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This article is about the Western board game. For other chess games or other uses, see Chess (disambiguation).
From left to right: a white king, a black rook, a blackqueen, a white pawn, a black knight, and a whitebishop
About 1 minute
Casual games usually last 10 to 60 minutes; tournament games last anywhere from about ten minutes (blitz chess) to six hours or longer.
Random chance None
Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard, a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. Each player begins the game with sixteen pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. The object of the game is tocheckmate the opponent's king, whereby the king is under immediate attack (in "check") and there is no way to remove or defend it from attack on the next move. The game's present form emerged in Europe during the second
half of the 15th century, an evolution of an older Indian game, Shatranj. Theoreticians have developed extensive chess strategies and tactics since the game's inception. Computers have been used for many years to createchess-playing programs, and their abilities and insights have contributed significantly to modern chess theory. One, Deep Blue, was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in playing ability when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. Organized competitive chess began during the 16th century. The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion is Viswanathan Anand from India. In addition to the World Championship, there is the Women's World Championship, theJunior World Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Correspondence Chess World Championship, the World Computer Chess Championship, and Blitz and Rapid World Championships (see fast chess). The Chess Olympiad is a popular competition among teams from different nations. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Chess is a recognized sport of theInternational Olympic Committee, and international chess competition is sanctioned by the FIDE. Chess is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments. Some other popular forms of chess are fast chess and computer chess. There are many chess variants that have different rules, different pieces, and different boards. These variants includeblindfold chess and Fischer Random Chess/Chess960.
○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ • •
1.1 Setup 1.2 Movement 1.3 Castling 1.4 En passant 1.5 Promotion 1.6 Check 1.7 End of the game 1.8 Time control
2 Notation for recording moves 3 Strategy and tactics
○ ○ ○
3.1 Fundamentals of tactics 3.2 Fundamentals of strategy 3.3 Opening
○ ○ •
3.4 Middlegame 3.5 Endgame
4.1 Predecessors 4.2 Origins of the modern game (1000–1850)
○ ○ •
4.3 Birth of a sport (1850–1945) 4.4 Post-war era (1945 and later)
5 Place in culture
○ ○ •
5.1 Pre-modern 5.2 Modern
6 Chess composition
7 Competitive play
○ ○ • • • • • •
7.1 Organization of competitions 7.2 Titles and rankings
8 Publications 9 Mathematics and computers 10 Psychology 11 Variants 12 See also 13 Notes
○ ○ • • •
13.1 Footnotes 13.2 Citations
14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links
Main article: Rules of chess
The official rules of chess are maintained by the World Chess Federation. Along with information on official chess tournaments, the rules are described in the FIDE Handbook, Laws of Chess section.
Pieces at the start of a game
Initial position: first row: rook, knight, bishop, queen, king, bishop, knight, and rook; second row: pawns
Chess is played on a square board of eight rows (called ranks and denoted with numbers 1 to 8) and eight columns (called files and denoted with letters a toh) of squares. The colors of the sixty-four squares alternate and are referred to as "light squares" and "dark squares". The chessboard is placed with a light
thus the move forms an "L"-shape two squares long and one square wide. or diagonal. and each begins the game with sixteenpieces of the specified color. After the initial move. all pieces capture opponent's pieces by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. with each queen on its own color. and the pieces are set out as shown in the diagram. when two pieces are moved). but it may not leap over other pieces. With the sole exception of en passant. the players alternately move one piece at a time (with the exception of castling. it is either a checkmate—if the king is under attack—or astalemate—if the king is not. but may not leap over other pieces. The king has also a special move which is called castling and involves also moving a rook. the rook is involved during the king's castling move. The bishop can move any number of squares diagonally. file. two rooks. The pawn may move forward to the unoccupied square immediately in front of it on the same file. These consist of one king. but may not leap over other pieces.square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player. The knight is the only piece that can leap over other pieces. If the player to move has no legal moves. The queen combines the power of the rook and bishop and can move any number of squares along rank. or on its first move it may advance two squares along the same file provided both squares are unoccupied. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece. The knight moves to any of the closest squares that are not on the same rank. In the diagrams. the dots mark the squares where the piece can move if no other pieces (including one's own piece) are on the squares between the piece's initial position and its destination. Movement White always moves first. Each chess piece has its own style of moving. Along with the king. A player may not make any move that would put or leave his king under attack. the game is over. The king moves one square in any direction. two bishops. The rook can move any number of squares along any rank or file. into white and black sets. or it may move to a square occupied by an opponent's piece which is diagonally in front of . two knights. and eight pawns. by convention. which is captured and removed from play. file. The players are referred to as "White" and "Black". one queen. or diagonal. The pieces are divided.
capturing that piece. The pawn has two special moves: the en passant capture and pawn promotion.it on an adjacent file. Moves of a king a 8 b c d e f g h 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 a b c d e f g h 1 Moves of a rook a 8 b c d e f g h 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 3 4 3 .
2 2 1 a b c d e f g h 1 Moves of a bishop a 8 b c d e f g h 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 a b c d e f g h 1 Moves of a queen a 8 b c d e f g h 8 7 7 .
6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 a b c d e f g h 1 Moves of a knight a 8 b c d e f g h 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 a b c d e f g h 1 Moves of a pawn a b c d e f g h .
