances etc, no place of publication, 1869, pp. 40-41.
11Gyles,

Campbell noted that where Indians set out a trap line, Lox would not rest until he had sabataged the whole chain, even where it was ten miles long. The spirit of Lox was abroad among men at the time of "The Turning of the Brain", a bacchanal at the end of winter. This holiday was very like the European Yule except that it took fifteen days following the twenty-second day of February. A missionary-observer noted, "This is The Time of all Kinds of Fooleries...with everyone disguised in a thousand ridiculous Ways. They break and overset every Thing, and no Body dares contradict it...they give a good Drubbing (while disguised) to those they think have done them Wrong. But when the Festival is over, every Thing must be forgot...One would have taken them in this state for a People drink or stark mad." Indian Captive John Gyles notes: “I was once travelling a little way behind several Indians and, hearing them laugh merrily, when I came up I asked them the cause of their laughter. Tley showed me the track of a moose, and how a wolverene had climbed a tree, and where he had jumped off upon the moose. It so happened that the moose had taken several large leaps and come up under the branch of a tree, which striking the wolverene, broke his hold and tore him off; and by the tracks in the snow it appeared he went off another way with short steps, as if he had been stunned by the blow that had broken his hold. The Indians were wonderfully pleased that the moose had thus outwitted the mischievous wolverene.” LUCIFEE The Wabenaki wild cat. Sometimes another name for Lox. Anglo-Norman, lucifer, “bringing light,” the morning star. The Latin rendering of the Hebrew helil, “day-star,” the planet Venus. Satan as a rebel archangel before the fall, thus a demonic character. At Jordan Falls, Nova Scotia (1949): “I don’t rightly know what they are, maybe like a cross atween a wolf and a wildcat, only they’re tied up, with the Devil, so the story goes. I’ve heard my father tell of one thatcome out and yelled near the village when he was a boy. The men grabbed their muskets and took after it, for the snow was soft for tracking. They got into the woods and then they quit. There was the critter’s tracks plain as day, but when it comes to a big tree there was one half the tracks on one side of it, and half the tracks on the other side. They weren’t following that sort of

thing, not them!”12 LUTIN An earth spirit whose chief forms are that of a horse, or a man. Acadian French, (lyte-in) plural lutine, m., a hobgoblin, sprite, elf; confers with lutiner, to plague or tease. Perhaps related to the Old French leut, the branch or trunk of a tree. Keightley says this word is also written as lubin and as luyton. He says that this spirit may relate to the Germanic Good Lubber, "to whom the bones of animals used to be offered at Mansfield... "In" is a mere termination, perhaps like the English "on", a diminuation..." Although this author thinks otherwise, we supect he is tied linguistically to Loki, the fire god of the north, as well as the English, loblie-by-fire the leprachaun and the sun-god Lugh, both of Ireland . The sea-spirits of this species are the lutin du mer. Father Chaisson notes that: "Among the creatures of fantasy which populated the world of Acadian legends, eleves are undoubtedly among the most important, in the sense that everyone believed in them. These tiny creatures in human form were particularly interested in horses. They would come into the stables at night and braid the animal's manes into stirrups, then, mounted astride their necks, they would take the horses outside and gallop them across the fields for hours. The elves took great care of the mounts they had selected. They would feed and water them. Horses cared for by elves were always fat and healthy." M’ The M’ is the personal possessive pronoun referring to Glooscap. Thus M’anghemak, “Glooscap’s snowshoes.” Near the lighthouse at Dice’s Head, Castine, Maine, there once were marks on a ledge believed to have been snowshoe prints impressed in the living rock by the hero as he leaped across Penobscot Bay pursuing a giant moose. Clara Neptune noted wryly that you could “see his prints plain till the white folks spoil ‘em.”

12Bird,

Will R., This Is Nova Scotia (1950) p. 155.

There is a legend that Glooscap killed a giant moose whose carcasse became a hill known as Kemo. He threw down his kettle and left it as Kettle, or Little Spencer Mountain. Where he threw down his pack there is M’sabotawan, also called Big Spencer Mountain. MAIN JOHN A personifiaction of the chief god of the sea. Anglo-Saxon maegen, one having great force of strength and personality; John, a familiar form of the Latin Johannes from a Hebrew word meaning beloved of God. Confers with Ivan and Jane and diminished as Johnny, Jack or Jock. Also known as "the old man", the "main john" was the local superintendent of wood's-work, a vertible god within his sphere, sometimes regarded as the Devil incarnate. The word main is confluent with the Gaelic mor, great, famed. John Bull personified the nation called England, but all powerful godkings have been maligned out of their hearing. Thus, john-trot was a name once applied to a dull, uncultivated boor, while a john-thomas was a liveried servant and john thomson's man an individual under the thumb of his wife. Names such as John O'Groats, John O'Nokes and John-a-Stiles were used to identify individuals who were best left unnamed (for fear of drawing their unwanted attention). The Most noteworthy mythical John was Little John, a giant and the right-hand man of the god-king Robin Hood. Saint John the Baptist had Midsummer's"Day (June 24) marked as his festival. This was probably instituted to displace the worship of a pagan god since Midsummer Eve is distinguished as "the most widely diffused and most solemn of all the yearly festivals celebrated by the (pre-Christian) Aryans in Europe." The god who was displaced persisted in German folklore as Master Johannes, "the Lord of the Northern Mountains", leading to the suspicion he was either Thor or Wuotan. Johannes was the best known hey-hey man (reinforcing the idea that he was Wuotan). He appeared in a bewildering array of shapes and forms: a woodcutter, monk, donkey, charcoal-burner, herb-gatherer, woodsman, farmer, hunter, messenger, guide, horse or dog. In these forms he supplied information, or apparitions, that led men into the swamps and deep forests, where they frequently lost their way and their lives. In addition to adjusting the weather he was known to magically change

fruit into dung, roots into poisonous snakes; turn men's wigs into donkeytails, cause people ears or noses to grow in proportion to their gossip, and transform straw into horses or vice-versa at his whim. Locally, a john may be the client of a prostitute or a make-shift outdoor latrine. John-down is a Newfoundland nickname for the fulmar, a gull-like bird common in our part of the North Atlantic. This bird is noted as an eater of offal. Johnny-bad-luck is the sea-going joner or jonah the equivalent of the land-based jinxer or hoodoo. See joner for a more complete explanation of this spirit. MALSUM A giant, the evil twin brother of Glooscap. Glooscap’s “creations” included the loons, two of which he conscripted as his “dogs” (beasts of burden). They proved unequal to the tasks he set and because they went AWOL so frequently, he harnessed two wolves to do his heavy work. The Celtic death-god, Crom the Crooked, also had a pair of dogs and so did Uller/Odin. In some traditions Glooscap was always accompanied by an alter-ego, sometimes called Earthquake, but as often identified as the spirit of the four seasons, the one who kept the sun and moon in their courses. As such Glooscap is a sun-god, like Lugh, and the wolves he kept are, clearly, the spirit of his disembodied brother Malsum who he killed to bring order to the worlds. One dog is described as bonewhite the other pit-black, possibly symbolizing day and night; good and evil, and the complex of things which cluster about these concepts. In the Norse and Celtic tales the sun-dogs hunt the sun just as other warriors pursue the North Star and the moon. In the Norse version of the wolves of day were Skoll and Hati, whose aim has always been that of devouring the sun, thus recreating primal chaos. At times of the eclipses it was noticed that the wolves nearly succeeded, but the people always shouted encouragement and the startled beasts always dropped back. In the Glooscap legends it is always made clear that the last days are those of Malusm the Wolf, the frost giants, the Winter-god, Stone-giants, and Thunderbird folk, all powers of evil. It is said that the overthrow of the last days will be announced by a terrible earthquake set off by Kulpejotei (Glooscap) just before the final battle of good and evil. See Lox and Glooscap. MANAGAMESWAKAMAQ

The river or rock fairies. Passamaquoddy. The rivers of the region were considered adjuncts of the ocean, the magic of place being inversely related to the distance from the abyss. Larger rivers were considered the most powerful. Thus the Saint Lawrence was considered more potent that the St. John, which is the largest flowing into the Bay of Fundy. The latter is no dwarf: Rising in northern Maine it is separated from the Penobscot by the famous Indian “Northeast Carry” (the site of Champlain’s Norumbega. This powerful river is four hundred and fifty miles in length, and the largest body of water between the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi. It swings in a wide half circle in its first 145 miles of travel entirely within the State of Maine. Within New Brunswick it forms 75 miles of border with the United States until it approaches Grand Falls. The remainder of its course is entirely within New Brunswick, where it gets innumerable tributaries, some having their headwaters close to the St. Lawrence. Having drained 26,000 square miles, this extraordinary system plunges twice daily between high perpendicular fault-cliffs, at the “Narrows” and falls into Saint John Harbour where it argues perpetually with the tides of the Bay. As we have noted elsewhere, a powerful manitou was said to exist incarnate as the Reversing Falls which run between these last two locations. The clefts in the Narrows, and similar rock faces elsewhere, were observed to be edalawikekhadimuk , “places where they make markings or writings on the rock.” “They” in this instance is the managameswakamaq , the “rock fairies,” who were sometimes identified as “water-fairies.” These were not the land-dwelling mikumwees, a race of little-people who averaged about two-and-a-half feet in height, but a separate species, “only a few inches tall.” There presence throughout the region is revealed in a large number of places named either Fairy Lake or Fairy Pond. MARCHIN An ill-spirited island. There are several islands within the Fundy bearing the “Penobscot” name Marchin. This is said to be the modern form of Malsum or “wolf, “and these places are, by connotation, islands which should be avoided. Although this is said to be a native word, there is surely some connection between it

and the French marcheur, a “walker,” one constantly on the prowl? It may be recalled that this was the name of Glooscap’s evil brother who was put down after a battle-royal in Northern New Brunswick. In the world of the past not even evil-doers were permanently laid to rest and these islands may represent the remains of “The Wolf.” Not all men care to emulate heroes, and Champlain has noted that, “beyond Kinibeki (Kennebec, Maine) there lies Marchin Bay, which was named for the individual who was chief there. This Marchin was killed in the year that we left New France, 1607.” The place referred to seems to be entered on champlain’s map of 1607 as Baie de Marchen. Aside from this, we have the islands referred to as Ies Perdu, “the Lost Isles,” on Champlain's charts. Exactly what is meant by this is uncertain, but the English may have revived an earlier name in referring to them as “The Wolves.” This collection of islands will be found about seven miles north-east of Grand Manan, on the ferry route between North Head and the mainland at Blacks Harbour. There are two small islands called the Eastern Wolf and the Southern Wolf, and between these two islands there are three small islets that make the passage between very difficult. A dangerous shoal is known as Wolf Rock, and this stands north of Eastern Wolf Island. MATCHI HUNDU, MAJI HUNONDU An Alogonquin spirit associated with deep water. Penobscot, Majahhundopamumptunque, “the Devil’s Track, at Red Bridge on the Kenduskeag River, near Bangor,, Maine. A site above the Bangor Dam was once called Matchihundupemabtunk, “The Devil’s Footprints,” marks a place where one of these beasts left an imprint on stone. The last word is represented in full as awahandu and is the equivalent of the Iroquois manitou, a word more generally known. The matchiwoodadawaboodi, is “The Devil’s Armchair,” a natural rock formation not far from the footprints in a ledge along the river bank. I had “a high back and high arms,” as if fashioned for the use of a giant. Men did not linger here in better informed times. The basin of the Bay of Fundy, between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, was once a relatively dry valley, isolated from the open ocean by the banks of glacial debris at its mouth. About 6,000 years ago a relatively sudden rise in melt waters allowed that barrier to be broached connecting this valley with the Atlantic. Since that time the, tides have increased in range by about 6 inches per century. The Fundian basin was, and is, wedge-shaped, deep and

wide where it joins the Gulf of Maine, shallow and narrow where it cuts into mainland New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. As sea-water is pulled into the Bay by the moon it must rise in height where it cannot spread in width. This effect is emphasized because the Gulf and the Bay form a container which is in “seiche” with the phases of the oceanic tide. This vast movement of water has produced a great scouring action, piling up muds at the head of the Bay, excavating deep holes wherever the tidal rip is pronounced. The tidal rip is strong in many places, including the infamous Western Channel, which the Passamaquoddies called Matchi-hundu (sometimes represented as Mutchi-hondo), “the bad spirited manito (devil).” Here at approximately three hours before flood tide one may encounter some form of the whirlpool known as the Old Sow. Nicholas Tracy has said that the movement of waters approaches 5 to 6 knots on the flood tide and (on occasion) this produces “spectacular whirlpools and eddies. The worst of these is known as the Old Sow (and she is found) close west of Deer Point... When it forms it is 30 feet in diameter and up to 4 feet deep, and it can cause difficulty for large ships. It is folly to try and sail through it, or even speak disrespectfully of the gods anywhere near it. When the Old Sow fails to form a number of smaller whirlpools (piglets?) take its place. Reportedly the whirlpools are at their worst three hours after low tide.” In the elder days, Indians contemplating a sea voyage in Passamaquoddy Bay had no doubt that Matchi-hundu represented an incarnate sea-spirit. This knowledge caused them to avoid this part of Passamaquoddy Bay and even tabooed landing on the closest island, now called Indian Island, but once named Mutchignigos, “the bad island.” In 1950 Joseph Neptune of the Passamaquoddy reservation at Pleasant Point, Maine, told historian Harold A. Davis that this belief persisted and that the Old Sow itself “is held in superstitious awe by the Indians and is also feared and avoided by fishermen.” The second most powerful whirlpools in the region are found at Falls Point, near Sullivan, Maine. Here a great “horseback ridge,” technically a glacial kame, cuts across the great tidal stream from Sullivan Harbour with predictable effect. Captain Manning tells of chasing a French ketch “up into the river,” on August 7,, 1674: “We bore vp vpon her & she claped close vpon the wing & shott a Cables lenght more on head. We had lost Ketch & men, but we came too & had a stout scurmighs with them...” The reason they hesitated was because of the whirlpools and for fear of “The Great

Cellar Hole,” which sometimes emerges as the tide falls in the vicinity of Mount Desert Ferry. The Indian name for this place is Adowauskeskeag, “the sloped hill where the tide runs out.” In both these places the current roils the water because it passes between through tight spaces between the land. Unfortunately there are plenty of these narrows among the West Isles of the Bay of Fundy. The channels around Campobello, Grand Manan and Deer Island all have serious rips, accompanied by minor whirlpool activity. This is why sailing guides warn that “the approach from the eastward through a mass of islets is not recommended to strangers. Tracy says that channels like Letite and Little Letite Passages carry rips of up to 5 knots and should be avoided at night, “although in good conditions, a yacht may on the tide slip into the Bay (Passamaquoddy) by this route.” A little east of here, at Saint John, New Brunswick, this same writer found another spirited place, the Reversing Falls: “produced by the narrow, rocky gorge through which the Saint John River flows into Saint John Harbour. At low tide, the volume of water flowing out produces a very strong current with turbulence greater than most ocean-going yachts are designed to navigate. As the tide rises, the back pressure gradually tames the torrent. At half tide, passage either way is easy... At high water the inflow from the sea is too rapid and again produces too much turbulence for passage. There is about an hour of safe navigation beginning two hours after high water...” At that, there are more extreme tidal rips on the Nova Scotian shore and in eastern parts of the Bay. A very spirited place is found at the extreme northwestern corner of Nova Scotia, where a spectacular outcropping of basalt creates Briar Island, Long Island and Digby Neck. The channel between the first two islands is known as Grand Passage, and here the rip moves waters at up to 6 knots. “The heavy overfall outside the northern entrance prevents Grand Passage from being the route usually chosen for ships moving between Yarmouth and the north.” Larger vessels usual take the Peitit Passage between Briar Island and Digby Neck, although the race there can be up to 8 knots. Some of Champlain’s men were turned back at the southern rip, now called the Roaring Bull, where we are told there is “an extreme overfall if the wind is in the south, “and where, “sailors should be prepared for sudden shears produced by the tide boiling up from the bottom.”

Champlain’s difficulties started when he arrived at Grand Passage when the tide was too low to allow the passage of his barque. He decided to anchor just outside and wait until the tide rose sufficiently to let him pass into St. Mary’s Bay. The error in of this decision became apparent when a strong rip began dragging the anchor. Before long the anchor was torn away along with the cable that held it. The sailors then had a difficult task getting out of the southward stream of water and had to return to their base on the Saint John River to procure a second anchor. They returned, and on the second try, were able to manage the Grand Passage. Nicholas Denys who followed Champlain to the region three decades later had the same trouble at exactly this place, and was forced to agree with Champlain’s notice that the channel was, “very dangerous for vessels that choose to risk it as a passage.” Even at the more benign Digby Gut, Marc Lescarbot (1606) stated that, “we entered on the ebb tide, though not without much difficulty, for the wind was contrary, and gusts blew from the mountains like to carry us upon the rocks. Amidst all this the ship sailed stern-first, and more than once turned completely around, without us being able to prevent it. Knowledge of this danger did influence the next generation of mariners. When Captain Peter Capon came to the region seventy years later, following a report that some English-speaking fishermen had been captured by Indians, he chafed at his long stay before Grand Passage waiting the lifting of contrary winds and fog. The greatest annoyance in the region was actually at the western end of Briar Island, where the basalts of North Mountain continue out under the sea. This drowned mountain creates underwater shoals , “so bad, so great an enemy to navigators, that it is called the raging bar (Joseph-Octave Plessis, Bishop of Quebec, 1815). Fortunately a lighthouse was erected here in precisely that year. In the last century, a geologist named Daly noted that all about these islands, “excavation by tidal scour is going on apace.” The Digby Gut, further east, on this same shore, is today eighty metres feet deeper than the seafloor outside Digby Harbour because of the two million cubic feet of water that abrade the inner entrance on each tide. Here the race is approximately 5 miles per hour. Within the Minas Basin, where the water moves between the Cobequid Shore and Cape Blomidon, the speed approaches 9 miles per hour and here the swirling undersea currents have gouged out three pot

holes, one 200 feet below the surrounding sea bottom. The record for tidal rips is in the Minas Channel where the sea moves as fast as 12 miles per hour. Perhaps the heaviest rip on the flood tide is off the shores of Cape D’Or. The only place of equal spirit on the New Brunswick shore is the aptly named Cape Enrage, just within Chignecto Bay. MAYER An earth spirit sometimes regarded as incarnate in May Day celebrants. Anglo-Saxon, maeg, verb in present tense meaning "I am able (to cause or prevent) a give action." Similar to the word main, stength, see Main John (above). Routinely attached to the earth-goddess of the Romans, Maia or Gaia, the daughter of Atlas and mother of Mercury by Jupiter. Related English words (moden and archaic) include: mey. kinsmen; maybush or haybush, the hawthorn; maydame, madame; maydan, maiden; mayhill, a very tiring or trying time; May King; May Lord; May Queen; May Lady; mayne, to maim; mayhem, originally the loss of an arm or leg; Maytide, period of the pagan festivities. This word describes the men and god-spirits who participated in the Maytide rites, which centered about a tree-spirit termed the maypole. Mae was the name given one of the months as well as the Celtic goddess Maeve. In the Anglo-Saxon language, maegg was the word for son while maegden, or maiden, was an offspring possessing a vagina or "den". Megburg was the family. The word maeg confers with the English word main, and was the source of the obsolete word main-gauche or left-handed, the direction taken in the maypole dances. The mayers were led by a Masy Lord and a May Lady, activities being carried out on a cleared elevated area termed the may-hill. J.G. Fraser thought that "The intention of these customs (was) to bring home the blessings which each tree-spirit has in its power to bestow." Aside from dancing the maypole, participants took the parts of uncostumed mummers. On the eve of May Day, the younger members of the community went into the woods, ostensibly to collect the evergreens used to decorate individual homes. As a group they brought back, and erected, a venerable evergreen tree as their maypole. Afterwards they went on house visits to gather "the bread and meal that comes in May" and enjoyed a feast which included liberal amounts of ale. In some places, the paraders carried hoops decorated with marsh marigolds and rowan. In Ireland these were explicit sun

and moon symbols being balls covered with gold and silver paint or paper. In the earliest presentations there was ritual as well as informal sex, and the maypole was sometimes burned to rejuvenate the soil, animals and women. DPEI: May snow, a synonym for "poor man's fertilizer": a late spring snowfall. Compare with "farmer's blessing" and "million dollar rain." Also known as "blindman's snow" (possibly in memory of one-eyed Wodin)."...thought to have curative propertioes especially for the eyes." At Fredericton, a newspaper said that May second to fifth, eighteen thity-two, brought uninterrupted snow on the last of these days residents "beheld the novelty of the May-pole exhibited on the frozen surface of the River." Mary L. Fraser remembered a few details of the old rites as practised in Nova Scotia: "In one district at least in Cape Breton...the hair on the backs of the animals is singed with the flame of a blessed candle...to avert the influence of the evil eye. Throughout Nova Scotia the snow or rain that falls on May Day is considered a cure for sore eyes." One repondant said: "My mother used to go out and collect to melt it. It was supposed to be blessed (by a religious authority). She even put it on her hurting eyes but never drank it. It had a healing power, a cure in it...You could (even) soak your feet in it." Expanding on this general theme, Malcolm Campbell of Glendyer Mills remembered that, "Old women who had the charm (were boabhs) would go out on May Day...and borrow something...you weren't supposed to loan them anything because they would surely take the virtue from your land and your cattle and you. She would get the benefit of whatever you were doing. (Thus the saying: On May Day give nothing away!) Respoonding to this speaker Helen Howatt reminded him that the frustrated hag who was refused her May Day "offering" would leave carrying a handful of earth, thus carrying away some of the spirit of the land where she had failed to get it all. It is obvious from these examples, that the May Day rites were intended to remove evil spirits as well as to regenerate the land. May Day was the Beltane, or Bealtainn, and Pratt says that "beal" is retained to describe an infected wound, "a festered running sore", perhaps symbolizing the evils that were once netralized by fire. MEGUNTICOOK An enspirited mountain.

Penobscot. The basement rocks of Atlantic Canada belong, essentially, to two vastly different past environments, one the Avalon Belt and the other the Meguma formation, both between 600 and 400 million years of age. The Avalon Rocks of southern New Brunswick and Newfoundland were laid down as sediments in warm seas, while the Megumas of southern mainland Nova Scotia were deposited in a cold arctic-like environment. Although these rocks now touch in places, it is theorized that they were originally separated by hundreds, if not thousands of kilometres. About 400 million years ago these vastly different land massed were brought into contact by a collision of the North American and African land-plates, giving rise to a series of parallel hills and valleys, termed, respectively, the Appalachian anticline and geosyncline. For about 180 million years, the Bay of Fundy held no water, but was an uplifted region supplying sediments to surrounding lowlands. The unconsolidated matter collected and became compressed producing rocks of Devonian, Permian and Jurrasic age. During the late Triassic and Jurrasic, block faulting took place and the present Bay was depressed below sea level. The Atlantic Ocean was born in this time, about 165 million years ago, as a rift opened in the mid- Atlantic. The sides of this rift-valley have, ever since, moved apart by a few centimetres each year. This rifting process immediately began to stretch the crust, and where it was particularly thin, fingers of molten basalt began to move upward from the earth’s basement. These erupted from a series of volcanoes, located in northwestern Nova Scotia, that spilled lava over most of the present Bay bottom. After cooling and crystallizing into black basalt, the Bay became a collection site for sands and silts, which finally consolidated as the siltstones, shales and limestones now found overlaying the basalt. Vulcanism ceased as the plates became more widely separated, but the cracks in the crust, which favoured earthquakes and volcanoes, remained as an inheritance from the days when the Appalachians were uplifted. In the immediate region, these faults trend northeastward from Cape Cod and underlay all of the Bay near its northern shore. These Fundian Faults (a part of the more extensive Cabot Fault System) emerge from the water at Cape Split, penetrate the Cobequid Mountains of Nova Scotia, and veer southeast through Cape Breton, before striking off over the continental shelf. It is now more or less agreed that they are continuous with similar breaks in the crust of southern Newfoundland, and that they can be traced from here to the Great Glen of Scotland and beyond into Europe as far as the Ural Mountains. When the Atlantic Provinces were in uplift following the removal

of the continental glacier, there must have been considerable readjustment along these stress lines, and earthquakes were a common part of Maritime prehistory. Consulting historical notes shows that there were major earthquakes within the region at Plymouth in 1638, at Newburyport in 1727 and at Scituate in 1755. Major movements have always plagued the St. Lawrence River (which lies above an equally impressive fault system) and one of North America’s most intense earthquakes took place at sea, where this river overrides the continental shelf headed for the abyss. In Maritime Canada most of the action has been along branches of the Cabot fault zone in southern New Brunswick or in the unquiet northern uplands of that same province. James Simonds one of the first trader-settlers at Saint John, New Brunswick arrived at Portland Point in April 1764. He and his partner, James White, had a busy and difficult year being pulled between fishing, building a house, damming the marsh, erecting a mill, creating a schooner, clearing land, and other odd chores. In the midst of all this they were given pause on September thirtieth by, “a very severe shock of earthquake at St. John coming at about 12 o’clock noon.” The effects are not recorded but Simonds went on to say that “the winter that followed was of unusual severity with storms that wrought much damage to the shipping.” Early historian Peter Fisher said that “New Brunswick appears to be but little liable to the great convulsions of nature, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes &c. There has been but one shock of an earthquake experienced by the present inhabitants since they have settled the country. This shock happened on the twenty second May, 1817, at 25 minutes past three o’clock in the morning. The duration of the shock was about 45 seconds. It was attended by the usual rumbling noise, without thunder. The appearances, however, usually indicating earthquakes, such as fiery meteors, the uncommon brilliancy of the aurora borealis &c. had been frequent the winter preceding.” Peter Fisher says nothing of the epicentre or damage, but the country was sparsely settled and had few skyscrapers or super highway ramps to be damaged at that time. We can only note that the very destructive Californian earthquake near Los Angeles in 1994 lasted for only 20 seconds, and at the time it was predicted that the expected “great quake” along the San Andreas fault would last approximately two minutes. In other times this local quake might have been a spirit worthy of greater note!

In 1852 the Carleton Sentinel said that an earthquake had shaken Gloucester County in northern New Brunswick: “On Monday, the 2nd instant there was a smart shock of an earthquake at this place (Bathurst). The motion of the earth was a rocking motion (suggesting they were not at the epicentre), and then followed several (perhaps eight or ten) lifting or vibrations of the ground. It was accompanied by a heavy rolling sound...The whole lasted at least five to six minutes... Our houses being chiefly low, suffered no damage beyond the loss of a pane of glass or two. The Court House being the only brick or very heavy building, had several panes of glass broken, the plaster cracked in many places, and at the south-west corner the main walls were separated nearly an inch...We understand that the rumbling noise was distinctly heard in Newcastle and the vibration (felt) on the North-West (Miramichi).” The letters of my family, who settled Charlotte County, New Brunswick, speak of earthquakes as commonplace just before and at the turn of the century: “Another shaking up Thursday last.” The same situation seems to have been the case for the southern edge of the Bay of Fundy: The Fred Allen family settled Boot Island, within sight of Blomodin in 1915,, and not long after Mrs. Allen lived through, “a full-fledged quake. Not just a tremor, of the sort most Maritimers experience from time to time. It was strong enough to bounce the house up and down on its foundations and topple the dishes from the shelves. Because of the lack of kitchen cupboards, the plates had all been standing on their sides on high shelves near the ceiling...Since the dishes had been a wedding present...Mrs. Allen regretted their loss for years.” In 1925 the “Telegraph,” published at Saint John, said that “distinct shocks were experienced throughout New Brunswick” on the second day of March: “Those who were in the streets looked in amazement to see tall buildings quivering. The tall Atlantic Refinery building trembled... Saturday night’s earthquake was more severely felt in Moncton and vicinity than any earthquake within the memory of Moncton’s oldest residents...At Fredericton the stores were just closing and the picture theatres were also filled...When solidly built buildings began to quiver and crack there was a general rush for the open streets.” Currently the entire region is regarded as a zone of “moderate earthquake activity,” and not in the running with high-risk regions such as Japan and the western coast of America. The 1982 earthquake in the

woods several hundred miles north of Fredericton was the most severe in historic times. The main shock registered 5.7 on the Richter Scale at 8:35 a.m. on January 9th. The epicentre of that shake was at 46.99 degrees N. Latitude and 66.62 degrees W. longitude. Luckily all the roughness took place in an unpopulated region, so there was little significant damage. It is acknowledged that “Earthquakes in New Brunswick are mostly related to movement on pre-existing geologic faults - possibly a delayed response to the unloading of the crust due to the melting of the ice sheet about 13,000 years ago.” In Nova Scotia the process of gaining equilibrium is virtually over, and upward movements in New Brunswick are less impressive than they were in the past. Notice that Glooscap had the man named “Earthquake” as his closest companion, and it was said that the “god” always appeared and disappeared in moments when there was a great displacement of the earth. There are other suggestions that earthquakes were once a common occurrence: “Tidal waves” at sea were blamed on the jipjakamaq or “horned-serpent” people; but it was further claimed that the shaking-earth was prompted by the fact that these mythic creatures were able to swim through solid rock as easily as through water. Ethnologist Fannie Eckstrom says that the Indians regarded the hills and mountains as potentially dangerous. While the Penobscots might refer to a local landmark as megunticook, “the big mountain,” or as megankek. “a steep hill,” or note the presence of the wajo, “sugar-loaf hills,” they did not personalize them. This is because they understood that the horned-serpent people took their rest as mountains and it was feared that naming them would make them active, causing an earthquake. In the elder days it was understood that the hills might move. Historian Daniel Boorstin says this is not a local peculiarity: “Every mountain(world-wide) was idolized by people who lived in its shadow.”

The ultimate stone was a mountain peaks. These were seen as residences of the air-spirits, and as jumping-off places for gods of the upper air and as the focal points for unusual magic. Thus an unmarried woman of the Penonscot tribe once looked upon Mount Kathdin (in present day Acadia Park, Maine) and seeing its beauty in the red sunlight said, "I wish the mountain were a man that I might marry him!" After making this wish, she disappeared from the tribe appearing three years after with a small child, who was beautiful, but particularly noted for the fact that his eyebrows were

of stone. "For the spirit of that place had taken her as wife, but he forbade her to tell any of their union." In later days a hunter on Katahdin followed snowshoe tracks on this great mountain and found them terminated at a rock-face near the summit. Here he found many signs that people had passed to-and-fro, seemingly through the solid rock. "And as he stayed watching the place grew stranger and stranger. At last he heard a sound of footsteps, and lo! a girl stepped directly (out of the rock) out of the precipice onto a platform (of stone). And although she proved kindly and sweet he was afraid because he saw she had powerful "m'teoulin." In spite of this, they got on rather well and she took him into the heart of the mountain to meet her father and her brothers. All of this clan comprised the "thunder-people" "giants, stupendous and of awful mien. And their eyebrows were of stone, while their cheeks were as hard as rocks."

In Scandinavia, winter storm used to be blamed on the passage of Odin’s Wild Hunt, which rode out in search of the souls of animals and men. Something of this is implicit in tales of the local gougou, who whites called the “wood’s-whooper” or the “eastern big-foot.” A little north of here this wood’s-spirit was called the wendigo. All of these correpond with that haunt of the English forest known as the woodese (his name just happens to be a similie for Woden). In western North America this creature is sasquatch, a vile smelling, tall, hair-covered humanoid creature with a distinctive agnonizing call. Like Odin, the gougou was guessed to ride counter-clockwise upon the wind, trailing lost souls in his wake. The noise of the storm was sometimes credited to the creatures known as “thunderbird,” shapechangers, who lived within the highest mountains of the region, and could be distinguished from men by the fact that their faces were half grey stone. It was their huge wings that beat out the winds on which the hunters of the sky travelled, and their eyes that blasted the earth with lightning. In Scandinavia, all of these powers were credited either to Thor, or Odin, or the frost-giants, all capable of taking the form of huge black birds. Here in America, as in Europe, men supposed that thunderbirds (like Odin in his eagle form) dwelt in the heights of mountains, while serpents lay curled at their bases. In point of fact, little pre-glacial land has remained unaffected by the last sweep of the ice, the sole remnants being the highest mountain tops. In the Mount Carleton Park region of northern New Brunswick

there are a examples of peculiar land-forms that developed during deglaciation. While the temperature was constant the rock faces exposed above the ice, which are termed nanataks, were unaffected, but with thawing and freezing these rocks were subject to intense frost heaving and they shattered. This left angular projecting bedrock the features now namedtors.. Tors, or are found on most of the higher peaks and are particularly characteristic of the mountain known as Sagamook. In some quarters the shattered rocks were thought of as the remains of the giants put down by Glooscap. These specialty words, from the world of geology are closer to myth than science; tor originating with the Norse godThor, whose lightning bolts were seen to damage the earth in a manner similar to that of thawing ice and freezing water. Nanataks are also located in northwestern Newfoundland and within the Cape Breton Highlands. Intesrestingly, these three separte places share a common flora and fauna. Some biologists have suggested that there was a migration of species between these regions when the rest of the land was covered with ice, but the problems of such crossmigrations would have been almost insurmountable under past conditions of extreme cold. MENTOU, M’NTOU, MANITOU An earth-spirit capable of instantaneous travel sometimes incarnate in human form time and space

Abenaki, also variously seen as mento, mentoo, mentouk, mentook. Entities thought to exist in dematerialized as well as in corporeal bodies, the chief exponents of "meda" or magical powers. These were not the healers or the physically powerful, but those who obtained a place over other tribesmen by being capricious, eccentric and malicious. The Micmacs said that some were born with these skills while others acquired the arts as they grew older. Leland distinguished the mentouk are those that were witches as opposed to those who were simple entertainers. He said that malicious magic was largely innate although the skills might be deepened with practise. Acquisition of knowledge concerning simple sympathetic magic was said to be acquired through fasting, abstinence and ceremonial rituals. The mentouk were called upon to settle family fueds, being paid to take one side or the other. They sometimes clashed with one another where two or more magicians were hired by opposing parties. Like the witches of Englishspeaking communities, the mentouk directed their energies through familiars

they called puhigans, baohigans, bogans or logans (names strangely reminiscent of Gaelic underworld spirits). Usually these were carried in a pouch in the forms of apparently inert animal furs, but they were easily aroused creating phantom animal attack-animals or spy-beasts. Kluscap was considered the most adept of this witch-tribe. The mentou were particularly associated with the horned-serpents, but able to revert to human shape at will. Many men became jipjakamaq but only the mentou and those who were horned serpents from birth could reverse the shape-change. Francis Parkman has added the fact that these were the creatures known to the Hurons as okies or otkons. He says: “These words comprehend all forms of supernatural being, from highest to lowest, with the exception of certain diminutive fairies or hobgoblins, and certain giants and anomalous monsters, which appear under various forms, grotesque and horrible...These beings fill the world and control the destinies of men. In nearly every case, when they reveal themselves to mortal sight, they bear the semblance of beasts, reptiles or birds, in shapes unusual or distorted. Sometimes they take human proportions, but more frequently they take the form of stones, which being broken are found to be full of living flesh and blood.” Tales of the mentouk include that of an elderly female mentou who went into the woods with her sister-in-law and two brothers. The men went on a hunt promising they would return within three days. When they did not appear at the appointed time, the young woman became disraught and the older woman agreed to contact them. Not being familiar with the use of magic the younger woman watched aghast as the woman lay upon her robes and apparently stopped breathing. While an attempt was being made at revival a globe of fire emerged from a nostril and started spiralling in a counter-clockwise path away from the body of the magician. For an hour the body lay as if dead but finally the force-ball came barrelling back along its outward path and entered an ear opening. At that the mentou got up and calmly explained that she had seen her brothers standing at their camp-fire and that they had been delayed by particularly good hunting. This lady was obviously a very powerful adept, most mentouk being forced to project their souls upon some form of matter which they then animated. Like the familiar the shadow-traveller put the mentou at hazard if it happened to be injured. The species most favoured as puhigans were predatory mammals, beavers, owls and loons. Two hunters found themselves harassed by the attentions of a large and ugly porcupine. When it blocked their smoke-hole in the

wigwam, one of the men fired at it with his spear and injured the animal's left leg. In their home village, the local magician was found with an injured left arm. The most impressive magic of the mentouk involved "earth-dancing", where the legs of the mentou were seen to penetrate the earth, moving through it as if it were fog. The mentouk were both admired and feared which is why they were often assasinated or driven from their villages. The rivers of our region are tidal; the Saint John, for example, carries salt water inland north beyond the city of Fredericton. Because the Avon, in Nova Scotia, and the Petitcodiac and the Saint John, in New Brunswick, all have constrictions near their mouth they sometimes show their spirit in a peculiar phenomena known as a tidal bore. At certain phases of the moon and tide when the pile up of water is extreme at the mouths of these rivers, a solitary wave front is formed which travels upriver show a crest as much as four feet in height. Something like this is also seen as the rivers reverse and flood out to sea. Salt and fresh water will mix, but not immediately. Since river water is predominately fresh it enters the Bay en mass, and retains its integrity as a stream. In the case of the St. John River, these borders persist far out past Grand Manan Island. At the front, at the turn of the tide, there forms a peculiar tidal bore that streaks seaward and is locally known as “the streak.” At the leading edge of the river within the sea the warmer, less dense, fresh water piles up above the colder salt water, and an entity is created that picks up all the debris in the water as it sweeps toward the ocean. Men who have nets in the water must rush to remove them to keep them from becoming fouled or pulled under. In earlier days these tidal happenings were seen as manifestations of water manitous. MER FOLK The sea-spirits of northwestern Europe. Anglo-Saxon, mor or moor, from which morass, the salt water "ocean sea", confering with the English mere, a lake. This word is also the source of Moor Dance, now referred to as the Morris Dance, a part of rural pagan religious practises. Akin to the Gaelic muir and the Latin mare. Derived words include marsh, marine, mermaid and merman. + folc, people living at the tribal level of organization without central government. In northern European mythology, the descendants of the sea deities Aegir and Ran were nine wave maidens, snowy-complexioned white-women, willowy,

golden-haired, blue-eyed, usually seen clad in transparent white veils. They were a capricious lot, sometimes favouring wind-ships by driving them toward their destination, sometimes "exciting one another to madness", thus destroying sea-craft. Writing in 1881, Carl Blind, noted that the Scots, and particularly Shetlanders termed the merpeople, the “Finns.” “Their transfiguration into seals may be a kind of deception they practise for the males are described as most daring boatmen...they are held to be deeply versed in magic spells and in the healing arts as well as soothsaying. By means of a “skin” which they possess, the men and women among them are able to change themselves into seals. But ons hore, after having taken off their wrappings, they are, and behave like, real human beings. Anyone who gets hold of their protecting garment has the Finn in his power. Only by means of the skin can they go back to the water. Many a Finn woman has got into the power of a Shetlander and borne children to him: but if a Finn woman succeeded in reobtaining her sea-skin, or seal-skin, she escaped across the water. Among the older generation in the Northern Isles, persons are sometimes heard of who boast of hailing from Finns; anmd they attribute to themselves a peculiar luckiness on account of the higher descent.” 13 These are the ancestors of the merpeople, men and women from the waist upward, fish from there down. In some circles, these were thought to be sea-suits, the equivalent of modern scubs-diving gear. Mermaidss will be found cut into the stonework of the earliest eastern civilizations. The Greecian scholar Alexander ab Alexandro writing in the first century told of on that had the misfortune to be beached by contrary winds. She burst into tears as crowds of curious onnlookers crowded in to examine her. At last she was able to break away and was last heard shouting uiinintelligable, and not very pleasant words, as she paddled away. The Roman historian Pliny the Elder regarded as fact the rumour that mermaids lured men to their destruction on the sea-rocks of the Mediterranean, while the esteemed Bishop Pontoppidian insisted he had seen the mermaid netted at Hordaland in Bergen Fjord. Unfortunately the men whom took hjer tried to keep her in a bathtub filled with fresh water. Like a jellyfish she fell victim to osmosis and dissolved. In 1723 a Dutch Royal Commission was set up to resolve the reality or
13Blind,

Dr. Carl, “Contemmporary Reviiew” (1881).

non-reality of mer-folk by means of an expedition to bring one back alive. They did encounter a merman off the Faeroes. A “neat bearded creature” stared at them for five minutes, snorted disdainfully at their attempts to capture him with nets, and dived into the ocean. A corpse of a mermaid supposedly washed ashore in the Hebrides in 1830, where it was described as "a creature about the size of a well-fed child of three or four years of age, with an abnormally developed breast. The hair was long, dark and glossy (it always lost the golden hue out of water); while the skin was white, soft and tender. The whole lower part of the body was like a salmon, but without scales." They were never restricted to European waters and in 1610, Captain Richard Whiteborne saw one "in the very Harbour of Saint Johns (Newfoundland). "I espied it swiftly swimming towards me, looking cheerfully as it had been a woman, by the ordinary face, eyes, nose, mouth, chin, ears, neck and forehead: It seemed to be so beautiful, and in those parts so well proportioned, having however round upon the head, all blue streaks, resembling hair (but certainly it was no hair). I beheld it long and another of my company likewise. It was not far from me and I stepped back, for it came within a pike's length. When this strange creature saw that I went from it, it dived a little under water, and swam toward the place where before I landed; whereby I beheld the shoulders and back down to the middle, which was square, white and smooth as the back of a man, and from the middle to the hinder points, pointed in a portion like a broad arrow...the same came shortly into a boat, wherein was William Hawkridge, my servant...she did strive to come into him and others in the same boat, wheras they were afraid, and one of them struck it a full blow on the head, whereby it fell off from them. Afterwards it came to two other boats in the Harbour, and the men in them fled for fear to land. This was a mermaid." Captain John Smith, one of the first men to chart Maine waters fopund one which he observed, “swam by with all possible grace.” Smith said that she had, “large eyes, well-formed ears and long green hair that imparted to her an original character, which was by no means unattractive.” Smmith was just beginning to be smitted with thgis salt-water swimmer when he noticed she was fish-tailed from the waist down. Christopher Columbus, it may be recalled, had a contary notion, “The mermaids I have seen were not as beautiful as they have been painted although to some extent they have a human face.”

In Boston harbour the enterprising Captaion Dodge actually exhibited a mermaid in 1822, being very careful not to allow observers to get very close. Popular acceptance of the idea of a mer-peopleled sailors at sea to carve strange little mummies from dried skate flesh, pandering them ashore to gullible “mermaid” collectors. For three huiindred years there was a brisk trade in these “Jenny Hanivers,” some specimens of which may be as much as 600 years old. In times past a “jenny” was a man who busied himself with “women’s work” while the last reference is likely in derision of the ducal state of Hanover, whose members rose to kingship of England. It is noteworthy that P.T. Barnum launched his carrer with a jenny (see our entry under Jack) which he claimed had been taken in the south seas. Actually this was a monkey’s body very skillfully sewn to a fish body. The shrivelled thing measured 18 inches but Barnnum expanded it to 18 feet on his advertising banner. Speaking of this species, Father Ainselme Chaisson said that the Acadians encountered mermaids "all along the coasts of the Maritime Provinces". He reported that Magdelane Islanders "had heard them sing, had seen them, and even spoken to them." Their sea-caves used to be wellknown, an example being found near Lorneville, New Brunswick, at Smuggler's Cove in Sheldon's Bluffs. It is described as having a narrow entrance to a cavern twenty feet high, sixty feet long and from ten to twenty feet wide. It was said to have stactilites hanging from the roof and a sand floor, submerged by ten feet of water at high tide.

MHORGHA Any of the sea dwelling offspring of the Celtic goddess Mhorrigan. Gaelic, mor, great, famed, widespread (as the sea). Perhaps derived from muir, the sea. + gamhlas, malice, possibly from gann, scarce, hurt, injured. Thus, the malicious sea-dwellers.

The morgha is the descendent of the Celtic Cailleasch Bheur, the original Mhorgan or Mhorrigan corresponding with Samh, the alter-ego of the the winter hag. This goddess was described as a perpetual virgin, one who lay annually, at Samhuinn, with the kings of Tara, thus ensuring their divine

right of kingship. In the medieval romances, she was described as Morgan le Fay, the half sister of Arthur. Morgan and Arthur shared the European carrion-crow as their familiar. Like her "sisters" Mebd or Maeve (May Eve) and Macha, Mhorrigan was the daughter of a chief of the Tuatha daoine. This triad composed the Celtic "befind", "those who predict the future and endow it with good or doubtful gifts." In this they were exact counterparts of the Norse Norns, the three witches of past, present and future, who promised Macbeth his fate in Shakespeare's play. Latter day befinds were sidh assigned by the gods to serve as the familiars of mortal men. As such, they could be invisible but often took the form of the crow, the totem-animal of the seed of Morgan, also known as Clan Mackay. In the myths of the Gaels, the Mhorrigan was also known as the "bean-nighe" (washer-woman) from her habit of frequenting highland streams where she washed blood from the garmets of those fated to die. Correponds with the English white or witchwoman. In our country, this raven-haired sidh, with the blood red pupils and webbed fingers and toes (all revealling her Fomorian ancestory) is know as the keener, caney (Gaelic "caoine", a shriek) or caney-caller from her habit of announcing the approaching death of an enemy or any member of her clan. These are the creatures better known as banshees, those of the sidh who attached themselves "to families of the old Milesian lines, who are known by the "O'", "Mc" or "Mac" which they prefixed to their names." The keeners of Maritime Canada were sometimes identified with roving swamp lights and on Morden Mountain, near Auburn Nova Scotia, Helen Creighton found an Irish family possessed of a wailing corpse-cart follower. Elaborating, Creighton explained that "In the Irish tradition the banshee was supposed to wail when a member of a certain family (e.g O'Keefes or O'Sullivans) died. Her wail was quite distinct from the mourning cries of near relatives or of the (human "keeners" who were in olden days called upon to mourn a dead person." Creighton has also recounted the case of an unnamed wireless operator who was drowned while rowing across Hawk Inlet, near Clarke's Harbour, Nova Scotia. At the wireless station, other workers were bedevilled by "a steady shrill noise" whose source was never found. This continued without ceasing until the body was recovered from the sea. At the turn of the century, a Scot named James MacDonald insisted that "The mhorag as a rule shows herself on Loch Morar (Scotland) when a member of a certain clan (Clan Morgan?) is to die...She reassembles herself on the surface of the lake in three portions, one a figure of death, another a coffin, the third an open grave."

The original Mhorrigan was given charge of the purloined Cauldron of the Deep, “the source of all poetry and inspiration,” for landsmen. This was the genius astral for Britain, now buried in an unknown location. This cauldron of life and death, the focal point for all passages to the underworld, was considered a metaphore for the ocean and all natural lakes and wells. The mhorrigane were, therefore the guardians and protectors of such waterways. Mountains and valleys had their roots in the World Beneath the Earth. Like the lands above, this place was rumoured to have its own light, and air, and all of the aspects of Earth World itself. The underground rivers were thought to have some influence in the world of men, springing in some places from the earth as artesian wells, or evidencing themselves as slow-flowing sink-holes. As was the case elsewhere, men distinguished white streams from the black streams, and those that drank or lived by mean-spirited water were observed to wither and die. This is no longer regarded as a strange concept, since some of our water passes through radon-heavy rocks, and may indeed pass acqire an “evil-spirit” on the way to its consumer. Some of the waters of the earth were regarded as helpful thus the persistence of healing mineral springs in the current century. Men have never fully explained why certain sources of water were deemed more potent, or spirited, than other nearby streams or tap water, but they certainly flocked to them all through the last century. A case in point would be the Glengarry Mineral Spring located in Cape Breton. A farmer living near the village in 1890 noticed that his cows were attracted by a small spring in one corner of his property high up in the hills near Big Pond. He wondered why they travelled into this remote place for water and took a drink. He found the water “different,” but not unpalatable, and recommended it to a few of his close neighbours. Soon the neighbours and friends of friends were trekking across the landscape to take samples. One of these visitors was the Rev. Neil MacLeod who supposedly blessed the waters giving them even more potent “magic.” Soon the water gained a reputation for curing rheumatism and arthritis and the show was on the road. In 1895 a woman crippled by arthritis was brought by boat to the

wharf below Big Pond. Her stretcher was placed at the back of a wagon, which hauled her uphill, a distance of two miles. Upon arrival at the spring the victim drank a glass of water and had her company erect a tent nearby. She stayed in it for a week before returning to the wharf. She had been carried from tyhe boat, but on the return trip walked out of a carriage with no apparent difficulty. The spring afterwards became a mecca and the most-talked about place in Cape Breton and the writer Michael MacKenzie says it is currenty in use. As he has noted there are many similar springs in Cape Breton and mainland Nova Scotia. Springs of “white-water” were also located in New Brunswick, thus an issue of the “Fredericton Gleaner,” dated 1831, notes: “We do not recollect having made previous mention of a certain Spring in the county of York which seems to possess peculiar properties. Shortly after the settlement of Nashwaak, when the hunting of Moose was yet in general practise, the attention of hunters was attracted to this spring by its being resorted to by this animal. The water had a peculiar taste, and when drank produced frequent eructations (farts) strongly impregnated with suplhur. Thus it obtained the name the “Gunpowder Stream.” See also morrigan, caoineag, etc. MICAREME A French earth-spirit seen incarnate in a human at mid-Lent. Acadian French, mi, mid or middle + careme or carene, a corruption of the Latin word quarentena which described a forty-day religious fast, in particular that now called Lent. Called the mickeram by Irish immigrants to America. T.K. Pratt says that micareme identifies "a disguised person who brings treats to children. or one of a group of mummers who require onlookers to guess their identity. Chaisson explained that "Ash Wednesday ushered in forty days of penitence, as prescribed by the Church. Fasting, for those between the ages of twenty-one and sixty, was very severe, permitting no more than two ounces of bread in the morning, a good meal at noon and a light snack of perhaps eight ounces at night. Children gave up candies or sweets and some men would try to give up smoking. By mid-Lent everyone was ready for a break and all affected "homemade wooden masks"

or "stockings with holes cut for eyes, nose and mouth. Thus costumed and armed with sticks, they would go about, alone or in groups, from house to house. The game consisted of escaping recognition, while making gestures, dancing, and even speaking but in an assumed voice. In some parts celebrants distributed candy to children, who were allowed to eat it on that day. In some parts of Prince Edward Isalnd, Mid-Lent was used as an opportunity to collect gifts for the poor. It was celebrated originally for one day, and later for two days...only in Chetcamp (Cape Breton) is it still celebrated..." Pratt has noted that micaremes usually visited the homes of relatives and that there was a prime "devil": "The role was traditionally played by an adult member of the home, either a parent, a grandparent, or a grown-up brother or sister. Mrs. Anne-Marie Perry of Tignish (Prince Edward Island) recalls how her grand-uncle acted the Mi-=careme in her family when she was a child. This was in the 1920's: "At our place, Joe Nezime was always the one who did the Mi-careme. He was my mother's "old uncle" and he lived with us. He never married. Anyway, after supper he would put on his disguise, and come in to act the Mi-careme. He always wore a big blanket and carried a long cane, a long pole. And we were dead scared of him! He'd come in with a sack which he laid on the floor. He spoke no word. Each of us kids had to go one at a time to pick up our treats. Generally it was an apple, taffy or something like that." Baking was well protected at mid-Lent because children feared the interest of the Micareme. Georges Arsenault said that the word was still known at Malagash in nineteen eighty-one: "We wouldn't go handy the table (which had candy on it) because the mickeram might get us." The micareme makes it clear that mumming was never exclusive to any race and that it was not exclusively a winter activity. Whatever mask was put on the proceedings, they were never Christian, and amounted, at worst, to disguised extortion; at best, to a legal lapse of dignity and politeness.