Castling consists of moving the king two squares along the first rank toward a rook (which is on the player's first rank[note 1]) and . known as castling. Pawns are also involved in the special move calleden passant. they cannot capture with their normal move (black circles).8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 a b c d e f g h 1 * Pawns can optionally move two squares forward instead of one on their first move only. They capture diagonally (black x's). Castling Examples of castling Main article: Castling Once in every game. each king is allowed to make a special move.
Check . Usually. the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen. this can only be done on the very next move.then placing the rook on the last square the king has just crossed. then the opponent's pawn can capture iten passant (in passing). There is no restriction placed on the piece that is chosen on promotion. or the right to do so is lost. In the diagram on the right. and move to the square the pawn passed over. so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game (for example. Castling is permissible only if all of the following conditions hold: Neither of the pieces involved in castling may have been previously moved during the game. En passant Examples of pawn moves: promotion (left) and en passant (right) Main article: En passant When a pawn advances two squares and there is an opponent's pawn on an adjacent file next to its destination square. However. then the white pawn on f5 can take it via en passant on g6 (but only on white's next move). the pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted to an allowed piece. There must be no pieces between the king and the rook. this is called underpromotion. two queens). or knight of the same color. bishop. if the black pawn has just advanced two squares from g7 to g5. nor may the king pass through squares that are under attack by enemy pieces. nor move to a square where it is in check. but in some cases another piece is chosen. For example. Promotion Main article: Promotion (chess) When a pawn advances to the eighth rank. The king may not currently be in check. rook. as a part of the move it is promoted and must be exchanged for the player's choice of queen.
Games also may end in a draw (tie). even with a much superior position. A response to a check is a legal move if it results in a position where the king is no longer under direct attack (that is.[note 2] particularly in correspondence chess. the fifty-move rule.Main article: Check (chess) When a king is under immediate attack by one or two of the opponent's pieces. The object of the game is to checkmate the opponent. interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king (which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen. stalemate. End of the game Although the objective of the game is to checkmate the opponent. As checkmate from some positions cannot be forced in fewer than 50 moves (such as in the pawnless chess endgame and two knights endgame). This can involve capturing the checking piece. rook. the fifty-move rule is not applied everywhere. threefold repetition of a position. or a draw by impossibility of checkmate (usually because ofinsufficient material to checkmate). or bishop and there is a square between it and the king). not in check). this occurs when the opponent's king is in check. a player may run out of time and lose. If it is a timed game. It is considered bad etiquette to continue playing when in a truly hopeless position. It is illegal for a player to make a move that would put or leave his own king in check. White is in checkmate a 8 b c d e f g h 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 . A draw can occur in several situations. or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack. chess games do not have to end in checkmate—either player may resign which is a win for the other player. it is said to be in check. and there is no legal way to remove it from attack. Castling is not a permissible response to a check. including draw by agreement.
1 a b c d e f g h 1 White is in checkmate. the game is a draw. and since Black cannot move. He cannot escape from being attacked by the Black king and bishops. Stalemate a 8 b c d e f g h 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 a b c d e f g h 1 Stalemate if Black is to move. Time control A modern digital chess clock . The position is not checkmate.
one for each player's remaining time. and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous. For example.g. the game is automatically lost (provided his opponent has enough pieces left to deliver checkmate). Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3". to the square g5). . The duration of a game ranges from long games played up to seven hours to shorter rapid chess games. If a player's time runs out before the game is completed. If there are two pieces of the same type that can move to the same square. Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". and bullet chess (under three minutes). Even shorter is blitz chess. "x" is inserted before the destination square. e. usually lasting 30 minutes or one hour per game.  Abbreviated (or short) algebraic notation generally records moves in the format "abbreviation of the piece moved – file where it moved – rank where it moved." For example. If the piece makes a capture. most often algebraic chess notation. mostly by club and professional players. so that e4 means "pawn moves to the squaree4". Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file and 5th rank (that is. the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial. time is controlled using agame clock that has two displays. When a pawn makes a capture.Besides casual games without any time restriction. chess is also played with a time control. In tournament play. Notation for recording moves Naming the squares in algebraic chess notation Main article: Chess notation Chess games and positions are recorded using a special notation. with a time control of three to fifteen minutes for each player. exd5 (pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5) or exd (pawn on e-file captures something on the d-file). The letter P indicating a pawn is not used. one more letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved.
"!!" an excellent move. 2. or "?!" a dubious move. 4. These two parts of the chessplaying process cannot be completely separated. can be recorded: 1. the piece chosen is indicated after the move. one variant of a simple trap known as the Scholar's mate. For example "!" indicates a good move." and "½–½" indicates a draw. For example. A move that places the opponent's king in check usually has the notation "+" added. when players move their pieces into useful positions for the coming battle. "?" a mistake. animated in the picture to the right. At the end of the game. where to place different pieces – while tactics concentrate on immediate maneuver. Checkmate can be indicated by "#" (occasionally "++". "1–0" means "White won. middlegame. but not easily refuted. "!?" an interesting move that may not be best. usually the fiercest part ."??" a blunder. Castling is indicated by the special notations 0–0 for kingside castling and 0–0–0 for queenside castling. although this is sometimes used for adouble check instead). because strategic goals are mostly achieved by the means of tactics." "0–1" means "Black won. A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: opening. Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols. while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play. typically the first 10 to 25 moves."Scholar's mate" If a pawn moves to its last rank. for example e1Q or e1=Q. achieving promotion. e4 e5 Qh5?! Nc6 Bc4 Nf6?? Qxf7# 1–0 Strategy and tactics Chess strategy consists of setting and achieving long-term goals during the game – for example. 3.