MICHABO, MICHEBO The creator-god of the Algonquins. Wabnaki, Upper Canadian dialect, originally Michwabo from the root wab, which may mean “white, east, dawn, light,” or “day.” Thus Wabenaki, or Abenaki, “children of the dawn.” The hare was probably considered the

totem of the procreative god from its vigor in mating and producing offspring. Other forms of the name include Manabozho, Messou, Michabou, Nanabush. See also Hesolup and Kjikinap who are localized forms of this god. In a creation tale it is claimed that Michabo was hunting with his wolf-dog when the animal broke through the ice and was eaten by serpents. Angered Michabo transformed himself into a stump at the edge of the lake and waited until the serpent people emerged to sun themselves. While they slept he cut many of them to bits. The reamining serpent-mentous reacted by flooding the world. As Micabo was himself the pre-eminent mentou, he escaped death by enlarging himself as the waters deeopened. Standing nose-deep Michebo sent his totem raven to find a bit of land from which the world might be regenerated, but the bird quested unsuccessfully. Then the god sent his otter form on a similar errand, but it failed to find even a bone of the earth. At last the muskrat dove deep within the water and returned with the nuclear matter, which Michabo used to fashion solid land. In recognition of this help the Great Hare copulated with the muskrat and from her arose the sons of men. It is obvious that Michabo is a combine of gods, since he is represented elsewhere as forming the world (like Odin) from the carcasses of beasts, birds, and fishes left over from the flood. It was suggested that the creator took a single grain of sand from the ocean bed and made from it an island which he launched on the primal ocean. The island, being a giant tortise, grew to great sizee, its back being so expansive that wolf-man attempting to cross it die of old age in the quest. Uncertainty prevailed concerning the creators homeland, some said it was on an island in Lake Superior, otherrrs said he lived on an iceberg in Arctic waters, but most agreed that his home was weast of the sun, “beyond the great river that surrounds dry land.” The Great Spirit, or father of all, was sometimes confused with mortal-gods, thus he was regarded not only as lord of the wind, but also as the inventor of picture-writing, the creator of fish-nets, and as the instigator of all charms used in hunting and fishing. In the fall it was his pipe which filled the air with the smoke of Indian Summer. The bringer of light as well as civilization Where Michabo is confused with man-gods his parents are designated as the West Wind and his mother is given as a great-grandaughter of the

Moon. Glooscap is given a similar background, but he is not represented as “a vain and treacherous imp,” as is sometimes the case with this god. Micabo seems a combination of Malsum and Glooscap, “Sometimes he is a wolf, a bird, or a gigantic hare, sometimes a human, a migthy magician, a destroyer of sepents and evil manitous; sometimes full of childish whims and petty trickery, the butt and victim of men, beasts and spirits. His power for transformation is without limit; his curiosity and malice are insatiable.” MICKLEEN Earth spririts, the "englished" sigh. Maritime dialectic from Gaelic, plural of mhac (son); mhic (sons of) + leanan, loaners, those that put themselves out for hire; literally sons of the little men, i.e. the sidh (which, see). Confers with mickey, a term applied to Roman Catholics, especially those of Irish background. The OED Supp. lists mick (1856) but this is predated by "Mickey" in the Carleton (N.B.) Sentinal, 5/7/1850. Mick is still applied in derogatory fashion to Irishmen; confluent with the ME. miche, a truant, a pilferer, a sneak, a skulk, a way-layer. See Creighton's Bluenose Magic (p. 104) for an example of the use of this word in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. MIKUMWEES, MEGGUMOOWESOOS The Wabenaki equivalent elsewhere as elfs, sigh or fairies. of the earth-spirits known

Abenaki, Micmac dialect, the little people, "dwellers under stone." A native informant explained that they “live in caves or burrow in the ground.” (They are) "beautiful and strong, flute-players whose music enchants. Male and female, they appear to humans lost in the woods. They are thought to have once been people, having become through Power, the ultimate realization of human potential. Time runs differently in a mikumesu wigwam: one night with them and a year has passed in the camps of the People.” It was always guessed that the little people were “human beings but very small (averaging perhaps 2-3 feet).” Men said that they sometimes hear their feet moving across the forest floor on warm summer days although they were typically invisible. “They generally remain quiet during the day but come ouit at night to do mischief and perform wonderful deeds.”

It was advised that people who offended them should immediately cross water as themikumwees did not like to get their feet wet. All of the wee folk had a slanted sense of humour and liked to approach people who were at work in order to filch some needed tool. When the individual had become stretched thin with trying to find the needed implement, the thief restored it to plain sight, thereby creating great embarassment and a source of laughter. Stones found piled together in the forest were sometimes taken to be the dwelling places of these creatures. When they were disassembled they were invariably found back in cairn-form when men next passed that way. Nearby, careful observers usually spotted many tiny footprints often leading to a cavern or a cleft rock. Those who encountered the little people said that they were able to follow their hosts into these small places, apparenntly by having their size reduced. Friends of this race sometimes travelled in their tiny canoes after a miraculous reduction in size. Upon leaving one of their canoes a human was immediately returned to more usual size. These were first creations of Kluscap, and their progenitor was Marten, who lived in the underground with Kluscap and the Great Bear Woman. He was present at the creation of the first man and woman and suggested they be named Ash and Elder after the trees from which their spirits were liberated. Like all of his kind he was exceptionally intelligent and a subtle orator. When the Great Bullfrog Man threatened a source of drinking water, Kluscap called Marten to his side in hopes of settling the issue. This was one case where the intellect of the mikumwees failed for the animal continued to drink up water as Marten lectured him. Perhaps tiring of the flow of speech Bullfrog Man swallowed Marten whole and would have digested him if Kluscap had not lost his temper and beat the creature across the back with his staff. At that Bullfrog Man disgourged the little man and the valuable water, and was afterwards magically reduced to his present size. The injury to the frog's back renmains in all his descendants. The mikumwees did not often live in close communication with one another, and had little to do with the Lnuk, or normal people of the Micmac world. All of their kind were mentou, or shape-changers, possessing an ability to move instantaneously between the worlds. In addition, they were buoinaq, having knowledge of the healing powers of herbs and the flute. Finally most could generate kinap, or great physical power, and any of these three would have been enough to set them apart. Those who could heal, also

had the power to destroy, and many mortal buoinaq were driven from their homes, or were killed or left behind, out of fear, jealousy, revenge, or as a simple insurance policy against their future behaviour. The fact that they could call and control the dangerous horned serpent people with their "ashwhistles" did little to convince people that they were non-violent. Like the witch, the mikumwess camped in the midst of the oldest forest, taking a genuine interest in men who were outsiders. Kluscap considered the little people beings of superior virtue and rewarded his favourite men with the means to becoming one of this tribe: "Kluscap combs this young man's hair, and then ties it up with "sakklopi", the hair-string of Power. The hair-string changes the young man, changes him into mi'kumwesu. Kluscap has given him Power. The mikumwees are not considered an extinct species. According to Wilfred Prosper, a member of the Eskasoni band in Cape Breton, a friend named Noel entertained a party of these little men in 1975. He might not have been approached except for the fact that he was a "bull-beer" brewer, who lived in a remote place to better avoid the attention of the law. He was alone in his wood's-camp when "six of them came in. And Noel he told me exactly where they sat, one sat there, and one on the table. Some sat on the bed, some on the stool." "Little people," Noel explained, "were all bout me and they were talking although I couldn't understand a word they were saying. I'd heard if you were confronted with these folk, you should give them something. All I had was cookies, so *I gave them cookies...It wasn't too long they went along their merry way...but my God, I was scared by them, scared to death. And someone came in to deliver oil or something, and I was so damn glad..." Because of their mutual interest in collecting and singing old hymns translated from English into the Micmac dialect, Noel and Wilfred went seeking music from an elderly man living on the Restigouche River. While there, they were invited to visit an Indian community on the Gaspe and to view the fairy mountain near the Mission St. Luke. To set the scene, their guide explained that "This is farming country. There are some very big farms there, and they have horses and cattle. And these fairies used to harrass the animals to the point where some of them died. Some of the horses had died. And in the morning the farmers go and tend to the animals and find them full of sweat..And some of them had died. Mostly horses. And their tails would be all braided. And their manes and everything. They'd be

running wild and like nervous and everything. So they contacted the bishop or priest that ca,e down with a cross. You'll see that, you'll see the cross still up there." At the actual site the host pointed out deep scars on the face of the hill. "see those marks coming down, like little brooks? Thos are put there by the fairies when they used to slide down. There's the cross that the priest put up. After they put the cross up there, that put an end to it. No more fairies. No more harassment, no more nothing." MIMKITAWOQUSK One of mikumwees made visble by a covering of moose-wood. Abenaki, Micmac dialect, moose-wood man (Acer pennsylvanicum). Moosewood is the straight-growing wood used to make the hoop which encloses and binds the central poles of a wigwam. Pipe-stems were made from smaller shoots. See mikumwees. The moosewood tribe is remembered for gifting men with a potent all-round medicine made of steeped moosewood leaves. MISTER LUCKY The thinly disguised elemental god Loki. Anglo-Saxon, maegister perhaps from the Latin magnus, great in power. Confers with maestro, magister, magistrate, magnitude, mayor, magician, master, mister, mistress, mickle. Note also these words: mag, a chatterbox, to chat or chatter; magg, to steal or mangle beyond usefulness, to wear out with extreme use; magastromancy, divination with reference to the stars. + luk, possibly related to the German geluk, to entice (usual into an evil deed). Luck is still considered any chance happening for good or evil; formerly, any omen or portent. Similar to the Anglo-Saxon locen, to lock in place (seal one's fate.) and to loce. to bend or twist in various directions; from this, a lock of hair (grasped by the serf in the presence of his master.), a bunch of wool, cotton, flax, usually tag ends as opposed to that of first quality; also loch, water enclosed by land and ultimately the Gaelic god Lugh and the Norse god Loki. The latter is considered the ultimate contrinver of discord and mischief, An elemental god and one-time member of Odin's Aesir he was an adroit, cunning, ambitious, shape- and sex-changing prankster. He contrived the death of Odin's favourite son and was tracked dowm by Thor and bound in the underworld.

He has been promised freedom at the twilight of the gods when it is expected he will lead the his host in the final battle between good and evil. While is practically immobile his daughter Hel was said to represent his interests on earth. Referrred to as Mister Lucky because of his numerous brushes with and escapes from the law of the gods. The equivalent of the Hebrew Satan and by juxtaposition the Devil of our own mythology. Sometimes identified locally as Mister Man or more simply as The Man. The name Loki corresponds exactly with the Latin Lucas, the French Luc and the English Luke, hence we also have reference to Mister or Master Luke, but more frequent notice is given Luke's Summer, sometimes distinguished as Saint Luke's Summer (saint being intended to signify a person with a religious occupation, either good or evil in its effects on men.) In the past, luke was slang for nothing and is the a cousin of looker (Loki was supposed to have been attractive in apperance.) This god lusted after gold, thus lucre, any reward or gain in money or gooods. Saint Luke's Summer is better known as Indian Summer and is a period in autumn or early winter, characterized by clear skies masked by a hazy or smoky atmosphere near the horizon. The occurence is typically in October or very early November in America. In England, where it occurs in November, it is sometimes designated Saint Martin's Summer or the Mart Summer after Saint Martin's day (November 1). Saint Luke's Day (October 18) was never a formal Christian holiday but usually fell near "Saint Luke's little summer in fall." It has been said that "no shrines were ever erected to honour the god of subterranean fire" but he has been remembered longer than some of the more virtuous gods. To understand Loki's connection with these lazy hazy days of post-summer it has to be reemembered that Odin controlled the north winds that brought sleet and snow, but Loki was the south wind: "Loki, the south wind, brings back the seed or the swallow, both precursors of the returning spring." This might seem an innocent piece of work but remember that Loki tended to excess? He was thus the personification of heat lightning and his presence led to the moisture, heat, misery and bad temper of sullen mid-summer days. MISTPUFFER A sea-spirit chiefly characterized as a noisemaker. Anglo-Saxon, mist; Middle English, puf, a blow. These are mentioned in

an early issue of “Nature,” after George H. Darwin, the son of Charles, wrote enquiring if readers were familiar the mistpouffers or “Barsil Guns.” He wrote the magazine in October of that year defining them as “dull sounds, more or less resembling distant artillery,” and says his attention was drawn to them by a letter from a the conservator of the Museum of natural History in Belgium. M. van der Broeck wrote that “certain curious or aeriel or subterranean detonations, which are pretty commonly heard in Belgium and the north of France, and are doubtless a general phenomena although little known. People wrongly imagine them to be the sounds of distant artillery.” Darwin consulted a colleague with the geological survey who added that they were frequently heard on the coast of Belgium, being called “mistpouffers,” as they were thought tom dissipate fog. M. Rutot testified that ten of his acquaintences had heard the noises, “...detonations, dull and distant and repeated a dozen times or more at irregular intervals. They are usually heard in the day-time when the sky is clear, and especially towards evening after a very hot day/ The noise does not at all resemble artillery, blasting in mines, or the growling of distant thunder.” NM. Broeck thought that the discharge might be that of atmospheric electricity, buut Rutot said the noise was more likely to come from the earth’s crust. A request for reader response led to the information that the noises were also heard at Dartmoor, England, in parts of Scotland, Western Australia, India, and in America, as well as on ships at sea. Approximately twenty years later the “Monthly Weather Review,” noted that the Japanese called these sounds “uminari” and reported them routinely to the central weather bureau. Mr. T. Terada noted that, “These oceanic noises are distinctly audible at sea or a few miles inland from the coast,” although he said they were rarely heard on the headlands. “They resemble the rumbling of a heavy wagon passing over an uneven road or crossing a bridge.” Terada thought that these sounds were reflections of wave noise propogated simultaneouly through air and earth. In June of 1896, the “Scientific American” published a letter about Mistpuffers as observed “from the Candian east coast.”: “These detonations are also heard best in calm summer weather. There is also a very good correlation between the sounds heard on the very deep Kennebecasis (Bay) and the Barsil Guns, which were related by Shurr to the deep depressions in the Ganges delta...Everyone who has been much upon our Charlotte County coast must remember that upon the still summer days, when the heat hovers upon the ocean, what seems to be gun, or even cannon

reports are heard at intervals coming from the seaward. The residents always say, “Indians shooting porpoise off Grand Manan.” This explanation I never believed, the sound ofg a gun report would not come that far, and besides the noise is of too deep and booming a character. Mr. Samuel W. Kain, secretary of the Natural History Society of St. John, N.B., has written to us that these local noises, and the “Barisal guns,” and “mist pouffers,” were discusssed at a meeting of the society. A letter was read from Edward Jack, C.E., stating that he had heard these peculiar sounds on Passamaquoddy Bay years ago. It was also announced that a similar phenomena occurs in warm days of summer on the Kennebecasis, a lake like affluent of the St. John River, of great depth and about seven miles from the city of St. John. This has been observed by several competent observers. The secretary also read a letter from Captain Bishop, of the schooner Susie Prescott, stating that similar sounds were heard on warm days between Grand Manan and Mount Desert Rock.”

MOODUS The land-based Connecticut. noise-making spirit of East Haddam,

Wagunk, moodus, “noise.” East Haddam, a few miles below Middletown on the Connecticut River, was originally called Mooehemoodus, “the place of the noises.” “these shocks are generally perceived in the neighbouring towns, and sometimes at a great distance. They begin with a trembling of the earth and a rumbling noise nearly resembling the discharge of a haevy cannon at a distance. Sometimes three or four follow each other in quick succession, and in this case the first is the most powerful.” In the town itself, the noise appears to issue from the northwest corner, where it has been observed that the ground was repeatedly struck by lightning. A Mr. Hosmer, on site in 1729, said that the sound was “intermediate between the roar of a cannon and the noise of a pistol. The concussions made to the earth is the same as the falling of logs on the floor. The smaller shocks produced no emotion of terror or fear in the minds of the inhabitants. They are spoken of as a usual occurrence, and are called Moodus notes, but when they are so violent as to be heard in the adjacent towns, they are called earthquakes.” The Indians of Connecticut chose Machemoodus as a spiritual gathering

place because of the "earth music" they heard there. The name means "place of sounds" and has been shortened to "Moodus". The Wangunk Indians suspected that the bear-like growlings which they heard at this location were gods breathing from the caverns of the earth. The phenomena is lived with on a daily basis by residents who describe the effects as ranging from the sounds of corks popping from champagne bottles to the rush of a cavalry at full charge. Whatever the intensity, from light popping sounds to the snsation that the bottom of the feet are In our century, scientists have been puzzled by cannonades of high intensity sound that appeared, seemingly without cause, along the eastern coast. At first it was assumed that these were due to the after-shocks of jet-aircraft breaking the sound barrier, but it was later shown that there were no crossings of airplanes in the places where these noises occured. It was finallly decided that these were also "moog sounds." We are not sure that science has eliminated spirits as a source of these noises, since these are the rumbles and thunders and creakings of the moving earth as it stretches across its tectonic plates. Actually such noises occur from time to time in all kinds of locations and are due to minor earthquakes along faults. Most faults are deeply seated and the sound is generated too far from the surface to carry to the ears of men. The Moodus quakes are noisier than most because theyoriginate with very shallow breaks in the crust (the average fault is six to nine miles in depth). The Moodus movements do not lose their voice, and the overlying rock in the regions where they are heard is a good conductor of sound. Since the town is located between two nuclear power plants residents have shown more anxiety about the integrity of these buildings than with the general effects of quakes which constantly juggle their dishes in the pantry.mistpuffer, whose effects are sometimes referred to as the Barsil guns. Legend has it that ”a numerous tribe of cannibals” once inhabited East Haddam in colonial times. They were infamous for worshipping an evil spirit hoping to appease his wrath. These folk claimed that, “the Indian god was angry because the English god had intruded upon him, and these were expressions of his displeasure.” According to an article in the “American Journal of Science,” (1840) the trouble commenced in 1790 when a European named Steele came to the community and told his landlord that he sought a “fossil carbuncle,” which he later brought home after several nights of mining. Mr. Knowlton, who boarded Steele, said that he was shown “a white round substance resembling a stone in the light but remarkably luminous in

the dark.” It was noticed that the illuminating power of the stone was so great that it caused “cold fire” in the house itself, an illumination “perceived at a great distance.” The morning after this happening, Mr. Steele wrapped the mineral in sheet lead and left for Europe. While he visited with Knowlton, Steele said that this substance was the cause of Moodus sounds. Their occurence was followed by changes in temperature and rainfall. Steele supposed that the sounds were emitted by the stones still in situ as their crystalline structures abraded one another due to the differing amounts of water they contained. Frank Osterwald thought that the sounds were due to underground rockbursts, “the sudden violent failure of masses of rocks in quarries, tunnels and mines,” events accompanied by “shocks, rock falls, and air concussions.” In mining regions, rock bursts are also called outbursts, bumps, pillar bursts, pounces etc. This idea is somewhat belied by the fact that some of the noises have been perceived “at regular intervals since colonial days,” when deep-pit mining was not widespread in North America. In 1940 the “Buffalo Evening News,” guessed that “the mysterious Moodus has returned. At irregular intervals since colonial times, this region (Connecticut) has been shaken by sharp earth shocks and dull booming sounds... Shortly before midnight the sounds came agian. Loud rumblings were heard and houses trembled. Townspeople awakened. There was no damage...” MOON CUSSER A spirit commited to destroying sailors and their craft. Anglo-Saxon, mona, the moon; confers with the Gaelic samani, an assembly, and samhuinn, summer-end and sam, summer, from Samh, the pagan moon-goddess. Note that the Mani of Old Norse mythology was male and that he was accompanied in the sky by Hiuki, the waxing, and Bil, the waning moon; two foster-children snatched from the grasp of an earthly father who overworked them. These two were the equivalent of Jack and Jill as represented in the old nursery rhyme, and our ancestors contended they saw the water-pail carried by these twins faintly outlined on the moon. Hence, the local idea that the moon is the source of tides which were anciently thrown out from this pail. When the cusps (pointed ends) of the moon were up it was said that there would be little rain as "the moon holds

water. + Middle English, curser, one who calls upon the gods to injure others; secondarily, a fellow or beast who is contemptuous or below an open slight. Anciently, perhaps, men who called upon the moon-goddess to create dangerous tides in shaoler water. Comapre with wrackers. As it happens the ancients were entirely correct in supposing that there was a relationship between the spirit of the moon and that of the ocean. We still speak of "a bad moon rising" (see the magazine "Discover" for March 1993) and see the dangers of being "moonstruck" as real possibilities. In the past century the greatest storm that ever struck the Maritime Provinces came ashore on the night of October 4, 1869. Interestingly, it had been predicted by Lieutenant S.M. Saxby, an irregular with the Royal Navy in a letter to the London "Standard" on December 24, 1868. In part, he wrote, "I now beg to state with regard to October 5th, the moon will be at that part of her orbit which is nearest the earth. Her attraction will therefore be at its maximum force. At noon that same day the moon will be on the earth's equator, a circumstance that never occurs without marked atmospheric disturbance, and at 2 p.m. of the same day the moon's attraction and the sun's attraction will be acting in the same direction...and nothing more threatening can occur...Therefore the tides can be at their highest and the wind and tide damage may result in the greatest destruction..." Saxby extended a second "warning to mariners" in September of the following year and this notice was taken up by a Halifax meteorologist who passed the information on to the local public in the "Morning Chronicle." The British Admiralty gave extra force to the warnning by advising its men working in the Halifax Dockyard to prepare for storm on the predicted date. As it happened, Saxby was on the money, and a hurricane beat its way into the Bay of Fundy, the eye crossing St. Stephen, New Brunswick about midnight on the day before Christmas. In Charlotte County sixty-seven vessels were driven ashore before the storm blew itself out in York County. Saxby was not universally believed but Bob Berman, who runs Outlook Observatory in up-state New York, is of a like mind and in 1993, he wrote: "A celestial chain of coincidences begins when March's full moon lands on the very day that the moon comes closest to the earth. Such alignments happen infrequently, since the 29.5-day cycle of lunar phase doesn't march step with the 27.5-day interval between close approaches. There';s more: the moon's orbit changes shape, depending on the relative positions-and gravitational pull-of the sun and Earth. Sometimes it's more circular; at other times more elongated. This month the orbit distorts to maximum

eccentricity." "This stretched out lunar orbit will push the moon to an anomaously great distance from Earth on March 21, a distance that won't be surpassed until 1998. But the real show-stopper is the strangely close lunar approach, or perigee, two weeks earlier. On the night of March 7, between midnight and dawn, the two surfaces of our two worlds will pass barely 216,000 miles apart." "And there's still more. Perigee occurs at 9 a.m. Greenwich mean time, while the full moon arrives at 9:47. So, as another bonus, full moon and the most extreme perigee come not just on the same night but les than an hour apart. (Now) tides vary with the cube of distance, if the moon ventured 3 times nearer its tidal pull would be 27 times stronger...That's why the sun, 400 times more distant than the moon exerts less than half the lunar effect even though it's 27 million times heavier." "Sincy brawny "spring tides" (which have nothing to do with the season; the word comes from the German "springen", "to rise up") occur at evry full moon this bull's-eye combination of full moon and extreme perigee will cook up extraordinary tides. They even have their own Scrabble-friendly name "proxigean." History has shown a disquieting correlation betweeen astronomical conditions and costal flooding. The proxigean spring tides on March 8 will be dramatic. High tide will climb far up the beach while low tide will expose areas normally submerged. If there's a storm at sea or strong onshore winds that day-we can expect impressive costal damage. Even an the air pressure can be important, since oceans behave like the pool of mercury in a barometer. A 1-inch barometer drop will raise the seas 13 inches." 14 The mooncussers may have cursed the moon for any inadvertant light it threw on their activities, but it may be supposed that they noticed these connections between the moon, the sun, weather and the sea, and a few of them may have been capable of "bringing off a good shipwreck" through simple observations of nature. In a "good shipwreck", the title to flotsam and jetsam was made absolutely clear by the loss of all hands on board. In cases where there were survivors, the mooncussers and wreckers sometimes found it necessary to assist the forces of Rann and her sea14Berman,

"Bad Moon Rising" in Discover, March (1993), p. 90.

spirits by murdering the few unfortunates who stumbled ashore. It was, of course, preferable (in their eyers) that the sea-hag would make a clean sweep, carrying away all of the living from the face of the waters. MOSS FOLK Mortal spirits of the marsh, forest and bush-lands. Anglo-Saxon mos, a marshy placer, especially a peat bog. + folc, people organized tribally but not nationally. Former word confers with mire, mud and muscoid. Also known as the wild, wood, timber, forest, bush or fern people. They sometimes lived together in remote places, but often resided alone. They were small in stature, but somewhat larger than the elf, being perhaps three to four feet in height. All of their kind were greycompl;exioned, old-looking, hairy and dressed in moss or plant foilage. Except during the spring and summer they lived in the deep woods. The woman, who were more placid than the men, sometimes obtained cloth in trade with men. In this case they appeared dressed in green clothing lined with red, wearing cocked hats (Robin Hood style) decorated with feathers. Males and females were ruled by the bush-grandmother, the eldest among them. Most of the women raised their children in patches of Spanish moss, or Old Man's Beard, high up in the trees. In Europe they were often spoken of as the quarry of Odin's Hunt. My ancestors at Bonny River were always involved with the timbertrade on the Maguaguadavic River, which is just next door to Lake Utopia, the haunt of our most publicized sea-serpent. They knew of the moss maidens who insisted that men should refrain from needlessly destroying trees by stripping their bark. They often came to men who slept in the forest offering to interpret their dreams. If they were given bread baked with carroway seeds these little women might exchange their knowledge of the healing properties of plants. They were expert knitters, spinners and weavers and would often roll down a ball of yarn from the trees to favour women who had befriended them. It was well to accept this yarn as each ball had a magical "twist" which allowed it to be used for more projects than seemed possible. In the fall they assembled at the homes of men asking some part in the fall baking, washing and hay-making, expecting dough "the size of a half mill stone" in return for their efforts. Woodsmen used to cut three crosses on trees which were to be hewn. When the stumps were all that remained the moss-folk used them as places of refuge to escape the cannibalistic woods-whooper.

A man from the community of Flume Ridge, New Brunswick, was travelling south through the forest when he met a tiny woman struggling along with a wheelbarrow which had a split hub. Being a blacksmith, he offered to amke repairs with bronze. He carried the little barrow to his shop, renovated it with metal and gave it back to the moss-woman. She was exceedingly grateful, but the smith was amused when she "paid him" by filling his hands with wood chips. So as not to offend her he placed the chips in his pocket, but when she was out of sight threw them into the grass. He went back to work dismissing the incident, but at home discovered that one of the chips had become threaded into his pocket lining and had turned to gold. By kerosene lantern, the blacksmith and his wife made careful examination of the tall grass around his shop, and were afterwards counted as wealthy citizens of the community of Bonny River. MOTHER CARY The goddess-spirit of the upper air, the mate of the Norse wind god Kari, often said incaranate in the European Storm Petrel. Also seen as Mother Carey, anciently Mother Kari. Note Mother Cary's Buring Ground an ancient Indian burial site on the Old Meadow Road within Kejemukjik Park, central Nova Scotia. The Norse god Kari is unknown in Atlantic Canada but Mother Carey's Chickens are common spirits of the region. Mother Carey is, of course, the consort of the old elemental known as Kari. Some men have suggested that "seagulls are the souls of dead sailors", but they are actually runners, and Mother Carey's "chickens" are not seagulls but the less common Leach's Petrel. My grandfather, Chester Guptill, of Grand Harbour, Grand Manan, knew that the "chickens" could be consulted to determine the weather. He said that the oldest birds were the ones to watch and when one planned on going to sea it was hoped that they would be relatively inactive. When they flew in a sluggish dispersed pattern sunny weather lay ahead, but when they began to fly in close circles wind storms were expected. Grandfather said that these birds flew in the quadrant of the sky from which wind might be expected to blow, except when they ventured over land, in which case a westerly breeze was ahead. When the birds flew close to the water in open circles nothing of great moment was expected, but the higher they flew, and the closer the members of the flock, the greater the danger to men and

boats. Ornithologist Robie Tufts says that Storm Petrels generally "nest on islands in the northeastern Atlantic...Although it has been recorded a number of times in the western Atlantic all North American records of sightings have proven inconclusive." Roger Tory Peterson confirmed the presence of a single bird at Ungava, Labrador. Few winds cross the Atlantic against the prevailing south westerlies, so that most of our strange petrels and shearwaters may be considered "accidentals", blown our way on hurricanes that originate in the West Indies. The petrel which does breeds and reside in our region is not the Storm Petrel but Leach's Petrel an eight inch sea-bird, sooty brown in colour with dark grey wing coverts, a white rump and a forked tail. Tufts says that these are the birds locally known as "careys". Like the members of the crow family petrels were not universally liked since they often dropped excrement on house-tops. While this is no longer a problem, the faeces used to be washed by rainwater into barrels used to obtain and store drinking and bathing water. Lightkeepers discouraged them by keeping cats which ravaged their nesting burrows. The period of nesting is the only time when this oceanic bird is found on land, and that is usually between June and September. A resident of Riverport, Nova Scotia explained that: "Every time a sailor drowns he takes (his external soul moves to) the soul of one of the birds at Ironbound (island). This bird is sort of like the Stormy Petrel or Carey's Chicken. The people (in this vicinity) will not disturb the birds because that would disturb the souls." This belief varies regionally; at Peggy's Cove a seaman identified gulls as "Carey's Chickens" and in Cornwall, England, it is suggested that "the souls of old sea-captains never sleep; they are turned into gulls and albatrosses." Elsewhere in Britain it is guessed that the souls entrapped in petrels find no rest until the death of the bird. In many cases, birds have been observed as the befind or follower of individuals, and as such, appear as the forerunners of these people immediately before their death. The relationship between the spirits of the air and those of the water has always been close. As Helen Creighton notes: "The wind always comes in with the tide." In Norse mythology the wind god Kari was considered one of the triad of elemental-gods, his brothers being Loki, the god of underground fire, and Hler, god of the sea. The voracious goddess Rann, the consort of Hler would be the equivalent of Mother Kari. According to the old tales the

sea-deities had nine beautiful daughters known as the "waeg" or waves, "a very moody and carpricious bunch." They only "came out to play" when the wind-god, or a related spirit, was present. Usually the sea goddesses were gentle and playful but sometimes this foreplay became a rough and boisterous mating of water and wind with unforseen consequences on ships at sea.

MOTHER RAW A bogie-woman bound to remote mountainous places. Anglo-Saxon, moodor + hraaew perhaps from the Gaelic creo, a wound. Confers wiuth crude and cruel. Alternate maeanings include uncooked flesh, unmfinished, disagreeable, damp, cold, chilly, bleak. J. D. A. Widdowson has noted that this "fairy" is found in Newfoundland where she "prevents children from climbing a dangerous mountain." He says that Jack o"Lantern keeps them out of the woods while Henry Gouldwoody lurks on the barrens. See Widdowson's article "The Function of Threats in Newfoundland Folklore." MUIN WAPSKWA, MUINISKW The “white bear woman.” Micmac, the “bear-squaw.” An albino black bear. After Glooscap eliminated his brother it is said that he lived alone upon the land for seven times seven moons, until there came to him others of his own race, in particular the Muiniskw, or Bear Woman, who corresponds exactly with the Winter Hag or Cailleach Bheurr of Gaelic myth. It was often said that both these individuals were “born of the sea foam,” and it was sometimes contended that Glooscap came to land out of the eastern ocean rather than from the moon. In either instance, Micmac mothers used to consider it their first duty to dip a newborn child in sea-water, thus dedicating him to the god Glooscap. The bear woman was always obliquely addressed by the People as “our grandmother.” It was said that in the latter days “she could hardly move, and was old and blind.” This winter-woman is like the Macha of the Mhorrigan triune, but she is also that more youthful woman: “(She was) A woman of long ago who came out of a hole in the ground. She made her house in a tree

and dressed in leaves. In times past she walked alone singing, “I want company, I am lonesome; and far away a wild man heard her...” Her relationship with Glooscap was never definitely stated, but when he departed from the northeastern coast it was said that he regenerated her in the form of a maiden named Oona, and cast a blanket of forgetfulness over her, so that she was able to continue her life in a normal fashion. Once, enemies invaded the camp of her People causing most of them to flee. Being blind and stiff of joint she remained and was mistreated. After a short time, the mistress of magic reformed herself as a white bear lying “dead” at the edge of the encampment. The invaders finding this easy source of fresh meat and grease carved her up and ate her. The newcomers were dead in the space between dawn and evening. Eating uncooked bear meat can be a painful experience as their livers sometimes contain trichina worms, which burrow from the human stomach out into the muscles and joints. Of more concern is the liver, which concentrates amounts of vitamin A which are fatal when consumed by men. The Scottish kelpies, the water-horses of inland lakes and streams might have had this same problem with the people they ate, but they always had the sense to discard the liver! MUTCHIGNIGOS An island perceived as having an evil spirit. There are tens of thousands of islands in Atlantic Canadian waters, and in the Penobscot language they were distinguished by the presence, or lack, of the absentive case. Generally, the ending menahan, “island” indicated “a weak (inanimate) noun,” and a place of little hazard (although that condition was always open to change without notice). An example of an island with this ending is Cheemanahn, “Big Island.” Islands prefixed with some form of the word naghem which also means “island,” were known to be shape-changers, and capable of generating phenomena that were, at least, likely to be unnerving. For example we have: Mutchignigos, loosely, “Bad Island.” Another would be Kasoonaguk, “Crane Island,” now called Mark Island, standing off Camden, Maine. In other days it was considered wise to avoid this landfall. By contrast Pitaubegwimenahanuk. the “Island that Lies Between Two Channels,” now a part of the town of Islesboro, Maine, was considered spiritually neutral. The letter M’ prefixed to any word identifies the noun as the personal property of the Penobscot god Glusgenbeh, thus we have M’dangamak, “Glooscap’s snowshoes,” an early name for Dice’s

Island near Castine, Maine. Near the lighthouse on that island there used to be marks engraved in a rock ledge which the Penobscots identified as those left by this heavy creature when he leaped across Penobscot Bay in pursuit of a giant moose. These prints in stone were greatly venerated by the Indians, but the white settlers destroyed them as pagan artifacts. Champlain came to Muttoneguis or Muttonegwenigosh , an island in the Saint Croix River, one with a warning buried in its name. The Indians stored their goods there, but did not live there, not only out of a sense of taboo but also because it was known to stand amidst shifting cakes of ice all winter long. Champlain had been a proponent of island life for intending settlers, noting the advantages of security from attack by Indians and wild animals. A few years later, speaking with hindsight, Marc Lescarbot noted, “whoever intends to take possession of a country will never succeed if they imprison themselves upon an island. There are not many comforts on an island, often no drinking water and no wood or other household needs.” These were not the sole problems for the inhabitants many have been harried by the resident spirit for they suffered joint pains, lost teeth and bleeding gums and a general draining of vigour. This has since been diagnosed as scurvy due to a lack of vitamin C, but the malignant epidemic would have been just as severe had the French known its name. The winter of 1604 was very difficult. For starters, the buildings were not well insulated, for the wine and beer froze and fresh water could not be thawed from the limited snowfall. When spring arrived thirty five of the original seventy-nine visitors were dead and twenty more were at the point of death. When the enterprise was transferred to Port Royal for the next winter things were a bit better but twelve men died of the same disease. This is unfortunate as the remedy stood all about them in the leaves of the balsam fir. These have a high vitamin C content and were boiled by the Indians to create a prophylactic drink against this disease.

MUMMER NATHAIR An immortal Celtic god-spirit of the upper air, destructive fraction of the athair who the Norse called Allfather. the the

Gaelic, n-athair (nay-ayr), a negation of father; one who is not fatherly. A serpent, the Gaelic devil. Similar to the Cymric neidr and the Cornish nader (from which the family name Nader.) The Brythonic form was azr and the Latin natrix, a water-snake. Norse nathr, confering with the English adder. Corresponds with the West Wind of Indian myth, the creature in opposition to the East Wind, or Michabo, the creator-god of the Wabenaki. The antagonist of the Allfather. The male leader of the "Unsely Court" (see Uruisg), also called the Host or Wild Hunt. The remote dweller in the unmoveable pole-star, who had a female equivalent in the Cailleach Bheur (which, see). The Gaels were at odds with the Anglo-Saxons, who proudly referred to themselves as the "Coiled Serpent People", so the Nathair was perhaps their god Wuotan. Resembles the local Woods-whooper (which see). This Gaelic god resembles the continental Dispater, who Caesar listed as one of the six most often worshipped in Gaul. "Pater" is a Latin word for father and "dis" is a prefix having the same meaning as the English "bis", "duo" and "bi", which is "two". Dispater identified a spirit of two minds, one constructive like the Oolaithair, the other a damaging force. At best, the prefix is preserved to suggest separation as: "dismiss, disperse, distribute" and "dissuade", at worst it is a negation: "disable, disaster, discord, disease". Caesar said that all the Gauls claimed descent from Dispater, but failed to notice that this god had an alter-ego. Ward Rutherford equates him with Cernunnos or Kernow, but the latter is clearly a low-grade earth-spirit rather than an aspect of the creator-god. The nathair was such as the one which Nova Scotia: "as big outsized snakes from mainland. One observer NATHAIR MARA The Gaelic sea-serpent Gaelic, nathair, serpent; Old Irish, nathir, Welsh, neidr, Cornish, nader, Middle Brythonic, azr, Latin, natrix, a water snake. Confers with the English particularly associated with huge black land-snakes Neil McNeil said frequented Red Rock, Cape Breton, around as a flour barrel". Others have reported MacNutt's Island off the southern shore of the commented "They're rare big black ones..."

adder. + marasgal, master. Possibly related to marc, a horse and certainly to mor, great and muir, the sea. Refer to sea-serpent and notice Helen Creighton's report that Maritime seamen do not like to dream of horses. Lowland forms were the the nuckalavee and the nuck (which, see).

NESSA The oceanic and estuarine sea-snake or sea-serpent. Anglo-Saxon naes, nose, referring to the fact that its head had this predominant feature. Also know as the neck from another prominent characteristic. Possibly related to the Old Gaelic ness, a wound from its voraciuous appetite. The nessa did not differ substantially from the nicca, or nicks (which see), but were generally seen as the young of the species, having less length and girth, and thus found coasting closer the land, even entering lochs or embayments. The Loch Ness Monster Nessie is representative of this class of creatures. See nuckalavee, nick, sea-serpent etc. A classic sighting of a ness was made by the entire crew of the schooner Madagascar just before it docked to load coal at Lubec , Maine on the morning of July 28, 190l. The ship was moving through the Bay of Fundy at eight knots when the watch warned of an object in the water, which at first appeared to be a floating log. Within "a sea-buscuit" of the object, sailors were astonished to see this apparently inanimate object raise a snake like head and glide sinuously away from the ship. The crew all agreed that the animal was snake-like thirty feet in length and covered with scales, which refracted light so that parts appeared green and other areas brown. There were spinal points all along the back and a huge dorsal fin just below the head; this was thick, dark in colour, and about the size of a man's hand. The body was estimated to have a diameter of two feet, tapering slightly beyond the head and drastically toward the tail. The men watched it for a half hour as it made "fast skipping motions" through the water. Edward Ray told "The Saint Croix Courier" of Saint Stephen, New Brunswick, that he had been a seaman for nine years and had never seen anything on or in the sea that looked like this animal. Asked if it might be

feasible to trap the creature, Ray guessed that it would be dangerous to attempt this or to injure it with a harpoon. The "Saint Andrews Beacon" reported a similar sighting, August 2, 1906. This time the serpent was seen very near land by Theobold Rooney the keeper of Sand Reef Light. This man supposed that the monster had been drawn into shallower water following a school of herring. After a fast entry into the approaches of Saint Andrew's harbour, the serpent put about and moved slowly away in the direction of Clam Cove. Rooney said the animal was twenty-five to thirty feet in length, and the diameter of a large weir stake. The keeper said he might have taken it for a shark, but it lacked a dorsal fin and kicked up a whale-like tail before diving out of sight. Having heard of these sightings the naturalist-historian William F. Ganong came to the area to assess their validity: "For the past few summers the local papers have often reported the appearance of seaserpents at Passamaquoddy and the Saint Croix (River). The animal is really there but is according to testimony of observant persons, a White Whale...Locally it is stated that it came into the Bay of Fundy with war-ships during the Champlain selebrations, June 25, 1905...the animal was also seen in the bay at least one season before 1905." If this was a whale it was a very emaciated example! NICK An adult sea-serpent. Anglo-Saxon nick, also known as the knicky-ben. Most references suggest that the source of the word is obscure but we think it is the nikkur, ninnir, or Hnikur of Norse myth, the last being the Eddaic name of Odin when he takes the form of a sea-creature. Akin to nock, both indicating something notched or slit and perhaps referring to the mouth of the creature. Either word may indicate an animal showing good physicalcondition, breeding which produces virile offspring. On the negative side, "to nick" is to strike out and bit at precisely the weak point in enemy defenses, to catch off guard, and by extension, to cheat, defraud, outrun, or somehow break another individual. Also to deny or nay-say. Thomas Keightley has said that, "The Thames, the Avon, and other English streams never seem to have been the abode of the neck." This is because these souhern rivers are shallow, and the nicks preferred the room offered by the deep fjords. The nick has been characterized as having two horns on its head, making it an obvious relation of wiwilameq and the jipjakimaq. Like those

creatures, the deep-sea nick has been pictured as having a triangular head on a long neck after the fashion of an ancient pllesiosaur and a body not unlike that of a seal. The earliest sighting of one of these mythical beasts in our waters occurred off Cape Breton Island in 1805 when David Lee reported seeing adark green sea-serpent passing through the water "with an impetuous noise." Twenty years later there were multiple reports from a number of ships in Halifax Harbour when one swam by on the twenty-fifth day of July. One man who saw it guessed this nick to be "as big as a tree trunk and sixty feet long." In 1833, to members of the Royal Navy at Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia, saw a beast they said resembled a common American eel, except that its long neck supported "a head six feet in length." The two thought that the total length of the animal might be eighty feet and claimed it was dark in colour, almost black with streaks of white. A very spectacular sighting was recorded by geologist J.W. Dawson from Merigomish Beach, Pictou County, Nova Scotia, in 1842. Estimated at one hundred feet in length, this serpent beached itself within two hundred feet of shore and struggled there for a full half-hour before regaining deep water. In that time it was seen by a horde of Pictonians. Some thought the head was horse-like others said it resembled a seal. The colour was black but the body surface had a mottled rough appearance. In its efforts to reach safety, the animal was seen to "bend its body almost into a circle." In 1890 a fisherman returning to Port George on Victoria Beach, Nova Scotia, spotted another "horse-headed" creature racing through the Bay of Fundy. The captain noted that "it rolled hoop-like" beside his craft, each hoop taking up thirty or forty feet of water. The crew were terrified to observe "eyes as big as saucers" and as the creature was following closely they put on more sail hoping to outrun it. Nevertheless they were trailed under threatening storm clouds as far as Prim Light. Two sister vessels made similar sightings before the weekend, but this sea-serpent was never reported afterwards. NIGHEAG NAH-ATH Another name for the Celtic banshee. Gaelic, also nighean (pronounced neeyah-e), daughter; + nathair, of the serpent, i.e. the virulant fraction of the athair or creator-god. The

equivalent of the male nathair mara. This is the lady alternately known as the bean-nighe (ban neeyah) or beansidh; which is to say, the banshee. This later word interprets as “washer woman.” This appellation is given as the lady is often seen washing blood from the shrouds of men destined to die. "They are usually represented as short and stumpy with shaggy hair. dark wrinkled faces, little deep-set eyes, but bright as carbuncles. Their voices are cracked and hollow; their hands have claws like a cat's; their feet are horny like those of a goat. They are expert smiths and coiners; they are said to have great treasures in the barrows or weems (hollow hills) in which they dwell, and of which they are regarded the builders. They dance round them by night, and wo to the belated peasant who, passing by, is forced to join in their roundal; he usually dies of exhaustion." Wedneday is their holiday, the first Wednesday in May their annual festival, which they celebrate with dancing, singing and music. They have the same aversion to holy things as the morrigan; like them they can foretell events. The nighean is always furnished with a large leathern purse, which is said to be full of gold, but those who have succeeded in wrestling it away, have found nothing better than locks of hair and a pair of scissors. These are the same sidh, or trows, who warn some men of death by appearing in the night as globes of fire or as wraiths which wail or track the path which the funeral cortege will follow from home or church to the grave.” See also morrigan, caoineag, etc.

NIGHT MARE A spirit of the air, the cause of bad dreams. Anglo-Saxon, neaht, that part of the day when the sun is below the horizon + mara, an incubus, melancholy, a hag, witch or specter. Akin to the Gaelic marc, horse and the Anglo-Saxon, meach, horse. Confers with marshal and mare, a female horse. The name commonly given a creature which has found a place in pschological literature as well as mythology. Writing of this "condition", Dr. Hufford has said, "The Old Hag (or Night Mare) refers to bad dreams usually about being chased by an evil creature, and feelings of hearing or seeing something come into the room (of a sleeper), and being pressed on the chest and nearly suffocated and being unable to move or cry out." This psychiatrist further noted that, "such experiences are more widespread than

previously thought, and probably originate consciousness, possibly related to narcolepsy."

from

altered

states

of

This spirit was termed the night mare from its habit of sitting upon the chests of people while they slept, riding them like horses as they lay dreaming. They sat upon the chest or back of the afflicted person, gripping human hair like reins on a harnesssed horse. These invisible beings sometimes materialized as cats, dogs, mice, snakes or as less easily defined creatures, varing according to the sleeper's pet fear. The huge weight of the night mare left the victim panting for breath and bathed in a night sweat. People who suffered the attentions of this monster sometimes felt they had been sexually assaulted and often found their hair lutinized so that it was difficult to untangle. The night mare is the "lutin" of the Acadian people, a beast that troubled dometic animals in precisely the same manner. Men and animals that were repeatedly ridden sickened and died of wasting diseases, notably that now called tuberculosis. The night mares were sometimes identified as unattached spirits of evil, but were alsosaid to have been projections of the Devil, a witch, a boabh or a hag. In German-speaking communities, the mare used to be called the "hagge". THis was translated in neighbouring English-speaking villages as "old hag" and the victims were sid to have been "hag-ridden". A classic case was associated with the poltergeist-ridden Hartlan House at South East Passage in Nova Scotia: "After I got to sleep there was somethin' pressing me and I couldn't wake or couldn';t turn over (for) about half an hour and, when I woke, I seen this person go from me to the windy and she was a woman with a black and white spotted dress on and I was in a latherr of sweat with water pouring off me as big as marbles. Whatever it was, a witch or not, God knows." In this instance the night mare was dissuaded from further visits by writing "nine letters from a German Bible" on a board which was placed over the doorway to the bed room. At East River Point two men managed a more ironic revenge. It was suspected that a village hag was causing the bad dreams of one resident and a second suggested that he sleep in his friend's bed to lay atrap for the night visitor. She came as usual but he was not actually asleep. "When the witch took him out to put the bridle on, he put it on her instead." Presumably he rode her through the night because, "she nver came back there again." NIWAH

The Wabenaki mermaid. Similar to the nibanaba of Lake Superior, which Anna Brownell Jameson (1838) recorded as a legendary creature of the Chipewawas, “a being half human, half fish.” “The Indians dwelling in the region between the Kennebecasis and the Saint John rivers were called Etchemins, the name first given the Saint Croix River by Champlain. The several Etchemin tribes were always closely associated. In both war and peace they acted uniformly as one. Among their noted chiefs were Bashaba the Great...; Madockawando (and his descendants) who ruled the Quoddy and Penobscot tribes for two hundred years... These salt water saghems believed themselves descended from a mermaan and the name Neptune seemed fitting for them.”15 When the French at Port Royal presented a pageant honouring the safe return of explorers from Cade Cod, they represented Father Neptune as a central figure, and by this act inadvertently honoured some of the Indian tribesmen, thus binding them to their cause. NIXE Collectively, all spirits of lakes, streams and rivers. Anglo-Saxon, feminine nix, masculine nixe, plural nixen. Similar to the German nichts, nothing, no one; nix my dolly, obselecent slang, never mind. In the U.S. Mail Service, nix, improperly addressed undeliverable mail and nix clerk, one in charge of nixes. Nixuriate, to attempt to bring forth. Small in stature, these creatures were still within the human range of height. All seemed youthful in comparison with the mature mer-people. Most of the males were described as blond, curly-haired, wearing red caps and invariably carrying a harp. Their mates were about four feet in height with irridescent hair and skin like white velvet; they always dressed in white gowns following the fashion of many of the sea-people. In humanoid form they were indistinguishable from ordinary people except that their eyes were green in colour, and their teeth fish-like in colour and shape. The nixs were adepts at shape-changing and could appear as fish, half fish, or even flowers or jewellry floating in or on a stream. The men appeared as humans, fish15Murchie,

Guy, Saint Croix The Sentinel River, (New York) 1947, pp.

66-67.

men, horse-men, horses, bulls and stallions. Like the kelpy, the nix, or nixe, made an acceptable work-horse if bound with a magical bridle. While the mer-people were apt to damage people and their property, the nixen were more often harmless tricksters. While Mr. Horace Johnston of Port Wade, Nova Scotia was serving as first mate to his brother aboard the "Vesta Pearl" in the midddle of this century, they were forced into "a little river" as it was "raining hard and blowing bad." In this situation they put down one of two sea-achors, holding back a larger anchor in case of emergency. Feeling reasonably secure the entire crew went into the cuddy to play crokinole. As they were amusing themseleves the second anchor reeled out on its steel chain. Startled the captain commented that he thought that this anchor had been made fast, and led a group of men to the deck to windlass it back to the deck. It had not been moved from the original place of storage. They had other disconcerting habits, for example at Devaneys Cove on Hackett's Cove in Nova Scotia, numerous people reported seeing a headless woman dressed in white emerge from the waters. River spirits also created the "baffling forces" which occasionally stopped ships in their track although they were under full sail at the time. On the La Have River in Nova Scotia one capotain said that he had sailed into a river under "a good breeze". Suddenly the vessel did a complete about turn in the water. The men knew the waters, and were all excellent seamen but no matter what their tack could not get the vessel much beyond the estuary until the break of day. A s one progressed upstream it was noted that the spirits of the river became less powerful and dangerous. The waterfall grims were superb fiddlers, singers and flutists, and would pass on their talents to men in exchange for a black lamb. They taught ten tunes suitable for human ears, but reserved "The Elf King's Tune", since it caused all unattached objects to break into dance.

NOGUMEE Grandmother, a term of great repect. Glooscap’s constant companion. NOSIC Also the name given

An earth spirit, the fool of quarter-day festivals often seen incarnate even in the off-season. Gaelic, nua, new, first + ass, milk; a cow's first milk. The god Nuada the twin of Lugh, the co-creators of the worlds. Discredited by Christian theology the word became a synonym for an inexperienced, stupid, naieve or foolish person. The Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English says this word is similar in meaning to gommic, kittardy, omaden, oshic, and stouck which are not linguistically related. NIGHT DIGGER The spirit that inspired men to seek treasure in remote and hidden places. Anglo-Saxon, nihtes, by night + Middle English diggen, from the Danish dyge, to raise an earthen mound; to bring to the surface from a hollow in the earth. DPEI quoting Frank Ledell: "There was once, it would seem, an active pirate traffic along the shore (of Atlantic Canada); in cosequence, belief in huge caches of buried treasure spread, and brought into being belief in the "night-diggers." The officers of this happy profession would spend weeks digging vast holes at the least likely points around the village. The occupation was necessarily fitted out with an appropriate doctrine. It was for example an article of faith that when the objectives of the occupation were in progress nobody could make any noise...if he'd say a word well that thing (the treasure) would disappear and they never could stike (find) it again." See guardian in part 1. The night digging-spirit was assumed to be the second soul of the individual inspired by the night-time whispers of the treasure-guardian. The presence of treasure was often revealled in dreams. N’MOCKSWEES, The sable. Wabenaki, Passamaquoddy, the totem animal of Glooscap’s little friend, Martin. NUCK

The oceanic and esturine sea-serpent. Anglo-Saxon, Scot.dialect, from nok, an object of tapering form; as a verb, anything hidden in a remote place. Also seen as nuckalavee, nock, nick, nikkisen, nixon, neck or ness. The Loch Ness monster is the most famous of this kind. As noted earlier, nuck confers with nick, and nick with Auld Nick and Wuotan, the noted Norse shape-changer. Ness, suggests a neck of land, or a long-necked monster. Keightley noticed that the Icelandic nuck was called Nickur, Ninnir or Hnikur, which correspond with the eddaic names of Odin: "He appears (sometimes) in the form of a fine apple-grey horse on the sea-shore; but he may be distinguished from ordinary horses by the circumstance of his hoofs being reversed. If any one is foolish enough to mount him, he gallops off and plunges into the sea with his burden." In this form the nuck is an equivalent of the kelpie. More often he was observed far from shore as in November 1805: "A small vessel of the Traeth was upon the Menai (Wales) sailing very slowly, when the people on board saw a strange creature like an immense worm swimming after them. It soon overtook them, climbed on board through the tiller-hole, and coiled itself on the deck under the mast - the peole at first were dreadfully frightened, but taking courage they attaccked it with an oar and drove it overboard; it followed the vessel for some time but a breeze springing up they lost sight of it."

OLD COOT A water-spirit family. incarnate in cerain sea-birds of the rail

Middle English, cote from the Danish, koet, stupid + auld, ineffectual, beyond the prime. In Europe a coot is one of the genus Fulica, a creature which is duck-like in shape, plummage and habits, but a stupid, slow-flying bird "that may hardly be classed as a game-bird." In Scotland, the coot is the murre and in North America, Fulica americana, commonly called the surfduck or scoter. Secondarily, a stupid fellow, a simpleton; a thing of little value, a trifle. Local ornithologist Robie Tufts says this is a bird which fancies

swimming in open water rather than the more approved habit of skulking among the marsh grasses. He says: "In some parts of its range it is killed by pot-hunters, rather extensively for food, but because of its slow and laboured take-off it offers small appeal to the skilled sportsman. It is locally known as the Mud Hen." Not mentioned in Poteet or Pratt, but a rather widespread designation for ineffectual men, spirits, or gods who are not within hearing distance of the speaker.