Botvinnik played 1. The possible depth of calculation depends on the player's ability. while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations where much less than the best move would lose quickly.Kxh52.Kh72. and pawn promotion is often decisive. as mate is inevitable: 1.of the game.Nf6+ double check Kh8 3. kings typically take a more active part in the struggle. or 1. Fundamentals of tactics Main article: Chess tactics Mikhail Botvinnik vs. Theoreticians described many elementary tactical methods . strong players can calculate long sequences of moves. and double attacks – can be combined into more complicatedcombinations. Simple one-move or two-move tactical actions – threats.. Bh5+ and Yudovich resigned.Qe4+ Rf4 4. tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions – so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.Qxf4#.. a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical. when most of the pieces are gone. Mikhail Yudovich a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a b c d e f g h After sacrificing a piece to expose Black's king.. exchanges of material. sequences of tactical maneuvers that are often forced from the point of view of one or both players. and endgame..Ng3+ Kh4 3. In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides. In chess.Qh7#.
and typical maneuvers. forks. open files. aimed at developing players' skills. sacrifices. Fundamentals of strategy Main article: Chess strategy Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play. deflections. An example of visualizing pawn structures a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 a b c d e f g h a b c d e f g h . discovered attacks (especially discovered checks). is showing players a position where a decisive combination is available and challenging them to find it. the pawn structure. skewers. and the control of key squares or groups of squares (for example. control of the center and centralization. players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board. and interferences. During the evaluation. A common type of chess exercise. and dark or light squares). underminings. overloadings. king safety. decoys. for example. batteries.. A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination.. diagonals.  Brilliant combinations – such as those in theImmortal Game – are considered beautiful and are admired by chess lovers. pins.and its pawn skeleton (the "Rauzer formation") .zwischenzugs.
the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves. The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Development: This is the technique of placing the pieces (particularly bishops and knights) on useful squares where they will have an optimal impact on the game. or the type of position (knights are generally better in closed positions with many pawns while bishops are more powerful inopen positions). since its checkmate loses the game.Re8 in Tarrasch–Euwe. or the configuration of pawns on the chessboard. varying widely in character from quiet positional play (for example. Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopezor Sicilian Defence. There are dozens of different openings. They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset (for example. in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook. are often permanent. But in practical terms. usually pawns are considered worth one point..Professional players spend years studying openings and continue doing so throughout their careers..After 12. as opening theory continues to evolve. knights and bishops about three points each. by the possibility of developing an attack). . the Réti Opening) to very aggressive (the Latvian Gambit). Opening Main article: Chess opening A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game (the "opening moves"). In some opening lines. once created. Weaknesses in the pawn structure. the pawn structure is relatively static and largely determines the strategic nature of the position. and can also have a cramping effect on the opponent. advanced pawns are usually more valuable than those on their initial squares).. The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined. a pair of bishops usually coordinate better than a bishop and a knight). The point values used for this purpose are based on experience. rooks about five points (the value difference between a rook and a bishop or knight being known as the exchange). These basic values are then modified by other factors like position of the piece (for example. and queens about nine points. Control of the center: Control of the central squares allows pieces to be moved to any part of the board relatively easily. coordination between pieces (for example.. Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton). doubled. Since pawns are the least mobile of the chess pieces. or backward pawns and holes. such as isolated.
for example. see start of the endgame. which is the attack of queensidepawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside. Middlegame combinations are often connected with an attack against the opponent's king. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure. simplify). Most players and theoreticians consider that White. Black usually strives to neutralize White's advantage and achieve equality. Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame.) Because the opening theory has ended. and pawn islands – and to force such weaknesses in the opponent's position. for example. Pawn structure: Players strive to avoid the creation of pawn weaknesses such as isolated. There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame. the Boden's Mate or the Lasker– Bauer combination. doubled. the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only. or backward pawns. King safety: It is critical to keep the king safe from dangerous possibilities. Middlegame Main article: Chess middlegame The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening. by virtue of the first move. and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending. begins the game with a small advantage. Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame (i. because an endgame withbishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw. Endgame a 8 b c d e f g h 8 . but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed. even with an advantage of a pawn.e. Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame. and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position. Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose. This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the phase in which most combinations occur. players have to form plans based on the features of the position. A correctly timed castling can often enhance this. (Similarly. An example is the minority attack. The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames. or sometimes even with a twopawn advantage. some typical patterns have their own names. or to develop dynamic counterplay in an unbalanced position. if one side keeps a lightsquared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one.
It is often brought to the center of the board where it can protect its own pawns. Main article: Chess endgame The endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. Zugzwang. a disadvantage because the player has to make a move. is often a factor in endgames but rarely in other stages of the game.Kc6 stalemate or lose his last pawn by any other legal move. and hinder movement of the opponent's king. which has to be protected in the middlegame owing to the threat of checkmate.Kb7 and let White promote a pawn after 2.Kd7. with the pieces working together with their king. king and pawn .. and with White to move he must allow a draw by 1. Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces that remain on board. The king. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and endgame: During the endgame. pawns become more important. as with Black to move he must play 1. For example. For example. endgames often revolve around attempting to promote a pawn by advancing it to the eighth rank. the diagram on the right is zugzwang for both sides.. attack the pawns of opposite color.7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 a b c d e f g h 1 An example of zugzwang: the side which is to make a move is at a disadvantage. Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king. becomes a strong piece in the endgame.
where it was then named shatranj. represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn. and rook. 12th century. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art Knights Templar playing chess. but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shāh ("king"). bishop. Libro de los juegos. Chatrang was taken up by theMuslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia (633–644). where the game came to be known under the name chatrang. The earliest evidence of chess is found in the neighboring Sassanid Persia around 600. knight. and in Greek as zatrikion (which comes directly from the Persianchatrang). and chariotry. which was familiar as an exclamation and became the English words "check" and "chess". where its early form in the 6th century was known ascaturaṅga (Sanskrit: four divisions [of the military] – infantry.[note 3] Murray theorized that Muslim traders came to European seaports with ornamental chess kings as curios before they brought the game of chess. Other more complicated endings are classified according to the pieces on board other than kings. glazed fritware. elephants.endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns. History Main article: History of chess Predecessors Iranian chess set. with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names. Chatrang is evoked inside three epic romances written in Pahlavi (Middle Persian). 1283 Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwest India during the Gupta empire. respectively). In Spanish "shatranj" was rendered as ajedrez ("alshatranj"). . in Portuguese as xadrez. such as the "rook and pawn versus rook endgame". cavalry.
Giulio Cesare Polerio and Gioachino Greco. Lucena and later masters like PortuguesePedro Damiano. Another theory contends that chess arose from the game xiangqi (Chinese Chess) or one of its predecessors. Origins of the modern game (1000–1850) A tactical puzzle from Lucena's 1497 book Around 1200. and Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura developed elements of openings and started to analyze simple endgames. although this has been contested. and around 1475. and dice named the Libro de los juegos. These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe. The queen replaced the earlier vizier chess piece towards the end of the 10th century and by the 15th century had become the most powerful piece.The game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes. several major changes made the game essentially as it is known today. while bishops and queens acquired their modern abilities. These modern rules for the basic moves had been adopted in Italy and Spain. Introduced into the Iberian Peninsula by the Moors in the 10th century. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe. Italians Giovanni Leonardo Di Bona. Pawns gained the option of advancing two squares on their first move. . The rules about stalemate were finalized in the early 19th century. To distinguish it from its predecessors. the earliest being in the 9th century. this version of the rules is sometimes referred to as western chess or international chess. consequently modern chess was referred to as "Queen's Chess" or "Mad Queen Chess". it was described in a famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj. the rules of shatranj started to be modified in southern Europe.backgammon. Writings about the theory of how to play chess began to appear in the 15th century. The Repetición de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez (Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess) by Spanish churchman Luis Ramirez de Lucena was published in Salamanca in 1497.
the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in 1824. who won a famous series of matches with the Irish master Alexander McDonnell in 1834. Anderssen-Kieseritzky. and later Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais. and Samuel Loyd composed some of the most influential problems. and chess journals appeared. the first comprehensive manual of chess theory. for example. chess organization developed quickly. Chess problems became a regular part of 19th-century newspapers. chess books. Many chess clubs. There were correspondence matches between cities. von der Lasa published his and Bilguer's Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess). who discovered the importance of pawns for chess strategy.  Centers of chess activity in this period were coffee houses in big European cities like Café de la Régence in Paris and Simpson's Divan in London. The two most important French masters were François-André Danican Philidor.François-André Danican Philidor. As the 19th century progressed. Josef Kling. the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France.Bernhard Horwitz. 1851 . Birth of a sport (1850–1945) The "Immortal Game". a musician by profession. 18th-century French chess master In the 18th century. In 1843.
who refused to play). did not completely develop their other pieces. Between the world wars. who maintained this title for 27 years. Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with two younger players. Post-war era (1945 and later) . who loved simple positions and endgames. He briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in 1935 and regained it two years later. until 1924. the Women's World Chess Championship was established. during his short chess career between 1857 and 1863. the German mathematician Emanuel Lasker. Tarrasch. Morphy's success stemmed from a combination of brilliant attacks and sound strategy. to end the German-speaking dominance in chess. Capablanca. chess was revolutionized by the new theoretical school of socalled hypermodernists like Aron Nimzowitsch and Richard Réti. The scientific approach and positional understanding of Steinitz revolutionized the game. In 1927. His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine. the first to hold the title was Czech-English master Vera Menchik. José Raúl Capablanca (World Champion 1921–27). he intuitively knew how to prepare attacks. Before Steinitz. including Anderssen. They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns. Steinitz founded an important tradition: his triumph over the leading German master Johannes Zukertort in 1886 is regarded as the first official World Chess Championship.[note 4] The tradition of awarding such titles was continued by the World Chess Federation (FIDE). energetic attacking style became typical for the time. an extraordinary chess prodigy. won against all important competitors (except Howard Staunton. but this is a disputed claim. Steinitz lost his crown in 1894 to a much younger player. Prague-born Wilhelm Steinitzlater described how to avoid weaknesses in one's own position and how to create and exploit such weaknesses in the opponent's position. although it was later regarded as strategically shallow. which become objects of attack. and Marshall. In addition to his theoretical achievements. The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan. the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew. the longest tenure of all World Champions. American Paul Morphy. Alekhine. a strong attacking player who died as the World champion in 1946.  Sparkling games like Anderssen's Immortal game and Evergreen game or Morphy's Opera game were regarded as the highest possible summit of the chess art. which invited opponents to occupy the center with pawns. Anderssen was hailed as the leading chess master and his brilliant. which either succeeded or failed. Some sources state that in 1914 the title of chess grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker. players brought their queen out early. he was undefeated in tournament play for eight years. Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components. relatively unknown at the time. founded in 1924 in Paris. and mounted a quick attack on the opposing king. It took a prodigy from Cuba.The first modern chess tournament was held in London in 1851 and was won by German Adolf Anderssen. After the end of the 19th century.