OLD DICK The Devil of devils. Anglo-Saxon, dic, a moat, dike or ditch. A place where men urinated, and by thus the human penis. A nickname for Richard, derived perhaps from association with a number of powerful but unjust Englishmen. Among them was Richard, the ne’er-do-well so of Oliver Cromwell. During his brief rule the Crown of England was referred to as “Dick’s hatband.” OLD FIDDLE A mortal earth spirit, a nickname given the Devil. Scottish and dialectic English, old fiddler, from the Anglo-Saxon fithele, a common name for the festival of the Beltane (May 1). Confers with the proper name Fitheach, or Raven, the name of a Gaelic family and the familiar of the goddess Morrigan. The latter creature that appeared before the Ulster hero Cuchullain just prior to his death in battle. Also confers with fid, a conical pointed post used to secure the fiddle strings in their place or (in a larger version) to secure a sacrificial victim to the ground. Not also fidchell, the ancient Gaelic board game, which their gods played to "maintain order in the world of men"; moves on the board corresponding with the fates of actual men. Another name for the nathair, Wuotan, the Devil and similar debunked gods of our pagan past. The business of staking out prisoners and burning them as god substitutes has ceased but the word "fid" or "fib" was preserved in "loggin' language." George Smith of Pomeroy Ridge, New Brunswick, who was involved

in the lumberring trade has defined it as "a wooden pin used as a spike."16 T.K. Pratt defines an "old fiddle" as a woman who is sexually experienced, hence the saying, "There's a few tunes left on that old fiddle."17 The Christian missionaries to Britain identified the reincarnate "devilgod" at the centre of pagan dancer-circles as the fitheler. This "devil of the coven" often provided the pan pipe, or stringed instrumental, music which inspired left-handed dancing and sexual "promiscuity." The Christian ethic was supposedly virtuous and anti-erotic and the clergy of Scotland actrually succeeded in stamping out use of the harp, lyre and bellows pipes. Historian Charles Dunn says they, fulminated less effectively against the bagpipes and the fiddle. Well- meaning, godly elders of the Presbyterian Church had solemnly smashed the fiddles and burnt the pipes of those carnally minded people who wished to cling to their beloved instruments. One of the most pathetic stories among the minor tragedies..is told by Alexander carmichael about a music-loving native of Eigg (Scotland) who was at last convinced by the men of God that he should dispose of his violin. Although it had been made by a pupil of Stradivarius, he allowed himself to sell it to a pedlar for ten shillings. But his pious renunciation of worldly music was not deeply rooted and he lamented: It wasn't the thing I got in exchange for it that grieved my heart so sorely, but the parting with it! the parting with it! and that I myself gave the best cow in my father's fold for it when I was young."18 In Upper Musquodobit, Nova Scotia, this same attitude was held by the Reverand , who brought meeting-house services to that part of Nova Scotia in 1829: "The Rev. Sprott had no time for musical instruments such as the violin and fiddle, and did not think they should be allowed in churches. But one congregation held to the fiddle and he had to preach there on occasion. So at the closing he announced. "we will fiddle and sing to the glory of God in the 119th Psalm. Basil - Basil - get my horse." Basil was his aide and as the fiddle wailed the first of the one hundred and sixty-six verses of the psalm the good man walked out, and the congregation was left to wonder whether
16Smith, 17Pratt, 18Dunn,

George, Timber, Saint Stephen (1977) p. 25. T.K., Dictionary Of Prince Edward Island English, p. 105. Charles W., Highland Settler, Toronto (1980), p. 54.

or not he would be back as it struggled through the entire length of that Psalm. Then worn and exhausted it had to disperse as Sproitt was far away on his good horse."19 When the "devil's instrument sounded without cause uncanny events were always expected. Thus, in the 1930's, an elderly lumberman at Alma, New Brunswick, was perturbed when he laid aside his fiddle and hear three unplayed notes echoing from it. He knew that the these were the "voice" of the devil calling home a lost soul. Being "Christian" men, those present dismissed the incident, but the next day a blast of lightning knocked down a tall tree, fatally injuring one of the loggers.20 OLD HARRY The Devil. Anglo-Saxon, har, old, grey, hoary, and thus inept. Again, there were a number of British monarchs thus entitled. OLD HOB A mortal earth-spirit, another form of the Devil incarnate. English, Hob, a familiar derivation of Robin or Robert, confers with robber. Robert is of Norman origin, but originally from German, thus resembling Ruopert, Rupert, Ruprecht, Houodpecht, and Hrodperki. The word is akin to the Anglo-Saxon hreth, one of great fame and glory. Old Hob identifies various pagan gods now called the Devil. Knecht Ruprecht (Robin the Bondsman) is identified in German mythology as one of the hausbocke (or house bucks). He is distinguished as a satyr-like creature dressed in shaggy clothing and wrapped in furs and straw. He carries a large sack filled with ashes and a staff topped by the wooden head of a goat. He has goat-like horns, a long white beard, aquiline nose and long tapering fingers. He generally prefers the deep forest but comes indoors during the Yule-tide in the company of other goat-spirits. He
19Bird,

Will R., Off-Trail In Nova Scotia, Toronto (1960), p.206. Stuart, Ghosts, Prirates And Treasure Trove, p. 13.

20Trueman,

he usually quiet in temprament, but carries a handful of switches, to trouble naughty children; and can gnash his teeth and roar with formidible effect when angered. Ruprecht's staff, known as a "klapperbock", has mechanical jaws which catch at the bodies of young women and those in his "bad-book". His current travelling companion is Saint Nicholas (or Santa Claus), giving rise to notion that he is the alter-ego of the old god Woden. Nancy Arrowsmith has noted that Knecht Ruprecht and Saint Nicholas are currently "so confused they are very difficult to tell apart." In the Victorian era Knecht Ruprecht was known to be "a hobgoblin, who in shaggy clothing, and carrying a switch and a sack, appears to Children before Christmas, threatening the disobedient with blows, but throwing nuts to the well behaved." This creature obviously has the function of the Celtic bogle, which we call the boo-man, boo-beggar or bogey man. The Auld Hob was sometimes referred to in English mythology as Robert the Devil, or Robin the Devil, a character remembered in the French metrical romances of the thirteenth century. This legendary individual was supposed to have been the son of the Duke of Normandy, but his cruelty led his subjects to supposed he was actually the issue of the Devil. He repented and took service at Rome in the disguise of a deaf mute and court jester. Commanded by an angel to fight the Saracens, he threw off his costume and succeeded in this mission. Afterwards, he was offered the hand of the King's daughter, but instead put on his jester's suit and retired to the woods, where he lived as a hermit. This latter period of his life became elaborated as the tales of Robin Hood. There are numerous diminished forms of the name Robert, including: Bob, Bobby, Dob, Dobby, Hod, Rob, Robbin, and Pop, Popkin. In northern England "hodden-grey" describes the apparel of this tribe, "a coarse grey cloth retaining the natural colour of the wool." The best known hob, named Robin Goodfellow, lived in English country homes where he exchanged his labours for a place and a modest ration of food and clothing. This goodfellow corresponds with the hobgoblin and the puck, which prefer an open-air habitat. He has equivalents in the brownie and the bodach of Scotland and the niss of Scandinavia.

The Old Man is the common English nickname for the Devil, but there are many other local designations, viz.: Old Feller, Old Son, Old Boy, Old Dog or Luke's Dog, Old Hob, Old Hoofie, Old Hornie, Old John, Auld Nick, Nickie, or

Nickie-ben, Old Reekie, Old Scratch and Old Willi or Vili, the latter being identified as the elemental god who gifted men with their five senses. The names used to describe the Devil are synonyms for a huge group of pagan destroyer-gods including the Roman Janus, the Norse god Loki, the Hebrew, Satan. the eastern djinn and perhaps even the Indian, Siva. His powers were much reduced as represented in the various horned-gods of European mythology (for example the Celtic Cernu and the English god-spirit Herne). It was from the latter that the Old Man inherited his physical characteristics. He was said to be black in complexion or at least heavily tanned; he had horns, a skin that was leathery and hairy, cloven hoofs, ears that were pig- or goat-like, a tail, fiery-eyes. a sulphurous smell, and a large cold but permanently erect penis. In ancient times Old Saint Nick was as busy as Good Saint Nick, whipping from one fire-festival to another where he served as the central figure in fertility dances. In practise these "devils" may have been ordinary men dressed in animal pelts, magically imbued for a single night with "the spirit of the corn". In the medieval times they were the coven-laeders to groups of "bhoabhs", or witches. Old Hob or Hod has special interest since his name is a diminished form of the German, Ruprecht. Their Knecht Ruprecht (Robin or Hobbin the Bondsman) was one of the hausbucks (house bucks), a satyr-like creature who spent his summers in the deep woods but crept closer the houses of men as the Yule approached. Finally he entered the homes of men where he switched naughty children and pinched comely females. Given plenty to eat and drink he usually went on to the next farm, but if he considered himself badly treated he placed weevils in the flour barrel, upset the kegs of ale in the basement and strewed ashes about the kitchen. In English mythology this old man was sometimes called Robert the Devil, or Robin the Devil. According o the French medieval romances of the thirteenth century Robert was a son of the Duke of Normandy, a man whose cruel jokes led his subjects to regard him as the Devil incarnate. He afterwards repented, put on a jester's suit, and became a hermit within the wild wood. This later period in his life was supposedly chronicled in the various tales of Robin Hood. In some parts of Maritime Canada Knecht Ruprecht was still remembered in Victorian times as "a hobgoblin, who in shaggy clothing, carrying a switch and sack, appears to children at Christmas, threatenening the disobedient with blows, but throwing nuts to the well behaved." This hob goblin was a lesser devil, sometimes called Robin Goodfellow, a character who

lived in country homes exchanging labour for his room and board. OLD HOOFIE A mortal earth spirit also known as the Devil. Dialectic English, hoof, the protective encasement of the far ends of the digits of ungalate animals, differing little from the finger, toenails and claws of other animals. Here, a cloven hoof is implied. A related word is the verb hoof, to boot, kick or trample. The expression on the hoof, indicates a living, as opposed to a dead, animal. Auld Hoofie was the nathir of the ancient Gaelic rites, a creature who survived well into the last century. He appears as a central character in the Horseman's Word, a secret fraternal society found in both Britain and America until the time of the widespread use of farm-tractors. This was a self-help society for hired hands, and the lodges were arranged in the fashion of witch-covens, except that women were excluded. Almost all farm-boys were conscripted when they reached the age of thirteen. At an initiation meeting, they were given passwords used to summon "the great black horse" whenever they had trouble controlling a farm-animal. Although this apparition might appear fearful, their positions as "made horseman" allowed them to bridle and mount him, following which no lesser animal dared defy them. The meetings of The Word were held in distant barns, annually, on the eleventh of November, a time when whisky was put away, bread and preserves eaten, and a good deal of time devoted to obscene songs and riddles. When initiates were introduced to Auld Hoofie, the appendage they shook, was usually that of a goat. OLD HORNY A mortal earth spirit, the Devil incarnate. Anglo-Saxon, corn or horn; confering with the Gaelic kern or cern, an animal equpped with head projections used in offense or defense. Has reference to the kern-god, or horned-god Kernow, or Cernu, who gave his name to Cornwall in southwestern England. He corresponds with Herne the Hunter, who haunted the Windsor Wood. Horn was a word applied to cow, or other animal horns, which were blown to produce sounds for assembly. "Horn" was first applied exclusively to "corn", the dominant grain-crop in a

given region, the corn-king being the last sheath cut at the harvest. This spirit of the corn was overwintered by auld hornie, the last harvester, who was expected to return it to the field in the next planting season. Thus the spirit of the corn, or of the horn, now termed the devil. Alcoholic drinks were fermented and distilled from grains, hence the local noun horn, a drink of liquor, especially one offered as a bribe in the course of a political campaign. The word horn was applied both to the container for drink and the bribe, while horn up meant tippling, agian in the course of a political campaign. By the old horned spoon! is a Liverpool, Nova Scotia, exclamation of anger or surprise. This recalls the fact that the hexxen, or witches, would not eat off ironware, and used spoons made of horn at their ritual feasts. OLD MAN The patriarchal god sometimes spoken of as if reincarnate in a human. Anglo-Saxon, eald, originally, to bear, produce and bring up many offspring. Related to the Latin alere, to nourish and confering with the English words adult, alderman, auld, and elder. Currently, the meaning is "advanced in years or at the end of a specified life span, weakened, worn out, decayed, stale..." Formerly, "skilled, experienced, canny." + mann, a human being. Particulary the old man of the sea, Davy Jones, Nikkur, Manan mac Ler, the sea-going gatherer of souls of the dead. A term applied ironically to the Devil and his devils and used in the local venacular when male children speak of their male parent. See also Old Boy, Old Twist, Auld Reekie, Auld Cloutie etc. OLA MUC Gaelic, muc (f), pig; ola (f), old. Female equivalent of the diel or Devil. Similar to the English word muck, from the the Danish moog, manure in a moist state. Mucker was applied as a term of reproach but originally identified farm hands who shovelled this material. Confers with the obsolete muckender, a handkerchief; muckibus, drunk; and muckerer, a miser. See Pig, Old.

OLD NICK The spirit of the god Odin reincarnate. Anglo-Saxon, nick + old (see entry above). Also seen as Nickie or Nickie-ben or as Old Saint Nick. Nick is a contraction of Nicholas, Nicolaus or Niclaus; ben, a mountain, thus the high knicker. Nicholas was the preferred personal name of the god Odin or Wuotan. Other meanings of "nick" include: a pun, a false bottom in an ale mug to defraud drinkers, a false name, thus a nickname; to strike, catch of guard, steal, cheat, defraud, to break window glass, to run up a bill, to gamble, a demon. Related words are knicker, a tavern brawler and nickel, from the Germ kuperfernickel, an ore that promised but failed to yield copper. Nicholas Wuotan had a family name that translated as "oath-breaker" hence the negative connotations of nick. The only positive use of "nick" appears in animal husbandry where it describes the successful breeding of strong, healthy animals. Lately Old Nick has been identified with the Hebrew Satan and with the adversary known as the Devil. In Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia it is considered a bad omen to hear bells in the midst of the wilderness, but at such times the locals insist, "Old Nick is abroad and ringing his bell (to assemble souls of the dead)." Some reference is made in mythology to Saint Nick, but medieval sainthood did not comment on the morals or sexual proclivities of Auld Hornie. In ancient Britain, the "saints" were understood to be no more than men or women or even demons, officially designated to conduct religious ceremonies. Auld Saint Nick has tended to disappear from the public imagination, but his alter-ego, Good Saint Nick, the spirit we call Santa Claus, has recently re-surfaced. It is noteworthy that his Germanic counterpart is Knecht Ruprecht who is clearly one of the "boches" or "he-goats." In some places Saint Nicholas carries toys in one hand and switches in the other. In Germany his personality is often confused with that of Knecht Ruprecht, "the demon who accompanies him and chastizes naughty children." The spirit of Old Saint Nick, or Knecht Ruporecht, was until recently projected upon human followers in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, during the Yule: "In the old days the men wore ox hides with horns and beards, tied bells around their necks, and made belts of ravelled rope and oakum...Sometimes they used their tails to thrash the youngsters...so that they were frightened

and had to hide...Women dressed as wise men and brought gifts and were called Kris Kringles (Christ's Children). Because of the hides that were worn and the connection with Saint Nicholas, the custom is known as belsnicking, and any person who takes part in the fun is a belsnickle." The belsnickles were active through all twelve days of Yule and were sometimes called kris kringlers or santa clawers, the latter name suggesting something of their darker nature. On Scatarie Island, off the coast of Nova Scotia, Allison Mitchum found them still active in nineteen eighty-four. Here they wore uncanny costumes that included face-coverings of "painted cotton" and "masks of bird skins with the feathers turned in...Eyeholes painted, (feather holes) like pimples all over the face." Wherever they travelled they made every effort to remain anonymous, a hold-over from the days when most belsnickers were working class individuals taking a one-ayear shot at their bosses. In theory, they exchanged "entertainment" for "lots of booze", but since they were hosted throughout the community the quality of fiddling, mouth organ music and tap-dancing degenerated as the night progressed. Not infrequently, these Yule-devils lived up to what one might expect of the Devil. The nick is preserved in the Germanic belsnick of Lunenburg County, N.S. In Scottish dialect bel means a bubble and this is close to the AS belle as well as the German bel, a hollow vessel. All confer with bellow, a hollow cry, thus the belsnick was a noisy nick, whose followers were known as belsnickers. They have been described as "masked and costumed entertainers who toured at Christmas with sacks for treats, using gestures for communication." Belsnicking is also referred to as Santa Clausing or Kris Krinkling in much of southern Nova Scotia and as santying or sandying at Lockport. See belsnickle. OLD REEKIE An earth-spirit identified with the nathair or Devil. Anglo-Saxon, a diminuation of reek, to belch smoke. The word is now restricted to literary use in northern England and Scotland. Secondary meanings include fetid air, a disagreeable smell, an industrial stench. Confers with rick, a heap or pile of acrid smelling matter, eg hay. Men frequently encountered the Devil as an ordinary-looking men, but

one characterized by "a wicked countenance and an unbearable stench." This sulphurous smell is understandable since his stand-ins at the fire-festival rites wore the skins of a bull, goat, black sheep or horse. Tindall supposes he rarely appeared as a wild animal because his descent was from a cattle god. Whatever his disguise, Auld Reekie was done up in animal pelts in days before the tanning process was well understood and when farmyard odours were better tolerated. It is noteworthy that all of the Devil's underlings were into the craft of causing crops to rot, and were themselves identified by a quick decomposition after death. The Devil was a confirmed smoker as were all the fire gods of the north, including Auld Nick (Wuotan). Auld Nickie's alter-ego was Good Saint Nick, better known as Knecht Ruprecht or Santa Claus. It will be recalled that he was "a right jolly old elf" with a pipe whose smoke "encircled his head like a wreath." OLD SCRATCH A familiar name for the spirit now known as the Devil. Of Scandanavian origin (see scra directly above). Perhaps also from the Old Norse krota, to engrave or incise with lines, to scratch. Similar to the dialectic Scottish scrat, to rake, to toil as a drudge, a mean, puny, insignificant person, one of the black elfs, a wizard, an evil magician, an hermaphrodite, a devil, the Devil, the latter including all pagan male deities fallen from power. Confluent with the Scottish scraichin, to call out in a screeching voice, sounding like fingernails dragged over slate. In the Dictionary of Prince Island English Pratt says that scra is from the Scottish word scrae, a stunted, shrivelled, underdeveloped person,, a drunkard or trouble-maker. Scris, he says, is an omen of bad luck, a curse, and unwelcomed crowd from the Gaelic sgrios, to destroy, ruin, annihilate. Thomas Keightley says that this god became the demoted spirit known in German literature as the scrat, schrat, schretel or schretlein. Those who translated the name into Latin rendered it as "pilosus, naming this creature as either a house or a woods-spirit. "Terms similar to it are found in the cognate languages (eg, Old Norse) and it is perhaps the origin of Old Scratch, a popular English name of the Devil." OLD SNARLEYROW

The elemental spirit of fire; the Devil. Anglo-Saxon, snearl, from sneare, snare, to entrap; the sound made by an entrapped animal. The word is correctly snarleyow, the obsolete past participle of snarl. See Devil. OLD SOW The water spirit in charge of the world's second powerful oceanic whirlpool located off Deer Island, N.B. most

Also written Auld Sou and in colonial times Auld Sough. AngloSaxon, sough, describes a sound somewhat like that of a wind moving through dried leaves; a rushing, rustling, sighing, dead noise. The Scots form is sou and was used to describe the sound of an agonized pig or sermons of particularly boring preachers or a sing-song chant that had the effect of listening to the unaccompanied drones on a bagpipe. The Scots also described a very noisy party as one held at full sou while moments spent in a graveyard reflecting on mortality were entitled a quiet sou. Sow is a word reserved to the female of the pig species, so the spirit of the Old Sow may be thought of as corresponding with that of the Cailleach Bheur. She must also be the equal of the Norse goddess Ran, "the goddess of death for all who perished at sea." When lowland Scots settled Deer Island, N.B., they found an Indian water-demon resident off the south-western shore, a spirit that occasionally materialized as the world's second-largest off-shore whirlpool. This they named the Auld Sugh (since corrupted to Sow). Sugh also corresponds exactly with the Middle English swough, which derives from the Anglo-Saxon swoogan. This is similar to older Tueutonic words which mean to sigh or whistle. It is confluent with the Old Norse suugr, a rushing sound, like that of moving wind or water, and confers with the English word surf. The Old Sough was a place of hollow mummers, moans and sighs, as well as a salt-water drain (a secondary meaning of seugh, sewer or sough). See also slue. OLD STICK Another name for the Devil. Anglo-Saxon, stic, to stab; stician, slaughter. Having reference to the old fellow's propensity to cause mayhem leading to slaughter.

OLD TWIST A name for the Devil Maritime dialect, from the Anglo-Saxon twist, a branch. Confers with the Old Norse tvist, the deuce in a deck of cards, also tvistr, distressed. Has special reference to the interlacing of branches in basketry and rope-making, the art for which the witches, or wickers, are named. Old Twist is patently the Anglo-Saxon god Tvs, Tws, Tys, Tyse, or Tues, whose name is preserved in Tysday or Tuesday. In Germany this god was Tyr, patron of war, who Christians identified as the teoful, or Devil. A colourful local oath, "holy old twist", centres on this defunct god. This is similar to the expression "holy old deuce", which obviously derives from the same source. OLD WOMAN The ultimate female spirit of the sea. Anglo-Saxon, wif-mann, originally any individual female irrespective of marital status. Wifian, to marry. See Cailleach Bheur, Mhorga, Samh for complete accounts. The female equivalent of the Old Man of the Sea (above).

OMADON The fool-spirit of Celtic festivals. Seen variously as: amadan, amaden, omadawn, omadhawn, omidown and omigon. There is no question of its origin, the original spirit having been the Omadan na Briona, who the English termed "The Firey Fool". The word continues in present day Gaelic as omadhaun, with a meaning similar to that in dialectic Maritime speech. In Pratt's Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English, omadon is said the equivalent of gommie, kittardy, nosic, oshick, hick and stouk. The original Omadon was the described as one of the sidh, the most powerful of his kind, second in magic

to Queen Maeve or Morrigan. He has the character of Robin Hood as a jester and relates to the Scottish Auld Donald. This last had his name from his Old Norse ancestors, who occupied the Western Isles of Scotland and created the Clan Macdonald. The Gaelic Domhnull (Donald), is literally, the master of the Yule, and corresponds with Uller, the winter-time usurper of Odin's throne and power. In other ages the god-kings needed stand-ins to "go to earth" in their place at the conclusion of the twelve days of Yule. These men, selected by lot, were a special breed of fool, whose end was indeed firey! In the harsh past before Christainity introduced the idea of a final single salvation, life was considered a hard journey and men went to death a little less grudgingly, facing the possibilty of many subsequent reincarnations. At that they had to be cajoled with special treatment, thus the omadon was granted the temporary advantages of kingship, which he often took with as much jaundice and whimsy as he could muster. In later years the European Lox, or master of trickery, was still at large although he was no longer burned at the end of his "reign" When Henry the Eight, dressed as the Lord of Yule, led a party of sixteen masked revellers against Cardinal Wolsey's Christmas supper-party in fifteen twenty-eight, he did so under seasonal, as well as regal license. No man could stand against the will of the "fools" and even the Sherriff of York once expressed his resignation in a proclamation saying "This season, all manner of whores and thieves, dice-players, carders, and all other unthrifty folke, be welcome to the towne, whether they come late or early, at the reverance of the high feast of "Youle", till the twelve days be past." This Uller-Odin was variously entitled the Lord of Misrule, the Abbott of Unreason, the Archbishop of Fools, the Precentor of Fools, the Tommy, Beelzebub, Little Devil Doubt, or the Old Goose. The character of this lord of mummers is without doubt, one "tommy" having been described as wearing "a fox skin to cover his head with a tail hanging down in the rear." This was the same "dyhinker" that led the belsnickers in Lunenburg County. In 1862 Samuel Breck wrote that, "while they have ceased to do it now, I remember (the mummers) from 1782 (in Boston)...a set of the lowest blackguards in filthy clothes with disguised faces, obtruding themselves everywhere. The only way to get rid of them was to give them money..." OONAHGEMESSUK The water-goblin.

Wabenaki, a creature half-grey, possessing a single eye. Thus, similar to the thunder-giants of Katadhdin mountain and the Innuvit elves. Leland says they confer exactly with the Micmac mikumweesos. “Eles and fairies.” “These can work great wonders, and also sing to charm the wildest beasts. From them alone come the magic pipes or flutes, which sometimes pass into possession of noted sorcerers and great warriors; and when these are played upon, the woman who hears the melody is bewitched with love, and the moose and caribou follow the sound even to their death. And when thes folk are pleased with a mortal they make him a fairy, even like themselves.” OONIG The spirit of fog OUAHICH The guardian-spirit of a man gifted on him at birth by the Great Spirit. Wabenaki, Micmac dialect. The first French settlers called its container the aoutmoin (which, see). This was a real-world resting place for the external soul, usually a peculiar shaped or coloured rock or stone contained in a triangular leather pouch and kept abouit the neck on a thong. A Micmac shaman said that his “devil” was pressed against the stomach to overcome hunger or fatigue. Every effort was made to prevent this extension from falling into the hands of enemies. The natives said that this representative thing was part of the buowinodi or puoinoti, or “magic kit.” PHANTOM SHIP Spirits of the sea materialized in a sea-going masted ship. Middle English and Old French, fantesme, French, fantome, Latin, phantasma, to show, to make visible. A ghost ship (which, see). The most famous is the “Flying Duitchman.” October, 1796: “A Strange Story is going that (a) Fleet of Ships have been seen in the Air in some parts of the Bay of Fundy. Mr. Darrow is lately there bt Land. I enquired of him. He says they were said to be sen at

New Minas, at one Mr. Ratchford’s, by a Girl, about Sunrise, & two men that were in the house went out and Saw the Same Sight, being 15 Ships and a Man forward of them with his hand stretched out. The Ships made to the Eastward. They were So Near that the people Saw their Sides & ports.” 21 PIG, OLD PIG The ultimate spirit of evil at sea. Anglo-Saxon, piegge, particularly the male of the species as distinguished from the sow. Similar to piegian, to play. Also note piecan, to seduce or deceive and the Low Saxon picken, to gambol as well as pickeln, to play the fool. Confers with the Old Norse, pukra, to steal away silently and the Danish pukke, to scold. Similar to the Swedish poika, a boy and the Anglo-Saxon, piga, a boy. Almost certainly, the old English spirit named puck, puckle, or pickle, corresponding with the Icelandic pukki, who is likely the thinly disguised fire-god Lukki or Loki. Sometimes prefixed as "Old Pig" to indicate creatures of inferior value, the disenfranchised seagods, or a deity such as Hler, the one-time supreme god of the sea. Notice that Loki was bound by Thor, but it was Skaddi, a daughter of the sea-giants who placed a poisonous snake above him so that it might drip venom on his face. The powers, and evils, once attributed to Loki were, thereafter, assimilated by the spirits of the sky and ocean, a situation supposed to continue until Loki is unbound at the end of time. There are a number of names that are never mentioned at sea for fear of stirring up dormant but potentially dangerous spirits: "Sailors generally avoid mentioning by name eggs (Ygg is another name for Odin), rabbits and knives while on board ship. Cargoes of pigs, dogs and horses were considered unlucky; and aboard American ships cats were considered creatures of ill-omen." While this may not be the case elsewhere, there is a local prohibition against saying "pig" aboard a ship, and since they are ocassionally transported a number of aliases have sprung up, some being "Mr. Dennis", "turf-rooter", "the animal", " PILSQUESS Pillar rocks thought to encompass the souls of unfortunate
21Perkins,

Simeon, Diary, for Wednesday, Oct. 12, 1796.

virgins. “Pillar-rocks,” stand isolated in the sea, worn away from the mainland by weathering and erosion. They frequently take eccentric forms and were once considered to be the bound remains of sea creatures or men. Until recently the perfectly formed “Southern Cross” was a feature of southern Grand Manan, but it has disassembled and fallen into the sea. Differently shaped is a similar stone, which used to stand on Carlow’s Island, near Pleasant Point, Perry, Maine. It was named pilsquess, “the virgin,” as are two similar stones, which still stand, one off Grand Manan, the other near Campobello. PISMIRE A meddlesome women. spirit often found incarnate in men and

Middle English, piss, from the Old French, pissier, to urinate + mire, from the Anglo-Saxon, aemete, confering with the Ennglish emmet, from which ant. These communal insects lived in the ground or decaying wood and some eject a fluid containing formic acid, which smells very like urine, thus pismire, a bad smelling place or creature. DPEI: "A spoil-sport or meddler; a brat. A person of little (social) significance. Not a word said in polite company." OED: applied contemptuously to an insignificant or contemptable person." Often used descriptively, as in the magazine, "The New Dominion" (1875): "The measley slimy, loathsome publisher (of the "Moncton Times") who would accept a forger's money aqnd assist a felon to evade the laws of the land, is meaner than the meanest pismire that ever crawled on the surface of the earth." POGUMK The “Black Cat.” Wabenaki, Passamaquoddy. The tribe of “wild cats” to which Glooscap was sometimes said to belong. It is noted that “the chief of the cats was by his mother the son of a bear.” Pookjinskeqwees who was Glooscap’s chief rival also belonged to this tribe. The totem animal of the “lord of men and beasts” was never entirely settled for elsewhere he is represented as a

shape-changed fisher or as a woodchuck or groundhog. POOKJINSKEQWEES The “Evil Pitcher” of Indian myth. Wabenaki, Passamaquoddy. The Innu had a similar character known as Arnakuak. Like this creature she had the ability to change sex at will. In Indian and Eskimo legends only wicked magicians had the ability to aleter their gender in the fashion of the European god named Lokki. Pookjinskeqwees exceeded all these others as she frequently appeared among men as a man or a woman, or as several men and/or women, according to her will. She was the chief antagonist of Glooscap and once approached him as a poor woman in diminished health. It was said that the god-hero “threw out his soul to all men,” and hence could not turn her away. Fortunately his foresight prevented him from being injured by her complicated designs. She was alternately termed “The Black Cat.” It was said that her children were those “begotten on her by sorcerers, giants and monsters.” Because all were ugly she stole the children of men and raised them as her own. It was this witch-woman who abducted Glooscap’s closest friends, causing him to follow, eventually bringing them back from the land of the dead. See Pogumk. PUOIN, BUOIN, POWOW An Indian magician or shaman. Wabenaki, Micmac dialect, puninoti or buowinodi, the bag of magical objercts carried about the shaman’s neck. This was neither the class of men exercising great physical power nor those able to move readily between dimensions in space and time, but men who were “able to hear and see what was going on very far off.” In addition they were masters of trickery and jugglery and ventriloquism, and other wonder-works. The chief example was perhaps Ulgimmo, sometimes entitled L’kimu. “he who sends out (his spirit): “Thomas Boonis told Silas Rand that this was the man who drove the Kwedeches (Mohawks) from the south side of the Bay of Fundy, urging them on at last to Montreal...” The Kwedeches retired first to the Tantramar marshes and then to Petitcodiac. As the place called

Salisbury Ulgimoo followed and built “a mound and fortifiactions which still stand (1894).” It was rumoured that this shaman “could hear and see what was going on very far off...” When the great magician was 103 years of age his people were was still at war, and using forsight he saw the Mohawks again moving against his village. The shaman sent his own people off into the forest and allowed himself to become a captive. They quickly made a fire for him and bound him to a tree amidst dried wood. One among the Mohawks warned the others that this man was not to be taken lightly, but they fired the wood pile in spite of his objections. Immediately this supoerman burst his bonds and appeared before them as a young Glooscap-like warrior. In the battle that followed the puoin emerged without hurt but only three enemy warriors escaped from a carnage that killed hundreds. Ulgimoo died shortly after: “It was the beginning of winter when he went; he had directed his people not to bury him but to build a high platform and put him on it. This they did, and all left the place. He told them to come back the following spring. They did so, and to their astonishment found him walking about - exhibiting however proof that his death was not a sham. A hungry marten had found the corpse, and gnawed an ugly looking hole through one of the old man’s cheeks.” At his second death a few years after the shaman predicted that he would expire by morning, and that this time they must bury him but open the grave the following morning. He assured them that if they did this he would walk forever among them. He gave them a sign by which they would know the exact time to unearth his corpse and then sank into his final sleep. On the morning the sky was clear but at the assigned time there was a peal of thunder. This time his friends and enemies were content to let him remain dead and took special care to see that he did not become reanimate: “They dug his grave very deep and piled stones in upon him. The plan was successful as he has not yet arisen.” In the last century James Paul was an impressive “juggler.” One of his stunts involved china tea cup. Not realizing his physical strength, Ja,mes was seen to have left finger prints in the non-plastric surface of this drinking implement. Advised of this he laughed and sid, “I’ll straighten it up, here!” “He straightened it up as if it were made of wet clay.” Paul had a similar solution for carrying his clay pipe. ASfraid he might breakm iit because of the long stem, he simply “stretched the pipe around his hat,” and wore it as a band, reversing the process when he wished to light up/ In

another case, he stopped the motion of a huge waterwheel at Dartmouth, when he spotted children playing at riding the main shaft. “OLd James Peter Paul he grabbed it and the whole thing stopped.” Peter Sack, who lived earlier in this century, had similar skills. Once he cautioned his son from going further in the woods because of an undefined precautionary warning in his head. “He got a stick and started tapping the ground, and WHAM, a bear trap!” “Pure luck, “ he noted, “something told me to stop. I couldn’t make up my mind why I should stop...If we had gone any farther, it’d have grabbed the boy.” These abilities were never restricted to the male sex. In 1912, when Old Woman Sallie was living at Pictou (she was said to be 100 years of age), she once took thge train to New Glasgow. The conductor finding that she lacked full fare put her off short of the town. Not far down the line, the engine derailed. While they were putting the train on the rails a second time, the conductor had his finger squashed between a wheel and the rail. After that he began to give thought to Old Sallie’s reputation as a witch and motioned her aboard. “After that whenever an Indian wants to travel, the railway takes him, fare or not.” Le Clerq referred to shamans as “jugglers, “ from their habit of carrying bags full of items which they often manipulated in tyheir hands to fortell events or create illusions. Among these items was the personal “devil” or ouahich, an object thought to serve as a residence for the external soul when it was not involved in some magical project. QUAHBEETSIS The son of the beaver-spirit. At the beginning of time this creature is supposed to have advised Malsum to oppose Glooscap. Hence, Glooscap’s implacable hatred for this animal. QUEEN MAB The goddess Queen of the May, the chief female mayer. Anglo-Saxon, cween, wife, woman, and with time the wife of royalty +

mab, a slattern, now an obsolecent use; the verb mab, to dress untidily. It should be understood that this was the English characterizing the goddess of the Gaels! Queen Mab has been identified as the Celtic Mebd, but while Mebd gave sexual "gifts", she was as much interested in accumulating goods as giving them. Mab was the counterpart of the continental Celtic goddess Habundia or Mabundia, who Thomas Keightley said was "queen and ruler over a band of what we may call fairies. those who enter houses at night, feast there, twist the horse's manes, etc." This lady he identified as Shakespeare's Queen Mab. She was described by Ben Jonsons (1603) as "Mab, the mistress Fairy, That doth nightly rob the Dairy; and can hurt or help the churning as she please..." She was very like Mother Goody pinching the maidens who failed to clean their benches, scratching others if they failed to rake up their embers at night. Nevertheless, she could be a giftgiver, leaving a silver coin within shoes of workers who merited her pleasure. Like all of the Quarter-day spirits she was ambivalent and quirky, thus she was accused of kidnapping children and leaving a changeling, or even a soup ladle, in their place. Like the White Woman, she was able to reveal the future, and on St. Agne's night (January 21), her intrusions into dreams allowed women a glance of future lovers and husbands. In Romeo and Juliet, Mab has been represented as "the fairies' midwife", "...that very Mab That plaits the manes of horses in the night; and bakes the elf-locks in foul sluttish hairs, Which once untangled, much misfortune bode. This is the hag (i.e the Night Mare) when maids lie on their backs, That presses them." Keightley says that Mab superseded the fairy-queen Titania in the popular imagination, and she was the mate of Oberon, a form of the Celtic king named Arthur, so perhaps there is a connection between Mab and Mebd? It is noteworthy that Oberon went about in a chariot pulled by three white bears and that his court jester was a man named Robin Hood. Yes Virginia, there is, or was, a Mrs. Santa Claus! A resident of Amherst, Nova Scotia told Hubert Halpert that their family was visited annually by a female gift-giver at New Year's. This respondent thought that the custom was widespread in her community in the nineteen forties, and mentioned that she knew of visitations in other households at Moncton, New Brunswick. This spirit seems to have been the equal of Mother Goody, but distributed "a small gifft of something to wear on New Year's Day", rather than good things to eat. She could hardly have predated Santa Claus under the name Mrs. Claus, but there was mention of a mysterious female giftgiver in the Maritimes before Saint Nicholas was first given publicity in 1807. Lady Hunter, the wife of New Brunswick's Commander of the British Forces

in Fredericton wrote home to England noting: "Tomorrow is Christmas and the children are saying, "Oh, mama. what do you think the fairy will put in our stocking? Queen Mab is a Dutch fairy that I was never introduced to in England or Scotland; but is a great favourite of the little folks in this and the other Province, and if they hang up their stockings on Christmas Eve, she always pops something good or pretty into it, unless they are very naughty, and then she puts in a birch rod to whip them." RED CAP Visible earth spirit bound to the ruins of ancient buildings. Anglo Saxon read; caeppe, a cae or hood. Identified by their red wearing apparel. Originally identified as the bloodthirsty castle spirits of lowland Scotland. Variously called red caps, redcombs, bloody caps, dunters and powries. Dunter is from the AS. "dunt," to wound, bruise or knock about. Pow is a dialectic version of pull. Note that all of the fairy tribes including the Indian mikumwees sported red caps. The Red Caps main amusement was the daily colouring of their caps in the human blood they spilled in overnight escapades. This was largely managed by levering boulders from parapets on passing travellers. These blood-spillers were short elderly elfs, , sturdily built, sporting long grey hair, protruding teeth, fiery red eyes (after the fashion of the beansith) and eagle-taloned fingers. They were about four feet in height, carried battle staves, and wore heavy leather boots. Where they could not manage a death by "misadventure" they sometimes resorted to poisoning and travellers were warned against consuming food, especially bread, cheese and wine heaped on a green table. A number of golden cups have been purloined from these people who offered "stirrup cups" to passers-by. A little suspicious of the brew, a few men noted the danger when drink spilled on their horse and singed away the hairs. Disposing of the drink men rode away bearing the cup with them. The trows often followed but were always blocked when streams of running water were crossed. As a rule, momentos of this sort could only be used after deconsecration from the pagan gods. NS, Allandale, BM. p. 20: witchmaster named Daddy Red Cap REVANANT

A spirit remain of the human dead. French, m., a ghost. Based on the verb revendre, to come back again; to return, to recur, to reiterate the past. Father Chaisson indicates that "Appearances by the dead, or revanants as they are known among the Acadians, were another source of countless legends in Acadia. The apparitions always came to request prayers or masses, to make amends for past wrongs, or, in some cases, to persuade the living to mend their ways." REVENANTER A ghost or spirit of a dead human being. Anglo-Norman, thought to be the past participle of revener, to return. Correpsonding with the more usual Anglo-Norman revenant (see above entry). In folklore it was guessed that the fay underworld might correspond with An Domhain or Hades or Hell. Witches, who visited the fairy-hills often returned with reports that the dead worked and laboured under the fay. Bessie Dunlop, convicted of witchcraft in 1576, confessed to sexual intercourse with a coven "devil", one Thomas Reid, "ane honest wee elderlie man, gray bairded" and completely ordinary except for the fact that he was known to ber dead and buried. When Bessie was taken by him into his hill she saw the Laird of Auchinskeith "riding with them and he had been dead nine years". This land had many characteristics of the Indian Ghost World, a place where time passed according to different rules, where one might spend a day or two and return to the surface world to find that years hasd elapsed, or the reverse. Whatever the case men who visited with the dead "returned drained of vitality, strangely silent, and did not live long after." Those committed to formal burial but afterwards seen in the land of the living were the "revanters", who the Acadian French called "le revendirs". Occasionally their restless spirits took animal form, but unlike vampires they had no taste for blood. Nevertheless, their confused state at being unable to pass into another incarnation made them potentially dangerous. At Bochdan Brook, Cape Breton, a man notorious for heavy drinking was found dead in a field. Because he was considered to have died by suicide he was not buried in consecrated ground but placed on a small island opposite the mainland. Soon "ugly noises" began to be heard echoing across the island

and a woman with the two-sights reported seeing a black creature moving up and down the brook. One villager encountered a very material ghost and fought a wordless battle with him, remebering that any spoken word allows a fay-creature to make use of "the killing-howl". A priest finally set this revanter to rest. Revanters have been seen in very ordinary places in the full light of day; thus Mr. Rossier, of Newcastle, New Brunswick, agreed to return to earth with news of the netherworld if that proved possible. His friend Mr. Briden claimed that he actually met the shade of Rossier on a fishing trip and had been told that his friend had not yet managed entrance to heaven. Dean Llwyd of All Saints Cathedral in Halifax, Nova Scotia, made a more public return from the dead. A fellow clergyman glanced up from prayers and saw the revanter entering an elevated pulpit where he stood looking out over the entire congregation. Thinking that grief had affected his imagination, the clergyman kept this viewing to himself, but later a lady of the in the crowd that night admitted seeing exactly the same shade in the same place at the same time. ROANE A sea-spirit whose travelling form is that of the Lager seal. Gaelic, ron, pl. roin, seal. Perhaps from Teutonic models although the Anglo-Saxon hron indicates a whale. The highland version of the selkie of the northern islands and the morrigan of southern lands. The equivalent of the English merman and mermaid. "The Irish name is merrow and the legends told of them are similar to those of other countries." Descendants of the Fomorian sea-giants. The largest colonies of seal are found on the north shore of Sutherlandshire and sightings of the roane are still made in that region. The silkies commonly took the form of mermen or woman, but Nancy Arrowsmith says the roane always appeared as seals. Like others of the sea race, they came ashore in human form and even attended local festivals and markets without being noticed. Fishermen were not usually troubled by the sight of a male of this species, but the females were thought to be omens of changeable weather. Some said that her appearnce indicated bad luck with the sea or the fishery. People who were thought to have drowned, but whose

bodies were never found, were assumed to have been abducted to the undersea world where they lived in perpetual bondage. The Gaelic sea-people were under the command of Ler, the immortal god of the sea. Little is known of this elemental, but he seems to have been the Anglo-Saxon Aegir, a gaunt old man, with claw-like fingers, that grasped after the ships of men. His avocation was shared by his mate, the goddess Rann, who actually spread her magic net near dangerous rocks, enticing mariners there with promises of sexual or other favours. ROTE The spirit of the surf. The fishermen of our waters still listen for the "rote" as a guide to their position on the water, particularly when they travel in fog. This word is the Anglo-Saxon "ryn", the Old Norse "rauta", to roar, and defines any sound heard in nature, whether produced by the sea, winds, thunder or some unidentifiable agency. It also implies a repetitious sound produced without any sense of meaning. When Henry Hudson made his voyage into Canadian waters, he was keenly aware of everything within hearing and in his diary wrote: "Wee heard a great "rutte" or noise with the Ice and Sea...We (therefore) heaved our Boat and rowed to towe out our ship farther from the danger." A Sable Island fisherman once explained that he was "listening for the "rote" as "the surf breaks with a different sound all along the shore." ROWING MEN Sea-spirits, little people bound to costal locations. These are, perhaps, the decendants of the promnotory kings who are known in Danish tradition as the "klintekonger". They kept ward and watch over their country, driving the sea in a chariot hauled by four black stallions whenever war or calamity threatened. At such times the sea and the sky blackened and the the horses could be heard snorting and neighing from the midst of churning waters. When the sea-peoples were defeated by men and the "gods" they gained the advantages of virtual immortality and invisibility but surrendered freedom of movement. Thus, "It is a prevalent opinion in the north that all the various beings of the popular creed were once worsted in a conflict with superior powers, and condemned to remain till dommsday in certain assigned abodes. The dwarfs or hill trolls, were appointed the hills;

the eleves the groves and leafty trees; the hill-people the caves and caverns; the mermen, mermaids and necks, the seas lakes and rivers; the river-men, the small waterfalls..." The rowing men were deeded some small part of the coastline or beach, either on or near the sea. Rowing men are widespread in the region, the species being remembered by Lyman Lorimer, a one-time resident of Wood Island, located south of Grand Manan: One moonlight night he was walking toward his Whale Cove weir with the intention of seeing if there was herring to be seined. Passing Leaman Wilcox's home he became aware that he was not alone. Stopping on the path, he heard following footsteps fade away. Moving again, the footsteps began once more. When he paused and snapped a twig and invisible had broke off a mate several feet distant. When he arrived at the beach and sat on the shingle, stones rolled noisly away and a little apart from his position he saw other stones disturbed by some invisible presence. When he lobbed several stones into the water, others followed from an unseen hand. Retreating, Lorimer stopped to tell Wilcox of his strange experience and express the belief that he had acquired a permanent companion. "No," Wilcox assured him, "I know this fellow. This is his territory; he'll stay here!" At these words there was a great angry shaking of a clump of fir trees and Lyman Wilcox went home without further hindrance or company. As a rule, the rowing men were subtle jokesters, who created the sounds of moving row-boats from the midst of fog. As they apparently pulled their pinkies, or dinghys, ashore men rushed to meet expected friends but found nothing. The worst of this kind were exhibitions who materialized in the nude and sunbathed atn roadside locations in order to shock passing ladies. They are not recorded as assaulting anyone, an exception being the "Little Old Man of the Sea" of Tetagouche Falls, New Brunswick, who for some unknown reason was assigned to an abandoned manganese mine. Only two and a half feet tall with a disproportionate head and mass, this creature once jumped on the back of a passing hitch-hiker and road him piggy-back. SANTA CLAUS A spirit of the upper air loosely based on the Norse god Odin. Middle English, saint or seint from the French saint from the Latin sancta, sacred. One officially appointed to conduct religious ceremonies. The family name derives from Nic-o-laus.

Our long list of Maritime devils might lead to the conclusion that there are few good spirits in the region, but we do have Saint Nicholas, who is as busy a bishop in his own diocese as the Devil in his province. The Devil is often entiteled Old Nick while Santa is Good Saint Nick, the heir of the constructive Anglo-Saxon Allfather. He was anciently called Father Time, Father May, Father Yule and finally Father Christmas, the latter the least offensive to the newly-introduced Christian religion. For many years it was considered that Santa Claus resided at the North Geographic Pole, but when geographer Arthur Wiggington was mapping the New Brunswick Highlands in 1963 he stumbled on several gates to the underworld while exploring North Pole Stream in the north central region of the province. North Pole Mountain is located north of the stream and has an elevation of two thousand two hundred and fifty feet. It is believed to be a hollow hill and directly south of it is Mount Saint Nicholas as well as Mounts Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner and Blitzen. Santa Claus was first described as "a right jolly old elf", and has close relatives among the house bucks and the ho-ho men of Europe and North America. Like Santa, the ho-ho men wore red mantles, but had shorter tempers, striking dead those who laughed at their hearty "ho! ho! hohs!" In medieval England Father Christmas dominated the Yule but Santa Claus came to notice when Clement Moore published A Visit From Saint Nicholas in eighteen forty-eight. It is an interesting aside that a handwritten copy of this manuscript is on deposit at the New Brunswick Legislative Library. He was represented as being totally elf-like being able to shape-change, dematerializing to squeeze through flues and chimneys. Remember that he drove "a miniature sleigh and eight tiny reindeer?" He was first represented, in drawings for that book, as wearing a sailor's linen trousers, high boots and the turned-coat of the European peasant. He was every Victorian child's exotic sea-going great-uncle, a pipe smoker, who brought small gifts from distant lands; a person "dressed all in fur from his head to his foot..." His appearance changed when he was redrawn by Thomas Nast for a later edition published in eighteen sixty-three. Three years later the artist renamed him using the shortened "Santa Claus" when he submitted drawings of the "Old Fellow" for inclusion in "Harper's Magazine". By eighteen eighty he had grown unaccountably taller. Animal rights activists had nothing to do with the rejection of his traditional fur coat for one of flannel in the eighteen nineties. Blue was the colour preferred by King Odin and this was

taken up by both Father Christmas and Santa Claus, but the latter went through a phase when he could not decide what colour suited him. Through all of these years Santa Claus did retain the ermine fringe which was the mark of northern royalty. The standard red suit with a plain white fur fringe did not become stylish for him until after World War One. SANTYER, SANTA CLAWER An earth spirit incarnate in humans at the Yuletide. Anglo-Saxon, after Santa Claus, see above. A member of a striking crowd of belsnickers (which, see). A disguised individual who travels from house to house exchanging amateur entertainment for food and drink, particularly the latter. This business takes place in rural Lunenburg County, N.S., where it is referred to as santyin' or sandyin'. It is alternately known as kris krinklin' or belsnicking and is called first footing in Gaelic-based communities.

SAMH The Gaelic goddess-spirit of summer. Gaelic, (pronounced shah), Her winter form is the Cailleach Bheur (Winter Hag). Her season, extending from May 1 until October 31, was entitled the samhradh (saur-ach). The celebration at the end of her reign was the samhainn (tav-inn) a name also applied to the month we call November. The winter season belonged to her alter-ego, the Cailleach Bheur, who supervised geamhradh (geaur-ach), the winter, and shape-changed into the Samh with the renewal of summer at Beultainne (May 1). This fertility spirit was involved in ritual sex on the eve of summer. Precise counterparts are the Middle English summer and the Anglo-Saxon sumor, a compound of Sum or Samh + mer, any female animal. The underlying word may be the Sankrist sama, the year. We note ocassional reference to Samhain, “a dreaded Druid god, Lord of the Dead and Prince of Darkness, the chap who assembled the living dead.” He appears to be a modern invention. See Lugh and Cromm. The Gaels were a cattle-people, who recognized two seasons based on happenings in the herdsman's year. The first of these was the removal of

animals to lowland pastures, a duty completed by the first day of winter. May Day marked the date by which they had returned animals to the upland meadows. The most important festivals of their year contained no agricultural landmarks such as mid-summer and mid-winter, these holidays being added when farming peoples joined their ranks. Sir George James Fraser thinks that the Samhainn was the more important of the two festivals. He has noted that new fires were kindled at this, the beginning of the Celtic New Year. Divination was given attention, and the spirits of dead ancestors were welcomed, while evil spirits were discouraged through ritual magic. This was the time when the baobhs were at large and the sidh loosened from their magical binding. Alexander Macbain has noted that samhuinn may derive from the same root as the English word same which is also the basis of the English assembly. He also says that the gathering at Tara took place "on 1st November while the the Ceit-shaman, our Ceitein was the first feast held on 1st May." Samh is, of course, preserved in the Gaelic tongue as it is used in Cape Breton but I have heard my grandfather, Wesly Hanson Mackay, unwittingly refer to her in the mild expletive, "By The sam hill!" He was also fond of the semi-rhetorical question, "What the sam hill?" Mary L. Fraser has noted that "The druidical feast of Samh'in, the second great event of their (pagan) year, was coincident with Hallowe'en. On this day they killed the sacred fire and discharged judicial functions with which superstitious usages for divining the future were intermingled...(eg) the eating of a salt cake before retiring in the hope that one's future husband might appear, with a glass of water, to the thirsty dreamer...the only day on which Satan was unchained..." At the Samhuinn, certain Maritimers once placed candles in every window (to drive off evil spirits and serve as a beacon for spirits of the welcome dead). "On this day the old people used to carry, personally, food to their poorer neighbours. There seems to be something quite pagan about the injunctions given and carried out by careful housewives on All Soul's Night not to throw water out of doors for fear of harming the spirits..." Fraser further indicated that Samh was a moon goddess; and noted the local superstition that crops and animals only fatten during the increase of the moon; and that animals were not killed on the wane lest they lose body weight. Human hair was similarly only cut on the wane, "otherwise it would

grow too fast". Observing the summer moon (which personified Samh) over the left shoulder was thought to invite bad luck; so men were careful to observe it over the right shoulder. Wishes made on the new moon came true, provided an object was held in the left hand and the cross signed with the right. Changes in the phase of the moon used to be carefully watched as it was observed that "a change in the moon always brings a change in the weather." Some of our ancestors held that "The prevailing weather at the time of the change would be the weather for all of the following quarter." Some went further than this suggesting that the weather that came with the change would continue until the cycle was complete. Mariners also noticed that the sea was usually calm for about twenty-four hours before and after the full moon; but at the full moon "there is generally blowy weather." It was also said that both the new moon and the full moon brought "a swell on the water" and my grandfather Guptill used to say that "fish will rally at that time." "The tide runs fastest then, fish follow the bait better on the run and the hook is best set at that time." Men also noticed how the incarnate Samh sat in the sky. When she was seen with her tines up it was noted that "the moon holds water" and a dry period was expected in the next few days; otherwise she was thought to be "spilling water" and rain was anticipated. If the moon was close to a highmagnitude star it was observed that fine weather was in the offing since "the star is trolling a long painter (tow-line)." If an intense tow-star was seen at a distance it was assumed that the long lead was needed in anticipation of stormy seas. A "star-dogged" moon was the worst omen; this rarity was supposedly a star within the inner tines of the moon, a physical impossibility. Whatever was observed, this was supposed to suggset the worst possible weather since the tow star was within the mother-ship. Like the sun, the moon-spirit was pursued by the wolves or dogs of the under-sea world, who (at the time of eclipses) came near to devouring her. While the locals saw the sun as pursued by sun-dogs; the moon was considered at hazard because of pursuing dawfish (dawnfish or dogfish) which are a species of shark. Althought these sharks are too small to be a hazard to men they were always considered ominous: "A ship followed by a shark is due for bad luck." The cloud formation known as the sharks mouth is infreqent enough to be remarkable. When it occurs the clouds are seen to arrange themselves in parallel rows (like sharks teeth). These rows usually

fan out from two points on opposite horizons and are most expansive directly overhead. "When the shark's mouth is seen, wind will come from one of these quarters." SANDMAN A sea spirit, often a reincarnate devil-doomed mariner. This creature resembled the sea-weed man which is spoken of below. These unfortunates were cursed to “bind and haul” sand until the Devil was satisfied with the work done. It is said that the wraiths of this kind are seen at the shoreline embodied in all wet hgales. They are supposed to have wailed on the wind: “More rope! More rope! More sand! More sand!” With the deeping of dusk these figures always grew in size and malevolence. After such nights men avoided repositioned sands “observing the tremulousness of the atmosphere above them.” Thus folk said: “Old Tricky is a’binding sand! God save the fishing smacks from harm!” SEANMHAIR An elderly female healer. Gaelic, sean, old; marach, big and ungainly; a grandmother or grannie. “Bordering on the supernatural were stories told of the “grannies” or healing women. They were last in a line of women who had been more numerous in the days before the rise of the medical profession...From generation to generation, the grannies had passed on the mysteries of their healing arts, an essential element of which was the “charm” - the secret word or words which helped in the healing process. For example, if the grannies were told that someone had something in his eye, as long as it could move, she could take it out (even if the person happened to be at a distance) provided she had his full name and baptism, and knew which eye it was in. This was done by taking a special bowl to the spring where the charm was repeated and the water was dipped three times. No matter where the person was, the offending object would leave the eye. This charm had come from Scotland. It was probably Gaelic but since secrecy was essential for the efficacy of the charm, nobody but the granny knew this for certain...Unfortunately this charm was lost (on Pictou Island, N.S..) when the last grannie died over on the mainland, before she could pass it on to a

successor who also had the “gift.”” 22 SCRA Earth spirits of the bogey sometimes incarnate in humans. class, addicted to mayhem;

Gaelic, sgrathai, destructive, confering with the Old Norse scra, having a dry unattractive skin; hence the English word scraggy. Comparable in meaning with scut and skite. DEfined by the Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English as "a worthless person, a good for nothing." One under the influence of a minor devil. SCUT An earth spirit often incarnate as an unreliable human. Anglo-Saxon scut probably from the Old Norse skott, the tail of any animal, particularly a fox, hare or rabbit. Definted in the Dictionary of Prince Edward Island as an "impolite" word: "A low mean person." Seconarily, "an immoral young woman or a mischievous child." Comaparable to skite, snollygoster and spleach. SEA CAT The ultimate female sea-goddess. See mhorgha. incarnate as seals. SEA HORSE A sea monster having a horse-like head. The Anglo-Saxon, hros-wael, better known as the wal-rus, literally the whale-horse. Danish, valros or hvalros, Old Norse, hrosshvalr, A very large marine mammal found in the Arctic and allied with the seals in a
22Ross,

See also roan.