started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the 1970s and early 1980s with a string of tournament successes. especially by extensively preparing openings. there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: the PCA or Classical champion extending the Steinitzian tradition in which the current champion plays a challenger in a series of many games. The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the "Candidates" stage. 1963–1969. Fischer modernized many aspects of chess.After the death of Alekhine. however. The winner of the 1948 tournament. and the next champion. Previously Black strove for equality. The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches.  Botvinnik revolutionized opening theory. ran a tournament of elite players. another Soviet player from Baku. held the title for two cycles. Boris Spassky from Russia (champion 1969–1972). to neutralize White's first- move advantage. who defeated his Candidates opponents by unheard-of margins and clearly won the world championship match. He won the world championship tournament in 1948 and retained the title in tied matches in 1951 and 1954. His successor. a genius of defense and a strong positionalplayer. was able to win in both positional and sharp tactical style. Russian Mikhail Botvinnik. Following the 1961 event. American Bobby Fischer. the so-called Match of the Century. In 1993. The World Chess Championship 2006 reunified the titles. In 1975. The world's strongest players were seeded into Interzonal tournaments. and Karpov obtained the title by default. there was only one non-Soviet champion. he lost toVasily Smyslov. In . From then until 2006. In 1960. Until the end of the Soviet Union. In the previous informal system of World Championships. Karpov's reign finally ended in 1985 at the hands of Garry Kasparov. Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between 1984 and 1990. Kasparov lost his Classical title in 2000 to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia. an accomplished tactician and attacking player. and the other following FIDE's new format of many players competing in a tournament to determine the champion. Fischer refused to defend his title against Soviet Anatoly Karpov when FIDE did not meet his demands. Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years. but regained the title in a rematch in 1958. FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch. American Bobby Fischer(champion 1972–1975). Armenian Tigran Petrosian. a new World Champion was sought. FIDE. where they were joined by players who had qualified from Zonal tournaments. which was initially a tournament. and later a series of knock-out matches. Kramnik beat the FIDE World Champion Veselin Topalov and became the undisputed World Chess Champion. This system operated on a threeyear cycle. The next championship. who have controlled the title since then (except for one interruption). As Black. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later. he lost the title to the 23-yearold Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal. Karpov never won his title back. Azerbaijan. In 1957. Garry Kasparov andNigel Short broke with FIDE to organize their own match for the title and formed a competing Professional Chess Association (PCA). saw the first non-Soviet challenger since World War II. Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in 1961. the current champion decided which challenger he would play for the title and the challenger was forced to seek sponsors for the match. Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning.
it was used to teach war strategy and was dubbed the "King's Game". and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure. that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence. Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing. whiche is. Castiglione explains it further: And what say you to the game at chestes? It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie. c. then the excellency.Gentlemen are "to be meanly seene in the play at Chestes". that the meane is more commendable. who won the championship tournament in Mexico City. he knoweth no more but a game. but chess should not be a gentleman's main passion. chess was a part of noble culture. or compase any other matter of importaunce. Germany. 1320 Main article: Chess in the arts and literature Pre-modern In the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance. namely. that a man may be to couning at it.September 2007. Place in culture Noble chess players. But me think it hath a fault. Anand defended his title in the revenge match of 2008. English 1561 by Sir Thomas Hoby). he lost the title toViswanathan Anand of India. . for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes. says the overview at the beginning of Baldassare Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier (1528. I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it. and applie it with so much study. quoth Syr Friderick.
. Known in the circles of clerics. Modern During the Age of Enlightenment.. so as to become habits ready on all . Roch. The work was translated into many other languages (the first printed edition was published at Utrecht in 1473) and was the basis for William Caxton's The Game and Playe of the Chesse (1474). This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. and human duties were derived from the rules of the game or from visual properties of the chess pieces: The knyght ought to be made alle armed upon an hors in suche wyse that he haue an helme on his heed and a spere in his ryght hande/ and coueryd wyth his sheld/ a swerde and a mace on his lyft syde/ Cladd wyth an hawberk and plates to fore his breste/ legge harnoys on his legges/ Spores on his heelis on his handes his gauntelettes/ his hors well broken and taught and apte to bataylle and couerid with his armes/ whan the knyghtes ben maad they ben bayned or bathed/ that is the signe that they shold lede a newe lyf and newe maners/ also they wake alle the nyght in prayers and orysons vnto god that he wylle gyue hem grace that they may gete that thynge that they may not gete by nature/ The kynge or prynce gyrdeth a boute them a swerde in signe/ that they shold abyde and kepe hym of whom they take theyr dispenses and dignyte. one of the first books printed in English. wrote: "The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement. such as the Lewis chessmen. pedites. Different chess pieces were used as metaphors for different classes of people. 1300. which starts with the names of chess pieces. students. regina. written by an Italian Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis c. An example is the 209th song of Carmina Burana from the 13th century. in his article "The Morals of Chess" (1750). Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. and merchants. several very valuable qualities of the mind. An example is Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium sive super ludo scacchorum ('Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess'). chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages. Benjamin Franklin. chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. useful in the course of human life.Two kings and two queens from theLewis chessmen at the British Museum Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost. are to be acquired and strengthened by it. but others partially survive.
. that are.occasions. the protagonist and the antagonist frequently play chess together.] II. Circumspection. and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events. which looks a little into futurity. A Large sized Chess game is made available on a seasonal basis inside the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore. Illustration by John Tenniel With these or similar hopes. in which we have often points to gain... chess is taught to children in schools around the world today. Foresight. chess is the theme of a puzzle. or the want of it. and competitors or adversaries to contend with. and their situations [. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries. we may learn: I. Chess is featured in films like Ingmar Bergman's The Seventh Seal and Satyajit Ray's The Chess Players. in some degree. and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. In the video game Killer 7.. hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federationand the National Scholastic Chess Foundation. Maryland Chess is often depicted in the arts. or scene of action: – the relation of the several Pieces. for life is a kind of Chess. which surveys the whole Chess-board.]" Through the Looking-Glass: the Red King is snoring. and considers the consequences that may attend an action [. significant works where chess plays a key role range from Thomas Middleton's A Game at Chess to Through the Looking-Glass by Lewis Carroll to The Royal Game by Stefan Zweig and Vladimir Nabokov's The Defense. the effect of prudence.. The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer. in the survival horror game Deadly Premonition. . Many schools host chess clubs. not to make our moves too hastily [. By playing at Chess then.] III.. Caution.
and Benny Andersson. Studies: orthodox problems in which the stipulation is that white to play must win or draw. Chess has been used as the core theme of a musical. Chess. and tournaments (or tourneys) exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems. Example Richard Réti Ostrauer Morgenzeitung 4 December 1921 a 8 b c d e f g h 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 . Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport. The two most important are: Directmates: white to move first and checkmate black within a specified number of moves against any defense.Björn Ulvaeus. Almost all studies are endgame positions. Chess composition Main article: Chess problem Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems (the problems themselves are sometimes also called chess compositions). For example.Chess is also present in the contemporary popular culture. These are often referred to as "mate in n" – for example "mate in three" (a three-mover). There are many types of chess problems. Approximately 600 million people worldwide know how to play chess. Rowling's Harry Potter plays "Wizard's Chess". J. K. The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a real chess grandmaster. by Tim Rice. while the characters of Star Trek prefer "Tri-Dimensional Chess". A person who creates such problems is known as a chess composer.
chess does have its own Olympiad. but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games. FIDE is a member of theInternational Olympic Committee. The solution is a diagonal advance. . held every two years as a team event.Ke7 and the white king can support its pawn) 3.h3 4.2 2 1 a b c d e f g h 1 White to play and draw Main article: Réti endgame study This is one of the most famous chess studies. The current World Chess ChampionViswanathan Anand (left) playing chess against his predecessor Vladimir Kramnik The current World Chess Champion is Viswanathan Anand of India. Ke5!! (now the white king comes just in time to support his pawn. instead preferring to compete with the leading men and maintaining a ranking among the top male players. Most countries have a national chess organization as well (such as the US Chess Federation and English Chess Federation) which in turn is a member of FIDE.Kf6! Kb6 (or 2. Kd6 draw. Competitive play Organization of competitions Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues.h3 3. or catch the black one) 3.. The reigning Women's World Champion is Hou Yifan from China. and congresses. Chess's international governing body is FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs).. tournaments. has never participated in the Women's World Chess Championship. Judit Polgár. while the black king can easily stop the white pawn. it was published by Richard Réti in 1921. which brings the king to both pawns at the same time: 1.. The world's highest rated female player.. It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn.Kg7! h4 2.
alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge. Titles and rankings Main article: Chess titles Grandmaster Garry Kasparov. Apart from World Champion. Go. Regular team chess events include the Chess Olympiad and the European Team Championship. Grandmaster is the highest title a chess player can attain. Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation. and the National Chess Championships. . Sofia's M-tel Masters. there are thousands of other chess tournaments. Examples include Spain's Linares event. Invitation-only tournaments regularly attract the world's strongest players. and Scrabble. and Wijk aan Zee's Tata Steel tournament. and Georgia took the top medal for the women. The 38th Chess Olympiad was held 2008 in Dresden. formerWorld Chess Champion The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: Grandmaster (shortened as GM. TheWorld Chess Solving Championship and World Correspondence Chess Championships include both team and individual events. Monte Carlo's Melody Amber tournament.Other competitions for individuals include the World Junior Chess Championship. the Dortmund Sparkassen meeting. Germany. the European Individual Chess Championship. Besides these prestigious competitions. and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels. Armenia won the gold in the unrestricted event for the second time in a row after Turin 2006. sometimes International Grandmaster or IGM is used) is awarded to world-class chess masters. matches.