The sea-cats are almost certainly

Eric, Pictou Island Nova Scotia (1987) pp. 15-16.

distinct biological family. The upper canine teeth are vey long and pointed, the neck thick and muscular and the weight of individuals up to a ton. The “sea-cat,” observed by Brendan the Navigator in our waters was no ordianary seal, since it was described as having, “huge eyes, bristles and tusks like a boar.” Brendan’s hide-covered boat was threatened by this creature and another less obvious monster, which sped in frommmm the west and killed it. This was assumed to be a response to prayers, the killing “dragon” being an agent of God. At a later time the voyagers found the halfeaten carcase of the sea-cat stranded on a tree-covered island where they had landed. They gathered the meat, cutting and opreserving it, because Brendan had foresight that they would be forced to remain on this island for a long time. Sure enough, his divine espionage was accurate and bad weather stranded them there for three months before they could continue their cruise among the western isles. SEA LION A variety of sea serpent possessing a leonine head. Anglo-Saxon, sae, originally a body of salt water inferior to the ocean; later, the ocean proper. Anglo-Norman lion , a member of the cat family native to Africa. Referred to elsewhere as the “sea cat.” Not a species described by Betty Garner in her compedium of Canadian Mionsters. The sole sighting seems to have been made by Sir Humphrey Gilbert off Cape Race, Newfoundland in 1583: “So upon Saturday in the afternoon, the 31st of August, we changed our course, and returned back for England. At which very instant, even in widing about, there passed along between us and towards the land...a very lion in our seeming, in shape, hair, and colour, not swimming after the manner of a beast by moving of his feet, but rather sliding upon the water with his whole body, excepting the legs, in sight, yet diving under, and again rising above the water, as the manner of whales, dolphins, tunnies, porpoises, and all other fish; but confidently showing himself abovbe water without hiding...Thus he passed along turning his head to and fro, yawning and gaping, with ugly demonstration of long teeth, and glaring eyes; and to bid us a farewell, coming right against the

“Hind,” he sent forth a horrible voice, roaring or bellowing as doth a lion. 23 SEA SERPENT An snake-like sea-spirit similar to the land-going dragon. Anglo-Norman, sae, and pronounced as such until about 1750; one of the larger bodies of salt water inferior to the ocean. Like ocean, serpent is a word which has come into our language from Old French. The Latin form is serpens, which is perhaps derived from serpere to creep. A related word is repere, which confers with the English reptile. The Anglo-Norman word sea-serpent is better known than the earlier Anglo-Saxon sae-wurm, or sea-worm. The sea-worms bred on the high seas, but cruised the naess, or headlands, thus they were sometimes identified as the ness, the most famous being the Loch Ness Monster. These creatures correspond with the land-dwelling "dracs". or "dragons," except that the latter were sometimes winged. The Anglo-Saxons referred to these creatures as sae deor, seasdeer or beasts or as sae draca, sea dragons. These confer with the Micmac jipjakamaq or “horned-serpents.” Sea-serpents had very long necks, and individuals have been identified by the Anglo-Saxons as the "hnecca" (neck). The necks or nucks included the ferocious nuckalavee (killer nuck) of Scottish waters men. The Gaelic nuck was the "nathair-mara", but whatever the name all are related, being generally described as "long necked, humped-backed creatures of the northern waters." The father of all sea worms was the creature known as Ioomungandor (world-river serpent). In Norse mythology he was the son of Loki and a giantess named Angurboda. Odin cast this "great worm" into the sea. There he grew to such proportions that his form finally filled the ocean-river. Seeing his own tail, Ioomungandor snapped at it and occasionally closed on it with painful effect. When this happened the worm shudder beneath the sea creating earthquakes which loosened vulcanism on the land. Thor, god of thunder, once fished for this Middle Earth snake and brought it to the surface amidst terrible storms. He was about to annihilate it when his Edward John, Select Narratives from the Principal Navigations of Hakluyt (1909). Hakluyt quoting Gilbert, whose vessel was later lost in these waters.
23Payne,

frightened boatman cut the fishing line and allowed the worm to drop back to the sea bottom. At the end of time it has been promised that Ioomungandor will play a part in the destruction of Odin's Aesir. Thor is to be the ultimate nemesis of the Middle Earth snake, but in his slaying the thunder god has been promised drowning in the flood of venom which will issue from the dying monster's jaws. Particulars seem to have come first from Lorenz von Ferry, who observed a "sae-orm" (sea-worm) near Molde, Norway in 1746. He thought that the grey-coloured head of this sea-worm was horse-like. "It had large eyes and seven or eight folds or coils." When Ferry fired at the creature it dived. The existence of sea-serpents has be argued for a very long time, some of earliest observations having been made by Olas Magnus, who published drawings and descriptions of those he claimed to see in Norway during the sixteenth century. Afterwards this creature made closer approaches to vessels. One is described by travel-writer George Borrow: "Once in October 1805, as a small vessel of the Traeth (Wales) was upon the Menai, sailing slowly...the people on board saw an immense worm swimming after them. It overtook them, climbed on board through the tiller hole and coiled itself on the deck under the mast-the people at first were dreadfully frightened, but taking courage they attacked it with an oar and drove it overboard, where it followed the vessel (“Robert Ellis”) for some time..." It will have been noticed that this particular sea-sidh has roots in Scandinavian and Gaelic lore, but Thomas Keightley has said that "The Thames, the Avon, and other English streams, never seem to have been the abode of the Neck or Kelpie." This may be due to the fact that these southern rivers are shallow and nuck can only inhabit the deep fjords of the north (which are also found in Atlantic Canada). It should be noted that the Abenaki have had a long history of interaction with sea-serpents, which they refer to as the jipijkamaq When Champlain abandoned his interests in Acadia he moved to Quebec, and from here explorered parts of eastern New York State, including Lake Champlain. On the lake bearing his name, the sxplorer saw, “a creature that was serpent-like, about 20 feet long and as thick as a barrel with a head that resembled a horse.” Further on in his report of the matter Champlain added that, “The Indians gave me the head of it, which they prize highly, saying when they have a headache, they let (human) blood with the teeth of this fish placed at the focus of pain, and get immediate relief.”

The Wabenakis described “Champ,” as an water-animal having the thicknesss of a man’s thigh, aporting silver-grey scales that a dagger could not penetrate, with jaws two and-one-half feet wide filled with very sharp pointed teeth. There descriptions remind one of certain figureheads seen on the Viking dragon-ships. According to them the beast had a beak-like head. To catch the birds it fed on, the creature moved sinuously through the lake reeds, snapping at the lower branches of overhanging trees.

Perhaps the earliest sighting boatload of new settlers and Indians In this case the creature was found was only saved from harpoons on the

in Atlantic waters was made by a off Cape Anne Massachusetts in 1639. sunning itself on the rocky shore, and intervention of the Indians.

After that there were undoubtedly sporadic encounters between men and serpents but the next recorded one was in 1805 when David Lee saw a one hundred foot sea-snake off the shores of Cape Breton Island. "Its back was dark green and it stood in the water in flexuous hillocks and went through it with an impetuous noise." The Gulf of Maine was visited in1817, when the Sandy Bar monster put on a memorable aquatic show for several hundred people. In that year there were numerous mass sightings of “a monster snake with a mountain range like body,” in the shallows through many days of the summer. The continued sightings caused the Linnean Society of Boston to form a committe “for the purpose of collecting any evidence that may exist repecting a remarkable animal denominated as a Sea Serpent, reported to have been seen in and near the Harbour of Gloucester (Massachusetts).” The committee’s report finally came back as a small pamphlet in December of 1817. It contained the sworn testimony of twelve individuals who had observed the monster. It was conclude that all of them had seen a single sea serpent about the dates August 10 to August 28 within the Harbour. After that, until, October 5, the creature was seen within Long Island Sound. Observations took place over periods of time ranging from a few minutes to two hours and the sight-seers were a distances that varied from a few feet to perhaps a mile.

The serpent was seen at all hours of the day and was sometimes in rapid motion but was also seen at rest on the water. Its back appeared to undulate at times but in other instances it was seen as smooth and barrel like. It looked like a land-snake, black or dark-brown in colour, having a diameter of about three feet, tapering toward the extremnities. Its length was variously guessed to be between twenty and a hundred feet. Most observers though the skin was smooth but two said it was rough in texture. The head was said to be like that of a conventional serpent and three witnesses said that had seen a tongue projecting from the mouth. One witness compared the eyes to that of an ox. No fins, gills or mane were seen and there was also unanimous agreement that the animal was extremely fexible. This sea serpent appeared to have little interest in the human observers and totally ignored the firing of guns from the shore. It made no sound and was not afraid of the shore for it was once seen lying partially out of the water. The naturalists who interviewed the observers were not content to publish this general information but attempted to create a hypothesis regarding the sighting: A month after these singular events a small black snake was found on the beach at Loblolly Cove and this three foot “beast” was slain using a pitchfork. It was presented to the Linneans who afterwards gave their iopinion that it was the young of the sea serpent whose “eggs” might have been deposited on or near the shore. Examining the carcasse some of the Committee were “delighted” to find a series of small humps on the animal’s back and soon published the fact that “no material difference” had been found between the large and the small animal. The specimen was named Scioliophis atlanticus and appended to their report was an anatomical description based on their dissection of the smaller animal. European critics of the report quickly identified the two drawings as representing the more common Coluber constrictor, apparently suffering from tumourous growths. The science community took the Committee’s report with “a calmness bordering on indifference,” and this helped to sea the animal’s fate as a fabulous creature. In the end the twelve honest burghers of Glucester came under the gun as being credulous, and the town gained a reputation for tall-tales.

This led to many practical jokes, and fictious sea-serpents were generated and reported tongue-in-cheek by the Press. Worse still, in the following year, Captain Rich of Cape Ann outfitted a ship from Boston and claimed they were going to track the monster. When they came to shore they reported they had caught the beast and thousands came flocking to see it. At the shore-line they found a 600 or 700 pund macquerel, which was a great curiosity, although not as billed. Those who had previously decided against the existence of sea serpents proudly took credit for their superior judgement, discrimination and clear-headedness. Even the few who had been believers ducked the issue and most supposed they had been deceived. There was less tendancy to be open about sightings after that incident. There was one in Halifax Harbour on July 15, 1825. One person described it as having, “a body as big as a tree, with eight coils or humps to its body, and it was about sixty feet long.” A similar creature was seen in the following year by William Warrburton in the waters south of Newfoundland. At Mahone Bay in 1833, two members of Her Majesty's Royal Navy saw a beast they claimed resembled a common sea-snake except that its long neck supported "a head six feet in length and had a total length of eighty feet." Both men agreed the colour was dark brown, bordering on black, streaked with white. On his second visit to America in 1842 the geologist Charles Lyell was told of a sea-serpent that had the misfortune to become stranded on Merigomish Beach, on the Northumberland shore of Nova Scotia: “It was about one hundred feet long, and nearly aground in calm water, within two hundred feet of the beach. It remained in sight about half and hour, and then got off with difficulty.” One witness thought that the head was seal-like, and on its back spotted a number of humps, which some thought were due to the flexing of the body wall. The colour appeared to be black and the skin was rough in texture. There was no indication of side flippers. In 1844 a similar creature appeared at nearby Arisaig, on this same coast. There being a slight breeze, it was easily seen by a millwright from Pictou, who stood on land within 120 feet of iot. He estimated the length at sixty feet, the thickness of the body at three. There were humps on the back which he thought were two close together to represent bends in the body. As the creature undulated, its head and tail were sometimes seen simultaneously. Later that fall a similar animal was seen from the eastern shore of Prince Edward Island, which lies across the Strait.

In 1849 four fishermen sighted an eel-like monster swimming off South West Island near the entrance to St. Margaret’s Bay, in southern Nova Scotia. They launched a boat and tried to approach it. Again the animal wasa seen to be black in colour, its back covered with scales. No caudal fin was observed but they saw a very high fin, or perhaps a row of spines erected along the back. Each was judged to be about an inch in diameter at the base, and the set continued along the back for perhaps a third of the animal’s length, each end being equidistant from the head and the tail. At some point the animal opened its mouth and looked hostile so the men, “pulled vigorously for shore, followed for some distance by the snake.” A fisherman, returning from Port George to Victoria Beach in 1890, held his ship parallel to the black basalt cliffs but became momentarily unsteady when he spotted a "horse-head" racing through the water. The captain claimed that "it rolled hoop-like" beside his craft, each loop taking up thirty to forty feet of water. Since the eyes were "as large as saucers" and the creature was following closely the crew put on extra sail in spite of a threatening gale. They were trailed as far as Point Prim light. Two other vessels made similar sightings before week-end, but it was not seen afterwards. In 1913 a sea-serpent which had a giraffe-like head was spotted by Allen Line personnel travelling across the Grand Banks in the steamer Corinthian. The First Officer confused the creature with an overturned ship and approached to within 60 metres before a curious haed arose from the water. The Second Officer went immediately for his rifle but was disuaded from shooting by its “great blue eyes.” For a few moments the sea-giraffe churned the waters near the boat and then cruised away uttering a wail, “altogether out of proportion to its size.” Those who heard ity claimed the sound was not unlike that of a disraught child. In 1915 the German Submarine V.28 torpedoed the British steamer Iberia.. As it went down, there was an undersea explosion, and amidst the debris brought to the surface the startled conning tower observers saw “a gigantic sea-animal, writhing and struggling wildly.” Before they could photograph it the animal dove out of sight. The four witnesses agreed that what they had seen was eel-like, 60 feet in length, “crocodile-like” in shape, having four limbs “with powerful webbed ffet and a long tail tapering to a point.”

The Sable Island sea-serpent was spotted by veteren fishermen over a period of five days in July 1976. On the fifth of that month Eisner Penny made the first report from a position in the vicinity of Pollock’s Shoal. He thought at first that he was looking at a whale, but later concluded that it was, “bigger than anything I have ever seen at sea.” He approached it to within seventy feet and described it as having, “a massive peaked head, with a longish mouth like an alligator.” He watched it for a half hour before it vanished in the distance. Two days later, Keith Ross and his son Rodney saw the creature again. They agreed that the head was eight or ten feet above the surface of the water. When the mouth opened the younger Ross ducked into the cabin to save a confrontation. The two men said they were close enough to see that the beast had two tusks, “two and a half feet long, three inches thick at the base, with rows of smaller teeth as well.” On top of the head they observbed a mass of brown flesh protruding from the neck. The protruiiding eye sockets were “the size of saucers,” and the tail vertical like that of a shark. Two days further on, Edgar Nickerson and his son Robert were the next terrified spotters. They saw the creatures head emerge from the water twenty feet from the cabin of their boat. Nickerson turned on his depth sounder which usually frightens whales, but this creature remained in place, its haed “right over my cabin, not five feet away.” Nickerson revved up his motor and attempted to move away forgetting he was at anchor. The anchor line strained at the railing and tore it away. Nickerson said he never looked back to see if the sea-serpent was following: “It was a horrible thing, “ he later observed, “If there’s a devil, that was it.” 24 The Utopia neck seems to have been gentle. He was first spotted in 1856 but it was 1868 before an attempt was made to turn him into a trophy. That year, the Saint Croix Courier said: "Several gentlemen of St. George recently brought the monster of Lake Utopia to the surface by exploding twenty-five pounds of dynamite under the water near the Mill (i.e. the Mill Stream)...and four rifle shots were discharged at him". Apparently he had a thick hide because newspaper reporters for the New Dominion were attracted to the area by continued sightings. They crisscrossed the Lake by sailboat in August of that year, became disillusioned and were about to return to Upper Canada when, "Lo! there it was about 150 yards from us. What I saw of it appeared to be about seven
24Weekend

Magazine, October 30, 1976.

foot in length and perhaps two and one-half to three feet in height..." One reporter said that the part above water was "about seven feet in length and two and one-half to three feet in height. An illustration of the Utopia Monster was prepared for "The Canadian Illustrated News," and published in the issue released on November 30, 1872. The woodcut engraving was signed E.J. R., the well known short-form for the St. Andrews artist E.J. Russell. He was very likely the author of an accompanying article which stated that the, "chief Medicine Man (of the Passamaquoddies) swears that a fearful creature with a head as big as a puncheon followed him and a brother Indian in their canoe some distance after the ice was cut this spring, snapping its bloody jaws in a most horrible manner." E.J. went on to say that the belief in a sea-serpent was not confined to the aboriginals: “The dwellers by the lake nearly without exception firmly believe that a huge fish or serpent has a home in “Eutopia,” for have they not seen it, basking sometimes full length of 100 feet or thereabouts, like a huge pine log on the surface of the waters? And does it not occasionally, when in a sportive mood, raise Ned generally at the bottom, sending up old logs, spruce edgings, and ancient deposits of various kinds and sorts, causing the water to boil and foam, as if a geyser had suddenly broke loose?” The following year, a couple of journalists were sent to check the story and found "appearances were alleged in different parts of the lake; and so positive were the residents that some monstrous animal was the cause, they set large hooks baited with salt fish and pork...The credulous asserted that a slimy track of some huge animal had been traced from the ocean to the lake thirty years ago...we were considered adventurers in sailing on the lake so soon after the above occurrence." They were told that a joint stock company had been organized at St. George, “with a capital of $200 for the purpose of procuring nets and apparatus for the capture of the monster.” This venture was also unsuccessful. Additional coverage came when Andrew Leith Adams mentioned the beast in Field And Forest Rambles, a travel book published in London in 1873. He was convinced that it was a local hoax or at best "an extravagant delusion". Lumbermen, he admitted, "were suddenly disturbed by the splashing of some object, which some individuals asserted was fully ten feet in breadth and about thirty feet in length."

After listening to eye-witnesses, Adams concluded that the effects described had taken place, but could not see that access of a marine monster to the Lake was possible "considering the geology of the place." He thought what had been observed might have been air and water vented from "sub-lacustrine rock fissures", or perhaps "shoals of eels or fishes in violent activity, or the result of a whirlwind." In the latter case, the old-timers would have more certainly tied what was seen to an effect of the little people. The historian, William Francis Ganong followed Adams to Saint George parish in 1891. His note book reads, in part: "Mr. McCartney, an observant and well-informed resident of Red Rock, said that some twenty years ago he often saw the Monster of Lake Utopia while lumbering there; it was a dark red in colour, the part showing above water was twenty feet long and as big around as a small hogshead; it had two large flapping affairs like fins; no head was ever shown; it was much like a large eel; it never let anyone get near it but was often seen by lumbermen from the shore; he had seen it many times with his own eyes; he had also seen or heard of the great furrows in the sand which it had made; it disappeared about eighteen years ago and has not since been heard of by anyone." Ganong also interviewed James Woodbury, who reinforced the old story that the monster periodically moved overland between the Lake and the sea. Others who were questioned said this nuck had "a dark red head" which a few though resembled either an alligator or a horse. The next appearance of this great serpent was near the coast of Maine, where it was seen by the entire crew of the schooner Madagascar, just before it landed a load of coal at Lubec. During the morning watch, at 6 o'clock on the morning of July 28, 1901, the vessel was standing under sail moving north along the coast at six to eight knots. The watch sighted an object on the starboard bow which had the appearance of a huge log. As the drew closer, Edward Ray, a sailor from Ellsworth, Maine, said that he thought the "log" was moving. The mate, Len Armstrong of Lubec, saw the object floating on the surface but was not as certain there was movement. As they approached within a sea-biscuit throw of the object, the two sailors were astonished to have it raise a great snake-like head and glide sinuously away from the ship. They were close enough to observe minute details: In shape they said that the creature came closest to a snake. It was 30 feet long, covered

with scales, ranging in colour from green to brown, and strangely refractive of the sun's rays. Along the back, from head to tail, they saw a spinal points, which seemed an extension of the back bone. Just below the head was a huge dorsal fin, or spine, thick, dark in colour, and about the size of a man's hand. The crew agreed that the body diameter must be about two feet, tapering slightly beyond the head and drastically towards the tail. As far as they could see there was no difference between the body tone or colour from the top to the bottom surface of the animal. After the monster was safely separated from the ship it lay quietly upon the water for a number of minutes, seemingly appraising the ship. For a half hour more, the men watched it making occasionally fast skipping motions through the water, travelling only a short distance with each burst of energy. It appeared entirely fearless, showing no alarm at any of the tacks made by the vessel. In speaking of the incident Edward Ray told the "Saint Croix Courier" that he had been a seaman for nine years and had sailed the Atlantic from Africa to Labrador, but had never seen anything in the sea that resembled this creature. Asked if he thought it might have been possible to trap the animal, he said that no crew could have taken such a massive creature alive, and he guessed it would have been dangerous to injure it with a harpoon. Again, the "St. Andrews Beacon" reported another sighting, August 2, 1906: This time the serpent was seen close to land by Thebold Rooney, keeper of the Sand Reef Light. Rooney thought that the monster had been draw to land in the wake of schools of herring, which he may have been pursuing. If so, he was not after food, for after moving quietly about he moved away from the lighthouse in the direction of Clam Cove. Rooney got out his binoculars and reported the animal to be between 25 and 30 feet, judging by background objects. The head was small and snake-like and he guessed it to be the diameter of a weir stake. The keeper said that he might have taken it as a shark except for the lack of any dorsal fin. As the serpent moved out of sight it flipped up a "tail" in whale-fashion, and was lost to sight. Rooney said that this was not the first "sea-snake" he had seen in St. Andrews Bay. Several years earlier he had been in the company of several other fisherman when one went scudding by making "a great deal of noise". For their part, the editors of the newspaper supported the keeper noting he

was "not a man given to seeing snakes other than sea serpents." Visiting the region, Ganong noted this flurry of sightings, and published a paper in 1907 edition of The Bulletin Of The New Brunswick Natural History Society, noting: "For the past few summers the local papers have often reported the appearance of "sea-serpents" at Passamaquoddy and the Saint Croix. The animal is really there but it is according to testimony of observant persons, a White Whale...Locally it is stated that it came into the Bay with the war-ships during the Champlain celebrations, June 25, 1905. But in this belief we have nothing but an illustration of another wondertendency, viz. the habit of linking together, as casually connected, prominent events which are merely contemporaneous; for the data in my possession shows that the animal was seen in the bay at least one season before 1905." Ganong remained interested in the legend: "I have been on the lookout for some years past, during my trips to New Brunswick waters, for appearances which might sustain a sea-serpent preconception." Aside from the Utopia sightings, which were all second-hand, he did uncover the "inconclusive testimony" of Dr. J. Orner Green, who thought that a similar creature occupied Lake Oromocto, many miles to the north. There was also the "celebrated case" of Mr. Eben Hall, who seems to have seen the wewiliamaq of the Passamaquoddies in the lakes of Maine. Although Ganong thought that this native of Saint Stephen gave evidence "in good faith" he was suspicious of the fact that Hall was making a living with the information on a lecture tour. Unable to convince himself, Ganong finally concluded that the nuck was "floating logs" or up-wellings of gas as Adams had suggested. The trails across land, which the Indians said were left by the jipijkamaq, Ganong dismissed as Indian portage routes or trails left by well-fed beavers. The story did not end with Ganong. Several decades later Robert White, the foreman of a lumber rafting crew, watched in fascination as "a shining coil of black flesh" turned over within his log boom on Lake Utopia. The upheaval of logs which followed was seen by all of his workers and none of them thought that it looked much like escaping jets of water and air. Joseph Goddill later said that he frequently watched the animal sunning itself on the spring ice just before break-up. If the nuck was a log, or a group of logs, it must have been powered by an outboard motor because Victor Cook saw it travelling away from his location on the shore at a speed of about eight knots.

In 1951, Mrs. Fred McKillop, a ninety year old grandmother, told the Telegraph-Journal of her encounter with the famous monster: "It is still fresh in my mind, and I was never so frightened in all my life...The men had gone fishing (on Lake Utopia) and had left me to sit with two of my grandchildren. We were all watching the lake and it was beautiful. It was so clear it resembled glass and there wasn't a ripple showing." "Suddenly, as I watched the water commenced to boil and churn and make waves which came in and broke on the shore. Then a huge creature of some sort emerged from the water, at least it showed part of its head and part of its body. It resembled a huge black rock, but it moved and churned all the time. I was alone with the grandchildren at our cabin, and was so terrified that I took the children and ran into the cabin and locked the door." "After a short time had passed, I realized that whatever it was belonged in the lake and so we were in no danger. It was then that I went outside again and watched it. I had never before heard of the Lake Utopia Monster, and therefore, had no idea what it was. When the men returned home I told them about it and they said that must have been what it was..." The expert observations of geologist J.W. Dawson are allowed here although his a spectacular sighting took place at Merigomish Beach, Pictou County, N.S., in 1842. Estimated at one hundred feet, this monster swam in from the Northumberland Strait and beached itself. It became stranded within two hundred feet of shore and struggled for a half hour before regaining deep water. In this time it was observed by large numbers of Pictonians. One thought that the head was horse-like while another thought that it resembled a seal. The colour was given as black and it was said that the body surface had "a rough appearance". In its efforts to reach safety, the animal was seen to "bend its body almost into a circle and unbend it with rapidity..." Some who saw it thought it had the appearance of a long string of fishing net buoys "moving rapidly about." Considering the capacity of the sea-serpents to shape change it may be asked why this creature did not assume a land form and walk away? Unlike the land sidh, who became diminished in shape-changing, sea forms increased in mass by assimilating water, becoming larger with each alteration. The oldest, fiercest, and most impressive nucks in Scotland were the nuckalavee, who have been described as "psychotic creatures, made so by their inability to change form."

A sea-monster has been seen in the tidal waters of the Kennebecasis and in Bellisle Bay. This may be the same creature that was described by a Grand Lake resident as, a creature with a head as big as a water pail and great green eyes..." He said this serpent "raced around my canoe on more than one occasion, year after year." Others observed wet furrows on the beach where some gigantic mass had slithered across the shore. Pictou Island lies nine miles off the coast of Pictou County, N.S., and was, briefly, the home of a sea-creature which came ashore and cut a broad swath through the marshlands at the south of the island about the middle of this century. Some of the men, noticing the crushed grass and cat-tails thought the trail might have been left by a horse, except for the fact that there were no hoof-prints and no horses on the island. It began to be suspected that, "it must be a monster from the sea that's made the crawlings on the way to our pond." A group of brave, but foolish, lads went to look for this grand-daddy of all snakes, and to their shock found him! Retreating to a nearby hunting camp they spent an uneasy night listening for the rustling of grasses. In the morning, deciding to eliminate this visitor, they set fire to the marsh, but when the smoke had cleared could find no sign of the animal in the burned area. This was the beginning of a series of sightings which occured without much public record. A number of people did see the emergence of the Champlain monster in 1819 when it poked its head above Bulwagga Bay. In the early 1870s a group of New Yorkers on a steamboat excursion out of Essex saw the creature as the hove in towards the Vermont shore at Houseboat Bay. The local paper, “The Temperance Advocate,” reported that the “What-Is-It” moved through the lake at railway speed, and that the water was agitated for thirty feet or so in the wake of what appeared to be a head on a long neck. During the decades that followed P.T. Barnum offered $550,000 dollars to the person who could present him with a carcass of the seaserpent. No one ever delivered the creature, but the sightings persisted. In 1939 a couple fishing in a boat off Rouse’s Point spotted an unusually agressive example of the species. This one chased the couple to the shore with all the speed their outboard could musterr. In 1945 there was another group sighting from the “S.S. Ticonderoga.” In 1947 L.R. Jobnes saw it from the northern tip of Hero Island: “There was nothing to see at first but a group of large ripples diverging in circles fro a point about 300 yards from our craft... Then out of the deopths reared a huge dark form which moved

swiftly in a northwesterly direction. Three segments appeared clearly above the water’s surface, separated from one another by about five feet of water, the overall length of the creature being about 25 feet...It moved with incredible swiftness - about 15 miles per hour - and disappeared altogether in about two minutes.” Again in 1976 two New York scuba divers saw it near Maquam Bay. Fred Shanafelt and Morris Lucia were both in the water when Lucia motioned that there was danger. The two emerged to be confronted by a beast that, “couldn’t have been anything but a sea serpent. The two later agreed that the length was about 40 or 50 feet and that the head was horse-like and a mushroom grey in colour. They thought that the neck rose about 8 feet from the surface of the water.They were not molested and Shanafelt commented that: “We watched the serpent for about two minutes...It didn’t make any effort to harm us. I think we could have gone right back in the water. Of course I wouldn’t have done that for a million dollars.” (which see)In 1961 The Loch Ness Phenomenon Investigation Bureau was set up after a Scottish whisky distiller offered a large sum for a living specimen. In 1970, the director of that organization released motion pictures of a ness, which Royal Air Force scientists examined for fraud and returned "without negative results". Afterwards, Professor Tucker of Birmingham University recorded, on sonar, "large objects behaving in an animate manner" within the Loch. In 1968 a Cape Ann fisherman, John Randazza, his father, and a number of crew members motored to within 10 feet of some similar seacreature, which they spotted on the Midddle Bank, 15 miles south-east of Gloucester. It had been reported from that fishing bank all through the previous two weeks, but this was the closest approach. The men said the serpent was 70 feet long, snake-like, with a black hide and a white line emphasizing the mouth. As first seen the Cape Ann monster was swimming away but, “It saw us and turned right around heading right at us,” said John. “My father started screaming “Let’s get out of here.” Fifty years he’s been fishing, he’s never seen anything like that. He was scared, we all were scared.” SEA-WEED FOLK Sea-spirits seemingly composed of derelict sea-weeds.

Anglo-Saxon, see the note on the sea-serpent (above). Also known as the rag-tag people, this species reminds one of Old Bear Woman who is said to dress in the leaves and mosses of the forest, or any other natural materials that happen to be at hand. This species is not widely represented in European myth, but almost all countries have stories of invisible forest spirits who sometimes made themselves visible by gathering leaves or twigs to their bodies. Their are numerous stories, particularly from our inhabited islands, of men whose runners returned to their former homes at death. Here they revealled themselves to surviving relatives as constructs of the seaweed through which they had travelled on the jounney from the sea. The more subtle among them allowed the family to sleep but left a pile of seaweed within the house to announce their passage and declare a loss. This spirit was seen at Moser's River, Nova Scotia: Albert Mosher and William Lowe had gone to Toby Island during the lobster season, taking with them provisions for two weeks. Before that time was out they found themselves short of rations and Albert went ashore in a row-boat to pick up a few "necessaries". He promised to return by dawn, which explains why Will was surprised to hear the door rattling after he was barely asleep. Neverthelwess, supposing his partner had completed his business earlier than expected Lowe went to the door and opened it; there was no one there! He diidn't know how to react to this, but being quite sure no one stood outside their shack, returned to bed. Again he had hardly settled when he heard another rattling of the latch and again was puzzled at finding no one standing outside the door. A third repetition caused him to make a thorough survey of the surrounding area, and close to the beach he discovered a "man" draped in seaweed. Thinking Mosher was involved in an elaborate stunt, Will called out " Give it up Albert, you can't fool me!" At this the figure melted into a puddle containing salt water, sea-weed and eel-grass. The purser of the Grand Manan steamer, the "Keith Khan" told a similar story: He claimed that one state-room had an uncanny visitor, and that the line would not rent the space to anyone unless absolved of responsibilty for what happened there. The trouble started after a passenger had committed suicide in this cabin. Naturally, there were those who were curious about this supposed haunt, and the last of these convinced the captain to bunk with him in an attempt to either disprove or banish the ghost. Both men were skeptics but remained awake and on guard against any unusual happenings. They were astounded to see an eel-like figure squeeze through a partially opened porthole and reassemble itself as a

shadowy figure completely sheathed in slime and seaweed. No coward, the captain wrestled with the sea-weed man and got several bruised ribs for the effort. The passenger, following the example of several previous occupants went over the side, and the room was permanently locked.

SELKIE A sea-spirit incarnate in a common harbour seal. Anglo-Saxon seolc, possibly derived from the Old Norse silki, soft and smooth after the fashion of silk, the fine lustrous fibre produced by the larvae of the silkworm. Originally a fine woollen cloth similar to serge, having a surface sheen, like that of a seal. These are the sea trows (trolls) of Scotland's northern islands. The resemble the roane of highland Scotland and are counterparts of the kelpy. In the Faeroes (Far Isles): "It is the belief of these islanders that every ninth-night the seals puit off their skins and assume the human form and sport about on the land. After some time, they resume their skins and return to the water." On the Shetlands people said that, "they are all fond of music and dancing, and it is their dancing that forms the fairy rings." In the Orkneys it was said that they came ashore on nights when there was a full moon. "Seal women can easily be recognized, when in human form, by the slight web between their fingers (see morrigan), the roughness of their palms, their slow breathing, their fondness for swimming and diving, their knowledge of medicine and midwifery and their ability to tell the future." The seal-people of the Orkney Isles were alos known as the haaf (which, see) and were said to have startling bright red pupils, like Morrigan in her form as Badb, the battle-goddess. Lonesome fishermen sometimes sought the sea-suits of the selkies knowing that they could then force one of the sea-people to become a devoted, if wistful, wife. However, the skin had to be well-hidden since she would invariably don it and leave her land husband for the sea. SEELIE A sea-spirits whose ocean-going form is the seal.

Anglo-Saxon saelig which is our word silly. Silly was originally an adjective used to modify people or creatures who were brave, honest, trustworthy and naieve. The sea trows (trolls) travelled the oceans in sealskins which they laid aside on coming to land. These creatures, the descendants of the sea-giants, were in the habit of assuming human form every ninth-night. A typical traditional tale follows: "A man following to pass by a female seal found her without her skin, disporting herself and dancing and sporting on the land. He found her skin and took it and hid it. When she could not find it, she was forced to remain in human form. As she was fair to look upon, the same man took her to wife and had children by her and lived happily with her. After a long time, the wife accidently rediscovered her hidden skin, and did not resist the temptation to creep into it, and so again became a seal and returned to the sea. The Wolves which lie due west of Deer Island. They are five small islands. South Wolf now has an automated lighthouse but East Wolf was always unlighted, very desolate and close to sea-level. This island was a satging-ground for the seelys. East Wolf was visited, in the last century, by sealers who clubbed and skinned several animals before it was noticed that the sea was running unusually high and storm clouds gathering. In the tremendous sea-swell that developed, all but one of the crew managed to get off this island and reach the mother ship. Diverted by his work, the marooned sailor was forced to watch his shipmates up-anchor and make for safe-harbour at nearby Fairhaven. With the incoming tide proving more than an inconvenience, this lad moved to the centre of the island where he was surprised to find a number of nude females standing about the flayed body of a "seal". Most of them scattered at his appearance but one who was particularly distressed stayed in place moaning in cadence with the wind. He approached and spoke to her, and she upbraide him and his kind for skinning the seelys. She motioned to the blood-streaked naked figure of a man lying at her feet and said this was her husband. Recoiling in horror, the sailor offered to return the skins taken earlier, and, for her part, the seely swam with the man on her back to Deer Island. Although he had some difficulty convincing his ship mates, the sailor finally pressured them to take the seasuits back to the Wolves, where they were redistributed to their owners, allowing them to return to the deep.

SHEILA, SHEELAGH

A leading spirit of the duin mara. Also seen as Sheelagh, the "englished" form of the Gaelic sith, one of the side-hill folk, or little people; those the English call elfs or fairies. The pronounciation is "shee" in Ireland and "shaw" or "shay" in Scotland. + lag, weak or hollow, curved, and thus laghach, pretty. Similar to the Latin electus, chosen over others and the English election. Similar to the Irish Gaelic sidh, a fairy hill and their word sigh, a fairy. Siabhrach, siobrag and siochair are a few of the equivalent names in the Scottish Gaelic. There are numerous other local forms of the word in both Ireland and Scotland, all derived from the Old Irish side, those the Romans recognized as the "dei terreni," or "gods of the earth." Their dwellings were the sid and side was the ancient name for their magical powers. The last two words are similar to the Greek sed, a dwelling place, seat or abode. The Romans learned of these "people of peace" and introduced into the theology at Rome as the novensides, the "new (British) gods." Finally we have sithean, literally "the peaceful home", a green fairy knoll. Sidh is sometimes translated as wolf, or as venison, the feed of wolves. Sheelagh was the daughter of the Celtic god Dagda, variously represented in folklore and literature as the May Queen, Mebd, Morgan, Samh or Bridd. See mhorga and cailleach bheur which are also synonymous. In the Christian mythology of Ireland Saint Bridd, Brigid, or Brigit, is considered the female equivalent of Saint Patrick, who died in the year 460. She is supposed to have been born in 450 to a chieftain named Dubhtach (the Dark One) of Fang and a Christian bondswomen living in County Louth. Dubtach's legal wife was not fond of the child and so Bridd (the Bride) was fostered to a druid, in nearby Faughart. Interestingly, this is the site of the ford between northern and southern Ireland, where the northern hero Cuchulain single-handedly beat off the armies of the wolf-witch queen Mebd or May. Brigit adopted her mother's religion rather than the druidic traditions and supposedly founded "a convent" at Kildare. Some have guessed that she chose this site because it was easy to gather the recently converted at such well-known places. What is not so easy to explain is her establishment of "a sacred fire in an enclosure outside the church." The flame was kept perpetually alight and was guarded by twenty virgin nuns. This does not sound like anything remotely connected with Christian creed, but the fire burned on until it was ordered extinguished by the archbishop of Dublin in 1220. At that, it was rekindled and only went dark at the time of

the Dissolution of the monasteries and nunneries. The warmth of Brigit's personality was sufficient that she gathered 10,000 converts to her convent. Those were the days before such places were unisexual retreats and it was noted that while Brigit "had no interest in marrying, she never eschewed the company of men." As the abbess became more powerful she invited bishop Conlaeth to come to Kildare to serve the interests of the males in her community. He was a fine artificer in gold, silver and iron and the community began to specialize in the production of metal objects for religious and secular use. Some of the nuns worked with the men in the forges and design shops but others specialized in weaving, dyeing, cloth work and medicine. Four years after the birth of Saint Columba, in the year 525, Brigit died and her remains were placed "in one tomb with Patrick at Down." She was claerly a woman of mythic dimensions described (long after her supposed time) as "the prophetess of Christ; the Queen of the South; the Mary of the Gaels." Irish historians have rebelled at the suggestion, but there is obvious merit in Sir James George Fraser's idea that, "St. Bride, or St. Bridget, is an old heathen fertility goddess, disguised in a threadbare Christian cloak. Probably she is no other than Brigit, the Celtic goddess of fire..." Anciently, a tribe known as the Brigantines were known to have crossed from Belgium to northern England and to have migrated from there to northern Ireland, the seat of St. Brigit's power. They are sometimes compounded with the Tuatha daoine (northern people, or people of the goddess Danu). Folklorist T.W. Rolleston supposrts Fraser, noting that "Dana also bears another name, that of Brigit, a goddess much honoured by pagan Ireland. Her attributes were in great measure transferred in legend to the Christian St. Brigit of the sixth century." The name of the older goddess was also found in Gaul (France) where she was inscribed as Brigindo. In Greater Britain (England) she was worshipped as Brigantia. Her father/husband was sometimes given as Dagda (father of the day) and their grandson was Ecne (pronounced Yeo-hee) whose name means "knowledge" or "poetry". Dagda and Danu, or Brigit, represent the source of the Tuatha daoine, "the gods of the earth", and she was identified as "the mother of the Irish gods." The Tuatha daoine were eventually defeated and "driven to earth" by totally human invaders who have been identified as the Milesions, or sons of Miles. They had insignificant magic as compared with the Tuathans but they had the advantage of ultra-sharp iron weapons. It was after the Tuathans

were driven to the hinterland, and to refuge beyond the sea, that they were contemptuously dismissed as the Daoine sidh, or side-hill people. A generalized name for any female leader of these sigh would be siabrachlaghach, which may be anglicized as sheelagh. The pre-eminent female leader among these defeated people was Mebd, the "wolf-queen" who took residence under Sliab Cruachan in the southern province of Connaught. She was definitely curvaceous, and pretty, and elected to office by her Irish peers. On the other hand, she was hardly as generous with her enemies as her incarnation in Saint Brigit would suggest and she was definitely more than csually interested in men. Brigit, herself, was a superior horsewoman, being represented in a contemporary hymn as the "cailleach", or nun, who used her chariot to "range the Curragh" behind two spirited horses. The same was said for the southern "queen of the May" but she did more than spread the word of God, being a warrior of the highest order. She cut down Cuchullain's pal, Cethern in armed combat. Compalining of this unknown assailant Cethern noted: "As I stood a tall, long-faced woman with soft features came at me. She had a full head of yellow hair and two golden birds stood strangely silent on her shoulders. She wore a purple cloak folded all about her and had five hands of gold decorating her back. She carried a light, stinging, sharp-edged lance, and leld her sword in a a woman's grip over her head. Truly she was a massive, frightening figure of womanhood." Hearing this Cuchullain smiled wryly: "You are lucky to remain alive for that was certainly Queen Mebd of Cruachan. This character is Sheila, the personification of storm at sea. Like the ocean she is a shape changer: she is often pictured as a hooded crow, or a dark haired warrior-woman. This is also the case with mermaids who were seen at the surface as having golden hair but it became seaweed-coloured when they were in their deep-water hiomes. It is on record that Mebd was as generous as Brigit with her friends, but enemies were beyond the pale. While Cuchullain and his friends believed in fair play, Mebd felt no similar constrains. At the onset of war, she abandoned the north, and visited a curse on the men of Armagh, promising them monthly stomach cramps not unlike those of the female menstral cycle. They might not have survived the initial invasion except for the help of the off-shore hero Cuchullain, who came to them from the Island of Scathach, off the western shore of Scotland. He held the pass (where Brigit was born) until his allies recovered their strength.

Mebd is a personification of the voracity, willfulness and ambivalence of the ocean. On one occasion, Mebd suggested wiping out friendly tribesman fearing their eventual attachment to the northern cause. Her consort Ailill condemned this suggestion as "a woman's thinking" and said it was "an evil concept." Mebd, the mhorrigan, said candidly that she never slept with a man unless another stood in his shadow ready to do duty. She was always willing to use her sexuality to cement alliances, thus she said she would sleep with the warrior Fergus if he would march against Cuchullain. When that failed to inspire him she offered wealth and marriage to her daughter. Ailill had a great deal to forgive, but did so saying, "I know much about queens and women and I lay all fault in marriage with the strange swellings within a woman';s breast and with her natural lust." Cuchullain was a repeated target of Mebd's alternate bursts of lust and hate. At one "truce", the lady sent six armed warrior against against Cuchullian but he cut them down. Next the queen promised a one-to-one meeting, promising she would come accompanied by her unarmed maids-inwaiting. Cuchullain's charioteer was doubtful of her honesty and advised his co-adventurer: "Mebd is a forceful woman; if I were you, I'd watch for her hand at my back." Thus advised, Cuchullain took along a a hidden sword, and it was just as well, for the accompanying maidens turned out to be fourteen armed men in disguise. Even after that, Mebd appeared to her nemesis as a beautiful, although shape-changed woman. When she propositioned Cuchullain, he said something to the effect that he was too busy and tired to bother. At that she became truly annoyed, revealled her real identity, and promised evil times. At their next meeting, she fought him in serpent form, worried him as a wolf, and tried to trample him after she shape-changed into a ravaging herd of cattle. Eventually, Cuchullain fought the black queen to a draw, but she had the last laugh. When the hero was an older man, she approached him as the three old crones (the hags written into Shakespaere's Macbeth). By subterfuge, these fates convinced Cuchullain that he should share a stew with them. Unfortunately, it contained dog-meat, which was his "geis", or taboo. As a result, he was paralyzed on one side, but even then he and his stallion held off enemy warriors for three days and nights. Not long after, Mebd was herself killed when an enemy shot a fruit-stone into her forehead with a sling-shot. Mebd may therefore be seen as the alter-ego of Brigit; the former an adherent of the dark forces; the latter a representative of light, wisdom and knowledge. Actually, the matter is more complex than this, as the supreme

goddess, Befind, was known to be a triad. The Befind resemble the Roman Fatii and the Scandinavian Nornr; each group consisting of three women who were responsible for the fates of the gods and men. The goddess of the past was the sheelagh, pretty, vivacious, quixotic and sexually active, and most often called Mhorrigan, or Morgan. She is alternately Samh or Brigit or Danu, the matriarch of antique times. Her mature counterpart, the goddess of the present, was usually said to be the warrior-queen Mebd, Maeve, or Badb (the last translates from Gaelic as witch, wizard, hag or carrion crow). The crone of future events was entitled Macha. While these spirits might be encountered individually it has to be understood that they were each components of the larger Befind. The woman adherents of Befind became the befinds, the spirits given to men and women as guardians at their birth. In Atlantic Canada the "line storm" is sometimes alternately called "St. Patrick's storm" or "Sheila's storm". This event is usually a snow-storm that comes about the time when the sun seems to cross the equatorial line at the time of the vernal, or spring, equinox. Sometimes parallelling the equinoctial gale, Sheila's storm was expected "a little before or a little after" Saint Patrick's Day (March 17) and was expected to be one of the most difficult storms of the year. It is noted elsewhere that the sigh (shee) controlled the weather. Those that dwelt in the underworld were the daoine sigh, while those who lived beneath the ocean were the daoine mara, and the latter controlled the face and force of the waters. In Gaelic parts of the Atlantic Canada folklorist Mary L. Fraser has noted that any spontaneous assembly of women is guessed to be an omen of storm. She says: "This may be a survival of the Old Celtic myth of Cailleach Bheur (The Winter Hag), a giant woman who brought the storms of winter." This woman is, obviously the the "horse-faced hag" who the early Irish called Macha, the third form of the Befind. In ancient Ulster Macha was said to have assumed the sheelagh form and to have taken residence with a young man named Crundchu. He impregnated her, but noticed that even encumbered she could outrace the deer of the forest. Being addicted to gambling, he bet that she could outrace the king's horses. At the race-course, she pleaded with the men who were assembled to put off the running until she was delivered, but the men of the north had no pity. "Then bring on the horses," said Macha, "I will certainly beat them but my curse will fall upon you for this infamy." She did as promised, but fell immediately afterwards and gave birth to twins.

Arising she held the boys aloft and faced the men saying, "Men of Ulster! From this hour, for nine times nine generations, you will be as weak and helpless as a woman in childbirth for five days and four nights of each month, your spirit robbed when it need be strong." Thus the goddess of fate abandoned the northerners, and blighted them with "the Debility of the Ultonians". This caused them to call for the services of Cuchullain, who was unaffected by the curse since he was in Scotland at that time. It was, of course, Queen Mebd (another form of the Befind) who opposed this northern hero. It is significant that North Americans remember Ground-hog Day (in Lunneburg County, Nova Scotia it is called Daks Day, or Badger's Day). This informal holiday is celebrated annually on the second day of February when men look to see if the groundhog sees his shadow. If he does, six additional weeks of winter are expected. If the day happens to be cloudy it is supposed that the back of winter is broken. In Scotland, men considered bears to be their "ground-hogs" and looked to their emergence, after hibernation, with similar interest. Interestingly, the Micmac tribesmen shared this concept: "The second of February was regarded as a turning-point in the seasons, and sun seen on that day was not hailed with delight. There is the Indian wise saw that goes, "If the bear can see his shadow on February second, he goes back to his den for more sleep." Anciently, this was a pagan quarter-day which the Gaels entitled the "Imbolc", "Imbolg" or "Imbolt." This is another two part word, derived from "im", once every twelfthmonth, periodically + " "bolt", a welt. This refers to certain religious paractises that need not be examined in this context. The time was also called "Bridd's Day" which was renamed St. Bride's Day or Candlemas. Even after Christianity was established in Britain, rural men and women thought it practical to consult the spirit of Bridd in the highlands of Scotland. There, the beginning of February was seen as the time for the emergence of mean and animals from their winter of hibernation or inactivity. It was also the time for the real or ritual deflowering of the "oigh" or virgin animals of every species. It is of interest that the Gaelic word for virgin resembles "og", any young animal, and "oighre", ice. Thus, the Imbolc was held at the revival of vegetation and was a fertility festival. One of its intentions was to melt the ice of the Cailleach Bheur and return Sheelagh to the land. Sir James George Fraser tells us that some of the old customs were

still practised in the Hebrides in the last century: "The mistress and servants of each family take a sheaf of oats and dress it up in women's apparel, put it in a large basket and lay a wooden club by it, and this they call Bridd's bed; and then the mistress and servants cry three times, "Bridd is come; Bridd is welcome." This they do before going to bed, and when they rise in the morning they look among the ashes (on the hearth) expecting to see the impression of Bridd's club there; and if they do, they reckon a good crop year, and the contrary they will take as an ill omen." Another commentator says that "one or more candles are left burning nearby all night long." The interpretaion of this we leave to the individual, but it has obvious sexual overtones. Spring is much later appearing in Maritime Canada than in Britain, nevertheless the old weather lore that surrounds the Bride's Day is well known in parts of our region. Fraser tells us that people in Antigonish County, Nova Scotia, referred to February as "the wolf month". This is understandable since "Faoilleach" is the old Gaelic month extending between what is now mid-January and mid-February. The month derives its name from "faol", anciently a name for the winter sea, but is now that given "a wild dog" or "a wolf." In Irish Gaelic "mi na Feile Brighde", the month of the WolfBride", is used to name February; in Scotland "am Faoilteach" is the modern form for January. According to local myth, the Cailleach sent her "wolf-storms" out into the world all through "wolf-month." It was her spirit (she was, after all, the "bear-woman") which emerged from the winter darknesss of her cave on February 2. She was content if the skies remained grey on her day; but the appearance of sunlight, and the reminder that her powers were fading, was always sufficient to cause her to vent her fury on the land. As Fraser has noted, the first three days of the third week of February were "the sharktoothed days", a time when the "sea-wolves" were joined by "biting, stinging east winds." Then came "Feadag", the "plover-winged" time, marked by three days of swift, fitful blasts of rain - bringing winds that killed the sheep and the lambs." "Fead" indicates a flute, whistle, blast, or breath of air. In Scotland "an Gearran" is the entitlement for the month of February, but it used to be a period of time following that of the plover or wind-bird. In any event it was a four week interval, beginning as late as March 15, and was perhaps at first, thought dependent on the whims of the Old Bear Woman. The meaning of "gerran" is "gelding", any young but sexually mature animal.. Related words are "gearr," the sexually precocious hare; "gearrach", any flow

of bloody fluids, and "gearraidh," pasture-land between the shore and the moors. This time was always invariable followed by "Cailleach", the Old Woman's week, which was characterized by horrid weather. What followed was the time called "Oisgean," the three days given to the birthing of the "Ewes." Finally, there was the month of "Mart" (the Cow), or March, and Sheila's Storm, sometimes called Sheila's Broom, the very last gasp of the Winter-Hag, near the time of the vernal equinox. At this, the Cailleach Bheur threw her hammer "beneath the mistletoe" and became reincarnate as Samh, the goddess of summer. The Cailleach Bheur, known as Mother Night, or Mother Gode, in Scandinavia, was considered at the height of her power at Yule eve, and her ascendancy was celebrated in the twelve days of Yule, which ended January 5. As a consequence, here as in Europe, "it was commonly held that the weather on each of the twelve days between Christmas and Epiphany indicated what might be expected of the corresponding twelve months of the year. Consequently (fishermen and farmers) drew weather calendars on this basis; the early hours of December 25th, for example, indicating the weather for the early part of January, its later hours proving what the close of the month would be like." Weather forecasters watched the midwinter solstice with a great deal of interest for it was suggested that "the way of the wind and weather (on the day) when the sun crosses the line will be reflected in conditions during the following three months." A seaman explained the effect in this way: "Last December, remember that the sun crossed with the wind south and thick o' fog. Then, afterrwards, we had a very mild winter." Irrespective of this, it was always held that, "If Candlemas (Brigit's Day) be clear and true; their'll be not winters one, but two!" Another version of this homilie goes: "If Candlemas Day be fair and bright, Winter will take another flight." Another version says: "If Candlemas day be fine and fair, The half the winter's to come, and mair (more)." At the time of Sheila's storm, near the spring equinox, the wind was watched with equal interest for it was said that "when the wind happens from the west fine weather will follow." The other quarters carried their own predictions following this little verse: When the wind is in the north Dare the mariner not go forth.