[note 5] Publications Main articles: List of chess books and List of chess periodicals Chess is covered extensively in books and journals. Arpad Elo thought of a player's true skill as the average of that player's performance random variable. with a rating of 2826. Similar to FM. and most of the top ten women in 2006 hold the unrestricted GM title. such as winning the World Junior Championship. Candidate Master (shortened as CM). ICCF. the player must have an Elo chess rating (see below) of at least 2500 at one time and three favorable results (called norms) in tournaments involving other Grandmasters. In the most recent list (July 2010). All the titles are open to men and women. such as Woman Grandmaster (WGM). an example is the Chess expert title used in the United States. usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles. FIDE. Separate women-only titles. The US Chess Federation implemented Elo's suggestions in 1960. Thousands of books about chess have been written. and the system quickly gained recognition as being both fairer and more accurate than older systems. are available.[note 6] The highest ever FIDE rating was 2851. The minimum rating for the IM title is 2400. which Garry Kasparov had on the July 1999 and January 2000 lists. and national chess organizations use the Elo rating system developed by Arpad Elo. International Master (shortened as IM). The usual way for a player to qualify for the FIDE Master title is by achieving a FIDE rating of 2300 or more.[note 5] International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players (by the International Correspondence Chess Federation). but with a FIDE rating of at least 2200. FIDE Master (shortened as FM). including some from countries other than the applicant's. National chess organizations may also award titles. and dozens of periodicals cover chess. In order to rank players. Mathematics and computers .Before FIDE will confer the title on a player. it was adopted by FIDE in 1970. and showed how to estimate the average from results of player's games. There are other milestones a player can achieve to attain the title. Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in 1978. The conditions are similar to GM. a number of women have earned the GM title. the highest rated player is Magnus Carlsen of Norway. but less demanding. Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in their games is a random variable.
See also: Computer chess. with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10123. a number known as the Shannon number. Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies. and Chess engine Mathematicians Euler. de Moivre. the chessplaying automaton called The Turk became famous before being exposed as a hoax. and Vandermonde studied theknight's tour. chess-playing machines and computer programs. Legendre. In 1913. The most important mathematical challenge of chess is the development of algorithms that can play chess. with increasing degrees of seriousness and success. The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be between 1043 and 1047 (a provable upper bound). since: (1) the problem is sharply defined both in allowed operations (the moves) and in the ultimate goal (checkmate). such as El Ajedrecista. The groundbreaking paper on computer chess. but there may be as few as zero (in the case of checkmate or stalemate) or as many as 218. Human-computer chess matches. chess enthusiasts and computer engineers have built. around 1769.[note 7] He wrote: The chess machine is an ideal one to start with. Typically an average position has thirty to forty possible moves. (2) it is neither so simple as to be trivial nor too difficult for satisfactory solution. The idea of creating a chess-playing machine dates to the 18th century. which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory. Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov. "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess. Since the advent of the digital computer in the 1950s. Serious trials based on automatons. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess were known of for hundreds of years. The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10120." was published in 1950 by Shannon. The game structure and nature of chess is related to several branches of mathematics. (3) chess is generally considered to require "thinking" for skillful play. List of mathematicians who studied chess. a solution of this problem will force us either to admit the possibility of a mechanized thinking or to further . were too complex and limited to be useful.
rather than visuospatial. Psychology There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology. this perception. Adriaan de Groot showed that chess masters can rapidly perceive the key features of a position. According to de Groot. have become extremely strong.restrict our concept of "thinking". The ability to memorize does not alone account for chess-playing skill. Internet Chess Serversallow people to find and play opponents all over the world. In 2009. a computer won a chess match against a reigning World Champion for the first time: IBM's Deep Blue beat Garry Kasparov 3½–2½ (it scored two wins. Nowadays. in September 1970. won the championship. 1990s chess-playing computer The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) held the first major chess tournament for computers.0. In 1997. a chess program from Northwestern University. At first considered only a curiosity. held annually since 1974. In his doctoral thesis. chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regardingcheating during games. since masters and novices. made possible by years of practice and study. With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability. Rather. the best chess playing programs. had equivalent recall (about half a dozen positions in each case). The best chess programs are now able to beat the strongest human players. a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating 2898: chess engine Hiarcs 13 running on the mobile phone HTC Touch HD won the Copa Mercosur tournament with nine wins and one draw. CHESS 3. when faced with random arrangements of chess pieces. and three draws). the North American Computer Chess Championship. ability lies at the core of expertise. De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. it is the ability to recognize . is more important than the sheer ability to anticipate moves. one loss. most notably the "bathroom controversy" during the 2006 World Championship.[note 8][note 9] Alfred Binet and others showed that knowledge and verbal. for example Rybka. (4) the discrete structure of chess fits well into the digital nature of modern computers. computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.
 Recent research indicates that factors other than practice are also important. When the positions of the pieces were taken from an actual game. blindfold chess. The role of practice and talent in the development of chess and other domains of expertise has led to a lot of research recently. Variants Main article: Chess variant Glinski's hexagonal chess was popular in the 1930s. gender differences. and computational models of chess expertise. shogi. Ericsson and colleagues have argued that deliberate practice is sufficient for reaching high levels of expertise in chess. such as Chess960.  . the most popular being xiangqi in China and shogi in Japan. More recent research has focused on chess as mental training. brain imaging studies of chess masters and novices. the masters had almost total positional recall. that they are more likely to be left-handed. the respective roles of knowledge and lookahead search. janggi.patterns. Gobet and colleagues have shown that stronger players start playing chess earlier. There are more than two thousand published chess variants. where the initial position is one selected randomly from a possible 960 starting positions. Chess variants include: Direct predecessors of chess (chaturanga and shatranj) Traditional national or regional chess variants like xiangqi. which distinguished the skilled players from the novices. or different rules. which share common predecessors with Western chess Modern variants of chess. special fairy pieces. This random positioning makes it more difficult to prepare the opening play in advance. and that they are more likely to be born in late winter and early spring. For example. which are then memorized. Chess variants are forms of chess where the game is played with a different board. and makruk. the role of personality and intelligence in chess skill.
p. ^ This is stated in The Encyclopaedia of Chess (1970. Retrieved 2010-07-20. ^ At that time Spanish word would have been written axedrez. 2. 5. as the Portuguese 'x' still is today. but is disputed by Edward Winter (chess historian) in his Chess Notes 5144 and 5152. ^ The 50 moves rule is not applied at FICGS. . 4. The spelling of ajedrez changed after Spanish lost the "sh" sound. it would be possible to promote a pawn on the e file to a rook and then castle vertically across the board (as long as the other conditions are met). 3. The Spanish 'x' was pronounced as English "sh". ^ Without this additional restriction. See Chess Curiosities by Krabbé.223) by Anne Sunnucks.See also Chess portal Strategy games portal Chess terminology Comparing top chess players throughout history Index of chess articles List of chess books List of chess players List of chess world championship matches List of famous chess games List of strong chess tournaments Outline of chess Notes Footnotes 1. which was added to the FIDE rules in 1972. This way of castling was "discovered" by Max Pam and used by Tim Krabbé in a chess puzzle before the rules were amended to disallow it. ^ a b Current FIDE lists of top players with their titles are online at "World Top Chess players". FIDE. See alsode:Pam-KrabbéRochade for the diagrams online.
p. & Emms (2004). 5. 6. ^ Tamburro (2010). 9. ^ "Botvinnik vs. USSR Championship 1933". ^ Watson (1998). 8ff 11. Nunn. ChessGames. 70ff 10. Chess Variants. ^ Lasker (1934). ^ Evans (1958). Retrieved 2008-01-07. Citations 1. 1–7 14. Retrieved 2010-08-03. because it represents the domain in which expert performance has been most intensively studied and measured. Appendices". "The rules of chess". ^ "Siegbert Tarrasch vs Max Euwe. ^ Hooper & Whyld (1992). 8. pp. 7. 1933. p. ^ Tarrasch (1987) . FIDE. 3. Bad Pistyan it. Retrieved 2008-11-29. ^ Harding (2003). FIDE. Retrieved 2008-11-26. ^ Burgess (2000). 14–15 12. p. ^ Chess is even called the "drosophila" of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence (AI) studies. 92 8. Algebraic notation" in "E. p. Retrieved 2009-12-01. ^ Harding (2003). 9. 481 4. ^ a b Harding (2003). ^ "FIDE Laws of Chess". ^ "50 moves rules". p. Hans. pp.6. "A brief survey of psychological studies of chess". ^ Harding (2003). pp. 2. ^ Bodlaender. (Java needed) 13. ^ Burgess. FIDE. ^ For the official process see "02. 163ff 16. pp. 138ff 17. 22–67 18. ^ Alan Turing made an attempt in 1953. 73 15. 18 19.I.01B. FIDE Rating Regulations (Qualification Commission)". p. Yudovich. ^ "Laws of Chess". FICGS. ^ See paragraph "E. 7. p. ^ A survey is given in Mark Jeays. CZE 1922". FIDE. Retrieved 2010-09-04.
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Malcolm (2001). OCLC 3617028. Marilyn (2004). Everyman Chess. ISBN 978-1-901983-07-4. Yalom. OCLC 217447754. Isabel Rules: Qonstructing Queenship. OCLC 45271009 (see the included supplement. ISBN 978-90-5691-315-1. ISBN 0-486-24512-8. Barbara F. 1270–1380. Open Court Publishing Company. H. ISBN 0-81664164-1.2307/3257111. Renzo (2010).G. Weenink. ed. (1926). Reuben (1983). G. Understanding Your Chess. ISBN 978-1-85744-326-4 Rizzitano. A. Vol. Secrets of Modern Chess Strategy.. Stroud: Office of The Chess Amateur. Birth of the Chess Queen. and White.C. Bobby Fischer for Beginners. Hume. doi:10. The World's Great Chess Games. Wielding Power. Dover Publications. The Princely Court: Medieval Courts and Culture in North-West Europe. Charles K. New York: Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-19926993-9.. 9 (9): 271– 279. ISBN 1-904600-07-7. The Chess Problem. OCLC 47049906. Watson. James (1947). ISBN 0-48620463-4. London: Gambit Publications. Vale. (May 1943). "How Do You Play Chess") Dunnington. Wilkinson. OCLC 9394460 Mason. Further reading Fine. ISBN 978-0-8126-9633-2 External links Listen to this article (info/dl) . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 1. (2004). Angus (2003). The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin New Series. "Chessmen and Chess". The Art of Chess. Verwer. Courier Dover Publications. Alkmaar: New in Chess. James (2004). Benjamin (2008).M. Chess Psychology: Approaching the Psychological Battle Both on and Off the Board. Philosophy Looks at Chess. Gambit Publications. Weissberger. Oxford: Oxford University Press. No. John (1998). OCLC 55205602 Hale. ISBN 0-06-009064-2.
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