When the wind is in the south Blows the bait in the fishes' mouth. When the wind is in the east Venture not, nor man nor beast. But when wind is in the west Then the weather's always best. Creatures unrelated to water-goddess always sought cover when Sheila was at large. Thus it was stated that "when hens run for cover, it is a sign of storm. Cats and hares, which were an animal-totem of Sheila acted very differently, running, jumping and frisking like the wind itself. It is another local belief that loons are particularly plaintiff just before an easterly gale. The wind that was particular to Sheila originated in the north; and was that which she rode when her host travelled the Yule-tide sky seeking the souls of the dead. Hereabouts, that wind was sometimes called "the stepmother's breath." Sheila's last gasp was sometimes referred to as Sheila's Broom and this storm usually came in mid-March at about the time of the vernal equinox. That storm is often the worst of the winter in these parts and is alternately identified as the line storm, or the Saint Patrick's Day storm. SHELLYCOAT The fresh water spirit whose body is covered with shells. Anglo-Saxon, scell or scyll, originally the scales of fish. Laterally, the hard exterior covering of any plant or animal. This spirit resembles the Scottish spunkie, as well as the chaffinch. jack-o'-lanthorn, hob-wi'- lanthorn, will-o'the-wisp, and hobredy's lanthorn, all spirits of England. A Scottish bogle who haunted fresh-water streams, a creature festooned with the shells of clams and snails, which clatter as he moves. His chief delight was to mislead men through subtle noise making. "The office of some is to steal children; of others to lead travellers astray, as will o' the wisps (fire-balls), or to pixy-lead them, as it is called. Roguery and sportiveness are the characteristics of this spirit." The phosphorescent "flames" or cold lights seen in bogs and swamps were related to these bogtrows (trolls). Some humans found these spheres or sheets of dancing light hypnotic and would follow where they led, often into places of treacherous footing or over the face of cliffs. The sound of a shellycoat was even more subtle, being mistaken for the voice of a woman or child in distress, or as

that of a promiscuous female. The shellycoats preferred life in the swamps or moors, but also lived in, or near, graveyards. They were most active in the winter of the year and were never seen on bright sunlit days. SHOOPILTEE A salt water-spirit whose usual form is that of a pony. Anglo-Saxon, from the Old Norse sjoor, the sea + piltr. boy; The former word confers with English shoo, an interjection meaning Begone! Away! An expressive means of frightening off animals or men; The word piltr confers with pilt, or pelt, to strike beat or knock or push. A creature similar to the English pilwiz, or pushy witch, "a sprite who devastates fields and torments human beings." A frightful creature similar to the phooka, the kelpie, the tangie and the galoshan. Poteet has noted that the local form shoopie indicates any animal in need of a haircut. This spirit belonged to the general class of creatures known as the eich uisge, the water-horses. The Scottish kelpies and the Gaelic fuaths (cold ones) were shape-changers who might appear in human form but more often materialized as horses of gigantic size. The glashans of the Isle of Man correspond with main-land galoshans, but the former had a reputation as rapists although only the size of small foal or a year-old lamb. The shopiltee was a native of the Shetlands, and therefore appeared in the semblance of a miniature horse or Shetland pony. Although the smaller horse-spirits had less potential to damage than their larger relatives it was generally agreed that they should be avoided where possible. The shopiltee is known as the tangie, or tangye, in the Orkneys. Although most of the water-horses are residents of the sea-side they have also been found populating the deepest rivers and lakes of Wales, Scotland and the northern islands. Keightley says that "as far as our knowledge extends, there is no being in the Irish rivers answering to the nix or kelpie..." All are, of course, descendants of the Fomors, who often took this form. SIGH, SIDH One of the little-people, the Gaelic spirits of the side-hill. Gaelic, sigh , the daoine sidh, the side-hill folk devoted to the goddess Danu. Duine, plural daoine, Cymric dyn, English dwine. a mortal,

all from the Sankrist dhvan, anything that eventually falls to pieces. Related are dan, a poem or as an adjective. The word may also refer to destiny or the fate of men. We have also danhanh, wisdom as well as dao obstinate or foolish. Daoi is a wicked or foolish person. Sidh is a contraction of siabhrach, siobhrag, sibhreach (the spelling varies between districts) which appears to derive from the Old Irish Gaelic siabra. The word confers with the Welsh hwyfar which is used in such names as Gwenhwyfar or Guinevere, in each case a fairy, elf or fay, one of the wee folk. Hence: siaban, sand drift or sea spray; siab, a dish of stewed periwinkles (Hebrides); siabhas, a useless ceremony. The Daoine sidh were sometimes regarded as the descendants of men although it was more oftain said that they were “gods of the earth.” When they were defeated by the Milesians they were left no recourse but to swear allegiance to the Fomorian sea-gods and take refuge beneath the hollow hills of Ireland and Scotland, or join the Fomors in Tir Nan Og. In exchange for their complicity, Manann MacLer gave the sidh-people their cloaks of invisibilty, the magic drink against aging, and access to "the pigs of Mannan" who were a reincarnate source of never-ending food. The sidh resemblanced the North American little men in all but their size and social habits. The sidh were "wee folk" in the old sense of the word, "tall and thin" rather than small or diminutive. It was said of them: "Their attire is green, their residence the interior of hills. They appear more attached than their neighbours (the elfs and fairies) to monarchical government, for the fairy king and queen were recognized by law in Caledonia (northern Scotland). They were more mischevious than the southrons, and less addicted to dancing." King James VI of England suspected their might be a "jolie court" composed entirely of these "seed" people, but felt their reality was not something that should be "believed by Christians." Questioned why the Crown burned witches for having "congress" with the completely fabulous sidh, James was unable to answer. Tradition says that the elfs, fairies and sidh fled Greater and Lesser Britain "by the reign of James or Elizabeth at the fartherest." A little after this the entire clan was found landed in North America. As some Gaels considered the sidh descendants of the Firbolg settlers of Ireland and Scotland (those bearing the prefixes Mc, Mac and O') they were nicknmaed the mickeleens (sons of the little ones). We have seen this name applied particularly to a group of little people at Seabrtight, Nova Scotia, but the English "fairy" is more often seen than either this designation or "sidh". This is a cause for confusion, but there is no doubt of the identity of the

race that settled the Shean (Gaelic Sidhean, sidh hill) which is now the land upon which the town of Inverness, Cape Breton, sits. Mary L. Fraser says that: "In this district there was a small hill, shapoed something like a large haystack, where the old people (colonials) used to see "little people" in the thousands." Before they moved in to develop the area, the Scots would not walk in that place after dark. The few who tried to approach the sidh found that they vanished from sight exactly like the elusive mikumwees. Nova Scotia historian Will R. Bird thought that the "pixies" at Mother Cary's Orchard Indian Burying Grounds, in the Kejemukujik Lake region of Nova Scotia, might have predated white settlement, but the stories of their residence caused a neighbouring body of water to be named Fairy Lake. There was another well-known hill within the present city of Dartmouth, one in the Dagger Woods at Beech Hill, Antigonish County, and a fifth within Sugar Loaf Mountain in Cape Breton. At the Beech Hill location a man was abducted although "returned in good condition.” Again, in New Hampshire, it was reported that fay-folk were in resident as early as 1720 having come to that place with a Irish Presbyterian emigrant. While he flourished, they died out “after lingering a few years ina very melancholy and desolate way...” They were supposedly last seen in New England about the year 1816 when a testy temperance man spoiled the hospitality of his New Hampshire inn. The landlord’s wife, stout, buxom and never fazed, patronized the liquor agents when he was not about and thus maintained her “own heart whole.” It was now rumoured that the little people had taken permanent residence at the inn, and in spite of the landlord people on the road began to drop by to observe this curiosity. The “folk” were never seen but guests were invited to listen to their chatter in “Yankee-Irish dialect” from one of the back rooms. The Inn benefited from this blessing and the landlady had less time to visit with her gin-bottle. As the novelty of this situation began to wear thin, customers disappeared, and it was whispered that the voices were witch-inspired or those of a ghost. The little visitors provoked by this disbelief left and some say they retreated to Old Ireland.

SIRENE A sea-spirit; the French equivalent of the mermaid.

Acadian French, a Spirit modelled on the classical Greek sirens who used their voices to lure the ships of men upon the Mediterranean rocks. Father Chaisson alludes to: "Certain legends," which "go far back in time...There were tales of mermaids all along the coasts of the Maritime provinces; but Acadians from the Magdalen Islands..had heard them sing, and in some cases had even spoken to them." Pierre Charlevoix (1744) has written that, “The River St. Laurence produces many fish which are not known in France...but I know not what Credit to give to an account seen in the manuscript of a local missionary, who affirms that he saw a mer-man in the River Sorel, three leagues below Chambly... We are sometimes seized at first Glance with a Resemblance, which upon mature attention vanishes. Furthermore, if this Fish in Human Form came from the Sea, it came in a long way to get so near the Chambly, and it is somewhat strange that it was never seen but in this one place.” SKITEKMUJ, SKADEGAMOOCH. The external soul of a human. Abenaki, Micmc dia., skite-kmuj. m., the ghost body of men living or dead. Confers with the taibh, cowalker, runner or doppelganger of the white men. The ghost-body was said to exist for all spirited matter whether animate or inanimate. With humans it was described as a black shadow cast by that individual, sometimes attached to him at an extremnity but sometimes seen at distance. "It has hands and feet, a mouth, a head and all the other parts of the human body. It drinks and eats, it puts on clothes, it hunts and fishes and amuses itself. With a moose or beaver, it looks like a black shadow of the animal. For a canoe or a pair of snowshoes, a cookingpot, a sleeping-mat, it looks like a shadow of these things, these Persons.” Some men had knowledge of their guardian, or shadow-helper, at birth, others sought it through ritual. In a typical situation a youngster would go alone into the woods on his spirit hunt. Here he first bathed and then fasted hoping to have a vision in which his skitekmuj would speak to him. Guardians often appeared in the form of the family totem-animal, so that those belonging to the bear often slept beside a bear’s-den hoping to absorb some of the spirit-power of that animal. It was said that only strong-willed people could persist until the vision materialized. If the seeker did not flee “from his own voice,” it might tell him the number of days to remain in

“purification.” At the end of that time the disembodied spirit would usually reward the individual by giving him spiritual or physical powers and naming his personal totem. The person who retrurned from a quest was under an obligation not to reveal what had been revealled to him. Later, after the guardian spirit dances, he might begin to wear a neck ornament as a carrying place for his spirit. When attempting to practise magic or obtain help the individual would sing his spirit song thus calling on the power of this supernatural creature. After a death the skitemuj passed from Earth World to Death World paralleling the European tradition. This was a place "above the sky" for those who had been useful, worthwhile citizens in their former incarnation. Others were shuttled off to World Beneath Earth where people who were evil were forced to dance without stopping. Those who lived exlemprary lives on earth were treated to shadow-canoes, snowshoes, sleeping mats and twice-daily sunrises. "The sun renews them when it shines," and it was said the Papkutparut, the guardian of all the dead, "watches over them so that they always have enough meat to eat." At the death of a family member the Abenakis used to mourn bing their hair, thus unbinding their own spirits to go to and comfort that of the newly deceased. As with the Celts, the Indians thought that the souls of friends were sometimes needed to fend off the spirits of enemies who might try to prevent a man's skitemuj from reaching its destination. So that they might not be recognized as mortals, the Abenaki used to blacken their faces and call out "Uey! Uey!" repeatedly in the hope of scaring off evil spirits. The shouting also had the function of drawing the ghost-shadow from the body, and while this was being done the relatives maintained a circle about it thus excluding dangerous spirits. At internment useful items were buried with the dead, it being supposed that the shadow-forms would detatch from each item and accompany the shadow-man or woman to the Otherworld. Very few living men penetrated the underworld and fewer visited Ghost World. A group who did, knew the guardian's weakness for the gambling game "waltes" They contested their souls against Papkutparuts stakes of corn, spirit berries and a substance he called "tmawey" (tobacco) and won. Thus these substances came as gifts to the People from beyond Sky World. Getting the dead back from beyond proved more of a problem. One father was given the spirit of his dead son contained in the kernal of a nut within a leather bag. He was warned not to look into the pouch until a ritual dance

had been completed. Back on Earth World he was occupied by this dance when curiosity caused an elderly woman to glance into the bag. In the best case, the spirit of a man was believed united whith his shadow at death, and the shadow then travelled to Ghost World where it lived a life similar to that on earth, but free of want and stress. This belief explains the grave-offerings found in lands all about the Atlantic basin. Nicholas Deny, who was in Acadia in 1672, noted that many individual graves held goods to the value about $2,000. These items were within easy reach but the French did not dare rob the graves for fear of causing “hatred and everlasting war.” Marc Lescarbot commented that, “Their most valued possessions were the copper kettles they got from us, and these they put within the graves for use in the spirit world. On one occasion they opened a grave for us, our people having it in mind to prove that all the objects were still in place and not in any spirit world. A kettle covered with verdegris was unearthed. An Indian struck a stone against it and noted that it no longer sounded and lacked spirit. He observed that it was an item of recent introduction and that its shadow had been taken into the other world since it was needed there. As for the common grave robes, which were little changed, he noted, “the dead man did not need them, but will take them as required.”” In the elder world everything was seen to be raised by at the will of the creator, the most spirited things being the most active in terms of growth, locomotion or gross movement. Thus a tree, a man and a hurricane were all observed to be supported by the spirit of god. This old world was a dangerous place where death was common, but oblivion was not known. The Algonquins, the Norse and the Gaels accepted the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy long before it was put on paper. They saw that their world was in constant flux, that plants and animals arose and quickly “went to earth.” that forests were reduced to earth by wildfire, that waves in the sea and the air periodically altered the landscape, that there was no physical surety for men, but believed, nonetheless, that all matter was eternal. Ruth Whitehead says that the Micmacs regarded their entire world as, “a nexus of Power moving beneath the outward appearances of things, of Persons shifting in and out of form, of patterns recombining.” In a world where nothing could be created or destroyed but only

altered, the People used a absentive case-ending, to describe the inanimate parts of their environment. Thus, the dead who were without motion, were not seen as totally dispirited but rather as animate beings situated outside of time. If the body was not broken or decomposed magicians were sometimes able to revive it by “speaking” the corpse back to life. Thus in one instance Glooscap revived his little friend Marten and his grandmother by simply speaking in their ears commanding them to arise. Here it was imagined that some of Glooscap’s life-force was transferred through the air to the other beings enabling them to return to life. In other stories, hunters pursued the souls of loved ones to Ghost World, capturing them there and bringing them back to Earth World to reanimate the corpses. If men believed that the world-spirit dwelt in all things, they also considered that the part was a microcosm of the whole. Thus the concern of Indian braves that some portion of their body be preserved after death. The bones of men and animals were their power-cores, just as the mountains were known to be the “bones” and the power-centres of the earth. It was claimed that reformation of the dead was likely as long as these centres existed to attract the atoms of dead flesh which became reanimate in the ground, recharged by the earth-spirit. The ability of the part to become whole explains the respect which men used to have for the bones of animals and fish. These were returned to their element where it was undestood they would reflesh themselves to the benefit of men and the other animals that fed upon them. In a like manner men would not unnecessarily destroy the plants of the earth since they understood their dependence upon them. The shaman namedL’kimu noted that, “It is a religious act among our people to gather all bones very carefully, and burn them (thus restoring them to the earth spirit) or throwing them into a river where beaver live. All the bones from the sea have to be returned there, so that those species will continue...domestic animals must never gnaw on the bones of wiild things for this would diminish the species of animals which feed us.” Parkman said that bone gathering took place every ten to twelve years, “among the Hurons, the Neutals, and other kindred tribes.” He stated that “The whole nation was sometimes assembled at this solemnity; and hundreds of corpses, brought from their temporay resting-places were inhumed in one pit. From this hour the immortality of their souls began, They (the souls) took wing, some affirmed, in the form of pigeons; while the greater number declared they journeyed on foot, and in their own likeness

(but as shadows) to the land of shades, bearing with them the ghosts of wampum belts, beaver-skins, bows, arrows, pipes, kettles, beads, and rings buried with them in the common grave.” While few people returned from the Netherworld, complete reincarnation was not thought impossible, and eventual return, in some form, was considered probable. The persistence of the life force in individual forms led to difficulty in overcoming enemies. Unless every atom was thoroughly dispersed, nothing could be eradicated for long periods of time. Having killed a man, a brave sometimes ground his bones to dust, but even this was never enough to prevent reassembly, and the most skilled knew that they must magically transform the remains into midges, mosquitoes or flies, which had a tendancy to disperse, delaying the reincarnation. Another way of preventing this was to incorporate parts of a dead enemy into a new construct. Bits of living things were often recombined to make newly animate beings with very different characteristics from the old. Thus an eelskin might be painted with earth-colours to make an entirely unique “life-form.” Porcupine quills and skins and sinews of dead animals, were given the absentive ending when they were incorporated into a headband, thus recognizing the fact that they had become a new living being. A man’s weapons, his clothes, his canoe, his snowshoes were all spirtual as well as physical constructs, all vested with life force. Through long association, these items absorbed some of the lifeforce of their owners, becoming extensions of him. As the part of an object encapsulated the whole, shamans carried about bags filled with the bones of enemies, snakes, bears and those animals whose character they fancied. Contained by spells these creatures became part of their keeper and were unable to reincarnate in their previous forms. Nevertheless, their spirits might be called upon to serve as a magical messenger or agent or construction or destruction. Some North American men, in common with their European counterparts, supposed the existence of at least one external soul which they said resided within “a complete little invisible model of the man himself.” The Innuit, like the Micmacs, believed in a shadow-man, “One having the same shape as the body to which it belongs, but of a more subtle and ethereal nature.” As far away as the west coast, the Nootkas said that the soul had the look of “a tiny little man, whose seat is often the crown of the head. So long as he stands erect all is well, but should he fall, then the man loses his senses.” In the lower Fraser Valley, the Indians suggested that men had at least four external souls, the principal one in the form of a

man, the others being, “shadows of it.” In addition to making appearances as a human doubles, the external souls sometimes became visible in the world of men as totem animals. In addition, man-spirits were thought to reform themselves as stones, as water, as fire, as stars, as horned serpents, as water-fairies, as little people, as thunderbirds, or as giants. Whitehead says that none of these shape-changes were intended as to be understood as metaphores; men believed that shape-changing was actual and commonplace in the world of men. Thus Kikwaju disturbed the peace of “a boulder-person,” who challenged him by rolling after him down a hill. A white man once asked a shaman if all stones were thus alive. “No,” he replied, “but some are!” “How does one know which may move,” asked the questioner? “One knows,” said his repondant, “by their glow at dusk and by the way they feel.” As the ice fell away into the sea, and retreated northwards, it exposed the highest peaks in the region including portions of Cape Breton and the mountains near what is now Mount Carleton park. These bared rocks were exposed to intense temperature changes between day and night and became frost-shattered relics which geologists call "nunataks." This word is borrowed from the natives of Greenland, who still use it to refer to any isolated mounatin completely surrounded by an ice sheet. Here, as there, the nunatak was understood to have the same force as the Innuit "inukshuks," which are humanoid-form cairns thought to have been deliberately erected in the faceless Arctic to create artifcial landmarks. It was once rumoured that these rock piles were raised by men to celebrate victories over the "frost-giants", an ancient race of dangerous propensities. Other have contended that these actually are the spirits of giants held in bondage by the magic of long dead shamans. Whatever they are, they are more than simple signposts. Farley Mowat suspected they were "guardians, who solidly resisted the impalpable menace of space which is uncircumscribed..." When Mowat visited with them, he found himself c0onversing with "these silent beings who have vital force without the gift of life." In our region the ice is long gone and the inuktuks have crumbled into "bedrock showing strange and irregular forms." The Norse said that the underground was ruled by the goddess Hel, the daughter of the fire-god Loki. Interestingly she is spoken of as “the particoloured deity of birth and death,” indicating that she had the power to release men from her kingdom of Nifhelheim. At their root of her world the

fire-giant Svrtr (Loki) was said to be bound awaiting his release to bring about the last days of the Nine Worlds known to men. The death gods are perhaps embodied in Nidhug, the giant dragon that feeds upon the roots of the world-tree and the bones of the unworthy dead. This situation parallels Celtic belief with Donn and his mate taking the place of Hel and Loki. It is noeworthy that Donn has as one of his totems the nathair, or snake. The death gods are regarded as immortals, raised to that position at the will of the creator-god. In a similar manner, the Micmac death-god, Papkutparut is spoken of as a fearful immortal who was once a man. In his present incarnation he is still supposed to have an interest in smoking tobacco and the gambling game called waltes, and men are known to have bargained their way out of his kingdom using these levers. We are reminded that the Celtic death-god had a similar fondness for the game known as fidchell, or “raven.” The Micmac god was like a Fomorian giant, a shape-changer who might appear, “huge as a mountain, like a mighty waterfall, or as a terrible storm of fire or wind or water.” Like Hel and DonnPapkutparut resented the arrogance of men and women who came to his land before their time. Those who wished to escape his first rush against them were expected to expose their bellies to his anger if they expected to survive long enough to bribe him. In the legends of the people the land called Ghost World is never fully identified with the World Beneath the Earth, but it may be tucked away there as the Norse Nastrond lies hidden within the larger kingdom of Nifhelheim. One route to Ghost World was through the underground but more often men took the ocean-route, which has been described as “many days journey across water. Going to Ghost World is walking on top of the World Beneath the Earth. The bodies of seekers walk through Water World with their heads in Sky World. Their eyes see nothing but water all round, edge to edge. Every night they rest upon sleeping platforms which they build in the water. It is a hard and hungry journey and some die and travel faster than the rest. When that land is near, men see Ghost World curving up above the water like a bow. Then there are never jokes about the dead or dying. Men who go on now see that there are dogs there, and beaver, and moose, and caribou and snowshoes and the wigwams of people. Then they must meet the Guardian of Souls before they can pass or leave this gate between the worlds.” Glooscap himself followed the water route into the land of the dead. The place of his entry into Ghost World is variously given as Grand Manan,

Isle Haute, or Newfoundland. Some tales say that his conquest of death was made alone, and that he swam through Water World to attain his goall. Others note that he travelled by canoe and was accompanied by his boon companions Marten and Grandmother, perhaps in the form of wolves or foxes. In the latter versions it is claimed that his craft took him into a cleft between the rocks, and that the water carried him to a place where disembodied spirits swarmed, howling their warnings that he should retreat. The river bed is said to have descended into a rocky unlit chaos and in it his friends met a premature death from fright. The stoic Glooscap sailed on chanting his magic, and emerged “on the other shore,” and back in the world of men with new-found magic. Leaning over Marten and Grandmother he breathed into their mouths, thus returning to them the spirit of life. From this time Glooscap and his companions chanted their way into the underworld at will and even encamped regularly within the hollow hills of Atlantic Canada, travelling the bowels of the earth when he wished to pass quickly from one place on the surface to another. Most men were not privy to Glooscap’s secrets and were only able to access the outer parts of his stoneoogotol, “wigwam,” at Blomodin and the Fairy Hole in Cape Breton. Those who tried had to overcome falling rocks, overhangs, rushing water, and “two great snakes which barred the way.” Some of this is reminiscent of the troubles that Norse and Celtic heroes experienced in trying to enter their ghost worlds. It may be recalled that the Indians of our region periodically gathered the bones of the dead for common burial rituals. Only after this did their spirits move on to ghost world. Some said that the souls of the dead were seen to rise as spherical lights, or as bird-like creatures, soon after inhumation. These people believed that the departed souls journeyed through the sky to the North Star lanmds by the Milky Way. Other animals had their own routes to the Netherworld, dogs finding their way by the constellation still known as “The Way of the Dogs.” Others were just as certain that the dead travelled in their own shadow-forms, bearing with them all items they might require in the afterlife. Some observed that the shadow men and women travelled toward the deep woods, disappeared in a cleft rock, or vanished within a lake or passed into the sea. Whether these shades travelled heavenward, or were detined for lands under the sea or the eath, it was agreed that there were perils along the road to Ghost World. Even in the sky it was rumoured that there was a river that had to be crossed on a log that made a shifty and uncertain

bridge. Futher a ferocious dog (like that guarding Hel’s domain) opposed their passage and drove many into the abyss. That river was filled with sturgeon and salmon, which the dead-shadows speared for sustinence. Beyond the river there was a narrow path between animated rocks which had the unfortunate habit of crashing against one another, sometimes reducing passersby to atoms. At that, it was always claimed that the alternate world was worth attaining and that Ghost World was actually close, so that “roving hunters sometimes passed its confines unawares.” Only the souls of men and women who died at their prime were full up to the journey to Ghost World. The spirits of the very young and the very old were often too enfeebled to take the long march, and they had to remain behind awaiting a recombination of spirits. These departed souils remained close to their village, their presence detected in the opening and closing of tent flaps by invisible hands. In the corn-fields the voices of invisible children were often heard driving the birds from the crops. SKOOLIGAN An earth spirit with mischievous tendancies. Anglo-Saxon, skole, school, a place of rest from manual labour, leisure + gan, born of, derived from; born of leisure. Hence the old Maritime belief that too much learning is a dangerous thing. See also hooligan. According to the Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English these spirits are often seen embodied in children. That source defines the word as the equal of skinflint. SKUT The fire-spirit. Passamaquoddy. The spirits of wild-fire were often abroad, and men were not usually present to see the lightning strikes that set them in action. In the early seventeenth century Father Chretien LeClerq reported seeing the entire Miramichi watershed aflame, an event that might have been caused by lightning or human carelessness by whites or Indians. In a dry summer during the year 1826, the horror of that scence was repreated in

The Great Miramichi Fire, which took 6,000 square miles of trees and made them cinders. This time there were more people about and more than five hundred were killed. The fire halted the lumbering industry for many years and dropped the town of Newcastle into a deep financial hole from which it is still struggling to gain high ground. Botanists have estimated that at least half of the Atlantic region is completely burned over once in two hundred years. In the theology of the local Indians, the deep forest was only second to the abyss as the source of chaos. It was sometimes said that Glooscap and Malsum emerged from the primal woods rather than from the sky or the sea. One reason to fear this place was the danger of displacement and starvation, but there was also the possibilty of entrapment by the fire spirits. The effects of fire appeared in many place-names which Champlain found used by the Indians. The end of the great Gouldsboro peninsula, now a part of Acadaia National Park in Maine was originally Schoodic and we have nearby the Schoodic Lakes. The Indians encamped regularly at the twin towns of Calais and St. Stephen on the Maine-New Brunswick border, and called this place Schoodic, “a great clear place made by fire.” The root, in each case, is skut, “fire.” In the days before men had the means to clear land, great assemblies could only take place where the spirits of fire had first held court. The last continental glacier took a good portion of the best Atlantic topsoil and dumped it as frontal moraines at sites which are now on the continental shelf. Of all the provinces Newfoundland took the worst beating from glacial scour, which left it with topsoil that was often barely more than an inch thick. Today only about forty percent of Newfoundland is forested and nearly all the trees that stand are destined to be uprooted by wind. Where the soil is poverty-striken nothing stands high, thus the endless vistas of rock and barrens and boglands which characterize that island province. The Miramichi fire was scarcely more than an inconvenience to the forest as compared with slighter fires that ravaged Newfoundland in the 1960’s. Any place that is similar, and there are barren-lands in both New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, incinerates the land in any fire, and this leaves a place that will have tree growth for one or two human generations. Repeated fires, perhaps as few as three every century, have been known to create the blasted areas which Newfoundlanders call the “goodwiddy,” or “goldwithy,” a growth as dwarfed as a collection of bonsai

trees, but consisting of laurel, Labrador tee and blueberry bushes all intertwined. The Avalon Peninsula was forested when Cabot first spotted it. Now it is a barren, thanks to the beginning destitution of the soil coupled with the fires of men and the gods. It will be remembered that Glooscap taught his people the arts of civilization and these seem to have included the idea of a “controlled burn,” which the Micmacs used to gain camp sites and flush game from hiding. See fear dreag and Smokey Joe.

SLUE, SLOUGH, SOW Hair-covered creatures of the unseen world the cowalkers of certain humans. Gaelic: The "ard-righ" (high king) called Ard-bheur (the high bear), or Arthur led an mythic assembly known as the sliochd a company of bears. The word is similar to the Gaelic slighe, a path or way through the woods. In the English language we have the similar word slew, a host of people or animals; in particular the devils of the Devil. The Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English says that a slew or slough is "a hollow in an uneven or snowcovered road that causes a vehicle such as a horse-drawn sleigh to lurch sideways." In the past these obstacles may have been created by the slue for it is said that this species "lay at roadside jumping up to frighten or waylay strangers." The slue were exactly like the sea-going soughs, or sows, in fact the two words have the same root in the Anglo-Saxon tongue. Confers with the Anglo-Saxon sleuth, sloth, sloucher, slaughter and slought, to cover with mire. Also similar to the word slew, a large number, as, "a slew of people." A multitude, a host, the host of the Devil, or of devils. Local dialectic forms for this creature include zwoog, swoog or sow, all pronounced sough. The former use is in Prince Edward Island, the word being derived from the Middle English swough, or sough. The zwoog is a creature which can be called upon to tranport the second soul from one place to another. In this, it corresponds exactly with the Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, guy's buck. Elsewhere we refer to the Gou Gou and the Woods-whooper, beings who seem to be particularized forms of this creature. The fay people were often described as "being of the smallest size and uniformly habited in green." On the other hand, they were recognized as shape-changers, able to alter their size and appearance at a whim. After

"threshing the corn, churning the butter, drinking the milk &c," one goodfellow was observed "lying before the fire like a great hurgin bear." Keightley noticed that "picklehaaring" (hairy sprite), the German term for the zany or merry andrew, seems to have resembled the English puck-hairy, a creature very like the sliochd, one that "wore a vesture of hair or leaves, thus making it rough like the brownie and kindred beings." "From bug also comes bugbear, and bugleboo, or bugaboo. They owe their origin probably to the ho! ho! ho! (or boo! boo! boo!) given to puck or robing goodfellow, as well as to the Devil (or Pouke) in the Mysteries. Bull-beggar may be only a corruption of bugbear or bug-a-bear." The Scottish pawkey and the Gaelic bogle are both related to these creatures, who were reputed to lay at the roadside jumping up to frighten or waylay strangers. In general, the maliciousness of this slough-dweller was in proportion to the wetness or dryness of his countryside, the dryer the surround the less dangerous the sidh may be only a corruption of bugbear or bug-a-bear." The Scottish pawkey and the Gaelic bogle are both related to these creatures, who were reputed to lay at the roadside jumping up to frighten or waylay strangers. In general, the maliciousness of this slough-dweller was in proportion to the wetness or dryness of his countryside, the dryer the surround the less dangerous the sidh. Our ancestors had some trouble with the eastern panther, which was perhaps a projection of the woods-whooper, but they had more difficulty with pigs and bears, the first our mythic sows, the other our slue. Pigs were not native to the Maritime Provinces and the first settlers turned them loose to make their own way during the warm months. Unfortunately they developed tusks and were very much like wild boars, so that they could only be brought to the dinner plate after being shot in the head. In Pictou County, Nova Scotia, notice was taken of a bear driven to a stump by enraged domestic pigs, which finally got him off balance and gored him to death. We have mentioned the caution with which aboriginals treated the Old Bear Woman, and white men had were equally careful with her offspring. Even so they were casualties and as late as the year nineteen hundred, Amos Wite of Memramcook was reported eaten by a bear while he was in the woods picking berries. Even Christian ministers considered recall of the bear-spirit a potent curse. When the Hansons and Turners of Bocabec Cove, New Brunswick refused to leave their woods work to bury the "old man" of their tribe, the Presbterian minister promised them a visit from "a great bear who will tear you with jaws of iron." At Cocaigne, on the north-eastern shore, a child was born with bear-paw marks, brown spots covered with hair, "on

account of a fright the mother received from a bear." The sidh-bheur or slue were however more often heard than seen. Invisible bears created noise, but no physical damage,in Nova Scotia at Glen Haven and Tantallon. On the other hand a "real" bear was constantly sought at Hoyt, New Brunswick, after it killed sheep and farm animals and smashed a milk shed. They trapped it and followed the slue on an obvious trail through the woods, but the trail was never traced to an end and neither animal or trap was recovered. When lowland Scots settled Deer Island, N.B., they found an Indian water-demon resident off the south-western shore, a spirit that occasionally materialized as the world's second-largest off-shore whirlpool. This they named the Old Sugh (since corrupted to Sow). Sugh also corresponds exactly with the Middle English swough, which derives from the Anglo-Saxon swoogan. This is similar to older Tueutonic words which mean to sigh or whistle. It is confluent with the Old Norse suugr, a rushing sound, like that of moving wind or water, and confers with the English word surf. The Old Sough was a place of hollow mummers, moans and sighs, as well as a salt-water drain (a secondary meaning of seugh, sewer or sough). Our ancestors had frequent run-ins with corporeal bears; it is reported that the son of Amos White was eaten by a bear while berry-picking at Memramcook, New Brunswick, in 1900. It is not surprising that they incorporated this ravaging animal into their legends. For the most parts ghost-bears were the source of inexplicable noises in the woods, but left little sign of their night-time visits. One exception was the mythic New Brunswick creature known as Old Shan who left, "a path through the woods like a bull-dozer might make today..." It was formerly believed that the spirit of a bear might be projected on the unborn within the womb. Thus it was noted at Cocaigne, New Brunswick (1878) that a child had been born with what appeared as brown spots "covered with bear-like hair" on its body and these were blamed upon "a fright the mother recieved from a bear." There were, apparently, bear-like creatures in the Hell: When the Hanson and Turner boys of Bocabec refused to come out of the winter woods to bury their patriarch, a local minister cursed them in public. Afterwards, a ballad was written promising that they would each meet their death beneath "jaws of iron and teeth of steel." It is said that latter day members of these

clans have been pursued in their dreams by bear-like wraiths.

SNOLLYGOSTER A spirit of the air and the water, a combination of bird and reptile; a small dragon. Middle English, snool, to cringe or crawl, to snub, a cringing individual, a craven. An unreliable or unethical person. Similar in meaning to the local words scut and spleach. + goster, or gaster, a ghost or spirit. In myth the snallygaster is described as a creature part bird, part reptile. Locally the term is used with respect to politicians, especially those whose talk exceeds their industry. A snolly gaster relies on facile mouthwork rather than knowledge and industry. Also regularly applied to unethical lawyers. The snollygoster was credited with "a sad and almost unparalleled tragedy" which took place in nearby northern Maine in 1869. The "saaint Croix Courier" of Saint Stephen New Brunswick, records events as follows: On one of the Fish River Lakes there was a lumber camp in which were thirteen men. On Saturday night, almost three weeks ago, the "boss left the settlement instructing the men to come out (of the woods) on the following Monday. Monday, Tuesday and Werdnesday passed and a party was sent in to see if anything was the matter. Arriving at the camp they found all quiet and apparently deserted; but on entering (the camp) they saw the bodies of the twelve men lying on the floor, all cold in death. Being somewhat exhausted the relief party were about to warm some tea made in the kettle, but on examination found a large lizard in the kettle that had been boiled with the tea. It is supposed that the drinking of the tea was the cause of the deaths of the twelve unfortunate men."

SNOOL A cringing, hand-wringing spirit. Lowland Scottish vernacular, a craven. DPEI: "A cringing or

subservient person. A sneaking or nosy person. Comparable with shook." SON. OLD SON, SON OF A GUN The spirit of elemental fire; Loki, the Devil. Anglo-Saxon, sunu, a male child. With the definite article this word identifies Jesus Christ, the "new" Son of God. The "old" son was, therefore any discredited pagan god of comparable stature; thus the antagonist, the Devil (which, see).

SORCIER A human practitioner of magic. Acadian French, sorcierere (masculine), sorcerer or sorceress (feminine); sorcier guerisseur, a medicine man or witch doctor. Note also sort, to cast a lot, fate, a spell, and the verb sortie, going out, coming out, leaving, retiring. Thus a man capable of becoming disembodied at will. Ile des Sorcieres was the first name given Ile d’Orleans, one of the largest islands in the lower Saint Lawrence River. The habitants of this place were said to be uncannily skilled as weather-mongers. They possessed other superntaural powers which attracted the attention of the Jesuit priest, Pierre Charlevoix (1720): “You apply to them, it is said, if you want to know the future, or find out what is happening in some distant place.” One of their number named Jean-Pierre Lavallee was credited with incanting a spell which produced a thick fog in which British war-ships under the command of Sir Hovenden Walker wandered off course and were wrecked on the riocks. this forced the remaining belligerents to withdraw. At a later date (1766), this same writer added that these inhabitants “have the Character of being given to Witchcraft; and when they are consulted, they say, upon future events, and concerning what passes in distant Places. For instance if the ships of New France do not arrive as scheduled, they are consulted to get News of them. It is said that what they are told is sometimes true; that is they have guesssed right once or twice. From This they have made people think that they spoke from certain Knowledge of the facts, and people fancied that they consulted with the

Devil.” The throwing of sorts was the art which the Anglo-Normans called "the casting of runes." According to their mythology, the runes were magical letters engraved upon wooden sticks which were thrown to the ground in the interest of foretelling the future. The runes which were uppermost were thought to fall according to the wishes of the pagan gods, these sticks having been given to men by Woden. There were two basic types of rune:, the malrunor, or speech-runes, which enabled men to magically embed sounds on wood (or paper) and retrieve them at will and the trollrunor, or trollrunes, which were of use in wonder-work. The latter were sub-divided into skaderunor (Skadi's runes) and hjelprunor, or help-runes. There were five sub-varieties of each kind of sort, the former producing ill-effects; the latter being of medicinal use. Marie Deveau of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, says that "some people here could throw, what in French we call, a "sort". When you throw something (a curse or hex) on a person." An interviewer from "Cape Breton's Magazine" questioned her, asking if this was the equivalent of the English "spell". "Well...yes," she replied, " And if you're scared of them, it could easily take on you. If you're not scared of them, they can never touch you (do you harm)." Asked whether practitioners were male or female, she continued, "It could be both, it wouldn't matter. There was a family - the whole family could (trouble their neighbours). From one to the other they were passing it (the ability). The woman could, the man could, then some of the children could... They could put a sort on you. That was to bother you. For example when the Jersey (immigrants from the Channel Islands) came to the island, there was a man named Charlie Romeril. Fr. Fiset was here then. Fr. Fiset was one of the first priests and he built the church down here. A woman was bothered by the sorcerer... When she was working...she had some words with Charlie Romeril...and they say Charlie went (into the barn) and put a sort on the hay. Then the girl, in the evening, she went and she cleaned the manger. And then right away she was out of her mind. They couldn't do anything with her (but then) Fr. Fiset cured the girl. (Then) Charlie Romeril had a grudge against Fr. Fiset and was bothering them at the glebe house." "There at the glebe they used to hear chains banging together, and they'd see fire here and there, and then noise - just to intimidate them...And then sometimes in the nighttime, they'd hear something in the corner, and

then in another - and they couldn't sleep." The priest refused to act against the sorcerer but his servant-handyman, Jeffrey Crispou decided to take counter-measures and built a snowman in the back yard. Following traditional protocol he initialled the figure "C.R." He then went to the house and came back with his gun. He approached the "replica" of Charlie Romeril by walking three steps ahead and one back, a procedure followed until he was within easy aiming-distance. "I don't know how many times he shot him (the snowman)", said Marie, "but then he went home and the noise ceased. No more noise...But little Charlie Romeril, he got sick. He was sick all the rest of the winter. And when the snowman was melting, as the snowman was melting, little Charlie was getting worse...finally, when it melted to the ground Charlie died..." Marie noted that Charlie was not alone in the practise of black arts, another being identified simply as "Le Canadien", a travelling tinsmith who came to Cape Breton from Quebec. Although he was called upon to to repair pots and pans and other household goods, his neighbours began to suspect that he had the ability "to put a sort on cattle." Marie's father-in-law, a man named Lubin, came into a quarrel with the travelling man who threatened to a put a spell on his cow. One morning the Cape Bretoner found the animal down in her stall its tongue lolling from the mouth. Marie noted, "They couldn't make her get up. Then when at last she was up, she wasn't a bit steady at all - she couldn't keep still...they couldn't milk her and they couldn't put the milk with the other cow's milk. There was maybe something in it. It wasn't good milk." Knowing that this was sorcery, Lubin went to Cheticamp to buy a package of new needles for the making of a sorcerer's bane, which the English called the witch-bottle. Lubin then obtained urine from his ailing cow, and bottled it along with nine needles. "Then he went upstairs and put it under a rafter -tight (so that the cork would remain in place). So my fatherin-law, he was making sail for the boats, for the fishermen. He used to work at sometimes 12 o'clock at night. He was doing his work in the daytime - in the woods - and in the evening would work at the sails. So one night, my mother-in-law was in bed and he was working, and Grandpa went outside for a bit - and gosh, he saw a big dog...The moon was up but he couldn't tell if it was black or brown - but a dog bigger than he ever saw...he thought it was perhaps a stray dog from a boat. So he came back in. He ate a bite, lit his pipe, and started sewing again.

"By about 10 o'clock...all of a sudden, bang, bang, bang on the door." A voice came from outside the house, "Lubin, let me in, let me in Lubin, Awww, awww...Let me in." The sail-maker opened the door for the Canadian, who was doubled over clutching his stomach. "I'm in pain Lubin, I suppose it's my supper, I hope you have soda?" Unfortunately, Lubin was a kind man and complied with the request, perhaps not remembering that this would cancel the effect of his counter-charm. The next day the cow appeared recovered, but in the weeks after exhibited a syndrome of symptoms suggesting that sortilege was still in action: "When she was eating well, when they were going to milk her she kicked. and some other time, she was just lying down with her tongue out of her mouth, making some noise like as if she was dying. And then Grandpa would take his axe and go to kill her, but then the cow was all right. If he had killed the cow the Canadian would have died. I don't know. It was so aggravating...The dog it must have been the sorcerer...or perhaps a warning or something. It was right after that that the man came in." J.J. Deveaux added that all sorcerers were shape-changers who had the ability to take the form of humans as well as animals. When one man found himself afflicted by the casting of a sort, the "sorcier" came to gloat, but at the door he had the appearance of a well-repected neighbour: "The guy who put this on his wife and horse, he didn't go on his own. If he went there (in his usual shape) that man would have known him and wanted to kill him. He went looking like the neighbour...He didn't want people to know who he was. He'd go as another person... They take any kind of shape, to scare you. But they cannot really hurt you like that...But he can scare you..." It was generally held that people who were without fear were immune to the effects of sortilege although their animals might be injured or their crops blighted. J.J. Chaisson, elaborated: "If they (the sorcerers) found anyone weak-willed they could work on him. They didn't want to tackle one who wasn't afraid of them." The Acadians entitled the female witches of the local tribes "taoueille", the gad-flies or horseflies. Chaisson says this designation was general in New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. He has also noted that "strange or inexplicible doings by people and animals were (in former times) attributed to sorcerers who, through pacts with the devil, could cast charms or spells. Blood in the cow's milk, a smell on the butter, an animal taken ill or someone gone mad - all were ascribed to sorcerers. Those suspected of witchcraft...took advantage of people's credulity by going from door to door extorting food, linen and clothing."

"According to the popular belief, some people were also endowed with power against these sorcerers, and were capable of lifting spells and charms. Ordinarily these antisorcerers used one or other of the following methods. The first consisted of heating the witch, that is boiling water in a large kettle with needles and something from the person of the person or animal affected - urine hair, or some other element. The sorcer was apparently unable to withstand this ordeal. He would appear at the scene and remove the spell which he had cast. The other method consisted of using magic words or incantations. The following was used, in English (Gaels also incanted in this language), by the Acadians to remove a spell cast on a cow: "Trotter Head (a pseudonym for any witch), I forbid thee my house and premises. I forbid thee my barn and cow. I forbid thee to breath upon me nor upon any of my family until thou hast painted every fence post, until those hast crossed every ocean, and that thus dear dear (sic) day may come in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen." At Dupuis Corner in Westmorland County we hear of the education of a sorcerer: Sorcery was gained from "large books on magic which had black pages with white printing on them and it was these that were used to invoke the Devil." It was said that village priests went from door-to-door seeking the surrender of these volumes burning them at communal bonfires. "But there were those who refused to give up their books and upon occasion they tried to show "Les Livres d"Albert" to others hoping to increase their numbers." In one instance a newly arrived schoolmaster at Cocagne, New Brunswick, heard a knock at his door and opened it to see an old man standing before him with a black book in his hands. He thrust it at the younger man saying simply, "Here is a key to great power!" and then turned and walked away. Examining the book, the teacher found it was written in a foreign language, but some devil stood by as an invisible tutor, and as he sounded the syllables he was able to take some sense of the meaning of the words. He had only read one paragraph when there was another knock at the door. This time he was greeted by a tall, thin stranger dressed in black with eyes like live coals. Before he could speak, the teacher recognized him and made the sign of the cross. The unbidden visitor vanished in a puff of smoke of brimstone and the book was quickly consigned to the flames in the hearth. SPRIGGY An earth spirit bound to standing stones or similar natural

formations. Anglo-Saxon sprig, a youthful spirit, "a small twig or scion". Derived from the Cornish spriggan, also called the korridgwen or horridgwen, the equivalent of the Breton korrid, adherents of the sea-goddess, Mhorrigan. They were guardians of the standing-stones and may have been the spirits of these stone. They were able to control the wind and could appear as giant humans in order to scare men from territory which they inhabited. They were skilled thieves and were held responsible for the circles seen in grain fields and the more general wind storms that took down crops. Spriggys were capable of carrying huge stones and some claim they were the race that set up the cromlechs of Britain. The stone-men have bright "coalburning" eyes and a deeply tanned skin, and were traditionally employed as blacksmiths. In keeping with their reputation as the guardians of stones, they know the whearabouts of all buried treasures. They were not always opposed to mankind, although never over friendly. For a token payment left on a gravestone, they would shoe oxen and horses or sharpen the knifes, kitchen utensils and tools that were left there. In doing this they acted exactly like Voolund or Wayland, the master of Odin's forge. Wayland was once held hostage to Nidud, King of Sweden, but escaped from him and retired to Alfheim where he fashioned many miraculous swords including one for Charlemagne. While the spriggans struggled to protect the sanctity of stones set up to honour human or the heroes of other races, they would not tolerate memorials to those who died by suicide. John Hooper drowned himself at Deer Island, New Brunswick, on May fifth, eighteen fifty. His body was found beneath the waters in a pond in back of his home, thoughtfully attached to a string tied to a very stale loaf of bread. Hooper had said that he wanted no remembrance but loving relatives erected a tombstone over his grave in the pasture behind his outbuildings. A few days after the stone was found lying face-down in the grass. It was assumed that the foundation had been poorly set so workmen came and cemented it into an upright position. Twice more the stone was found down. After the third attempt at stabalizing the stone, it was found split horizontally, the top half lying on the ground. In the folowing century, Stirling Lambert, a resident at Lambertville hearing the story went looking for Hooper's grave and found the stone split into three sections in a field that had become a forest. He propped up the large top section, but returning a few years later, found it back on its face.

Subsequently, the trees were cut and a new community dump was established in what had been Hooper's back yard. After that residents made almost daily attempts to oppose the wished of the spriggy. This battle of wills went on for several weeks until the stone was finally found smashed into thousands of fragments. Some folks attributed this final damage to vandalism but few people are willing to visit the Deer Island dump after dark.

SPUNKIE A light-bearing water-spirit. Gaelic, spong, tinder or a sponge; Ir. Gaelic, sponc; cf. Latin, spongia. Confluent with sponge and punk. Also seen as sponkie or punkie. The latter word defines wood that takes fire easily; also punk, a tinder made from a wood's fungus; touchwood, a spark, glem or little fire, a sulphur match; spririt, pluck, anger, passion, mettle. Finally, a lawless and dangerous man or spirit, capable of craftiness or physical damage. To be full of spunk is to be quick, plucky, merddlesome, and irritable or touchy. As a verb spunk means to take fire. The spunkie is a descendant of the elemental gods of fire and corresponds with the classical ignis fatuus; the candelas of Sardinia; the lyktgubbe of Scandinavia; the irrlichter of Germany, the ellyllidan of Wales, the tan noz of France, and the English will-o'-the-wisp, fire-elf, kit-wi'-canstick, jack-o'lanthorn, joan-in-the-wad and hob-wi'lanthorn. See also the lowland shellycoat, which sometimes played this part as did boabhs, devils, the Devil himself, as well as ghosts of the dead. See entry under will-o'-the-wisp. The balls or sheets of light which moved through remote swampy areas were called the will-o'-the-wisp, corpse candle, gopher light or taibh. Those at sea were termed the fetch. Arrowsmith says that "the flames were not the elves, but the lights they carried. These creatures are (often) animated by the souls of (dead) men, women and children. As such they come closer to being "ghosts" than any other of the fay people. According to Pratt the phenomena is termed "Saint Anthony's Fire," in parts of Prince Edward Island. He defines it as "a glow given off by swamps," and secondarily as "certain inflammations of the skin." The latter definition is in line with European legend, for Saint Anthony of Padua (whose holiday

was celebrated June 13) was known to have interceded to cure the skin disease called erysipilas. The first defintion is unknown in the Old World where Saint Antyhony's Fire was not associated with the land but with the air-glow that attached to the masts of ships at sea. Columbus had acquaintence with this phenomena and used the occurence to suggest that his voyage of exploration was under the guidance of God. On the southern coast of Nova Scotia isolated sea-lights are referred to as "Jacob's Light", possibly making parallel refernce to the Biblical prophet and the light which he saw streaming down from heaven. In the waters of northeastern New Brunswick supernatural lights are sometimes referred to as "John Craig's Light." Among the Acadians this was the "feu follett" (wild fire), which the Indians called "esk-wid-eh-wid", literally, the fire balls. STIRK The spirit of the quarter days. A dunce or clown. According to OED the word is of lowland Scottish origin: "A heifer between one and two years of age." Thus, any inexperienced animal. The Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English defines the word as "a big clumsy perspn, a lout." STOUK Another name for a spirit of the quarter-season. From the lowland Scottish dialect. The Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English says the word is comparable with the local words gommie, kittardy, nosic, omadan and oshick, while it is defioned as "A stupoid person." STRIKING PARTY Spirits gathered as a host. Anglo-Saxon, stric, pestilence; Said comparable with cooligan (which, see). The Dictionary of Prince Edward Island English explains: "The early settlers had few holidays...New Year's Day was the great day of the year. On the Eve of that day "striking parties" composed of young folk of the district, armed with sticks, marched through the settlement. When they arrived at a house they surrounded it, and to the accompaniment of music

from the sticks beating the log walls, vigorously sang a Gaelic refrain... "Get up an gie us our hogmanay." If, as happened rarely, there was not "Scotch" on hand, they were given cakes...When log houses were replaced by shingled ones, these parties were discouraged and finally abandoned." For more see calluinn and houghmandie. TAIBHS Gaelic, Also taibhse (pronounced tav), runners for the soul. Ghosts of living men. Middle Irish, tadhbais a phantom. The root word is tad, that which speaks or otherwise shows itself from the Old Irish togu, to taste strange things, to choose. The equivalent of the English fetch, co-walker, runner, soul-shadow, guardian, guardian angel, or double; the ghost of a living or recently departed individual. The Norse knew these as the "fylgiar". More commonly, at present, an apparition or ghost, a vision. Confers with the English, phantasm and phantom. Runners were gifted upon people by the creator-god at birth, prominent individuals being given more than one protector. Taibhs acted as forerunners, making their human aware of future events; as backrunners, perceiving the past; and as spies on current events. They possessed ultrasensitive vision, hearing, touch, taste and smell and travelled as invisible heralds or followers of their ward, but could appear as a totem animal. They sometimes materialized, leading to situations of bilocation. The runner appeared before each individual or his relatives as an omen of death, and they were then seen as fire-balls called corpse-candles or gophers. At night, the spirits of men entered their runners and travelled with these wraiths. Bad dreams were seen as reflections of quarrels between runners. The runner was long absent in fevers and comas, and departed at death. People who could project themselves into their taibhs were said to have "an da shealladh", the two sights, and could predict the future. Those who lacked a guardian were known locally as jonahs, jinxers or "droch-chomhalaichean", rent-payers to hell, and suffered bad luck. Witches supposedly exchanged their runners for an imp, which took the visible form of a familiar. The equivalent of the English fetch, co-walker, soul-dancer, shadowperson, guardian or guardian angel. Runners wer gifted upon people at birth, important souls receiving more than one protector. The taibh had the capacity to view the past or future and to examine distant events in the present. They were said to house a supplementary soul and travelled

invisibly, or as a totem animal, with the person to whom they were assigned. They sometimes materialized giving rise to stories of bilocation, a person being seen at widely separated places at the same time. The taibh became a forerunner of death when it materialized face-to-face with its master. As corpse-candles, gophers or fetches, these runners took the form of fireballs which warned relatives that a death was imminent in their family. The taibh sometimes announced death by becoming a knocker. At night the human soul was believed allied with its cowalker and bad dreams were seen as reflections of actually travels in some parallel world. The runner and its travelling companion were long absent in hallucinatory states, madness and comas, and departed together at death. The few Gaels who could project themselves into their taibh at will were said to have "an da shelladh", or the two sights, an ability to see the past and future. Those with no extra-sensory preceptions were the "drochchomhalaichean" and suffered exceptionally bad luck. The boabh supposedly exchanged these useful spirits for a imp of the Devil. Whether the taibh was a normal runner, or a familiar of a witch, it passed through the air in going about its business, and existed at the sufferance of the god Kari and his kind. As we have previously noted, familiars frequently showed their attachment to the wind-spirits by taking the form of crows, ravens, owls, eagles and other birds of the air. Mary L. Fraser described the appearance of a forerunner as a sea bird. Two Nova Scotian girls saw it on the beach. When one tried to approach it the other warned, "Leave it alone, don't touch it, it is a taibhs." "And what is a taibhs?" asked the second girl. "It's a spirit," she replied, "We're going to get some bad news." Discussing this phenomena in 1652, Lord Larbolt noted: "there were men and women and children who had the second sight; there were children who had it but not the parents; some people had it when they were old who did not have it in their youth; none of them could tell how they came to have it; but all said it was a gift of which they would gladly rid themselves if possible. They saw the vision only as long as they kept looking at it steadily. Those who had a strong heart usually took a good look at it, and they could see it for a longer time than the weak and timid. Those of strong will did not have visions of the dead, but saw the living, and had no doubt as to what they saw them do, or that what they saw happen to them would actually occur just as they saw it. They could not tell what time might intervene before the events in question might take place; but those who were accustomed to seeing such things had special rules by which they could make a close guess.

For example, they could tell pretty well how soon a person was going to die by noting how much of his form was covered by a shroud. If the whole form was covered, the person was on his death bed." While most visions were seen by sighted people, this was not a prerequisite; a man might be blind, but his second-soul, housed in the taibhs, might not be afflicted. Thus, at Saint John in 1777, a blind man, far distant from the scene, was party to a vision of a judicial hanging. When he reported the details to his family, they were able to confirm that his description was complete and correct in every detail. While most of these phantoms reported to their host by way of a vision, the other senses were sometimes involved; thus there are reports of men and women who tasted, touched, or smelled happenings from another time and place, or by one means or another, observed events at a distance. Mary L. Fraser noticed that many of her fellows in Antigonish County, Nova Scotia would not consider walking in the centre of a road after dark "for fear of encountering phantom funeral processions." Undertakers who worked with the dead throughout the year, often found their horse drawn hearses crowded about with a host of taibhs and were jostled and felt the touch of these runners for the dead as they tried to harnesss their horses. Often, the person gifted with one type of extra-sensory preception would lack other extra-sensory preceptions. Fraser noted "the persistent tradition that the spirits of the living (but soon to be dead) rehearse the making of coffins." In English-speaking communities, this ability was often termed clair-audience (as contrasted with clairvoyence, or the ability to see hidden places and events.) In researching her books on folklore, Helen Creighton discovered that, "Many people are deaf to forerunners (that is, unable to detect them at any level). Of six people sitting in a room with the body of a man who had just died, only three heard him call out the name of his wife." Speaking of the taibhs as represented in the sense of touch Joe Neil MacNeil said: "Somebody (from the community) would say, rubbing his lips, "Indeed I feel the itch of a kiss (or the itch of a dram) today," And somebody else would say. "Oh, there is an itch in the palm of my right hand." Or someone else would say, "Indeed I am going to shake the hand of a stranger today." "And how do you mean that?" "Oh, there is an itch in the palm of my right hand." Or someone might say, "Surely I am going to receive money in a

short time. There is an itch in my left palm." And another man would say, "And what does it mean when a person's eye is quivering?" It was good news if it was the right eye and it was poor news...if it was the left eye. And another might say, "Lord how hot my ear is! It's almost on fire with the warmth in it. Someone is talking about me." People would ask the man, "Is it your right ear or your left ear?" "Oh my left ear." "Oh, well then, that's good enough." "And what is the reason for that?"..."Well, when the heat is in your right ear, they are making a lot of talk about you, and indeeed it is probably not very good. But when the great heat is in your left ear, they are making excuses for you." In each of the above cases the taibhs would be considered the agency responsible for the physical sensation, which was intended as a message or a warning. Mary L. Fraser said that "All the findings of Lord Larbolt hold good for the second-sight in Nova Scotia, where many people are endowed with the gift. Sometimes whole families have it to a greater or lesser degree The old people watched carefully the colours of the eyes of a child when it was born. If it had, say, one eye blue and the other brown, they were on the look-out for the second-sight; for if at the end of a certain number of weeks the colours had blended so that they could not tell which eye had been blue and which brown, the child was sure to have the gift. If the coulours did not blend, the child was normal." Helen Creighton found that the forerunner "usually deals with sounds. Foresight, on the other hand is visual. On the island of Cape Breton it is known as double vision or double sight and people who have the gift are said to be double sighted. It occurs here mostly among those of Scottish descent although there are isolated instances among other groups...Perhaps the word gift...is inappropriate. For a gift is a pleasurable attribute. This is not, for the vision is usually that of a funeral..." At that, it has to be remembered that the taibhs was a ghost of the living thus Malcolm Campbell, of Cape Breton, contended that, "A forerunner can be when you see a living person...A stranger was going to come. And you'd see a forerunner of a stranger. It might have no connection with death at all." Fraser commented that, "It was a popular belief among the Celts that if you wished yourself anywhere at night you were sure to appear there (at least as an invisible spirit). If harm befell these apparitions, the rash wisher was also harmed. The apparition could be (halted in mid-journey) if to the words "I wish from the bottom of my heart or soul I was there," there were

added, "but not with (this) night's wish." Thus it is shown that the taibhs was considered an invisible double, a projection of a living person. It was held that these spirits were gifted upon men by the pagan gods, but they were counted as angels in Christian times, and the Cape Breton historian A.A. Mackenzie, assured his readers that the second-sight "is from God. It is only he who can really know the future..." The taibhs might be considered in this light, but thes spirit was suspected to be something less worthy than a guardian angel. A Shelburne man confronted by the "ghost" of a sister, who was still among the living, gave his opinion as follows: "I wouldn't tell about it (the sighting) for ten years (until after her death) because it was considered bad luck to see a person who wasn't there." It used to be said that the mentally handicapped had the ability to travel through the air "at will." These people also posessed runners, but their night-worlds were thought to be less organized than that of normal men. Thus, it is likely that their psychic-travel was more a matter of random process than "a night's wish." Mary L. Fraser tells the tale of an East Bay, Cape Breton family, which possessed a set of hand-made horn-spoons of a distinctive design when they lived in Scotland. They were forced to leave the old country in hurried circumstances, and these spoons were left behind. In the new land their handicapped son was often observed to fall into a trancelike state, and the family considered he was then "on his travels." After one of these incidents, the horn-spoons were found in his possession, and it was assumed he had actually managed a passage to Scotland and back, without the aid of a sailing ship. When he was a young boy, Cleve Townsend, of Louisbourg, Nova Scotia, says he was twice warned away from dangerous situations by his own forerunner, who came to him as a wraith-like boy. In the first case, he was about to go fishing alone on the harbour when the taibhs materialized from the floor boards of the wharf motioning him to return home. He refused, but on the water, found his foot caught up in the anchor rope and was hauled to the bottom with it. On the way down, he saw the face of the ghost-boy frowning his displeasure. This time, he escaped injury, but when he encountered the same apparition in the cellar of his own home, he retreated back up the stairs and "Forever after that I never went against them."

The use of the word "them" in the above sentence is informative for it was understood that the gifted individual could often see much more than his or her personal runner. Townsend made this clear by saying, "My father, he'd go into the forest...and he'd sit down and talk with his own father...people in that world...I never went with him (but) I can still speak with my father...He's a young man now. When he comes he comes first with his (familiar) beard and everything as I knew him (in life). And then after I recognize him, he changes to what he is...My mother, the same." Usually messages of impending doom were left to the taibhs, but while Townsend was working as a Cape Breton steel plant in 1955 his runner warned him of approaching doom. When he failed to take heed his father's ghost approached him in broad daylight and said, "You stay on (working in) that plant much longer, you'll be leaving your bones there." After that, Townsend left steel-making for faith healing. Commenting on his knowledge of unseen worlds, the Cape Breton native said, "I've lived in two worlds for over seventy years...the spirit world and the earth plane. You don't see them unless God gives you clairvoyent sight. I can hear them...At the beginning their words are like listening to a mosquito, and after a time it increases, until it's clear. And I can speak to them. That world is not a different world than the world we see. Sometimes when death comes to the physical body, the man willl go over and that world is so much like this that he doesn't know where he is. He doesn't know he's out of body and dead. The inner man will live on, a million years, a hundred million years. There's no death for the inner man. The inner man is what controls this body, not you...There's no hell over there. But of course, if a man lives a pretty good life, why he's going to find over there it's really good and beautiful. But if he lives a life of sin and likes to kill or something like that, his home over there will be the same as down here, black as Egypt. And he may get one hundred years or three hundred years of that." Because of his gift, Cleve Townsend had expectations of disaster when he heard three solid knocks, and noted, "...when I was a boy, I wouldn't let anyone else go to the door but me. I knew there was nobody there they could see...there was always someone there from the other world...It would be like to bring a warning about a death...I'd receive the thoughts from their mind...I would see a form, see their face before someone was to die." Dan MacNeil of Cape Breton, had this to say of another gifted

individual "the Mackenzie girl of Christmas Island." "... in the night-time there'd be a knock at the door and a little hand would show on the wall. And she'd go in what you'd call a trance...she'd go across to the other side...when she'd wake up from that trance she'd tell her neighbours, "this person, or that person died just a few minutes ago. I saw him entering into heaven." And by gosh the neighbour died at that certain time... They took her to priests and bishops and everything, and it was no use...she used to be like that every night...this last time, she went in a trance and this old lady that died up there rear of Christmas Island, she was in heaven. And she told her, she says, "You tell your father to go to my son, and look in the old trunk in the attic, and you'll find a ring there, "she says. "And get that ring,and put it on your finger and this'll never happen to you again." This amulet negated the unwanted gift of precognition. Another local psychic saw no visions but could predict the future: "Before a death I feel something beside me all day and I can't get rid of it." Those that could not see or touch the intangible often heard sounds generated by the taibhs. Joe Neil MacNeil says: "And people might hear a sound as if somebody was on the threshold. They weren't hitting the door at all, you understand, there was no knock on the door but you would hear the stamping as if somebody put his foot on the threshold though no one was there. And they would say. "It won't be long before a stranger comes to the house." When it was suspected that men were in danger on the sea, their relatives used to consult gifted individuals, who might send their runners out looking for signs of their fate. Cleve Townsend was consulted by Mrs. Captain Dan Harris, who once piloted a coal boat between the Island and Halifax. After peering through the "eyes" of his informant, Townsend was able to reassure her: "Mrs. Harris, I got them. They're all right so far. But I can see them all working, cutting ice, and the boat is leaning over, top heavy...Tomorrow morning, ten o'clock, you look out the harbour and you'll see your husband bringing in the towboat." Townsend was also able employ his taibhs more directly when he worked as a telegrapher aboard the ship "Troja," which once sailed from Louisbourg to Saint John. This craft was off Grand Manan when, "The engine room was first to fill with water, the boiler room (went) dead, so there couldn't be a message sent... (nevertheless) a message was received in New Brunswick giving the exact longitude and latitude, our exact position." The

"Troja" was rescued, and Mr. Townsend could only conclude that his cowalker had somehow managed to act on his behalf. Gifted individuals were thought related to the elder gods of the sea, thus they were never allowed to drown or die by fire. These "caul-bearers" or lucky individuals were usually sought as shipmates because it was believed that their protective spirit shielded any ship on which the individual travelled. On the other hand, the old gods were sometimes held in contempt as devils and Townsend had to admit that a sailor from Forchu, knowing his reputation as a psychic and faith-healer, refused to travel with him aboard ship. In the best situations, the taibhs was engaged at being helpful: Folklorist Mary L. Fraser claimed that her father had had a vision of her mother as a bride, long before the couple had met. She also noted that Bishop MacDonald, of Antigonish Nova Scotia, had routinely had childhood visions of his father returning from distant journeys accompanied by his two black horses. Members of the family were amazed when the eight-year-old's predictions always proved correct. The Nova Scotian writer Roland H. Sherwood claimed that a guardian of an individual working in the United States spoke to his mother at home in Nova Scotia, reassuring her that he had escaped death in the Spanish Flu of 1918. During the Halifax explosion, December 6, 1917, three children managed to avoid death by playing truant for the first time in their lives. Questioned about their actions, none of them could explain why they had stayed clear of a school that was almost totally demolished in the blast. All referred to having vague feelings of unease at the idea of going to school on that day, and one said simply "It didn't feel right!" There are many other instances of men and women who were warned, or even physically barred, from dangerous situations. In the days of horse-and-wagon, the animals often balked at bridges hidden by darkness and storm. However, when men tried to lead their animals into wash-outs they often ran up against invisible walls, were warned by seeming voices in the wind, or were met by apparations which indicated that they should not continue on the way. At Antigonish a runner provides provided light in one such situation: "It looked like a great big star and was so bright that it lit up the bridge that was one thousand feet long." At that, most of the reports concerning the taibhs have represented

the spirit as a forerunner of death. Helen Creighton was told that, "If a person is dying and thinking of someone (to whom he is attached), he can make his presence known (briefly, prior to death)." Presumably, the taibhs first presented himself to his host and then went travelling to inform the next of kin. Since the gifted regularly saw their own runners, this was not a matter for concern. Those who occasionally saw their taibhs as a retreating form were pleased as this was an omen of long life. "There (also) used to be a theory that if you saw (a) forerunner early in the morning it (death) was going to take a long time (occur at a remote time), but if you saw it late in the evening it was going to happen very soon." The main thing was that the taibhs should remain at a decent distance; when it approached for a face-t0face confrontation this was thought to spell immediate death. Sometimes the taibhs materialized in groups. This was the case at Southern Point, near Scatarie, Nova Scotia: At a shore-camp, which was a temporary home to a number of fisherman, the door suddenly opened at two o'clock in the morning. "In walked eight or ten men in their oilskins. And they sat around the fire. And after a while (the solitary resident) kind of rubbed his eyes and there was no one there." Two days later nine men fishing from the "Ringhorn" were lost at sea and the ghostly figures were taken to be forerunners of these men. Very few individuals were naturally equipped to view their own or other people's shades, and vague premonitions of danger were not always understood by the uninitiated. Perhaps recognizing this, the taibhs often intruded upon the dreams of the common folk. On a March evening, George Salter of Avondale, Nova Scotia, dreamed of drowned lumbermen being washed ashore. The night before five such men had left the Avondale wharf to raft timber down the river, March 28, 1889. According to numerous witnesses they were heard the men singing a tune entitled "Drifting, drifting to our doom..." This was thought odd since it was always considered an illomen to sing songs of loss and destruction on the rivers or at sea. A woman of the district later said that she heard cries of terror and panic from the river at nine o'clock, but if so they were not heard by others, perhaps because the death throes were masked by chivaree celebrations going on simultaneously. At exactly this time, Della Sweet, the wife of John, one of the men on the raft heard her name called out, apparently in her husband's voice. It was five days before bodies recovered, and men agreed that they had witnessed the taibhs.

Again, not many men experienced dreams that were as literal as that of George Salter. The taibhs was never deliberately vague, but the connections between his world and that of human kind seem to have been indistinct for most men. A coffin, or a coffin-shaped object, seen in a dream seemed to have a symbolism as direct as that of dead bodies; and funeral parties, hearses, and the like, seemed open to easy interpretation. Clergymen were seen as bad luck at sea, and in dreams, as they were funeral orators. Dreaming of fire, or of hell, was considered unlucky; but there were more obscure symbols of death: A boat seen landing might be considered innocuous, but people of earlier times remembered that the death-god often travelled by sea Seeing teeth in a dream was considered a bad matter and people did not like to view broken eggs. Interestingly dreaming of an undertaker was thought to presage a long life. Where the taibhs was unable to gather the force needed for a materialization or the creation of a "sensible" dream it might still act as a harbringer in the form of an elemental fire, sometimes termed the "deadlight" or "corpse-candle." Summing up the views of numerous interviewees, Helen Creighton described this phenomena as, "a ball of light...with a tail. The corpse-candle might travel in either direction between the home and gravesite of one destined for death." Mary L. Fraser noted that, "A light seen going very quickly towards the graveyard was regarded as a sure sign of death. A clear round light indicated the death of a man; a light with little rays or sparks after it, that of a woman. If you could see the house it started from, you would know where the victim was." This form of taibhs was so feared that a new boat built at Broad Cove, Nova Scotia, was abandoned to the shore after corpse-candles seen on board. When Cape Breton resideent Malcolm Campbell was asked about the present seeming scarcity of spirts of the living, he said: "When people stop fishing, there's no fish there. I heard this now in 1937. They used to fish off Port Hood Island and Henry Island. And there was an awful lot of fish, everybody was fishing. And the reason somebody told me that there's no fish is nobody is fishing, there's no bait on the grounds. So why were the fish going to congregate there? It's the same with other things, like seeing things, like forerunners." TANNAS

The spirit of a dead human, a ghost. Gaelic, tamhasg, tannasg, possibly from the root-word tann, long, thin, stretched out. A ghost of the departed as opposed to the "taibh" or ghost of the living; an apparition, wraith or spectre. Possibly confluent with the Brythonic tann,...., the Breton tan, an oak tree, or the Cymric, tan, fire. The Celtic ending asg is a preposition, indicating "out of". The equivalent of the Anglo-Norman revanter. Contrast with taibhs, immediately above. This invisible creature usually made its presence known through poltergeistic activity, but sometimes materialized in human form or that of a totem animal. It was thought that the spirit of a dead person usually combined with the spirit of his or her taibh, moving afterwards to reincarnation. It is uncertain whether the "tannas" represented this combination in earth-bound form or was merely an unemployed taibh forced to remain behind because of the trauma of a violent death. Some of the tannas were known to have been deliberately created to guard treasure, and these could only be unbound through the removal of their horde. In Gaelic communities it used to be thought that ghosts had unfinished business, the fingering of a murderer, the settling of a debt, or the righting of a wrong which occurred while the spirit lived. Some returned to fulfil an oath made while alive or to see that alms were given on their behalf. This disembodied spirit was often suspected of being malignant and it was sometimes thought wise to propitiate it, or exorcize it, through magical rites. The Celtic eve of the Samhain (Oct. 31) was a time for lighting the "samhnagan" or ritual fire, whose purpose was to scatter witches and other evil spirits. The souls of the departed hovered then, taking what comfort they could find before autumn to winter resigned the pale year. The Gaelic "tannas" is also represented as a "tannasg, tamhasg" or "tannasg", a ghost of the departed as opposed to a "taibh" which was a ghost of a living person. This being tokk his name from "tan" a Celtic word sometimes taken to mean fire, but also describing the oak tree and the colour imparted when people lie to long in the sun. The ending "asg" is a preposition indicating a spirit that "comes out of". The equivalent of the Anglo-Norman "revandir", which we commonly call a "ghost". This creature usually made its presence known through poltergeistic activity but sometimes materialized as the old totem animal of the dead person. Some

tannas were deliberately created to guard treasure and these could only be allowed to pass on when the horde had been removed. It used to be thought that ghost had unfinished earthly business. Mary L. Fraser said, "It is a belief that the dead cannot rest easily if they have left debts unpaid, or wrongs done and not righted. Sometimes too, they have come back in fulfillment of a promise, or to request almsgiving on their behalf." Creighton thought that ghosts should be carefully watched: "Whether a ghost is coming towards you or walking away is thought to detemine the length of life of the person seeing the vision." The former indicated that spirits of the hereafter would soon come looking for a soul among the living; the speed of approach was thought related to the period of life remaining. This folklorist had thoughts aboiut eliminating a bothersome spirit: "As to the way to lay a ghost, the method is the same as that used in (against) witchcraft. In comparing the two, it looks as if witches are more easily controlled than ghosts. Witches are always evil in their intentions while ghosts may appear for a variety of purposes..." The most persistent tannas in Celtic history was the "Rider" of Iona, Scotland, Ewan Maclain, of the Little Head. He fought in battle against his own father, Iain the Toothless, and persisted afterwards as "the Headless Horsemen" whose ghost rides to presage the death of any Maclaine of Lochbuie. His story is told in garbled fashion by Creighton, and with better understanding by Fraser. What is important here is the fact that this shade has been seen in Maritime Canada as well as in Scotland. In the battle, Ewans horse nearly threw a shoe and the haunt is invariably heard by the clinking of this loose shoe before it is actually seen. One old Macclaine of Inverness County, Cape Breton was struggling against "bas" while a Macdougall watched his wavering breath. Several times, the dying man was heard to say, "I'm waiting...waiting..." All at once Macdougall heard the rattling of a horse harness and looking from the window saw "a military man with a small head" ride to the front door on a grey horse. At this the attendant turned to see how the old man was faring and found him dead on his bed. Looking back through the window he saw a headless man riding away but he dissolved before reaching the forest. Mary L. Fraser has said: "It is a belief confirmed by many examples that the dead cannot rest easily if they have left debts unpaid, or wrongs done and not righted. Sometimes too, they have come back in fulfillment of a promise, or to request almsgiving on their behalf."

Creighton's work in Lunenburg County suggests that necromancy was still a known art at the turn of this century. At Madder's Cove, she encountered an individual who insisted that "There was a man at Mader's Cove who used to go to sea, and another fellow taught him how to talk to the dead. He used to do it, but he said that it was a great strain upon him." Strain, or not, there were benefits in conversing with the dead. Aside from information concerning past or future events which might be obtained from these shades there was a promise of longevity. A Hubbards resident put it this way: "If you see a person who isn't there it means you'll be a long liver." Opposing religions, supposing that the "other" had more evils to undo invariably saw more ghosts in their cemetaries. Thus at Wasabuckt, on the Bras D'Or Lakes of Cape Breton, the Roman Catholics always said that"...the Protestant cemetary swarmed with ghosts...The immediate neighbourhood was not considered safe even in broad daylight..." The reality of ghost was also admitted in the Protestant camp. The Reverand Rev. Dean Cooper, a one-time cleric at Fredericton, New Brunswick, admitted "Yes I was called to perform the right of exorcism in Fredericton with the authority of the Bishop and following the form prescribed in the Church. The family concerned are very responsible people...I became thoroughly convinced that...some kind of "other world" activity was taking place in (their) house..." Although Cooper followed prescribed form Helen Creighton makes these suggestions concerning the tannas: "as to the way to lay a ghost, the method is often the same as that used in witchcraft. In comparing the two...it looks as though witches are more easily controlled than ghosts...Witches...are always evil in their intentions whereas ghosts may appear for a variety of purposes..."

TARBH UISGE A water spirit, typically seen in the form of a bull. Gaelic tarbh (pronounced tar-ev), a bull; uisge, water. A water-bull similar to the Anglo-Teutonic bullerman. These confer with bull-beggar,

bugleboo, bugaboo, bugbear and the Gaelic bogle (which, see). The MacLeods had this animal as their totem, which may explain their name, derived from the Old Norse "liot", "an ugly one". The black bull was a very ancient symbol of Scottish royalty and a beheaded bull was presented, as an explicit omen, on the table of a king whose powers were failing. The Scots were in the habit of transferring all the sins, diseases and guilt of their community to a king destined for death, thereby taking it to earth with his cremated corpse. A black bull's head was set before a young Douglas chief just before his summary execution at Edinburgh in 1440, and the Mackintosh used the entry of this dish as a signal to cut down their Cummins' guests. At a much earlier date, the druids are said to have sacrificed bulls to unspecified sea-gods, a procedure that continued in the west highlands of Scotland until well into the last century. Mannhardt supposed that human and animal sacrifices released god-spirits from carnate form, their periodic return to the earth being necessary to invigorate it for crop growth and the health of animals that depended upon vegatation for food. This seems supported by the fact that bull was named as one of the kern, or corn, spirits. When the grain crop was luxurious in a part of the field men would say "the bull lies in the corn." Diabolical possession and exorcism remain a part of some Christian traditions. In County Fermanagh, Ireland a Catholic priest made a notable effort to help to troubled young girls but they were not freed of evil spirits until the family "retreated to America". One Irish immigrant to Cape Breton learned that not all of the "ghaists and gobbles" were halted thy the power of "the vast stream" (the Atlantic). After Old Man riley was a few months in the New Worls her approached his village priest at Saint Peters. He told Father Henry McKeagney, that he was in "some trouble", having sold his soul to the Devil while still resident in Ireland. OLd Scratch had just appeared to him, he claimed, saying that the contract still had to be honoured. He implored the priest to help, and being a decent man, the father put on his vestments, and "accompanied by a Frenchman carrying a blessed candle" marched out to Riley's place where he was met by "a great squall of wind." His Satanic Highness came down off the steep hill behind the house "in guise of a big black bull." The priest was a little surprised but held his ground, and after calling up the usual Christian god spells, demanded that Riley's soul be surrendered to God. At this the bull became "a great long-eared black dog", that argued the case with the priest. The priest won more points for the dog "took off over the bay".

TANGY A water-spirit found in the intertidal zone living amidst tang or fucus. Anglo-Saxon, also tangey or tyangie. Dialectic English of Scandinavian origin. Confers with the Danish tang, the Old Norse pang and the English word tangle. All refer to seaweeds of the geni Ascophyllum and Fucus, the species called Fucus vesiculosis being known as black tang. Tangy, or tangie, refers to either the sharp, tart pinching taste of these seaweeds or the spirit that resided in them on the island of Orkney. Like the kelpie, who lived in the kelp beds, this creature cpould take the form of any marine plant or animal, an ability gifted on it by the sea-giants. These sea-horses were commonly referred to as the eich uisge in the Gaelic tongue. They often came ashore as young horses or ordinary men and women. In a playful mood, they often invited humans to mount them and carried them on a ferocious ride that ended with a ducking in some nearby fresh-water stream. They had kin among certain clans and these they warned from the possibilty of drowning by setting up corpse-light over the water or moaning after the fashion of a banshee. Those without this useful connection were warned against mounting this kind when they were at the seaside for they were capable of rape and murder, the male tangie especially so since he had an oversized sexual apparatus. The sea-horses seemed maddened in sight of the deep sea and invariably carried their victim to a drowning afterwards consuming every part of his body excepting the liver. In some repects this creature corresponds with the nuck (which, see), which sometimes shape-changed into a horse. NS, Moser's River, BG, p. 142: the sea-weed man, see also p. 139. TEOMUL The incarnate spirit-helper of the individual man or woman. An exact equivalent of the Gaelictaibsh, which is the the English cowalker, shadow man or nornir. A spirit gifted upon individuals at birth by the Great Spirit; the source of all magic, and variously perceived by recipients. Most men had to make the “spirit-hunt,” for this helper which

often took the form of a shadow, a tiny duplicate, an invisible humanoid or a totem plant or animal. Also “an Indian charm.” The magician named L’kimu (he who sends out) was so named for his dependence on his “spirit-helper:” Ulgimoo (his true name) was a great magician and one of his principal sources of magic was the pipe. His store of tobacco would sometimes become exhausted, but his teomul, which in his case was keeonik (the otter) would go along distance and bring him back any amount he desired.” Francis Parkman has refereed to the teomul as a “guardian manitou,” but this is not entirely appropriate, the mentou being the guardian of magicians who have a suspecr humanity. This spiritual ally was usually gained at puberty by Indian boys who retired to a solitary place where they went without food. Exhaustion, abstinence and the suspension of disbelief usually led to troubled dreams haunted by visions. The first form seen here, beast or objecvt, was taken as a personal totem. An eagle or bear was a looked-for vision as it foretold that the man would be a warrior. The appearance of a wolf indicated a future hunter, while a snake foretold that the person would be a medicine man. Certain objectsseen in the dream were thought to foretell an inescapable hostile future. The young Indian, advised of his charm, afterwards wore some part of plant, animal or stone about his personm as his “medicine.” The Indian was guided by its dream advice, propitiated it with tobacco smaoke, thanked it for prosperity, and cursed it for personal disasters.

TIGHEARNAS The "ghost" or incarnate spirit of the Christian creator God. Gaelic, An Tighearnas, the One God; the Christian Trinity: Father, Son and Holy Ghost. See God. TOM CAT The spirit of male promiscuity and trickery. Middle English, a contraction of Thomas, a common man as contrasted with a gentleman + cat, a word of doubtful origin but possibly Celtic.

Sometimes entitled Old Tom, i.e. the Devil. One cannot say that the mythic Twm Shone Catti of Wales is the prototype but he represents the species: He was born at Tregaron in the Shire of Cardigan in the sixteenth century and took up thievery before becoming a rich man, justice of the peace and mayor of Brecon. Early in his career as a thief Twm visited an iron-monger, pretended interest in a pot, but insisted there was a hole in. Indignent, the smith lifted the vessel above his head and peered at it, but could see no defect. At this, Tom pushed the container firmly over the man's head and while he struggled to free himself removed the rest of his stock-in-trade. According to some authorities Tom was the illegitimate son of Sir John Wynn of Gwedir, by the woman named Catharine Jones. He was christened Tom Jones but was better known as the Twm Catti. Between the ages of eighteen and nineteen he took up stealing to escape from poverty and the demands of his mother. It was said that his disguises were beyond numbering; sometimes he appeared as a cripple; sometimes as a crone; sometimes as an out-oof-luck soldier. By no means a specialist at his art, he was particularly interested in taking animals, and was adroit at disguising them, so that he was sometimes able to sell the animals back to their owners. Attempts to apprehend him were futile, he was never at home when people came looking for him. If he was at home he was always incognito. A farmer who had lost a bullock to Tom once came to his door to be greeted by a miserable hag sitting on a stone bench near the doorway. "Does Tom Catti live here?' asked the farmer. "Indeed, yes!" replied the indigent. "Is he at home?" "Ohyes, He is at home." "Then will you hold my horse by the bridle while I seek him?" The crone did so. The man dismounted made a thorough search of the house and came back to the stone bench to find it littered with a woman's clothing. His horse was, of course, missing! Riding to the farmer's house in a new disguise Tom told the farmer's wife that he had been sent for 5o pounds case to extricate the poor man from legal difficulties. The wife seeing that the strangerr had her husband's horse and whip gave up the money and Tom left Wales for several months. Tom was widely known as a thief but he was free with his money in helping the poor and he often ingratiated himself with potential victims with his abilities at song, dance and humour. A little later, Tom came upon a lady at the hands of a highwayman. A handy man with a sword, Tom killed the robber and conducted the good-wife

back to the home of her husband. The couple invited him to stay over, and the man of the house being in his cups, Tom treated the lady to a "pentillion about her face, ankles and the tips of her ears." In the process he managed to extract a promise from her that she would re-marry him in case her current husband died. Afterwards this happened as promised and Tom became the lord of Strath Feen, a pleasant valley by the River Towey. At first Tom was refused by this independent woman who was not keen on taking up with a thief. At her entreaty he left her home and took up residence in a cnoc or "sugar-loaf" mountain just within Shiire Car. One who had visited this place (in 1850) described it as "in a very queer situation; steep rocks just above it, Towey river roaring below." There Tom set himself up in his usual business but after a time decided to make one last foray against the widow. Arriving outside her window, which was barred with an iron grill, he left out a pitful wail that caught her attention. Coming to the window she demanded that he make his case quickly and move on. Given this leeway, Tom cried out, "I am come to bid you one eternal farewell and have but one request to make, which is that you extend your hand so that I may impress upon it one last burning kiss." the woman hesitated a bit, but flattered, at last extended her arm through the bars. Tom caught the limb and his expression changed, "I have you now, "he said flatly, "and you'll not move from here without a solemn oath that you'll be my wife." "Never!" said the lady, "Never will I become the wife of a common thief." Drawing his sword, Tom stared the woman in the eye and responded, "Very well, will it be your hand or your arm?" The lady being cowed and having some fondness for Tom then swore to marry and thus became a man of means. As justice of Camarthenshire he was an extremely able man, noting that if he could not take "car" (booty) then no other should have it TOMMY KNOCKER An earth spirit bound to a mine or earth-cavern. Gaelic, tom, tufted; + cnoc, hill, such as that favoured by the Daoine sidh (which, see). The first word has come into the Scottish vernacular as toom, confering with tomb, a hollow place. Hence the knockers that dwell in mines and caverns. Similar to the house-dwelling knowie-booh, or knockybooh. The English word tommy was applied to soldiers in both World Wars had reference to their toom-shaped helmets. By association, a tommy came to be recognized as any individual who offered his labour in exchange for little more than food or clothing. In Gaelic lands, he was called the bodach

na' cnoc, or bodach of the hollow-hills. The local tommy knockers correspond with the wichtlein (little wights) of Southern Germany. Keightley says they were "about three-quarters of an ell (33") high. Their appearance is that of old men with long beards. They haunt the mines, and are dressed like miners, with a white hood to their shirts and leather aprons, and are provided with lanterns, mallets and hammers. They amuse themselves by pelting the workmen with small stones but do them no injury, except when they are abused and cursed at. They show themseleves especially where there is an abundance of ore, and then the miners are glad to see them; they flit about in pits and shafts and appear to work very hard, though they in reality do nothing. sometimes they are seen as if working a vein, at other times putting the ore into buckets, at other times working at a windlass, but all is show. They frequently call, but when one comes there is no one there. At Kattenburg, in Bavaria, they are very common and they announce the death of a miner by knocking three times, and also knock three times when any misfortune is about to happen." These spirits are mentioned briefly in Bluenose Magic:, A miner at Springhill told Helen Creighton, "I've heard of Tommy Knockers having been heard before an accident. Men have often seen lights before an accident and they would quit and come up." Again at Stellarton, Nova Scotia, a resident suggested, "If miners heard a certain tapping in the mine they would close it down and stop work for the day." A third respondent from Port Mounton said that the "knockers" were known in Queens County mines. Completely typical is a tale that came from the Mount Pleasant tin mine in Charlotte County, a hard rock mine that is now closed. Igneous rock mines are generally less susceptible to cave-in than coal mines, but this one was penetrated by vertical cracks filled with white clay and fluorine crystals. When surface water created a washout of this material there was some danger than a miner might be buried or drowned. In this instance, two miners were working at reinforcing the timberred roof of a kaolin "plug" when three determined tapping noises were heard. Since the incident took place in "modern times", these fellows were not superstitious and probably knew nothing of tommy-knockers. They would probably have ignored this warning if they had not been pelted with rock shards. Thinking that other miners were "having their fun" they charged up the tunnel to do battle, but found nothing in the darknesss. Behind them they heard the swoosh of water as an underground lake emptied into the portion of the mine where they had stood.

A less usual tale was that of Lazy Lew and the "Devil's imps". This miner was employed in the Maccan coal mine which used to be found a mile west of Maccan River. This mine was opened in eighteen sixty one and extracted about twenty tons of coal each day. While working underground Lew claimed he had contracted witha devil, perhaps the Devil, to exchange his soul for help at work. Lew's co-workers thought this a pitiful tale but were surprised when the miner commenced to send up twelve carts of ore per day where his former record had been four. It was evident that something was helping Lew as ordinary men were only able to produce six in a working day. A burly miner agreed to spy out the situation and arrived at the "front" to find Lew lying at ease, his hands behind his head, while the eerie sound of several picks was heard knocking away the coal. After coal was slid down the balance intop the level, Lew moved to help in filling the cart, but other invisible shovels were heard in the piles of coal. Lew's life style changed for the better but on one shift no cars came up from "the devil's workshop". Fearing the worst, men rushed to the rescue and found a solid wall of coal filled in across the mouth of the level. They dug in it and rescued Lew, who following hospitalization, quit the mine. THe bodachs of the mine, he explained, had become frantic workaholics and hemmed him in with coal, almost claiming his soul. Creighton reveals the fact that, "Tommy Knockers used to be heard in the mines in Queen's County (Nova Scotia)..." In the Springhill coal mines they were routinely heard before disasters. "Men have often seen lights before an accident and they would quit and come up. Before Christams if one were killed there seemed to be three...In Stellarton (Pictou County, N.S.) if miners heard a certain tapping in the mine they would come up and stop work for that day." In his History of the Great Disaster At Springhill Mines, R.A.H. Morrow adds that "Distant rumblings, sepulcheral voices, human beings with flaming fireheads and spectre-like visages, clattering hoofs and other unique surroundings, are more than convincing that if this place is not the abode of "the angels which kept not their first estate, " it is certainly not the paradise of the righteous..." In the Cumberland coal mines a mine horse named Spot-Spot hauled thirteen coal cars up and down the slope in one of the seams. Encountering invisible tommy-knockers the animal refued to move forward and the roof caved in trapping the unfortunate animal but saving the lives of those who tried to get him to move. After that the mine managerr found himself paced

by footsteps whenever he entered the mine. When he stopped in his tracks, the following steps ceased and when he took up he was certain he was paced by an unseen being. For their part, the miners insisted that they saw a recurring ghost of the old horse complete with boxcars. The natural caves of Atlantic Canada are often regarded as entrances to the underworld and they are more extensive than most people would suppose. The existence of subterranean passages connecting the St. Lawrence River with the Bay of Fundy is suggested in legend. In addition, the Indians claimed that underground trails could be followed from at least two caves on the Fundy shore to similar “gates” on the Atlantic Ocean. There was also supposed top be a west to east passage through the Cobequid Mountains from Glooscap’s old haunts at Five Islands to an exit somewhere in the vicinity of Wentworth, Nova Scotia. This cavern was even rumoured to pass on eastwrd to an ultimate exit somewhere in Pictou County. Unless it is believed that men can move through rock like the hornedserpent people, men can only pass from place-to-place by way of caves in the earth. Cave do not usually form in volcanic rock, such as the black basalt that underlies almost all of the Bay of Fundy. In a typical case, caverns form from the dissolution and weathering of soft sedimentary rocks such as limestone and dolomite. Some caves are also formed by water moving through salt and gypsum but only a few are shaped during the cooling of lava, through the physical shifting of rocks and earth or by the action of wind, waves, or ice. We do have a fair quantity of soft rocks in the region and there are examples of karst topography which points to a subterranean world. In Maritime Canada most of these sites are within the central eastern lowlands of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, once the location of a great isolated inland sea. The geologic term used above refers to all countryside resembling that found at Karst, in Austria. In that place there is a limestone plateau marked by sinkholes interspersed with with abrupt ridges and protuberant rocks. Beneath the surface are limestone caves and swiftflowing underground streams which are responsible for the subsidence of surface rocks. Canadian karst regions and their caves are hardly pristine, since they were repeatedly over-ridden by glaciers in the last million years. A sliding, scouring glacier is capable of destroying almost any landform and of lowering

its prolife, filling low areas and burying caverns beneath huge quantities of natural landfill. The northeastern bedrock of Quebec is the base for the socalled Laurentian Shield, the softer sedimentary rocks of Atlantiic Cnada being piled upon these, layer-by-layer. These core rocks are mainly igneous rocks, congealed from molten matter or insoluble maetamorphic rocks, former igneous rocks which have been subjected to great heat and pressure. There are no caverns in these solid basement rocks, but the other geological provinces to the north, east and south have hollow hills to varying degrees. In the far north, on the shores of Hudsons Bay, pre-glacial karst features have actually been found but only one cave of minor dimensions has been discovered to date. Dozens of caves have been found on both side of the Gatineau River in metasmorphic limestones, which are named the Grenville Marbles. These caves are geologically young, all having been formed by the water passing through them since the time of the last glacier, and none face on the Atlantic Ocean. The province known as the St, Lawrence Platform is south-east of the Grenville Platform and parallels the St. Lawrence River. It consists largely of flat-bedded limestones. Some interesting caves are found in the rocks here all the way from Montreal to the Saguenay River. A few small caves are known to exist on Montreal Island, but they have long since been land-filled or blasted out of existence. The cave with the most interesting name is perhaps Le Trou de fee de Desbiens, “The Cave of Desbien’s Fairy,” a tourist attraction south of Lake St. John, which hosts 10,000 to 15,000 visitors each year. This cave is described as “very scenic with waterfalls, rapids and impressive gorges.” At that the cave is only 38 metres deep and 68 metres long. There are more of these limestones beneath Havre-St. Pierre and neighbouring Annticosti Island. At the turn of the century the island belonged to Henri Meunier, who made a fortune in chocolates. It was reserved from 1926 to 1974 by Consolidated Bathurst, who reserved it for use as a private hunting and fishing preserve, and finally was bought by the Quebec government. It has been ascertained that the upper reaches of the Salmon River, which is found on Anticosti, flows through 16 kilometers of underground caverns that have not yet been explored. Forty miles north of this location are the associated Mingan Islands, famous for sea-caves, small limestone islands, and interesting wave-cut features. The last platform between these structures and the Continental Shelf also contains limestones and is termed the Appalachian Platform. Three

caves are located in the Gaspe region of this platform, the best known being Le Trou des perdus, “The Cave of the Lost Ones.” This cave is situated in the remenants of an ancient coral reef northeast of Lake Temiscouta and extends for 245 metres underground “in a complex maze of elliptical tunnels lined with incredibly sharp rock blades.” A stream flows through this cave ultimately emptying into a 3-foot deep pool. Although there are no stalacites present there are numerous showy fossil coral-animals which can be seen embedded in the cave walls. The cave is difficult to locate, thus the name. A second important cave is found at the foot of the Notre Dame Mountains, west of Lake Matapedia, near the village of La Redemption. There is evidence that this underground was formed in pre-glacial times thus it has been found to be free of water but partially plugged with boulders, mud, sand and gravel. The deepest cave remaining here is 43 metres deep by 304 metres , a place called Le Speos, or “The Temple.” Like other nearby structures this chamber sometimes gathers water from the nearby mountains and when it does it takes on the aspect of a muddy football field. This cave was inadvertently discovered by a prospector who excavated the entrance while looking for asbestos. The most intriguing cave has to be St. Elzear where cave-explorers have found chambers 30 metres or more in diameter (the largest cave is 38 metres by 244). The entrance is a 10 metre shaft, and the presence of moose, bear and other animal bones at its bottom show that it has proven to be a death-trap in times past. Here again is a pre-glacial cave with typical collapsed rooms. The place is thought to be extensive but was not totally explored at this writing. The solution caves of New Brunswick may number three dozen, but many are truly “lost caves,” whose location is no longer known. Professor L.W. Bailey said he was not aware of any caverns in the limestones of Silurian age that band the northwestern part of the province. He did, however, notice that “a stream of considerable volume discharges (at Grand Falls) from the face of a cliff only a few yards below the face of the (Grand Falls) cataract.” George Druper, the one-time postmaster at Campbell Settlement in York County noted that a cavern was reputed to exist in this same formation near Waterville (opposite Hartland on the Saint John River). “...there is a hole that if one throws a stone into it, they can hear it rattle as if it went from one to two hundred feet.” A less likely report comes from Archibald Settlement, northwest of

Bathurst, a village situated on volcanic basalts. Here Mrs. W. R. MaMillan insisted that there is “an underground lake or deep stream...A number of years ago a man was digging a well, and at a depth of about eighteen feet the bottom fell out, leaving him standing on a ledge of rock. He tried a pole around, and could not reach any sides or bottom to the water. Two or three years ago, when boring for water on higher ground, about 300 yards away, a pond of water was struck at what was supposed to be the same level as the other.” This may have be plausible considering that the volcanics were deposited “in shallow submarine environments,” later filled with softer rocks. There are a series of small caverns along the course of Corbett’s Brook, which is a small tributary of the Saint John River just below Fredericton. Bailey found that one of these cavities was “sufficiently large to accomodate not less than fifteen persons. Some are remarkable for their cleft-like character. He notes that the caves are “several rods from the stream and twenty or thirty feet above its level. At a site, “a considerable distance from the caves described above,” this searcher stumbled upon a reamrkable square hole seemingly cut from solid rock. It was seen to have vbertical sides each fourteen feet wide and fouretten feet deep. the bottom of the depression was filled with earth and on it small trees were growing. these reminded hi,m of similar so-called “rock-houses seen in the escarpment-valleys of Kentucky and Virginia, but there they have definite entrances and signs of human habitation, which was not the case here. On Penniac Stream a branch of the Nasshwaak River, Bailey saw vertical holes, “fifty or more feet in depth,” but they seemed more clearly natural in origins. He also located “several curious holes,” at Swan Creek Lake in Sunbury County on a bluff forty feet high. “These run in horizontally eight or ten feet, the openings to them being about two feet wide. In front of these openings is a narrow ledge or path.” these were probably animal burrows. In neighbouring Queens County, at Newcastle, this same writer speaks of finding cavities while drilling for coal: “The diamond drill at a depth of between one hundred and two hundred feet suddenly dropped several feet and upon withdrawl was followed by a fountain of water several feet high. This continued to play for several months and similar phenomena have been observed elsewhere.

There is a bit of northwestern limestone arcing about the granitic base on which St. Stephen stands, allowing for a report that, “Goat Brook (near Lynnfield) is an underground stream for some distance.” For the most part, however, the southern and western highlands of the province are constructed of volcanic rock which is not subject to fast weathering and erosion and offers few places where caves might develop. The central and eastern lowlands, on the other hand, are of Permian age and consist of the soft rocks of which legend is made. Bathurst is at the northernmost limit of an old salt-sea basin which once extended all across Prince Edward Island as far south as north-central Nova Scotia. Two arms of this salt-water sea once intruded between New Brunswick mountains as far southwest as Brockway in Charlotte County and Bayswater, in Kings County. The cities of Fredericton and Moncton both sit upon these old sedimentary beds. Approximately 320 million years ago, in what geologists call the Carboniferous age, this region was arid and desert-like, the Bay of Fundy existing as an upland, which fed sediments into this vast land-locked saline sea. As the water evaporated various salts were preciptated at the bottom of the sea, and are, in part, the resource now being mined as potash at Penobsquis and Sussex. As it comes from the mine the raw ore is about 45% potash, 50% salt and 5% clay and associated minerals. With so much soluble salt it is obvious that strip mining would be impractical since rainwater would soon create a vast field of slurry. In addition the main potash bodies are located at depths of 300 to 800 metres. L.W. Bailey, noted saline springs “near Sussex and at Salt Spring Brook,”at the turn of the century, but concluded that there were “no actual beds of rock-salt known to exist.” He thought this led to the conclusion that there could be no underground caverns of much size. We now know this is far from the case, since the Penobsquis mine has had to deal with the emptying of at least one subterranean lake into its shafts. The city of Saint John is similarly situated on “highly deformed Precambrian volcanic and sedimentary rocks,” reputed to hold caverns. Bailey noted that samll caverns “have frequently been laid open in the course of quarrying operations both here and in Charlotte County.” This geologist noted that the dolomites and limestones of the region sometimes had a hollow ring when stamped upon and said that, “at Brookville...holes exist in which, if stones be introduced, these may be found to drop a considerable distance before striking bottom. Professor (W.F.) Ganong also informs me that, as a boy, he was acquainted with a good cave in the rear of Lily Lake,

the dimensions of which he cannot now recall. But probably the most interesting excavation is that of Oliver’s Cave, on the Sandy Point Road, about two miles from St. John. It is evidently an old underground water course, now left dry...and is of considerable size.” This cave is now known as Howes Cave and has been measured at 80 by 13 metres. When Donald MacAlpine went there in 1976 he found that it had been visited: “This cave is strew with broken glasss, paper and plastic, and many of the walls have been disfigured with etched names and spray-painted graffiti.” A similarly vandalized cave was subsequently seen at Greenhead. It was described as having an entrance on a cliff face. A third in the Saint John region was Harbells Cave, entered near “an active sinking stream in Rockwood Park.” Six caves are known to exist in neighbouring Kings County and the most interesting from a mythological standpoint may be Kitts Cave, an active stream bearing cavern in the limestone of the Kennebecasis Valley. This cavern may correspond with Glooscap’s summer oogatol , or “encampment,” may be located at a rock cleft known as the Minister’s Face, which is on Long Island directly across from East Riverside , northwest of the Brothers Indian Reserve. This cavern is known to be more than 150 metres in length. W.O. Raymond described the “Face” as “rather a remarkable promnotory... At its base the water is 220 feet deep, the greatest depth found on the entire (Saint John) river.” Long Island itself is on the longest, highest and largest island in the river system, and the perpendicular cliff is on the north side opposite the town. The island is represented as a sedimentary structure on my small scale geologic map, but it lies unconformably near mainland preCambrain structures on the north side of the river, and these are among the oldest basalts and rhyolites in the province. Raymond says the Ministers Face “marks the crater of an extinct volcano,” and this quite probably shows on larger scale maps. Another cut in this same formation is found “about the tributaries of the Hammand River.” One of these was explored by Bailey in 1903. He and his friend Professor C.F. Hart penetrated “several hundred feet” into the ground, but Bailey said he was unable to recall “anything definite” about the locale or the cave itself. This cave does not appear to be mentioned in modern literature. Also unknown, at present, are Adam’s Oven, “on a mountain facing French Village.” This place was said to be entered by an opening on the side of the mountainn, but it also had a “smoke-hole,” at the top. About three miles from this location Bailey said that there was a third cave “on the Charles Darling property. The cave itself is very long and

certainly formed by nature.” Four caves cluster about Sussex, and there are probably more. In heavy rain and underground river may be heard rushing by the south wall of our home on Court Street, while adjacent Paradise Row has to be filled annually to prevent subsidence from carrying it away. It is a fact of life that Main Street is undermined in the Mercantile Block. Town workers have tolfd me that a light directed into spring pot holes has shown foundation stones and brickwork on the far side of the street. A worker who attempted to plumb one of this openings lost his shovel. Again, stones dropped into these crevasses make no sound of striking for an uncannily long time. The solution, in the past, has been to patch landfill in place with liberal doses of asphalt. An interesting variation on a theme is the Waterford Ice Caves near the ski-resort of Poley Mounatin. Mrs. W.E.S. Flewelling noted that there were “eight deep holes or bottomless pits two or three miles from the village/ Here too was “the noted ice cave, where ice keeps all summer.” The Parlee Brook Cave is closer Sussex and unlike the above is described as “an active stream formation.” The Glebe Pot appears to be north-west of this last location and is a 15 by 13 metres ground-kettle. The Hamilton Cave is the most westerly of these four caves and is not much larger than the previously named formation. Historically, there were caverns associated with Colonel Alfred Markham’s caves at Markhamville and Dutch Valley, but these have not received much attention since Victorian times. Markham himself said that he found them “very irregular in size and shape, with more or less water running through them. Some had openings to the surface in ravines having small openings which widened into irregular chambers ten to fifty feet wide and six to twenty feet high. They then narrowed again into small passages, some showing manganese in small irregular patches embedded in the rocks at the top, sides and bottom.” Markham found some of the caves closed by earth, but he had workmen open them in an attempt to find minerals. Apparently they were successful as he recovered “more than ten tons of Manganese ore out of the alluvium, sometimes from under more than ten feet of earth.” Like Waterford some of the caves had ice in place “in the month of July.” Markham noticed that this was the case with a cave “immediately in back of

my home at Markhamville.” He said that this one was “a narrow slit in the rock, into which a boy can crawl fifty feet or more. It delivers a small stream of pure ice-cold water all the year round, the volume of which is not much affected by heavy rains. The hill above it is probably 200 feet (rise) in 500 yards.” The most interesting underground is found further east in Albert County where there is a good deal of Karst topography with caverns to match. The subsidence here is due to the presence of gypsum and limestone deposits not far below the surface. The baest view of the spirited landscape is 1.5 miles north of the Albert Mines road where Highway 114 intersects with the road south of Hopewell Cape. The roofs of most underground caverns have subsided with actually collapsing, but in a few places they have collapsed, leaving more or less circular depressions filled with water There is an ice cave not far from Havelock Corner. A stream associated with it dips below the ground for a distance of about one mile. In the last century Dr. David Van B. Thorne reputedly took a line and went 300 yards into the cave, bringing out “a huge lump of ice in July.” Bailey noted that gypsum beds were to be found near Hillsborough as well as at Upham in Kings County, and at the Tobique in Victoria County. “In each of these cases the district immediately surrounding the deposits is remarkable for the evidence of (natural) removal. These are usually in the form of pits or sinkholes, though subterranean passages also exist. Near the plaster hills of Hillsborough the ground is honeycombed in places with such narrow intervening walls as to make passage both difficult and dangerous. Mr. C.J. Osman, the one-time manager of Albert Manufacturing Comany said that the plaster measure was up to fifty feet in depth and guessed that the depressions in the rock were effects of “the percolation of water through seams and fisures in the rock.” At a location within the quarry property Dr. W.F. Ganong found ice pits and a “subterranean lake,” possibly the same lake which Donald McAlpine later spoke of as “The Underground Lake.” When ganong visited this place he noted several feet of snow on the floor “in the latter part of July.” The mine manager said there was a second underground lake at Demoiselle Creek which is about four miles due south of Hillsborough. This cavern about 40 feet in width and 200 feet in length was thought to be an inadvertent creation of mining.

The “Stewart Ridge Cave,”which was explored in 1979 by Marc and Chris Majka is about 10 miles west of Hillsborough at Berryton. The entrance is near the top of a ridge extending from Stuart Mountain. A smaller cave opens 10 metres from this opening. The main cave was described as long and straight in one dimension and six metres high. Unlike most poost-glacial cavewrns, this one showed stalacties, hollow tubes of rock which form in icicle-like fashion from dripping rock-water solutions. Donald McAlpine refers to this as the Turtle Creek Cave and says it is more than 300 metres in length. The length is correct but he appears to have confused this cave with one on the Turtle Creek which is much nearer Moncton. Bailey and Hart visited this cave at the turn of the century and referred to it as being on the Coverdale River, possibly because Turtle Creek exits at Coverdale. He found that it contained animal bones, “mostly deer or moose...” The only other cavein Albert County is called The Rift or Acadia Cavern. McAlpine refers to it as a tectonic cave arising through gravity sliding in Fundy Park. He is illusive about its location but says it is “accesible and dangerous to enter.” If this is within the Devil’s Half Acre, as we suspect, then it would be very unstable indeed, a temporary pocket produced by frost wedging and erosion. We have left the “longest known cave in the Maritimes,” for final notice. It is named Archie’s Hole and may have included the ice-caves entered by Thorne near Havelcok. The Havelock mineral springs arise in the Mississippian rocks of this region, and the limestone was formerly mined by the Canada Cement Company. They owned the property in which Archie’s Hole was located, and by that time it had become legendary as a place where pets were lost, appearing many days after at some distant point of the compass. Mine management was never concerned about this, but when a teenage girl became confused and entrapped by the complex of tunnels in 1973, they sealed the entrance. This cave was never mapped or fully explored but is known to be more than 2,700 meters in length (this compares with 15,200 meters for the longest cave in Canada). Attempts were made by the Nova Scotia Speleological Society to have it opened for exploration in 1977, but the company feared legal liability in case of an accident and it remained closed. Since then the cement works have closed and the Society appears to be inactive. ` The Nova Scotia Speleological Society made a survey of Nova Scotian

caves when it was organized in 1963. In this they had the help of an early caver named Walter Prest, who was seeking caves for the Nova Scotia Institute of Sciences about the year 1911. He was not terribly active centering his interest on three caves in Hants County “all within easy reach of town and railway.” The true-blue cavers were able to expand on that list, largely by consulting tour guides and geologic maps. In northern Cumberland County they noted the Maiden’s Cave, located at Black Point near Parrsboro. This is a sea-carved cavern comparable with “The Caves” at St. Martins and those at “The Ovens,” in Lunenburg County. According to tradition, this place got its name from a maiden who was sealed into it after she refused the advances of a pirate captain. It is said that her cries can occasionally be heard from this indentation, and it is hardly more than that, having been reduced to 7 meters of depth by water erosion. In Cumberland there was said to be “an interesting cave,” in gypsum cliffs overlooking a lake near Oxford. The presence of sinkholes there and at Lower Maccan has led to the supposition that are probably caves in these regions. In Colchester County karts is seen near the mouth of the Shubenacadie River, and sinkholes have been noted near the village of Smithfield. In 1893 Fletcher reported “caves springs, and natural bridges among the great deposits of gypsum and limestone which occur on the south side of the river towards Pembroke.” Within neighbouring Pictou County, the Geological Survey of Canada (1890) located “a cave capable of seating a congregation on a rough branch of the Millorona off Florida Road.” Later cavers were unable to interpret these directions but some thought this cave might correpond with Fisher’s Refrigerator, sometimes called the Pioneer cave, which is located two miles south of McLellan’s Brook. This cave was formerly entered through a wooden door set in the hillside. The place was once used for storage, and possibly as summer housing. It is about 50 meters long and terminated in a small room now half-filled with water. Hants county is immediately south of Cumberland and has an extensive underworld. When Prest visited Millr’s Creek Cave, 4 miles east of Windsor, he found its entrance buried by rubble at the headwaters of the Creek. Securing a lantern, a guide and tools, the explorer climed the immense cone of weathered rock and slid into the entrance backwards. He found the

passage almost choked with rock, but was able to proceed although he found the muddy floor difficult to traverse. Suddenly the cave seemed to expand and a pond was seen in the lantern light. Prest estimated the dimensions at 200 x 80 x35 feet of height. He observed that they were uinable to follow the main water-course due to mud on the floor and because it came to a vertical ascent. Visitors later noted that the two sides of the cavern disassembled into “a maze of passsageways.” While Prest observed a number of pools of water, Taschereau (1963) found them united in a single lake 900 feet in length. In his day Prest noted the tendancy toward land subsidence in Nova Scotia, and said that many sub-caverns had already been lost to flooding from the groundwater or the ocean. In 1959 a biologist from Acadia University came to the region looking for bat caves and entered a cave which had superficial similarities to the Miller’s Creek Cave but with drastically different interior dimensions. At its largest, however, this cave was 31 feet in height and 17 feet high. In his notes Prest had mentioned a connection between his cave and a smaller one, but scientists visting both places in 1960 could find no sign of the “lost” passage. Finally in 1965 a group of cavers “squeezed through a very narrow carck on speculation that the lost passage lay beyond.” This proved to be the case, and these caves are now referred to as Miller’s Cave #1 and Miller’s Cave #2. Five-Mile Creek Cave is located on a river of this name about 3 miles east of Burton’s Crossing (Latties Brook). It is possibly the largest and best known cave in Nova Scvotia. Prest (1915) described it as having a wide mouth “slowly being blocked up by rock .” By the time he approached it the opening was about 8 ffet high, but older residents told hgim it had been 20 feet tall easrlier on. Within Prest and his guides stood under a dome 150 feet wide and 60 feet high. “On the left were several ponds and water-holes, all deep and transparent, reaching to the wall...the lower part of the cave became muddy while the cave became higher and wider. Near the first sink hole it must have been nearly, if not quite 200 feet wide, and the white gypsum roof stretched almost flat, without support from one side to the other. Great blocks of gypsum littered the floor and finally compelled us to climb over them or squeeze through, bbetween, or beneath them. In climbing over the boulders, the guide fell and and put one of our lanterns out of commission. In so large a cave this was a great inconvenience, as the narrow circle of light from the remaining lantern did not reach to either wall. The wide and slightly arched roof continued for over 1,000 feet. Spreading from

wall to wall without a single support it seemed to me a marvel of natural architecture. About 1,300 feet from the entrance the cave became so obstructed that a passage was hard to find. Many aperatures were followed a few yards, and then retraced. Everywhere the cave was large, but blocked from top to bottom with fallen rock...” Frenchman’s Cave is located on the north bank of the Wier Brook, which is a branch of the St. Croix River. It is located about a mile northeast of the village of St. Croix. The cave was first described by Prest (1915) as the place of a torrential stream in rainy weather. When Calder and Bleakney visited it several times in 1967 they found no evidence of raging water even during heavy rains, but they were not there in spring at the time of the meltwater run-off. These two found the entrance at the top of a 55 foot sinkhole. The sinkhole measured 86 feet at the top but was diminished to 40 feet at the bottom by the presence of a talus slope within it. Again, a small stream was found running into the cave which penetrated to about 145 feet. By crawling the cavers were able to penetrate 165 feet where they found the ceiling less than one foot high. Following the stream they found that the ceiling dipped to low for further explorations. Although these are the best-known caves in Hants County there is mention in literature of a cave “near Millers Creek on the Kempt Shore and one at Cheverie. Another group of cavers uncovered the entrance to an underground somewhere between Maitland and South Maitland. They described the entrance as “almost hidden by bushes.” Inside they found “damp and dripping walls,” and little foothold at the edge of a pool “that sounded very deep when we threw stones into it. I’ve no idea how far the cave extended and soon lost any intention of finding out for this was a fearsome spot if ever I saw one.” Only the first of these places has been rediscovered. As their are limestone deposits and signs of Karst formation all through Hants County it is likely that there are many caves in addition to those mentioned above. “Plaster” topography is well developed in the area immediately behind Kings College, at Windsor. at Noel Lake, at Moosebrook, along the Tennycape River, and at Walton, where gypsum was quarried. Kings and Annapolis Counties have northern borders on the Bay of Fundy. Here the basaltic North and South Mountain are dominant features and there are few deposits of the sedimentary rocks typically associated

with cave formation. All the same it will be remembered that Glooscap’soogatol was supposedly located within Blomidon, which is at the extreme westward end of North Mountain. In addition there are “ambiguous references,” to caves throughout this region. Will R. Bird was told about a ceve at Dalhousie West, about 5 miles south of Bridgetown in the Annapolis Valley. It was supposedly “six feet high inside and one hundred and fifty feet long. They said Indians used to stay in it during the winters and that it had a dry gravel floor. We asked a man in a field where the cave was and he said he had no idea. He had lived in the place for ten years and had heard some vague mention of a cave but knew no more about it...” In all we asked five different persons and no one could tell us where to locate the cavern.” In this same region there was also reputed to be a cave referred to as the Bottomless Pit, “near the Vault Road back of Middleton.” This cave was rediscovered in 1965 near the southern face of North Mountain when cavers were drawn to it by a local newspaper story mentioning the fact that it had been deliberately sealed one hundred years before. According to one version of events the cave entrance was located within the sunken garden of Timothy Ruggles, who deliberately felled a tree into it and earthed it up to prevent accidents. Others say it was barricaded after an individual became imprisoned there. As it happened, the explorers found it quite easily since a spring freshet had reopened it. They found it a place that equalled its legend: “It’s a very dangerous cave, with passages and chimneys descending to unknown depths. Exploration was suspended until the group had an opportunity to undergo thorough training in the handling and use of rope. ..The cave is a gigantic crack. A pit of unknown depth was crossed by the spelunkers by laying down and using a narrow plank.” It was claimed that “a serious assault on this cave is now going on (1965),” but we have no idea of the outcome. This is a place very reminiscent of that which Indians said they found when they went seeking Glooscap. Antigonish County is east of Pictou, and has extensive limestone and gypsum outcroppings. There are sinkholes at Crystal Cliffs, at and Lanark, on St. George’s Bay, and at this last location drillers have penetrated underground water channels. These locations are across the water from Meadow Green, a notorious haunt of the little people. There are sinkholes at Dumore in the south, not far from the “Fairy Hill” at Upper South River. According to a resident it was, “a round hill in the middle of a broad plain... If you’d go inside you’d be entertainmed by the fairies for seven years, then you’d be returned in good condition.” There are small deposits of cave-ready material in Guysboro and Halifax Counties but no caverns have been reported

from these counties. In Luneburg County, on the southern coast of Nova Scotia, there are sinkholes and a disappearing stream at Indian Point, East Baybut the only caves are The Ovens, a group of sea-caves six miles southeast of Lunenburg. Open to the public as part of the Ovens Natural Park, they are Nova Scotia’s only commercial caves. There are ten in all,, the largest measuring 18 feet in height by 40 feet of length. Legend insists that men have entered this cavern at low tide and have travelled (presumably through solid rock) by underground rivers to exits on the Annapolis shore. This route remains lost to modern men but the legendary gold of the region was found abobe the entrances to the caves in 1861. About 1600 prospectors were attracted to the place in the ensuing rush but only a few profitted from the gold retrieved mostly from alluvial washings and beach sand. The richest placers were recovered from Cunard Cove and Rose Bay. Cape Breton is a world unto itself, and here (excepting Blomidon) are found the most interesting mythological caverns in the region. There are no true caves in Cape Breton County, where the famed Cape Breton coal is mines. Richmond County claims “several small caves, one of them ten feet high and seven feet deep.” These supposedly occur at Robinson Cove. The situation in Inverness County, which occupies the northwestern shore, is more interesting: Here there was said to be a cave at McAskill Brook (1885) near the village of Creignish Hills. A second cave, described as “accesible for about twenty feet,” and was located at Skye Mountain, “on a branch of Brigand Brook.” This mountain is due east of Lake Ainslie. A third cave, located in 1881, was described as three feet high and ten square...west of the track from Marble Mountain to Mackenzie Creek.” This region is north of West Bay, Bras D’Or Lake. Marble Mountain has a long history for encounters with the wee folk (see Helen Creighton’s notes concerning fairies in Bluenose Magic, pp. 102-104). There is karst topography two miles south of Mabou village which is southwest of Lake Ainslie. This last location is less than 10 miles from Inverness, which has been described as the penultimate home of the little people in colonial times. Victoria County is the site of the even more famous Fairy Holes, once inhabited by Glooscap and his mikumweesaq companions. They are located on a peninsula between Great Bras D’Or Passage and St. Ann’s Bay, at a distance of a mile west of Cape Dauphin. At this place there is a fault in the

earth’s crust and along it a band of carboniferous limestone has been folded down into the earth, with a coal deposit on one side and much harder rock to the west. This limestone forms a band of surface rock that cuts across the Cape Dauphine from north to south emerging at New Campbellton and Kelly Cove. In some places it is only 250 yards wide and never attains a mile of width at any point. There are two triangles of this same rock emergent on the northern shore about a mile west of the community of Cape Dauphine. In 1876 a visiting geologist said: “This limestone is worn by the action of the atmmosphere and the waves into numerous caverns of greater or lesser depth. Two caves of large size occur here known as the Fairy Holes. One of these is about fifteen feet high and twenty feet wide at the entrance, which is only accessible at low tides. Ity ramifies the interior into numerous long narrow chambers of sufficient size to admit a man in a stooped or crawling posture, but rapidly contracting (with distance travelled). The cave ascends toward the interior and then descends and branches into compartments. Large blocks of limestone are strewn along the floor, mixed with white clay and soft earth. No water is met with, and the roof and sides are covered with a thin vegetable mould. Nom stalacites occir. A brook falls into the sea a few feet west of the opening, and from this the cave is approached at low tide when the wind is off shore.” Geologist C. Robb added that the second Fairy Hole was found “fifty yards to the west of the former.” This cave proved narrower and lower than the first, but he found it “more interesting,” as it contained “a great multitude of stalactites and stalagmites.” This cavern enterance admitted a man standing upright but soon became a crawl space. Robb followed it into a wider innner recess “where one could proceed on hands and knees,” but cut off further investigation when he found it impossible to go one without “dragging oneself through an ice cold stream.” Perhaps if Robb had continued he might have emrged within the Glooscap’s domain, for it is described in myth as located “on the mainland opposite Glooscap’s canoe.” This island is well-known as the place the French called Isles Hiboux, which are now charted as Bird Islands. It is probably well that he did not persist for it is said that only Indians are permitted entry and that, “after a certain distance the air gets bad and no lights will burn.” On the other hand, Robb may not have been in the ante-room to Glooscap’s Cave for Micmacs who went there in the 1920s walked “for some distance on a level plain, and then mounted a great many steps to another level, where

they continued their course for some time.” At that they did not completely explore the place, which was barred from them when they ran through half of the fourteen torches they brought with them. It should be noted that the Fairy Hole stands before Kelly Mountain, which has a reputation in Indian myth as the place where Glooscap took leave of men in his “stone canoe.” The stone canoe which is Bird Islands is thought to be the remnants of an earlier canoe which Glooscap destroyed when he exited too quickly to the shore. The Micmacs were unable to prevent their white “kin” from desecrating the mountain top with a road connecting New Minas Forks with South Haven, but they have strongly resisted attempts to quarry it into oblivion. “The Nova Scotia Speological Survey,” confused the Fairy Hole with a cave which members found on the cliff face overlooking the bridge at Great Bras D’Or Channel. The Kelly Rock Company has recently decided to reduce the the mountain's granite to aggregate, but they have been opposed by Dan Christmas of the Union of Nova Scotia Indians. At the urging of this group, a federal government environmental assessment board has been set up to review the quarry proposal and decide whether development will damage the mountains religious significance. The union insists that the company should consult the three thousand Micmacs living in the region about the importance of leaving the place intact. The Kelly Rock Company says they will hire 100 men in an economically depressed region and Christmas says that the Union has moderate expectations for preserving the site unscathed. At the same time, there is a minority of natives who remember that the Fairy Hole is offlimits to whites and say that the mountain must be protected "at all costs".25 TRICKSTER An earth-spirit addicted to practical jokes. Middle English, possibly from the Danish trek, a deception: any sly, destrous (left-handed) procedure meant to puzzle, amuse or cheat; sometimes a mischievous or rougish act; a spell of duty (usually two hours) at the wheel of a ship; the customer of a whore (who usually purchased an equal amount of time). Telegraph Journal", Jan. 11, 1992, p. 28. Elaine Flaherty (Southam News).
25"The

This spirit was at the opposite end of the scale from the jinxer or hoodo, being an individual with too much spirit for the good of his community. The trickster is represented in Micmac mythology as Lox, the creation of the evil-god Malsum. The Gaels called him "cleasi" (pronounced cla-see); he was superficially just that, an artificer, a cunning crook, a word magicain, who used jugglery, sleight of hand and every con-mechanism to get his end. He was also known as the "gille-nan-car", or servant of the twisty one, thus an artful dodger or fraud. His models must have included Loki, the Teutonic god Laugar and the Gaelic god Ogma. The last of these was said to have a golden cord through his tongue which was always tied to the minds of his listeners. He was the patron of pagan orators, politicians and clergymen, and perhaps he is still honoured by some of these. A trickster was known as one who promised much but never delivered, thus in the language of prostitution the customer is known as a trick, mark or john (see Main John). As Joe Neil MacNeill has commented, "The fox has no tricks unknown to the hunter." AS evidence you may wish to consult his tales of "Crazy Archie" and "The Farmer's Big Lad" in Tales Told Until Dawn. With less space we give you the Hammond Vale trickster, a man who lived without encountering penalties "from deal to deal" to the end of his shady life. Early in his career he talked a neighbouring into loaning a prize bull for breeding purposes, placing a worthless creature with the farmer for security. He immediately sold the better animal and claimed it had died of disease. Having provided "security" he made no effort at recompense. He next sold a mowing-machine to three separate customers, and talked his way out of reimbursing two of his neighbours. His high spirit was also evidenced when he managed two successful insurance fires. In the first instance he started the fire in the attic and removed the furniture at a leisurely pace. The second time around he discovered that furniture could be insured, and removed it well in advance. This time he spread a layer on coal oil in the cellar and when neighbours volunteered to help him remove the furniture he declined noting that it would be too dangerous, particularly on a foggy night. "he was supposed to have been away (during the fire) but he sat on a bench near the house and watched it burn..." At the time of the fires, the trickster had been in danger of going to jail for non-payment of a mortgage, so this "ggod fire" saved him embarassment, kept him out of jail, paid off the mortgage and gave him new debt-free accomodations. In addition to stealing fire-insurance money, this gentleman took hydro-electric power. In the early days hydro was not metered, the customer being charged monthly on the basis of the number of

outlets within the house. The trickster had one, which ran down into the kitchen. He plugged a maze of extension cords into this single socket and into each other, supplying clandestine energy to every room. He was always careful to shield all but the kitchen windows. The most notorious member of this tribe was, perhaps, the Reverand Johnathan Lunt, whose real-life villainies were recounted in fictional form in The Playfair Papers, published in 1841. In all versions, the Reverand Lunt is described as "a smooth-cheeked, sleek-locked" man "with beard and whiskers closely shaven," clothed in black, "with a white handkerchief round his neck and no collar to his shirt." He entered New Brunswick from the United States in 1838 and immediately took to the business of saving souls. "The people of distant villages abandoned their occupations to hear so extraordinary and eloquent a preacher. He was so intimately acquainted with the geography and administration of the empire of fallen angels that he fairly turned their heads, especially those of the women. He drew celestial landscapes, but these were serene , very cold and colourless, while his infernal landscapes glowed with all the sublimity of fire, brimstone and devils." The people might have been suspicious of this first-hand knowledge of the evil-empire, but they were not and collections were taken for his benefit. Horses were sent to transport him from one community to the next and "wives persuaded their husbands and the girls their lovers , to interest themselves in his behalf." Persuaded by his own publicity and the growing strength of the trickster-spirit, Lunt began to state that he possessed the gift of prophecy and said that he could overlook the thoughts of every person who sat before him. To illustrate this power, he would publically allude to the sins and crimes of individual parishoners, and these revelations were considered remarkable enough to support his contention that he was a prophet of God. As such he came to be feared as much as he was trusted. This was his place in the community when he came to the home of Archaleus Hammond and his daughter Sarah, who lived alone on a farm about twenty miles above Fredericton, New Brunswick. Lunt was easily accepted as a night-visitor in this home as he had already preached in the vicinty "his holiness and miraculous powers being previously acknowledged." Lunt found

Mr. Hammond disposed to believe in miracles and to forward this aspect of his reputation the younger man practised upon him the tricks formerly known as "animal magnetism" but now called, "hypnotism" and "ventriloquism." CONTINUE FROM GRANT TROW Middle English troll from the Old Norse trold. A dialectic form used in northern Scotland, confers with trough, any container hollowed from wood, for example a butter bowl. From this we have trow, a boat carved from wood and trough, the hollow of a wave. The word troll from the German trollen, to wander in far places, is confluent. The Scottish word trow has been used to identify devils and the Devil, but it is properly applied to the more or less malignant spirits of the northern Scottish islands. The trows of the sea are known as haafs (which, see). Those of the land are, "of diminutive stature, and usually dressed in gay green garments...They inhabit the interior of the green hills...They marry and have children (and) are fond of music and dancing...The trows are not free from disease but they are possessed of infallible remedies, which they sometimes bestow on their (human) favourites...When they want beef...they betake themselves to the Shetlanders scatholds, or townmails, and with elf-arrows bring down their game. On these occasions they delude the eyes of the owner with the appearance of something exactly resembling the animal whom they have carried off, and by its apprent death by some accident...Lying-in women and bairns they considered a lwful prize. The former they employ as a wet-nurse, the latter they rear as their own. In case of paralysis Shetlanders hold that the trows have taken away the sound member. They even sometimes sear the afflicted part, and for want of sensation in it boast of the correctness of this opinion."

Middle English troll from the Old Norse trold. A dialectic form used in northern Scotland, confers with trough, any container hollowed from wood, for example a butter bowl. From this we have trow, a boat carved from wood and trough, the hollow of a wave. The word troll from the German trollen, to wander in far places, is confluent. The Scottish word trow has been used to identify devils and the Devil, but it is properly applied to the more or less malignant spirits of the northern Scottish islands.

The trows of the sea are known as haafs (which, see). Those of the land are, "of diminutive stature, and usually dressed in gay green garments...They inhabit the interior of the green hills...They marry and have children (and) are foind of music and dancing...The trows are not free from disease but they are possessed of infallible remedies, which they sometimes bestow on their (human) favourites...When they want beef...they betake themselves to the Shetlanders scatholds, or townmails, and with elf-arrows bring down their game. On these occasions they delude the eyes of the owner with the appearance of something exactly resembling the animal whom they have carried off, and by its apprent death by some accident...Lying-in women and bairns they considered a lwful prize. The former they employ as a wet-nurse, the latter they rear as their own. In case of paralysis Shetlanders hold that the trows have taken away the sound member. They even sometimes sear the afflicted part, and for want of sensation in it boast of the correctness of this opinion." UGMUG The sea-spirit found in tidal races and whirlpools. Wabenaki, meaning unknown. Elsewhere, it was noted that there was once a general upwelling of waters near the island of Miscou, and this place was favoured by the Gougou. The Ugmugs were similar monsters, who sought out turbulent waters. There are plenty of these in the vicinity of the world's highest tides. One place that comes to mind is the Wolves, which lie east of White Horse Island and the West Isles of Passamquoddy Bay. A visitor to Deer Island characterized these small islets as "the angry Wolves, on which, if you visit them, you may be imprisoned for days by the wild surf that pounds hungrily against their gaunt sides when there is the least provocation of wind or water." Commenting more generally, Grace Thompson (1908) said that the passages through the many islands of the West Isles were a complex of "tides, eddies. ledges and whirlpools." The same could be said for the shoaler waters of Campobello, and those of Grand Manan and Briar Island. There is a great tidal rip off Cap D'Or and a similar situation across Chignecto Bay at Cape Enrage. Within the Saint John River one finds the Reversing Falls, one of numerous spirited places in the Bay of Fundy. Whirlpools were said to be caused by the spiral swimming motions of

241 Ugwugs who took the form of sea-serpents. These shape -changers were never restricted to that form and also occured as huge, visible or invisible, sea-people, as mer-folk, or as an ideterminate species of marine animal. The best known Ugmug lived within the shifting Reversing Falls whirpool. Stuart Trueman has said that local tribeman considered this spirit embodied within "a perpetually spinning log in a giant whirlpool", but that's difficult to envisage since the fall's "whirpool" is really a complex of constantly assembling and disassembling swirls, which disappear completely at slack tide. He is probably referring to the Micmac habit of launching a log into the falls to assess the temper of the resident mentou (spirit). As the log drifted into the whirpool, or whirpools, it was shot full of arrows bearing small gifts of propitiation, including the required pouch of smoking tobacco. The log was watched very carefully from the shore to see how the gifts were received. If the log passed through the fury of the reversing falls and emerged with the gift pouches removed it was considered safe to launch canoes on that part of the river. On the other hand, the log was cometimes convulsively "clutched" by what appeared to be gigantic submarine hands, and was upended, scattering presents on the water. In this event, the Micmac or Maliseet watchers assumed that the god-spirit governing this stretch of water was in bad humour and found themselves another means of recreation or work for that day. If the gifts were not scattered when the log was drawn down this was considered a favourable notice, especially where they were seen to have been removed when the log re-emerged within Saint John Harbour. If the log simply disappeared this was thought to be a warning. UKTAN The ocean personified. Penobscot. The most distant parts of the earth were always seen as having the best potential for magic, chaos and danger. Chief among these was uktan, the word the Penobscots used to describe the “ocean-sea,” which comprised the most remote waters of the world, lying in the east, beyond the dawn. This was the place most paquatanec, “out of the way, off the road,” or “far from the haunts of men.” Embayments, or thoroughfares were seeburessek , or “confined,” by land and here men safely piloted their canoes if they avoided collisions with epukunikek, “the things one must go

242 around,” and ebagwidck, “the spirits floating between.” Similar to this last is the Micmac word abegweit, “an island lying upon the stream close to the mainland, thus Abegwait or Eppaygett, “a thing anchored on the waves,” Prince Edward Island anciently carried this name, and a number of ferries to the mainland have been called the Abegweit.. Glooscap appreciated the strength of the sea-spirits and cautioned his people to stay away from the open ocean. About 20% of the waters of the Bay of Fundy originate in the Gulf Stream, a warm mid-Atlantic gyre of water which ultimately washes, and moderates, the shores of Britain. Although Maritime Canada is in the same latitudes it is a much colder place because the remaining waters of the region pour in from the Labrador Current, which feeds upon northern glaciers. This current starts travelling at the surface between Baffin Island and Greenland and flows southeastward from there. Off Labrador it strikes the dense, saline waters of the Stream and is deflected south-westward; part of its mass joining a slow moving underwater “river” at the base of the Atlantic, the rest streaming out over the continental shelf. One arm of water moves due south along the eastern shore of Newfoundland, the other intrudes through Belle Isle Sound entering the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Just off the extreme edge of the Newfoundland Shelf the Labrador Current comes into turbulent contact with water from the Gulf Stream. The differences in water temperatures create rough waters and the fog banks for which the Grand Banks of Newfoundland are famous. This is the northern apex of something very like the Bermuda Triangle, a place where there has been great loss of shipping. Rogue waves are generated here by tsunamis aroused by earthquakes at sea, and there are compass anomalies in addition to the fog, so no supernatural forces are required to explain the marine disasters which have taken place in the region. “Blunt’s Pilot” says that this part of the Atlantic is “a maelstrom of currents, large and small, many of them flowing against the wind.” In the earliest days their complexities could only be learned through recurrent disasters. The Labrador Current is extremely quixotic southwest of Newfoundland, sometimes its northern edge wanders only 250 miles south of Halifax, but at other times it is 500 miles distant as it snakes its way toward the Gulf of Maine. when it curved far from the shore it often took

243 sailors within the waters of Sable Island. The Rev. George Patterson could not recommend this place, saying: “currents round the island are terribly conflicting and certain sometimes being in the opposite direction to the prevailing wind, and sometimes passing around the whole circuit of the compass in twenty-four hours. As currents of water, like currents of air meeting from different directions, produce eddies, these produce marvellous swirls around the island, making the circuit several times, and the same is the case with bodies from wrecks.” And there were wrecks, for as Franklin Russell has said, sailing ships within these waters”became victims of a wild mixture of contrary currents that almost always took them to their destruction.” There is another matter known as “cabelling,” the immediate effect of huge collisions between the Labrador Current and the Gulf Stream. Sometimes they intrude gradually upon one another but sometimes they have the effect of an immovable force hitting an irresistible object. When this happens huge eddies are produced and submarine bubbling occurs. This extreme mixing has the habit of bringing microscopic fish food to the surface, but as some scientists have noted water infused with air has little buoyancy. No one can predict quite where these collisions might occur but they may be responsible for loss of ships under conditions not otherwise explicable. UKTUKKAMKW, UKTAMKOO The Micmac Beginning Place, the site of Creation. Often identified as present-day Newfoundland. In European mythology gods of life and light invariably died and so did the Indian culture-hero named Glooscap. It was said that his first residence was the island called Aja-lig-unmechk, located at the mouth of the Saint John River in New Brunswick. Here, after a time among men, the Patridge Clan plotted to kill the god and in this interest abducted the Bear Woman and Martin, and fled with them into the forest. They had been gone for a month and a half, before Glooscap returned home and peered into Martin’s birch-bark dish. Following faint tracks to the shore he was confronted by a co-conspirator, Win-pe, the giant of the north wind. Seeing his family in a distant canoe Glooscap tried to rescue them but was blow back to shore by the wind. He followed a decaying

244 trail to Grand Manan, and some say that it was here that he sought the dark lands. Others insist that he crossed over to Kespoogitk (Yarmouth) and slowly guided his canoe along the southern coast of Nova Scotia until he came at last to Uktukkamkw, the Beginning-place. At the gates to the Otherworld Glooscap meditated for seven years before pursuing the dark lord. When the time had come for action, he pointed his canoe into the caverns of the Word Beneath Earth, where he found and rescued his friends. On the outward journey, however, he passed through places where men were not meant to go, so that Marten and the grandmother both died of fear. But on the other shore, at home again he said Numchashse! arise! and they were reincarnated. This incident of the “sun” passing through the caverns beneath the earth, emerging again to light the day, is a common theme in world myth. Here as elsewhere the conquest of darkness was seen as giving the god power over death. There is a similar legend concerning Grand Manan Island. Here, the god Glooscap was stranded here by his enemies, and only escaped from the by swimming through the underworldclinging to the tail of a magical fox. In the process, he gained the magic that allowed him to overcome death. Although Grand Manan was not forbidden to men, its waters represented one of the entrances to the Otherworld. It is of interest that all of the death-gods sported dog-like totems: For Odin these creatures were wolves, and the same holds for Glooscap. The Celtic “day god” known as Crom commanded a similar pair of gigantic dogs and it will be remembered that Hel’s kingdom had a similar guardian at its entrance. The same be said of the Grecian underworld, which was protected by the creature named Cerebus. On of the best known mythic creatures of the outer islands south of Grand Manan is a jet-black dog, as tall as a horse with fiery red eyes. Nearby are the appropriately named Brazil Shoals. The early colonists did not settle Grand Manan, and the only Indian habitation was on the north west coast at a place called Indian Point. Marc Lescarbot has said that the body of a famous Micmac named Panoniac was “carried to a desolate island, towards Cape Sable (not The Sable Island), some five and twenty miles distant from Port Royal. Those isles that serve these people as graveyards are secret amongst them, for fear some enemy should seek to disturb the bones of their dead.”

245 There may have been a taboo associated with Grand Manan, which caused it to be left uninhabited until after the Revolutionary War. It is known to have been given as a Seigneury during the French period, but the land grant was not taken up. Further the northwestern shore, where the Indians gathered once each year was the place where they obtained the pipe-stone, whose mythic worth was such it was traded all over the northeast. The Indians had oblique alternate names for the island such as “the most important island,” and “the Sentinel.” Now the latter name points quite directly at Papkutparut “the Guardian” of the dead lands, “the master of life and death.” He is, we suspect the other-worldly form of Glooscap himself! Those who approached him were advised to “be respectful and polite” and give themselves up to “his justice.” It was suggested that they say, “If anything remains of the people within Your heart, any compassion or tenderness, accept these my gifts brought to you from that Living World, and receive me and mine as friends.” My brother, Arthur, who is a trained biologist, and not liable to fudge his observations, spent a summer on Outer Wood Island trying to gauge the effect of the last ice-age on small mammal populations. One day he visited Castalia beach on Grand Manan proper. It was a clear summer day, strangely free of fog or cloud, and he was watching the horizon between Long and White Head Islands when smoke began to pour from the surface of the water between his location and these islands. The column went straight up and thickened for a half hour before it dispersed. There are a number of interpretations: The accidental detonation of an old World War II shell laying on the bottom; the escape of volcanic gases from an underwater vent; or possibly smoke signals from the World Beneath Waves or even the Underground itself. As with An Domhain, ending places are also considered beginning places: Thus the island of Newfoundland was sometimes spoken of as the ultimate “Indian Island,” the “first place” of the tribes of the east. The “sentinel island” of Grand Manan may have had similar status in the mythology of the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy Indians. In all there are eight islands bearing the designation “Indian Island” in New Brunswick alone, and each is considered a magical microcosm of larger, more generally known, islands. Islands of this sort, set aside for ceremonial purposes, were relatively small and within reach but large enough to accommodate the first

246 patriarchs of the tribe as well as every related Indian. Unfortunately for the Indians, these islands were often strategically placed from the standpoint of white settlers. During my childhood it was still understood that Navy Island, which faced the town of Saint Andrews was one of these sacred places. The Indians were first disturbed by the erection of a small habitation in 1704 by French settlers, but this was nothing compared with the depredations of James Chaffey who arrived in 1760. This strong-willed character overcame the objections of the Indians by turning their place into a profitable centre for trade. Before long he had twelve schooners berthed at a time, and his interests drew other businessmen, including a man who denuded the island in the interest of fuelling fires to convert sea-water into salt. The once-treed island became a barren rock and the People withdrew from their tradition meeting-burial grounds. The “Indian Island” in Richibucto Harbour has retained its name and an aboriginal presence since its “discovery” by the whites in the seventeenth century. When government surveyor Moses Perley went there in the 1840’s he was puzzled by the “great fondness” which the natives showed for this place, “where they have held their annual festival on Saint Anne’s Day (July 26).” Perley recommended that the New Brunswick Legislature give the Indians clear title, but a committee replied, advising him to cease “interference with Indian Affairs.” Like neighbouring Shediac Island, “Richibucto” Island is nothing more than a wooded sandbar barely two miles in length. The channel between it and the mainland is just deep enough to dissuade casual visitors and this has helped to preserve ancient ceremonial markings in the earth of the island. Something a little more powerful seems to be directed against violaters of the sacred preserves: A clam-digger who invaded the tidal flats of the island was dead by drowning before he could return to encroach on the Indian’s diggings. A second clam-digger turned up within the week but, “the spirits of the waters must have been strongly offended” for within the week, this young healthy man was found dead of a heart attack. A little later an aerial photographer attempted to record the spirit of the island. His flights back and forth over the place were without result as his sight began to fail before his aircraft landed, and before the photographs could be developed he was

247 blind. In 1762 Surveyor-General Charles Morris said that “the island opposite Aukpaque” was called “Indian (or Savage) Island.” He went on to say that this was the place where the Maliseets held their annual council, at which “all differences and disputes were settled. and hunting grounds allotted to each family before they began their summer hunts.” Their year-round village was on the mainland at the mouth of the Keswick, a tributary river to the Saint John. W.O. Raymond says that the proper written name for the place was Ekpawhawk, indicating a place “at the head of the tide.” Long Island, the largest, longest and highest island in the Saint John River system was originally Quebeet-a- wasis-eek, “the Beaver’s cradle.” This prototypical beaver was the animal which Glooscap made as large as a lion. In the early days Quebeet constructed a dam across the Saint John River near its mouth. This turned the land to the north into one huge lake or jimquispam, and caused the People to send for Glooscap. He broke the dam with his huge club (not unlike that of the Celtic Dagda) and sent the water rushing through a new channel to the sea. Partridge Island, was called Quakmkanik, “the piece cut away from the rest.” The mid-water projection which created the Reversing Falls, just below the cut, was called Quabeeta-wasis-sogado, “the beaver’s rolling dam.” Glooscap’s club thrown after the retreated spirit-animal became Split Rock, which is still seen just below the old Suspension Bridge. Glooscap followed the beaver into his lodge (the underworld) near East Riverside and killed him there. Seeing that beavers were dangerous to men, Glooscap reduced the tribe to its present size. The beaver’s nest then became Glooscap’s summer-place. A similar tale is told of the Minas Basin and its flooding by a giant beaver. Miscou Island, the one-time dwelling-place of the formidable Gou-gou, was Musqu in the Micmac dialect, and the word marks it as “low and boggy.” According to Nicholas Denys this island was settled by Jesuits between 1635 and 1662, its trees reduced to ashes by an accidental fire before he set up a seigneurie on the island in 1652. The Jesuits concluded that “the soil is not good, the water not wholesome, the trees lacking in beauty.” The fact that half the island has always been “unfit for human habitation” due to its boglike character never troubled the cannibalistic Gou-gou. The native people told Champlain that this beast carried off their people and that its voice was

248 often heard on the barrens. Le sieur Prevert de Saint-Malo, who cruised the area looking for minerals assured Champlain that he and his crew had also heard the beast. Allison Mitcham theorizes that its “rumblings” may have been “the bubblings of that unusual fresh-water fountain which Denys discovered welling up in mid-ocean several hundred feet off the island. In 1906 W.F. Ganong went to the island and searched for this fountain but did not find it. This is not surprising as underwater vents are sporadic in their timing and effect. The trees on Miscou did not recover from that early fire, and because Miscou sits low in the water, it is gradually being eroded and weathered to oblivion in spite of the attempts of residents to turn back the sea. Isle Haute, at the head of the Bay, is not out of the running as a Celtic or Indian entry-point for the netherworld, for it is high as the name Hy-Bresil demands. The cliffs there are nearly perpendicular and 320 feet in height. The tale of Glooscap’s enlightenment is also told of Isle Haute and it also has reputation among mariners as a “floating-island,” after the fashion of the islands of imagination in Celtic and Norse myths. Those who have come to Fundy Park from the northern Caledonian Highlands will know of this islands strange appearance. It seems always detached from the stream of water on which it sits. Like Grand Manan it is a place of aberrant compass readings, and it seems to slip here and there in the fog. There are a good many malignantly-named islands, and even mainland locations, which might be considered attached to the land of the dead: There are dozens of places called Dead Man’s Island, Deadman’s Harbour, the Devil’s Gate, the Devil’s Half Acre, the Devil’s Cauldron, or the Devil’s Head within Atlantic waters, and any of these might be thought suitable for docking Manan Mac Ler’s ship of souls. Notice also the Penobscot Hobomocco, which the English interpreted as “Hell.” The current Hockamock Point on Arrowsic Island, Maine is derived from this word. A little above this spot, modern maps identify Upper Hell Gate; and a little below Lower Hell Gate. There is a place with a similar name on the barrens of north-western New Brunswick.

URISK A fresh-water spirit similar in appearance to the classical

249 Pan. Gaelic, uruisg, from air + uisge, literally a supernatural of the water. Macbain defines this creature as "a Brownie" but he is, rather, one of the bocs, or he-goats, having a female conterpart in the glaistig, who is also human from the waist up and a goat from there down. A creature reminiscent of pan and the satyrs. The word confers with the English word water, the lowland whisky and the Latin unda, a wave. All allied with the English word wash. The bucks were field spirits, representative of the old Celtic earth gods such as Dagda, Lugh, and Kernow. Their spirits were overwintered in the last sheaf of the season which was kept in the croft kitchen to be returned to the soil at the first planting. This infusion was thought necessary for the growth of the corn, or grain, whose height always paralleled that of the animal thought present in the crop. In watching the wind bend the grain crofters would say, the goats run through the field. Children were warned against wandering there on penalty of being kidnapped, molested or killed. When a harvester fell ill or lagged behind the others it would be guessed that he was under psychic attck from the bucks. The last shaef cut in the harvest was frequently called "the horned goat", and the person who cut it was sometimes similarly named. The position of harvest goat was not sought-after since it was an omen of failure, burdening the recipient with the duty of "boarding the old man" (i.e the Devil) through the winter. The urisk was a solitary member of this clan, a creature who preferred a small but deep pool to the summer fields. VAMPIRE A bloodscuking spirit, or one of the undead renewed by feasting on blood. Anglo-Norman, also vampyre, French through Slavonic tongues, ultimately connected with the Turk. uber, witch. Perhaps similar to the Anglo-Saxon, wamm, defilement, impurity. An night-wanderer, emergent from the grave at night, that feeds on the blood of men leading to their death. It was once held that vampires were the spirits of people who died unbaptized, without bennefit of clergy, through trauma, or by the curtse of

250 parents or the church. 1730. This belief was its height in Hungary about the year

For a time between 1870 and 1900 South County, Rhode Island had a reputation as the “Vampire Capital In America.” In the Rhode Island cemetary is plot #2, the gravestone of Nelly L. Vaughn of West Greenwich. She supposedly died in 1889 at the age of 19, but her inscription bears the cryptic message: “I am waiting and watching for you.” A local university professor claims that nothing “not even the slightest vegetation or lichen grows upon Nellie’s grave” in spite of numerous attempts to sod it over or otherwise improve the looks of the lot. Of even more interest is the grave of Mercy Brown, the 19-year-old daughter of George and Mary Brown who died in 1883. She was preceded by her mother Mary, and a sister Mary Olive, and about to be followed by her brother Edwin, when community leaders decided that a spirit more malevolent than simple consumption was abroad at night. On a chilly March afternoon, George and his neighbours entered the Chestnut Hill cemetary and began exhumation of the bodies, suspecting one of those interred was undead, and that she must be “quieted” before young Edwin could recover. The earlier bodies were found properly decmposed but Mercy, who had been in the grtound for two months, appeared a little two life-like, her cheeks flushed, her nails and hair longer than when she had been buried. When the men prodded the corpse they observed that it was still filled with fresh blood. As a result, the girl’s heart was removed and burned on a nearby rock, and the ashes added to Edwin’s medicine. In spite of this, the boy continued to decline and died.

WANAGAMESWAK Wabenaki, Penobscot dialect, wanagames (sing.) “Rock Elfs” or “Water Elfs.” A race inhabiting the crevasses in the steep sides of narrows in rivers. “Only a few inches tall, they made little teapots and put marks (pictograms) on the rocks to indicate the canes (and other things) which passed. Lewey Mitchell noted that the Indian name for Roque Bluffs, Maine was

251 Humalatskihegan, “the place where there are many carvings on the rock. He noted, “they were supposed to have been made by Wanagameswak.” These were “a little human being very seldom seen, escept in their works.” Similar markings with a similar history are located in the Hampden Narrows and in many places bearing the designation Fairy Lake, Fairy Stream, or Fairy Lookout, or something similar in one of the Algonquin dialects. Fannie Eckstrom said that their “larger conferes were the Mikumweesak,” the latter “correponding with the English Puck or Robin Goodfellow. I recall when I was a child my father showed me marks - reddish as I remember - on the ledges in Hampden Narrows and told me the Indians believe they were made by fairies. The Indians believed that certain marks on the ledges told the exact number of canoes going up and down the river. (PNOTMC, p. 6). These are the creatures sometimes referred to in the old tales as “the elves of light,” and the tale of their coming to the northlands was said to go back to the days when Atlantic Canada was locked in ice. Then Glooscap stood alone on the land, but once he wandered over the ice cap until he came to the wigwam of the giant named Winter. This supernatural creature greeted him with greatbhospitality, filled his pipe with tobacco, and entertained him with tales of the distant past. As he listened Glooscap became aware that he was becoming drowsy and fearing the frost-sleep, he roused himself and journeyed south. In that far land he found the little people dancing before their queen in a pleasant and trackless forest. As she was exquisitely beautiful Glooscap decided to steal her, and fashioning a magical noose of moose hide, secured it about her and led her away to his northern land. The tiny folk ran after her, pulling frantically against the cord, but they could not resist Glooscap’s magic. Finally Glooscap threw most of them off and came again to the wigwam of Winter. Outside he secreted the little queen within his clothing just above his heart and then entered. The old giant greeted him again but soon began to show distress for the queen was Summer, and the heat of her presence began to melt the ice and revive nature. In the end Winter had to flee to the far north, because the queen and her people took up residence in clefts of the local rock. At that the old man made yearly excursions into his old territory forcing the light elfs to take temporary refuge in more southern places.

252 The summer-queen confers with Samh in Gaelic myth and with Freya in the Norse tales. She is obviously also the equivalent of Muskrat-woman who obtained the grain of sand from which the creator-god Hare refashioned the earth after the world-flood. The woman became the mate of sun-god Hare and matriarch of all the tribes of men. The sorcerer named L’kimu , a resident of Prince Edward Island, told the Abbe Maillard (ca 1740) that his people took special care to preserve their fire through the winter: “We would entrust the care of fire to our war-chief’s women, who took turns to preserve the spark...When it lasted the span of three moons it became sacred and magical to us, and we showered with praise the chief’s woman who had been the guardian of fire in the last phase of the third moon. We would suck in the smoke (from pipes lit at the fire) and puff it out into the face of the woman who had last preserved the spark telling her she was worthy to share the benign influence of the Father of Light, the Sun incarnate...” Here again, a human personifies the spirit of a supernatural, in this case the fairy-woman called Musquash. WARLOCK A human magician or his familiar. Anglo-Saxon, warian, to occupy by force + loc, a lock or enclosure, after the fire-god Loki. The English war, treason, or sedition + lock . Correspondence of this last word is through the Anglo-Saxon loce to the Danish lok and the German loke, the hair of the head, also a wig and as a verb to twist or wiggle out of a difficult spot. This has special reference to Loki's substitution of a depilatory for a hair-lotion. He gifted the bottle on Thor's wife Sif, who promptly went bald. Thor very nearly killed him, but Loki made good by replacing the hair with a golden wig crafted by the dwarfs. Warlock is now understood to be the equal of our word wizard (the high wiz or wit). As we have mentioned elsewhere the "wits" were the wise men of Anglo-Saxon England, the "witan" being the council to the ruler or "maegcyning" (literally the may-king). Carole Spray has made William Lolar of the Miramichi region of New Brunswick the best known resident warlock. While he was called "Wild Bill", he probably preferred his designation as "The Wizard of the Miramichi". Like his counterpart the Nova Scotian witch-master and bodach named "Daddy Red

253 Cap", Bill "Lawless", Lawlor or Lolar was devoted to the arts. Spray said: "Will could do the work of a hundred men, and a dozen tractors, if he wanted to. All he needed was his magic book and some help from his friend...the Devil." Will at first lived with his brother on the family farm, and once found found himself alone in tyhe hay fields while his brother was in the nearest village getting a hitch repaired so that the horse could be tied to the haywagon. While he waited the lead-grey clouds gathered, and sensing rain, Will jumped to the top of the empty wagon, pulled out his black book and addressed words to the ground. At the first crack of distant thunder, the wheeled vehicle started to roll forward clattering across the field at a remarkable pace. As it did so, the grain bundles leaped into the air and piled themselves within the wagon. "Before the first drop of rain had fallen, the field was emptied and the barn was stuffed to the rafters with hay." Will next appeared at a lumber camp on the Southwest Miramichi where he was hired as a chopper. In those days a capable man could split ofifty logs a day. Lolar was seen as a man of ordinary physique but he managed one hundred and fifty logs. Men admired his productivity but were troubled by the fact that the "wizard" never worked up a sweat. As whispers went the rounds that Will was allied with the "Devil" the main john transferred him to watering down the winter roads to create an ice path for the sledges. Once day Will and a teamster were "swamping down" the roads and paused for tea. When the younger man offered to get kindling to place under the kettle, Will snapped his fingers together and created a roaring flame, but his partner did not wait for the water to boil. Soon after horse bells were heard approaching the camp, but no horse and sleigh was seen, and this was taken as a potent omen of death. Afterwards, Will claimed he had been warned to beware of the nineteenth day of January by a black bird that was neither crow nor raven. On that day a stomach "flu" afflicted the camp: "Many died, one man became stone deaf, and another lay ill for two years." Will was blamed for the trouble and dismissed. He cursed the camp-owner's horses on leaving, and they were drowned the following when they fell through thin ice the following spring. WATERSPOUT The sea-going or lake-travelling hurleywain.

254 “The waterspout is “a funnel which contains an intense vortex, sometimes destructive, of small horizontal extent and which occurs over a body of water.” In Arabia these spouts were thought to be the physical manifestation of the jinne, while locally the Indians thougfht of them as a manitou gioing about its business. In North America waterspouts are clasified as tornadic or fairweatrher spouts depending on their formative processes. Storm spouts are often bona fide land tornadoes which have wandered into the water. Often dangerous, they drop down out of thunder clouds, squall lines or from the leading edge of cold fronts. They are characterized by enormous black turbulent “parent clouds” and when fully developed are capable of widespread destruction. Fair weather spouts are more common, arise from the water on convection currents of air, and are relatively harmless in their effects. In our hemisphere, tornadic waterspouts form where warm and cold air masses collide. The Grand Banks is one such location and the Gulf of Maine, another. In both places the threat of ice or fog is sometimes accompanied by an ocassional rogue waterspout. The spouts travel counter-clockwise in these parts, and usually considt of a single tube although double-walled examples have been observed. The speed of rotation may be up to 130 miles per hour, and they treat on-lookers to a wide variety of manigfestations including colourations of the tube ranging from black to blue-black to hues of blue and green. Auditory effects may include humming, roaring, grinding, or crashing sounds separately, or subsequently, or in some combination. Like all good manitous these spirited things have been seen to assume fantastic shapes, and pass through improbable gyrations. The funnel shape is usually attained, but knotted, spiral, and hour-glass forms have been seen. The most eerie manifestation is the “luminescent spout,” which one spotter described as “flooded with an earthly glow gliding across the ocean like a wandering pillar of light.” The most dreaded is the so called “white squall,” which occurs when the air contains little moisture although all other conditions necessary for tornado formation are at hand. In the old days these “bull’s eye storms” were greatly feared as they rose in calm weather out of a clear sky, often with disastrpous effect on ships below. In the sixteenth century British mariners crossed steel swords at the

255 bow of their shipo hoping to discourage the waterrrspout. A French traveller of the next century says that men would symbolically “cut the air towards the spirit” hoping to deflate it with cold steel. Some men tried to break the continuity of the spout by blasting it with buckshot, or sprinkling it with vinegar. These exercises usually proved little more helpful than stamping on the deck to create a noise which might frighten this sea-spirit. Sometimes the passing of a funnel left spectacular effects in its wake, most notably the frutta del mare, or “fruits of the sea.” Live or dead fish sometimes rained down, as did tadpoles, turtles, rats, mice, lemmings, periwinkles, or birds, all probably gathered from some nearby marsh. Occasionally there was an alarming rain of “blood,” usually nothing more fateful than red mud carried aloft and very thoroughly homogenized with water. On May 4, 1761, a large waterspout hit Charleston Harbour and marched toward the land and a squadron of ships “sinking five ships and dismasting several more.” The 500 foot wide anti-cyclone hit the Lillian Morris whose body was seen “blown about the poop (deck) like a piece of paper.” Locally we were visited by “The Great Waterspout of 1896,” at Cottage City, Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. It formed six miles off shore and “just seemed to stand there,” a column 144 feet thick, and 3,600 feet tall, terrminating in a black parent cloud estimated to have been 16,000 feet high. The spout disassembled and reappeared three tim,es within 45 minutes. Except for this local cloud surrounding regions were sunny and the adjacent seas clear and blue. Remarkably, no sound was heard and no injury was sustained in any of this. In 1902 a steamship was passing off Cape Hatteras when a large waterspout was observed on a collisioon course. The captain order all hands below, and followed himself just as the 50 foot wide entity struck amidships. Emerging afterr the attack the captain of the “Hestia” saw two large hatch tarpaulins and a plank, eight ffet long by 10 inches wide twirling in the air. There too he saw a rope from the taffrail suspended in the air in imitation of the Indian rope trick.

256 WEE FOLK Anglo-Saxon, waeg, wave + folc, an extended family or tribe. The same word as maeg, son, a kinsman; maegen, having strength, capacity, virtue, force; mighty, a person at the beginnings of his or her power; thus morgen, morning. Similar to the Gaelic Mhorrigan, a see deity (See mhorga). The English word way originally applied to sea-travellers, those who followed the sea-ways. Later it was applied to those who travelled the highways, main roads, and the byways, or secondary roads. Ultimately used in a derogatory fashion and confused with small. NB, St. Stephen, Grant, p. 87: Gypsies. "...scores of anxious listeners seek the hidden mysteries of the future. It only cost "a quarter" to be told the wonderful things which will never happen." WEREWOLF An earth-spirit shape-changer; half man, half-wolf. English, from the Anglo-Saxon, wer, a man + wulf, wolf. Similar to mere, and the Latin merus, a body of water, particularly a lake; and also, moor. Perhaps from the Gaelic mor, wide or great and their word muir, the ocean. Similar to the Norse mooer, famous or powerful. See mhorga, who was frequently described as the "wolf-queen." A person transformed into a wolf in form, and usually in appetites. The transformation was either permanent or periodic, and sometimes controllable. Confers with the Anglo-Norman word lycanthrope. The original shape-change was usually conferred as a diabolical enchantment. In a few cases the wolf-form was assumed voluntarily to indulge a taste for human flesh. Werewolves in this latter category were able to alter their form at will. This creature is not specific to Gaelic mythology but the Fomorian giants were known as shape-changers and flesh-eaters. The werewolf was the "loup garou" (wolf man) of Acadian communities. Chaisson says: "Another form of sorcery known in Acadia involved werewolves, who had sold their souls to the devil and were transformed into beasts at night and prowled about the villages terrorizing the inhabitants. In most areas...these unfortunates could not be released until they were wounded and a drop of their blood shed; while at Baie Sainte-Marie, on the

257 other hand, such an event would make it impossible to escape their condition." The Wehr Wulf of Lunenberg village was Hans Gehardt, a "finely built German lad" whose family moved to Nova Scotia as part of the British "solution" to the "Acadian problem" of seventeen fifty-five. Hans married Nanette, a blonde French girl who had found refuge with the Micmac Indians. The two had a daughter, but Hans was distinctly jealous of the child and would often walk away into the night without explanation. As the situation worsened, the two began to sleep apart. As his nightly ramblings increased in frequency, Hans cautioned his wife against questioning him about his doings, saying that any meddling would cost her dearly. About this time, people began to speak of a berast-spirit that walked the settlement, staring through the small window-panes at night, and lurking within roadside copses. Young men returning to their home from a visit with neighbours told of being pursued by a moster that sometimes ran erect like a man but also pursued on four feet like a wolf. Afterwards, farmers began to find dead lambs in their barns. Traps were set, and bear-hunts organized to end the depravations. Hans went with the posses but no lamb-killer was ever tracked down. The conclusion to this story came in summer when Hans and Nanette went picking blueberries leaving the child asleep on the kitchen setee. Hans finished picking his first pail before Nanette and went to the house to empty it into a larger container. He was gone an unusually long time, and the wife's generalized worry became terror. She rushed to home and found the child gone from its place. She rushed to a neighbouring field and unburdened her fears on a group of men who were breaking the land. They organized a search party and found Hans Gerhardt in the woods beside a stream that was red with blood. At the approach of his neighbours, Hans sprung at them with animal-like growls, but the stronest men quickly took him down and bound him. They found no remains of the child, but the father's linen shirt was fully splattered with blood and Nanette was sure of what had happened. Hans was taken to Lunenburg, tried and sentenced to die for murder, but after the sentence Gerhardt was found dead in his cell, his wrist veins torn open by powerful canine teeth. He was buried in unhallowed ground on Gallows Hill, and as far as our research can determine, his kind have never

258 been seen in the Maritime Provinces since that happening. Note also the following item from the “Quebec Gazette,” December 10, 1764: “Kamouraska, Dec. 2. We learn that a WQare-wolfe, which has roamed this province for several years, and done great Destruction in the District of Quebec, has received several considerable attacks in the Month of October last, by different Animals, which they had armed and incensed against this Monstre, and especially the 3rd of November following, he received such a furious Blow, from a small lean Beast, that it was thought they were entirely delivered from this fatal Animal, as it sometime after retired into its Hole, to the great Satisfaction of the Public. But they have just learn’d, as the most surest Misfortune, that this Beast is not entirely destroyed, but begins to show itself again, more furious than ever, and makes terrible Hovock whereever it goes - Beware then the Wiles of this malicious Beast, and take good Care of falling into its Claws.” WEYADESK The spirit of the northern lights. Wabenaki, Micmac. One of the combatants (the other was Wosogwodesk in a race around the earth. This spirit was the loser since it was noted that the borealis was not able to race in every climate. WHITE WOMAN A female water-spirit found in both salt and fresh water. Anglo-Saxon, wic, a dwelling or encampment on a bay; a male or female living in a costal location. Confers with wicing (the Norse word viking), a costal pirate. The same word as wicca (m.) and wicce (f.), a witch, and the English words white, weather and witch. + woman, the female of our species. In the mythology of the sea the white women may be identified with the Old Norse waeg, or wave-women, sometimes referred to as the billowmaidens. Nine in number, they were the children of Hler and Rann, the chief deities of the ocean. They also confer with the Celtic mhorga (which, see). Some are said to be the befind, or runners, of women killed on or near the sea.

259

As we have noted the Cailleach was the "geamir" (huntress) of Ireland and Scotland, her season, from November first to May first, being termed the "geamhradh", or winter. Remarkably she was transformed into a virginal woman entitled the Samh at the time of the fires of Beltane (April 30), and event which marked the beginning of the "samhradh" (summer). In this new form, the goddess wore the white linen unisexual, long-sleeved, high-necked, skirted garmet known as which the ancient Celty called the "albus". Alba is the Gaelic name for Scotland, while "alb" or "alp" still describes anything that is white in colour. Frau Gode, or Wode, was known as Brechta, Bertha, or the White Woman of Germany. She too was rumoured to be a great huntress and lead the Wild Hunt from the back of a white stallion, her usual attendants being changed into beasts for this Yuletide happening. Unlike the arrival of the Cailleach, the coming of this goddess was taken as a harbringer of prosperity. In parts of Cape Breton the gathering of human cailleachs (old women) is still considered to predict storm, and this is particularly true if they gather on a beach. Seeing a mermaid on a beach also indicates an imminent storm as does the materialization of a woman in white. On Brown’s Bank in 1871, , the Gloucester schooner “Sachem” was leaving for George’s Bank when the cook, John Nelson, approached Captain J. Wenzell, begging him to turn for home. He had had a dream, he explained, and it it had observed “women, dressed all in white, standing there in the rain.” The captain was not swayed but by one-thirty a.m. The wind had freshened and the ship had to hove to under a reefed foresail. From the forecastle one of the sailors reported flooding of the foreward hold and the captian went below and found six inches of water. Shortly after the crew was forced to abandon ship and by two o’clock the “Sachem” had slipped from sight. In our century, in the waters near Shippigan, New Brunswick, a fatherson fishing team were lost in the darkness and storm off Tracadie LIght. "We looked and there was a woman in white, torch in hand, her two feet dragging canted against the wind. My father took the wheel and followed her

260 for twenty minutes and as she went out of sight the Light came into view...I don't know who she was but I guess she saved our lives."

One of these spirits of the river haunted the Reed's Point ferry on the Saint John River in southern New Brunswick. The cable-ferry operators, Frank and Dyna Pitt periodically halted the ferry on the water to let passengers have a better view of the resident fay, "a woman all in white, carrying a light, crossing an open space at dusk." The Reverand Noel Wilcox was out shooting at Evangeline Beach when he encountered a woman in a white dress walking ahead of him on the sand. Afraid she might be accidentally shot by his hunting companion, Wilcox hurried to warn her but she disassembled into a fog and vanished.

The white woman have been described as shape-changing crones who frequent ravines near the seaside, blocking the path of travellers and entreating young men to dance with them. Those who tried to by-pass these "favours" were sometimes transformed into animals. Like the sea, she was quixotic but could appear in an attractive form when offering sexual favours. She sometimes guided lost travellers, changed flowers into powerful amulets, aided women in childbirth, showed men where to find gold and silver and abated the fury of storms. On the other hand. the woman in white who haunts Partridge Island at the mouth of the Saint John River in New Brunswick has no particular occupation except that of carrying a head under her arm. She was spotted by a guard posted to that island during World War I. In an agitated state he fired three times at her but when he was revived from his faint, there was no sign of additional blood-shed. According to legend, this sea-witch was generated at the death of an elderly lady who fell off the cliff whicle resident at the old marine hospital which used to be located on the island. A noteworthy phantom was supposed to have been the the wife of Dr. Copeland, the surgeon to the Seventh Regiment, which was stationed at Halifax. She and her husband were lost at sea when the ship "Francis" went aground on Sable Island in 1799. Nothing more might have been told of her except that the brig "Hariot" came to the same end in 1801. Captain

261 Torrens of the Twenty-Ninth Regiment staggered ashore with the remnants of his troops and made bivouac on the beach. On a preliminary tour of the island Torrens came upon a shore building which had once been the haunt of mooncussers and wrackers (see entries above). Entering he noticed that his dog was seized with an uncontrollable shaking motion stood barking at a darkened corner. In the gloom from his firebrand the captain spotted "a lady sitting by a fire, with long dripping hair hanging over her shoulders, her face pale as death, and having no clothes on but a loose soiled white dress, weta as if it had come out of the sea with sand sticking to it..." This is the classic white woman, befind or mermaid cast ashore, but Torrens recognized her as the counterpart of Mrs. Dr. Copeland. He could get no conversation from her but she did hold up a ring finger, cut away at the root. "Murdered for the sake of a ring?" enquired Torrens. The wraith nodded and the man promised, "Then, I'll find your murderer to the death." At that, the ghost smiled, its fire faded and it slipped out the doorway past him, vanishing at last into the sea. Torrens did as he had promised and restored a 136.9 carat ring to the Copeland family. Afterwards it was sold in France and mounted in Napoleon's sceptre and is now located in the Louvre, Paris, France. Another case, entirely, involved the appearance of women in white who represented a much larger loss of life at sea. Early on the morning of October 7, 1859, a man living closest the church of St. James, at Charlottetown on Prince Edward Island heard the bells tolling. A curious person, he went to investigate, and as he walked from home was joined by a neighbour. Standing in the churchyard, the two heard the bell toll eight more times. After that the doors were thrown open by a uncommon burst of wind, and within, the men saw three women all dressed in white. As the curiosityseekers stood dumbfounded, the bell sounded one more time and then the doors closed on the ladies. The duo rushed to the door but found it locked. Peering in a window they could see one of the women ascending the stairs to the belfry. Now, the minister and the sexton arrived, and being told that there were strangers in the church, they moved to unlock the doors. When the four entered there was absolutely nothing to be seen, so they approached the belfry on a narrow set of stairs. At the bell room, the leader had to lift a trap door, and as he paused to do this, the bell rang again. Expecting to see three women pulling the bell rope, the men went up through the hatch and found the bell-pull tied firmly to a beam. Nothing more was seen of the women in white although the four men searched all of the church

262 from the bell-tower to the basement. This strange affair was quickly the subject of general conversation but no one could offer an explanation for this supernatural sighting until the steamer "Fairie Queen failed to make port on her journey from Pictou, Nova Scotia. This ship was new to the Northumberland Strait and was berthed that morning at Pictou taking on mail, cargo and passengers. When she had sailed out of her mainland port the weather had been clear of storm clouds. The next day search-vessels went out looking for the "Fairie Queen" but nothing was sighted of her and no wreckage ever drifted ashore. Recalling the women in white, Charlotteown residents began to guess that these were the fetches, or forerunners, of some of those lost at sea, who had come to shore to announce a disaster at sea. Others recalled that the pagan seaspirits were said to be offended by misrepresentations of their names, and suspected that the "Fairie Queen" had been a jonah. Remember that the Faeries were named after the fee, the Celtic witch-women who originally lived on an island off the coast of Brest, France. They can be shown as the adherents of Mhorrigan, the sea-goddess who was the daughter of Dagda. Like the Norse goddess Rann, she was a vain-glorious individual, who would not easily accept the presence of a competitive fairy-queen on her waters. Recalling this, it was noted that the "Fairie Queen" had succeeded another vessel bearing the same name, and she had had also gone down six years earlier. Not all white women represented unemployed runners of the dead. Some were simply sea-spirits given the chore of informing men of serious storms expected on their coast. One of these was seen by the Reverend Noel Wilcox when he was out shooting birds on Evangeline Beach, on the Fundy shore of Nova Scotia. The minister had a companion with him, but the two had separated and Wilcox was playing the role of "beater", hoping to flush game birds from hiding. Seeing a woman dressed in white walking through the beach grasses, Wilcox set out after her, afraid that his friend might shoot her by accident. As he hurried toward her she kept her distance, and when it seemed he was outpacing her she simply vanished like fog in sunlight. The minister thought this was quite uncanny, but when he bent to the wet sand where he had last seen her he was even more puzzled as there were no footprints. He hailed his companion and told him what had happened, but his hunting-mate was not especially surprised. "That was the lady who walks the

263 storm, "he was advised, "Come on were getting out of here. There'll be wind coming up from behind." A little west of New Haven, Prince Edward Island, another spook, centred its attentions on the bridge that spanned Rogerson’s Brook. She was “an unusually tall, heavily veiled woman” who paced two and fro, one hand raised above her head. The drivers of Edwardian carriages said that their horses invariably balked at crossing the bridge whether this figure was present or not. To coax the horses on the drivers usually had to get down and lead the animal by bridle. Foot travellers also had difficulty at this place complaining that passing the central part of the structure was like walking against an exceptionally strong wind.26

WIGHT An earth-spirit, often the familiar of a witch. Anglo-Saxon, wiht a creature or thing; akin to the Danish wicht, a child. A supernatural being, confering with the following short list of related words: wig, long hair; wiggle, to stagger or dance; wighel, to divine the future, wig-wag, writhing or twisting, whit or wit, a variant of wight or wiht; with, the English word white; wit, a wise person, a councillor to the king; witeage, a sage, prophet or soothsayer; witless, blameless; withercraft, witchcraft; wither, weather; confering with widder, widow; withy, the willow tree; wicker, twigs of wicker used in Anglo-Saxon basket and house construction; wicked, an evil wicker-worker; wic, dweller on a creek or embayment; wicig. or viking, a pirate; deab-wic, place of the dead. These words are obvious forerunners of the Anglo-Saxon wicce, feminine and wicca, masculine, later combined in the Middle English word wicche, which became witch. These confer with the Friesian wikke, a witch; the Low German, wikken, to predict; the Old Norse vitki, a wizard, and vitka, to bewitch. The ancient holiday of the wights, or whites, was Joseph, “Of Haunts and Spectres,” Weekend Guardian Patriot, Sat., Dec. 17, 1994, p. 5C.
26Devereux,

264 hwitasunnadaeg, or whitesunday, a moveable feast that fell near the Beltane (May 1). This was followed by the whitsuntide, a time for the whitsunales, a week of festivities presided over by the whitsunlord and whitsunlady. Finally, "Wight, answering to the German wicht, seems to have been used in the time of Chaucer for elf or fairy, and also for haunted houses...Thus also our words aught and naught from anwiht and nawiht." The Whitsun ales, was a rustic festival imported to Atlantic Canada and practised as late as the eighteen nineties. In one of those years the ice was a little earlier leaving the Saint John River than usual and the Fredericton newspaper reported that the Maypole, or whitsuntree, had been swept away before it could be used. The Whitsuntide was three days in all, and followed soon after All Fool's Day, the principal celebration of the April Fool. April Fool"s Day is no longer a well developed set of rituals, but enough remains to suggest that it once reflected the high jinks of the unfortunate chosen to serve as the king's stand-in at the April thirty-first Beltane fires. As originally conceived, the Whitsuntide (white sun time) consisted of three days: Whitsunday, Whitmonday and Whittuesday, the first devoted to the sun god, the second to the moon goddess and the third to Tyr, god of war and destruction. The first spirit was represented in the Whitsunlord, the second in the Whitsunlady, and the last in the king's April fool. In late practise, the festival was associated with the Christian Pentecostals which were held fifty days after Easter. At that, the latter were said to represent the descent of the Holy Spirit to the earth, which is not unlike the revitalization of the soil with the old pagan god-spirit. We suspect the whitsun ales were partly a fund-raiser for whatever religion happened to hold sway, and the earlier name for the festival suggests one popular product that may have been offered for sale. Where they survived in Atlantic Canada, these Pentecostals became little more than a church bazaar, with any drinking forced into secluded corners of the church-grounds. The "whitsun-farthings" that used to be picked up at gaming tables and at the booths of merchants and marriage brokers became "pentecostals" in the less secular version of this celebration. Phillip Stubbes of London noticed that this was one of the "moveable-feasts" "Whitsonday" being celebrated "close against May." A disgusted Christian, he noted that men and women of his day still "ran gadding over night to the woods, groves, hils and mountains, where they spend all night in pleasant pastimes." In the morning they came

265 back and decorated there homes whith "birches and the branches of trees." He identified the "Great Lord" of these festivities as "Sathan, prince of hel", noting that this fertility god was symbolized in a Maypole, hauled home behind "fortie yoke of oxen." "Thus reared up, they bind green boughs about it. Then fall they to daunce about it...I have heard it credibly reported that of fortie, threescrorce, or a hundred maides going to the woods overnight, there had scarcely returned the third part of them undefiled." Exact practises, in either the old world or the new, are conjectural but it can be noted that the Anglo-Saxon "whit" or "wiht" became the English "wight" and the modern "white". Keightley said that "wight" corresponds with the German "wicht", the later used in Chaucer's time to describe an evil elf. He has also noted that all these words are the equivalent of "witch" and that the eve of May Day was one of their celebrations. WILLIE, AULD The Devil or a devil of the Devil Anglo-Saxon, willa, Old Nose, villi, a state of object of desire, particularly one of carnal pleasure. Vili was one of a triumvirate of mortalgods, the others being Odin and Ve. They were all born of the god Borr after he impregnated the giantess Bestla. At the creation of men, Odin gifted them with souls and Ve gave them blood and the spirit of life, while Vili contributed motion and the senses. When Odin was absent from Asgard, his brother gods usurped his power and even espoused his wife. On his return Odin put them to flight, an event celebrated each year in May Day (i.e. Beltane) celebrations. In Sweden, the May Ride saw a flower-decked May King route a fur-enshrouded Winter-King (representing either Vili or Ve), pelting him with blossoms until he was finally repulsed. In England a similar fate awaited other representatives of death and winter. In Scotland the male equivalent of Vili was their nathair, who had his equivalent in the female Cailleach. Auld Willie, the modern Devil, has also been characterized as Illwillie or Stinking Willie (see Auld Reekie). The Sandman is spoken of as Wee Willie Winkle, identifying him as a diminished devil. WILL O' THE WISP A light-carrying water-spirit usually found in marshy

266 situations. Anglo-Saxon, wiht, creature + of the + Old Norse, visp, a broomlike collection of fibres carried as a torch. The first word resembles the Anglo-Saxon gewil, one who follows his own drummer, and confers with wicca and wicce, a witch. Will-o'-the-wisp is a personalization of the gopher light which our English ancestors claimed represented the cowalkers of a special breed of men: boundary-stone movers, usurers and swindlers. They confered with the Swedish "lygte men" and the German "luchtenmannikens", and resembled the lowland Scot's spunkies, except that the latter were supposed to be the runners of unbaptized children. The same origin was suggested for the Russian "rusalky" who are somewhat like the Italian "fuochi fatui" except that the latter were spirits of people in purgatory. Ball-lightning, or gohpers at sea, were locally termed the fetch, and some men said these were the souls of those who had drowned. Fire carriers such as Will O' The Wisp were not really the souls of the dead but their earth-bound cowalkers. Nancy Arrowsmith has elaborated: "The flames were not the elves, but the lights they carried. These elves are animated by the (daed) souls of men, women and children. As such they come closer to being ghosts than any other fay people." Ghosts were not earth-bound, but spirits usually confined in the underworld. Their materializations above ground were rarely repeated. The will-o'-the-wisp has sometimes been confused with "foxfire", sheets of light caused by the bioluminescent effect of certain fungi found in rotting stumps and vegetation. The latter is perhaps the "lambent light" that the Old Norse saw guarding their tombs. These were certainly the lights the Micmacs provided at burial sites "to give light and company to the nigelwech (ghosts)." By contrast, the Will O' The Wisp was always in motion.

One of these appeared periodically at Zinck's Point, near Rose Bay, Nova Scotia: "There was a vacant house out there where a light came down the shore and it was like a man carrying a lantern. It came down to the beach and then went up the height of two vessel spars, jumped around, came down and took a short cut back to the house. It acted just like a man." A Blandford resident explained that ghost lights appeared over a house in the

267 village where "an old man had died". These remained on guard as long as descendants of this person lived in the house. The development of a will-o'-the-wisp that enveloped an entire house was uncommon but there are incidents on record. In at least one case the phenomenon was blamed on the construction of a dwelling using driftwood from a ship lost at sea. On the appropriately named Devil's Island, located in Halifax Harbour, Helen Creighton was introduced to the case of Henry Henneberry, the one-time owner of a very mysterious home. When that gentleman drowned his runner came back to the house at the exact time of his death, and left the wet footprints of his high-topped waders in fresh paint which his wife had just laid on the kitchen floor. After that, the lights started, "five or six blue flames." Surprisingly, people who came near were not burned by them and found they could place their hands against cold shiplap that appeared to be alive with fire. Thoroughly frightened by this, the surviving members of the family decided to isolate it from the surrounding fields by placing it on a new foundation. When this was done the "fires" simply moved from the outer walls to a position under the eaves. As experiment a member of the family brought back one of the "evergreen palms" which used to be blessed in the Church on Palm Sunday. He pinned to a place where flames typically sprung up and was fascinated to note that they burned all about this Christian relic without incorporating it. Malcolm and Sadie Campbell of Glendyer Mills, Cape Breton, saw the ultimate manifestation of this ghost, a land-based equivalent of the fire-ship. Malcolm observed it in midwinter at midnight: "This was a house where after nine o'clock you'd never see a light, they'd all gone to bed. We had a horse and sleigh and stopped at the brook to water the mare. I looked up at the house and just joking with her (Sadie) I said, "This old lady...she must have a bridge club or something tonight. The house is all lit up." It was a strange thing because we passed there hundreds of times and they never kept a light. (But this time there was light) in every window...but an eerie light." For her part, Sadie suggested that what they had seen was the last phase of a forerunner, typically described as "a ball of light with a bit of a tail on it." Sadie noted that "once it drops to the ground it lights up the whole building on the outside." Hugh added that this seems to have been the nature of this light since, "a very short time later the old lady died and it

268 came a snowstorm. She had a son away and a daughter and they waked the body for four or five nights, perhaps a whole week...And that was a very unusual thing because it was two nights usually...and there were lights on every night, all this time. People coming to the wake. The house was lighted up every night."27 At Clyde River, Prince Edward Island, wavering lights in the air appeared, signalling "something serious in the wind. "In the late fall of nineteen ten these lights appeared almost nightly on one end of the bridge. They would gradually drift up from the bridge and beyond the church, to the intersection of the Bannockburn Road, where they would gradually fade...In that year Mr. and Mrs. Paul MacPhail died in a fire...the light had appeared over their house." On an island in the Saint John River, two miles below Hartland, there is a barn which periodically bursts out in flames and the volunteer fire department has been called out several times to find nothing out of order. Men and women who have seen it engulfed in the night have been puzzled to return by dawn when they found not a single ember of blackened board. Stuart Trueman attributed this will-o'-the-wisp to the spirits of French and Indian fighters burned out by the hostile English. He says, "whatever the reason, Indians of bygone generations refused to go near the island." The phenomena that plagued Sacrifice Island, in Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, were attributed to a similar loss of life in colonial times. One of these happenings was a light that "graw larger and larger, and when it got nearly the size of a puncheon head, it was known to be a dead light...there wasn't any fire to it, and it expanded and grew to be fairly light (bright)." Some of the lights persisted long after they were first generated, and in many cases the causative agent was unknown. Thus, at Mount Franey, Cape Breton, the Edwardian writer Frank Hatheway found "A Mrs. Dolan, who lives near Middle Head, (who) told me last week that she saw a steady, bright light, larger than a planet. It appeared on the very top of the mountain. I was up there myself last week. There's no house, or barn, or any appearance of a fire up there." Again at Conquerall Banks fishermen
27Caplan,

Ronald, Down East, pp. 30-31.

269 routinely spotted "lights coming down the wharf. We could only spot them on real dark nights." Sometimes the will-o'-the-wisps were uncannily helpful. At Myer's Point, Head Jeddore, Nova Scotia, a group of pond-skaters knew themselves to be in the haunt of ghostly lights. The night was intensely dark, and in jest one of the crowd shouted out, "Ghost, light up your pond so we can put our skates on." Unfortunately, for those gathered there a slow and persistent glow spread from a single sphere to incorporate the entire neighbourhood. WITCH A mortal earth-spirit incarnate, for good men. Often equated with the "little people." or evil, among

Middle English, wicchen. See wight for explanation of the linguistics. The Whitsuntide is not as far in the past as some might wish and neither are witches. The word is Teutonic-Scandinavian in origin, leading to a suspicion that the original "devil" of the witch coven might have been one of the pagan gods of northwestern Europe, most likely Allfather Odin, but possibly the older Thor who was said to prefer tall evergreens as a rest station for his spirit. The word from which "witch" derives was the AngloSaxon "wic", having the meaning of a dwelling place, particularly one on an ocean inlet. Later, "wicca" came into use to identify a male dweller by the sea, while "wicce" described a female of this same type. There were no nasty connotations in the beginning the related word "wit" describing a wise individual and the "witan" being the Anglo-Saxon king's high-council. The Anglo-Saxons lost Angland, or England, to the Normans in ten sixty-six and after that the language was subverted to the interests of the new rulers. Wits became "nit-wits" and "wicing" came to describe a pirate rather than an uassuming harmless sea-side resident. Forced from their usual lines of work, the Anglo-Saxons turned to "wicked", "withering" pursuits including the "witless" business of "witcraeft", which we now name witchcraft. The first witches were heavily involved in wicker-weaving of baskets and homes and were weather forecasters, the old Anglo-Saxon word "weder" being an exactly synonym for "wither" and thus witch. Another spelling for weather was, anciently, "wodder" and this relates to a whole group of English words, woad, wood, would and wed, and of course Wodensday, or Wednesday, leading

270 to the pretty certain conclusion that he was the first "lord of the dance" to the witch tribes. The witches did not remain in Europe when men moved to North America, but little was heard of their activities because the burning-season had fizzled out in Europe. In Atlantic Canada we had nothing as spectacular as the witch trials in Salem, New England in 1692, but one French witch was burned alive at Point de la Flamme, near Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island in the colonial period. As near as we can determine the last witch to be done down by her neighbours was Mrs. Tennant, a ninety year-old woman who lived in the Barter homestead at Tennants Cove, on the Kingston Peninsula, in New Brunswick. She appears to have been guilty of little more than "mutterings and strange actions" but she was made the subject of a trial by fire, her spirit being symbolically imprisoned in an iron horseshoe. When this was thrust in an open fireplace flame, she reacted spectacularly, shrieking and screaming as if she were burned. She was generally assumed to have been guilty of causing apples to shrivel on trees, killing cattle, creating spontaneous fires, and encouraging fences to collapse allowing cattle to trample the grain. She died shortly after her trial by ordeal. There have been many other notable Maritime witches, the most senior having been the notorious Witch of Mull River (Cape Breton) who lived in a windowless shack, ate tallow candles, and grew horns at the age of a hundred, their length increasing by a half inch during the remaining seventeen years of her life. When Will R. Bird visited Tusket Forks in the late 1940s, he heard of Granny Doucette who lived “along the shore” and was “a weather prophet of more than average ability. So correct were her predictions that couples planning to wed would consult her about fine days. She also knew the best time for planting different seed, and knew all the moons when the fish arrived; the May moon, for sowing different kinds of grain; the June moon for luck with boat launching; the July moon when berries were ripe; the August moon meaning eels in the sand, and the September moon, the time for moose hunting. She cured everything from boils to kidney trouble with herbs she gathered from the woods and fields.”28 WIDOW MAN, WOMAN
28Bird,

Will R., This Nova Scotia (1950) p. 135.

271

A witch-man or a witch-woman. Anglo-Saxon, weddow, or wedew, literally a weder-man, or weatherman. Confers with witch (see, above). Note also the Anglo-Saxon wodiere, a woodsman, akin to Woden and to the English words, weather, wind and wood. As noted elsewhere, Woden was the supreme diety of the pantheon of north-western European gods, displacing Thor as the chief among the Old Norse gods. Used locally to distinguish a widow or widower, especially individuals who had managed to outlive a number of mates. Thus a person with supernatural help. WINPE The wizard-warrior who ruled the northern sea. In European mythology gods of life and light invariably failed and this was so with Glooscap. It was said that his first residence was the island called Ajalig-un-mechk, possibly located at the mouth of the Saint John River in New Brunswick. Here, after a time among men, the Patridge Clan plotted to kill the god and in this interest abducted the Bear Woman and Martin, and fled with them into the forest. They had been gone for a month and a half, before Glooscap returned home and peered into Martin’s birch-bark dish. Following faint tracks to the shore he was confronted by a co-conspirator, Winpe, the giant of the north wind. Seeing his family in a distant canoe Glooscap tried to rescue them but was blow back to shore by the wind. He followed a decaying trail to Grand Manan, and some say that it was here that he sought the dark lands. Others insist that he crossed over to Kespoogitk (Yarmouth) and slowly guided his canoe along the southern coast of Nova Scotia until he came at last to Uktukkamkw, the beginning-place. At the gates to the Otherworld Glooscap meditated for seven years before pursuing the dark lord. When the time had come for action, he pointed his canoe into the caverns of the Word Beneath Earth, where he found and rescued his friends. On the outward journey, however, he passed through places where men were not meant to go, so that Marten and the grandmother both died of fear. But on the other shore, at home again he said Numchashse! arise! and they were reincarnated. This incident of the “sun” passing through the caverns beneath the earth, emerging again to light the day, is a common

272 theme in world myth. Here as elsewhere the conquest of darkness was seen as giving the god power over death. WISKIDABES A natural stone pillar thought to encompass the soul of an unfortunate. Passamaquoddy, “the Dishonoured One,” located on the western shore not far from a sea-cliff. This pillar is now called The Friar’s Head. According to local legend this is all that persists of a warrior who had the misfortune to be conquered by a woman “long ago, in the historic age.” WIWILAMEQ A mortal sea-spirit incarnate as a horned serpent. Passamaquoddy dialect. Also seen as weewillmekq' and as weewilliahmek in the Penobscot tongue. Charles Leland has guessed that this creature, which he describes as "an alligator or some kind of a horrible water-goblin," was misidentified with a similarly named Micmac worm, which was more often found in dried wood than in the sea. Later accounts make it clear that a similie was intended, the creature being like this two or three inch worm in body shape, but capable of of altering its size to that of a horse. It was agreed that this kind often took human form, and could move with equal ease through land and water. John Gyles was captured by a Malseet and brought to live in this region in 1689. While there, he was told by tribemen of a woman of such beauty she could not be suitably mated. Her family lived beneath the shadow of the White Hills, then called Teddon, at the headwaters of the Penobscot River. One evening the girl was seen to be missing and her parents could not locate her. After much time and effort Gyles says they found her "diverting herslf with a beautiful youth, whose hair, like her own, flowed down below his waist, swimming, wshing &c., in the water; but they vanished on their approach. This beautiful person who they imagined to be one of those kind spirits who inhabit the Teddon, they looked upon as their son-in-law; and according to custom they called upon him for moose, bear, or whateverr creature they

273 desired; and if they did but go to the water-side and signify their desire, that animal would come swimming to them." Lucy Pictou of Lequille, Nova Scotia, told a similar story (1923) in which a girl married a "horned-snake". In this case, the girl first saw her loved one sitting within a spring, deep under the water: "He sits there quietly cross-legged with his arms folded across his chest." In this case the couple remained among the Micmac until a child was born, then all three were seen to remove their clothing, and as the tribe watched, their bodies were seen to thicken and length as they shape-changed into horned serpents. Afterwards they disappeared into an adjacent lake. John Newell of Pictou Landing recounted the dangers inherent in consorting with the sea-people (1911). In his tale, a man lay within a jipjakamiskwa track and was converted into a seaserpent He followed the spoor of a female into the world beneath the water. A magic worker told the man's brother that he was surely lost to the world of men "if he has slept with her under the same blanket." Apparently he had not, for the puoin was able to set a death trap for the female serpent and retrieve the human from the carcase of the beheaded male. John Neptune, a chief of the Passamaquoddies (1880), fought the final battle of his life against a wiwilameq. Neptune identified this destructive serpent as the familiar of a chief of a neighbouring Maliseet tribe. Neptune characterized damage at a Passamaquoddy camp-site as, "the work of the inch-long worm that can make itself into a monster as big as a deer." Having concluded this, the "old governor" went through a complex ritual and "drank medicine" in order to call his enemy to battle. Neptune struggled with his adversary at the edge of Boyden's Pond on the reservation at Perry, Maine. Afterwards, the marauder ceased his rampages but the pond was permanently polluted. The lake, which is about four miles from Point Pleasant is even yet named Neseyik, “the muddy lake” or Nesseik, “the place oppf the roiled water.” Eckstrom says she was told that Chief Neptune took the form of a giant eel in order to overcome this ancient enemy. WOKWOTOONOK, WOCHOWSEN, WUCHOWSEN The winter. windblower, a giant who controlled the north wind of

Wabenaki, “wind-blow.” one of the kukwees, similar to the god Odin,

274 who was also entiled the Lord of the Northern Mountains. It is said that when this wind spirit was at his most destructive men hid in the caves of the earth or took refuge beneath the evergreens of the inner forest. Wokwotoonok often plotted with the giants Winter and Frost hoping to eliminate Glooscap’s people, but he was thwarted by the fire-spirit and the goddess of Summer who allied themselves with men. Leland described him as sitting “on a great rock at the end of day. And it is because he moves his wings that the wind blows.” He was described as “the grandfather of men,” but he had little interest in them, so Glooscap “tied both his wings,” and diminished his danger to men. WOMBE The fog-spirit. Passamaquoddy, “white devil.” The spirit which some call a mistpuffer. While one may by-pass the shoals and rocks of the Bay, there is no escaping the wombe, which Eckstrom assures us had nothing to do with Englishmen, but was a name applied to incarnate sea-smoke or fog. Some men have said that the Fundy fog resulted when Glooscap threw out his ashes from the point of land at Blomidon. The Bay of Fundy is a funnel for wind as well as water and those who choose to live nearby cannot escape from the effects of the collisions of warm and cold air masses. In our part of the world the prevailing wind is from the southwest, the ground-level air masses being dragged in this direction by the overhead jet stream. In many places the air from the southwest encounters hills, and the winds are reduced in velocity, but those headed for Atlantic Canada are driven through the Cumberland Gap in the Appalachian Chain and emerge with greater speed than might otherwise be the case. This means that very hot air sometimes intrudes very quickly on the cold air that typically blankets the Bay and where these different masses come together fog is an inevitable by-product. In the summer months, there is fog more often than not, and it fills the north of the Gulf of Maine, shrouding all of the Western Isles (excepting perhaps their westerly faces). The upper reaches of the Bay sometimes blow free of fog, but everything from St. Martins west in usually deep in the white stuff. At Yarmouth there are about 20 days of fog in July and 19 in

275 August; at Saint John, the count is 17 and 14, with warm southwestern winds driving it most of the time. In the summer the Bay of Fundy waters have an average temperature of 14 degrees, which is precisely that needed to precipitate water out of the moving air. “Sea-smoke,” “steam fog,” or “Arctic frost smoke,” is the meteorologic term for what locals call “the vapours,” and this phenomena is “ying,” to the “yang” of fog. In the winter the temperature of the bays and harbours behind the Gulf of Maine falls to about 9 degrees Centigrade, but the winds from the Canadian Arctic are often far colder. The slosh and roll of the waves, and the roiling of the tides bumps water particles into the air just as it does in summer. This local air is not really very warm, but it is relatively warmer than the air masses moving in from the north. It is also warm enough to accommodate small droplets of moisture. When the invading air falls across it, what moisture there is squeezed out as a fine earthbound, or water-bound cloud. The ledged and indented “drowned valleys” of this part of Atlantic Canada are superbly suited to generating summer fog and winter vapour. The Gulf of Maine and the Bay of Fundy are great winter heat-sinks, cauldrons which hold the heat of summer a little past its season; in this sense sea-fog is a ghost of summer. George Lowell, a fisherman who worked out of Prospect Harbour, Maine (1992), said that “vapour can be awfully thick. But it’s not ever as bad as the fogs we fished in off Great Wass Island or off the banks of Grand Manan Island in summer. It’d get so thick out there that we had to put a watch up on deck so we wouldn’t run into another boat. I don’t remember ever being frightened of vapour or fog. It was dangerous, I guess, but you didn’t talk about it...When the vapour freezes (however) it can be a job to sail through. Sometimes it will freeze right to your oilskins. You’ll be going through it in the boat and your oilskins will be turning white. Then you do this. It cracks. It falls right off.” Because the droplets of water in sea-smoke are supercooled, they freeze became ice when disturbed by contact with anything in motion. The washboards, gunwales, and masts of ships can then became layered with ice to such an extent they begin to list. If they are left undisturbed they will overweight a craft and sink it, and I have seen losses of this sort in St. Andrews Harbour. This is unfortunate in view of the fact that this ice is not

276 really solid, but somewhat crumbly and easy to knock away with an axe or hammer. Another Maine seaman, Sherman Merchant, noted that vapour was frequently channelled, so that one could see through it and get some sense of direction. “I’ve never been lost in vapour. But in fog one summer, I went round and round before I was forced to give up. I took my canvas (sleeping bag) out of the bow of the boat and went ashore to sleep for the night. Fog in summer can be big and heavy (and dangerous). And it’s always wet. I’ve seen vapour out on the water as late as April and as early as November...” Clarence Bennett who lived at nearby Vinalhaven, Maine (1988) says that sea vapour that appears at sunrise, “leaping up into fluffy, deep red smokes,” always promises two to three additional days of severely cold weather. The spirit of fog has also been observed to have a few predictable habits. Former airline pilot Carmine Capolla had a mentor, “an old sailor who instinctively knew the tides for Boston,” who showed him how to make the approach to Boston airport in the deepest fog. “hE told me that about an hour before high tide, regardless of how thick the fog, the ceiling would rise and the visibility would increase. He didn’t know why, but it was reliable... (Knowing this) I have since amazed many copilots and crew at my “supernatural” ability to predict weather conditions at the Boston airport.” (OFA, 1994) The local Indians might have explained the backing away of the fog as a courtesy on the part of the spirits of the air. They understood that the clouds of the sea might take lives, and perhaps represent a shape-changer. Along the Maine coast, just north of Olamon Island is an island, presently unnamed, which used to be called Wombemando, “White Devil’s Island.” This place was never inhabited by white-skinned men, but was named for an Indian who committed some atrocities at that place about the year 1750. He must have been a virile spirit and a great magician for he is reported to have come back from living among the Micmacs to rejoin the Penobscots in 1930. As we have noted there are two great islands of fog that still bedevil Atlantic Canada, one within the Bay of Fundy, the other shielding the continental shelf of southern Newfoundland. It may be remembered that Cuchullain found his Fomorian opponents in a blanket of fog near the sea-

277 islands of Hy Falga and Dun Scaith; and it is perhaps not chance that gave another part of the Otherworld the Gaelic name, “the Land of Two Fogs.” Bear in mind, also the fact, that men often chanced on the Netherworld by simply wandering into a land-based European fog. The Celtic voyager Bran explored the island of Airgtheach, “The White House,” and that called Argadael, “The Silver Cloud,” appropriate names for any of our oceanislands. Since the constantly active Bay rarely cools to the -2 degrees C. necessary to freeze salt water, the place usually remains ice-free, in contrast with most other waters in the region. Some parts of the most eastern upper bay do form ice on the shallows, but the tides quickly crush them into ice cakes, which then shift before the winter wind. Sometimes they pile up on shore or beach themselves on the tidal flats, but the high tide inevitable refloats these “spirits on the water,” which show their temper by ploughing across gravel and mud beaches as they drift seaward. On cold days we have seen the Chignecto Bay entirely sheathed in white, from one side to the other in seemingly solid ice, but at the next turn of the tide this same area is seen as blue-black water, the ice only persisting as a faint white band against the cliffs on the far shore.

WOODS-WHOOPER An underground-spirit, the gatherer of souls of the dead. Anglo-Saxon, wudu, woods from Woden, the Old Norse Odin + MiddleEnglish, houpen, a hooter or caller, from the Norman verb houper, an interjection of surprise or exhaltation, a halloo. To whoot in the fashion of an owl. A creature synonymous with the German hoihoiman and the English hooter; one whose occupation is the diversion of travellers from their path. The whooper is a shape-changer and an artist with rain, hail and snowstorm. The whooper often leads men to their death in the deep woods, but at the very least mocks their unease with an echoing whoop or laugh. The earliest prototype of the whooper is Woden who led the Wild Hunt, which travelled the winds of Yule gathering the souls of the dead. Those who saluted the whooping cries from the air were sometimes rewarded with a

278 quarter-section from a horse, which turned into gold over-night. Those who mocked the sounds of thunder or shouts from the sky were sometimes carried off, still living, to join the ranks of the spirits in their eternal hunt. In either case, the action was accompanied by a crytic laughing sound. Old Saint Nicholas derives from Nicolaus Woden, and Good Saint Nick shares his interest in distributing presents to his favourites, sometimes chastizing evildoers. Santa Claus, whose name is a contraction of Nicholas, also announces his leaving with an enigmatic "Ho! Ho! Ho!" The arrival of Woden's Wrath was seen as an omen of bad luck, pestilence and war, but his wife Friggga sometimes took charge, leading the host as Mother Gode, or Mother Wode. In this case good luck usually followed, excepting poor house-keepers, whose flax-wheels were sometimes broken or who were unceremoniously carried by a whirlwind and dumped into a fouled ditch. Various humans have been associated with the Wild Hunt since Woden's death. It was called the Herlathing in England, after their mythical King Herla; in northern France it was the Mesnee d'Hellequin, after Hel, the northern goddess of death. In the Middle Ages it was Cain's Hunt or Herod's Hunt and in central France the Wild Huntsman was variously seen as Odin, Charlemagne, Barbarossa, or Rodenstein, all men with volatile characters. The last appearance of this whooper was in the form of le Grand Veneur de Fontainbleau, who rode out on the eve of Henry IV's murder, his cries an omen of the forthcoming French Revolution. In the Gaelic-speaking lands, the soul-gatherer was sometimes said to be the cailleach bheur (winter hag) or the nathir (serpent). Lesser members of this tribe were the various Hey-Hey men, dwarfs and elfs, who maintained the tradition after all these god-kings had gone to their graves. They were once found inhabiting the remote woods, from the forests of Bohemia to the mountains of Romania. The hooters of England and the houpoux, of France, from which our whoopers are descended, were seen in costal locations or in swamps and bogs. The duin-glas (grey-men) of the Gaelic highlands has been active on Ben Macdhui in recent decades and in 1980 was encountered by climbers on Mount Helvellyn in the English Lake District: "We had finished a snow climb...Conversing we suddenly became aware of some audible footprints behind us. Turning around, we heard muffled crunches coming from the imprints of our own footsteps in the snow...I would be the first to admit that it is one thing to meet up with this peculiar phenomenon in visible conditions and quite another matter when one is alone on the tops at night, and in cloud and snow circumstances..." G.B.

279 Elliott. The original "Grey Man" of Celtic myth was Finn MacCoul, the "giant" who constructed the crystalline basalt "Giant's Causeway", an underwater link between Ireland and Scotland. His personality merged with that of Manannan Mac Lir, the Fomorian storm-god of the Tuatha daoine, a powerful entity now reduced to stirring up minor blizzards to confuse travellers, creating sounds to discomfort them, and laughing aloud when he has succeeded. Woods-whooper was the white-man's name for a very noisy spirit which we think corresponds with the "underground panther". The Upper Canadian tribesman called this creature the "wendigou" and it may confer with the sea-going giantess who the Micmacs named "Gou-gou" or with the jipjakamaq, the “horned-serpent people who were there kin. This "dragon" probably originated in the dark regions of the earth but it spent much of its time in the deepest most remote woods of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. While "Gou-gou" confers with our word "earthquake", "wendigou" or "wendigo" translates as "cannibal". The whooper has been represented as a personification of hunger that stalks individual men in order to capture and consume them. It sometimes occured "in the form of a giant cannibalistic Indian breathing flames" but it also appeared as "a beast with a heart of ice that flies through the air breathing flame and searching for a victim to quiet its lust for human flesh." Like Balor of the Evil Eye, the whooper had the capacity to frighten men to death, or it could simply attack with fangs and teeth slaughter its victim amidst a bath of blood and gore. The woodswhooper had no need to be subtle, but frequently illustrated a wry sense of humour by attracing men to his deep-forest lairs with the smell of fatty food. Those men unaffected by this sense were often led astray by a shapechanged whooper in the form of a woman, who seemed to offer sex. Any of the other senses could be assaulted, giving subtle signals that confused or blinded the individual's befind or guardian spirit. The parallels between this god-spirit and Odin-Uller are remarkable: The whooper was particularly active in the winter months when he gathered like-minded spirits to follow him in a Hunt through the woods. As the whooper emerged from the underworld within the darkest forests, he brought with him giants, carnivorous animals, evil mentous, and those of the mikumwees, or little people, who were not friends of men. Among the Chippewas, some of the latter were termed the "weeg", spirits of sleep, who

280 subdued lost men and the souls of the dead, closing the eyes of mortals on last time "by tapping them on the foreheads thus knocking them to sleep." This describes the Norse Asagarderia as well as the Celtic "unsely (unsilly) court", the latter being under the charge of the Nahair, or serpent-man. Like the other two organizations, the aboriginal Hunt travelled on the north wind in counter-clockwise circles and evidenced itself to men by announcing its passage in fierce winds and the sound of thunder. Those who shared the attitudes of the whooper were passed by and might even receive a "gift" of human flesh flung down at them out of the sky. Men who shouted defiance at the sky were often lifted up and forced to join the undead, who hunted for an eternity in the skies of northern New Brunswick. In the summer the Hunt was disbanded and men and beasts of evilintent were forced to retreat to a disreputable corner of ghost world. There people who were without virtue were given "only the bark of rotten trees to eat" and were made "to dance and leap without stopping." Those who lived the good life could not be taken by the Hunt and went "to a place above the sky". In our mythology frequent reference has been made to uncanny woods dwellers, particularly those with terrifying voices. Mary L. Fraser has given publicity to a Nova Scotian woods-whoopers. located on Meadow Green in Antigonish County. This beast was a resident in the aptly-named Dagger Woods: "The usual manifestation was a series of cries. A cry was first heard in the distance; then nearer, and consequently louder; and then just at hand...It was a human cry, but a hundred voices could not produce its volume." In this same vicinity, on the road between St. Andrew's and Heatherton, a number of watchers were scattered by a "dreag", which appeared as "a big pot spouting fire that passed through the air towards them." Here again other observers thought that they saw a hollowed log floating through the air gouting fire from two opened ends. One unhappy woodsman described the voice of the whooper as "absolutely soul-rending" and noted that it forced his horse to the ground where it lay immobilzed "pouring sweat". This cry is also descriptive of the Dungarvon Whooper. The origin of the name "Dungarvon" is uncertain, but it does translate from Anglo-Saxon sources as "the place of the evil warrior". There is a place in New Brunswick called Dungarvon but this whooper was first reported at Clearwater Brook, a

281 tributary of the Southwest Miramichi, in the winter of eighteen sixty-nine. At its cry "horses snorted, neighed, stomped and reared in fright." After eighteen seventy-four it was quiet but reappeared to vandalize a number of woodcamps fifteen years later. The woods-whooper caused lumber men to lose control of their animals and extinguished their lamps in a swirl of cold wind. He laughed derisively at every inconvenience which he created, and oldtimers said that he was heard precisely at sundown, the screams of pain or terror following for ten minutes. This was taken as an omen of death. Mern who did not understand the nature of this spirit sometimes identified him as a ghost of the dead and in the nineteen twenties the Revereand Edward S. Murdoch made an abortive attempt to exorcise him. We know this was unsuccessful as a young student heard him again when he attempted a "wilderness experience" on Cain's River in the nineteen fifties. After hearing its poenetrating shriek and the sound of breaking wood in the early morning darkness, this Doaktown resident quickly launched his canoe and paddled to the middle of Valentine's Lake. As day dawned he heard more distant callings on the opposite side of the lake and got back enough courage to paddle along the shore-line. As day progressed he forgot his terrible experience until the arrival of an uneasy dusk. As a land fog fell, he again heard the whooper and quickly beached his canoe and loaded his car. Showing great initiative, but little common sense, this lad searched the brush for signs of the whooper's passage earlier in the day but could find nothing. We are reminded here of the English Robin Goodfellow, who also frightened men with his screams and sometimes "took the form of a walking fire." WOSWOGWODESK Lightning personified. Wabenaki, Micmac, the winner of a race with Weyadeask, the “Northern Lights,” a creature tied to the polar regions.

WRACKER A sea-spirit committed to destroying men and their ships. Anglo-Saxon, wrecca, a wrecker, a miserable wretch; confers with

282 wrecan, punish, avenge and wraec-sith, an exile, outsider. Wreckers, those who deliberately set false lights on the shore to lead ships upon the rocks so that they might profit from flotsam and jetsum. The prototype was the Celtic goddess Morgan and her Norse counterpart Rann, who set their "nets" to ensnarl the ships of men. These latter sought gold and the souls of the dead. In times past when ships were ravaged by storm or ran aground in narrow passages, they were considered the prize of anyone who happened to live on the closest bit of land. In some cases these craft were plundered before the ship's owners or the insurance companies had declared them written off. The law frowned on the practise but wracking was a way of life in the vicinity of shoaler water. The earliest wrackers sometimes went beyond mere scavenging, killing men and women who managed to escape from the wreck to assure "a good shipwreck", where there would be no witnesses. In L'Anse Amour, Labrador, many of the houses are furnished and decorated with costly woods that are not from the trees of that mainland. This is because the "Nanet" piled up on rocks in 1954. Her lumber was destined for the European market and the locals reasoned it would be totally lost by the time the insurance claims were decided, so they carried it home. Nevertheless all of them were treading a fine line between legality and an illegal act, and sometimes men relieved ships of their stores before they were truthfully abandoned.

283