Describe how Mozart uses Sonata form in this movement.

Symphony No. 41, later-named The Jupiter Symphony, the last symphony Mozart wrote, signified the climax of classical symphonic writing before Beethoven. Therefore the symphony shows a culmination of Mozart’s symphonic techniques; both the rules he conformed to, representing the structure and principles of the classical symphony, and the conventions he altered and changed. Sonata form became popular in the late Baroque period, after Bach’s extensive exploration and development, which would then influence Haydn, and Mozart. The popularity of sonata form stemmed from its ability to enable composers to explore key and tonality; this was now more possible during the Classical period due to the development of instruments, allowing performers to play in a wider range of keys. Sonata form mainly explores the relationship between tonic and dominant, and then in the development any key can be used. Sonata form:

As illustrated by the diagram above, the first subject is in the tonic (C major in the Jupiter Symphony) and the second subject is in the dominant. To allow the composer to modulate to the dominant, there is a transition passage which moves the music away from the tonic. Mozart has used sonata form here in the expected way: the first subject (bars 1-80) is in C Major (tonic) and the second subject (bars 81-100) is in G major (dominant). Mozart omits the common introductory section of the exposition, which is used to establish the tonic. This could be due to the firm opening bars of the exposition: in bar 1, in all parts, there are forte crochets on C, on beats 1 and 3, and then beat 1 of the following bar. By placing the tonic crochets on the strongest beats of the bar Mozart establishes the key, and the forte dynamic markings emphasise this further. The texture is tutti which makes this opening even more bold and prominent, therefore eliminating the need for a slow introductory passage to introduce the key. The tonic-dominant layout of the exposition is mirrored in Mozart’s opening bars of the first subject – this subtly reinforces the sonata structure. Bars 1-4 introduce the first antecedent and consequent themes in C, which are then repeated in G Major (dominant) in bars 5-8, (signified by the F♯ in the woodwinds and the

which subtly reinforces the ideas from the first subject. in only the first and second violins (as opposed to the all the strings and the woodwind parts). it is almost as if there is no key change at all. using a 2 bar sequence which is a fragmentation of the idea from bar 4. He disguises the ‘tell-tale’ bass line of a circle of fifths by having a descending chromatic bass line in the bassoon part. almost creating a sequence of perfect cadences. The texture is mostly tutti. dotted fanfare rhythm). before moving away from it and exploring new keys. key and texture. Bars 9-14 show a repeated cadential figure of I-IV-V. which were the tonic and the dominant. The next prominent use of the sonata form is exhibited in the contrast between the first and second subject. The appoggiaturas also disguise the circle of fifths by not announcing the root of the chord or accenting it – this enables Mozart to make a smoother transition between the first and second subjects. strengthening the tonic-dominant exploration in the exposition. The music then alternates between tonic and dominant. Although the first subject contains dominant and subdominant chords. Mozart uses a circle of fifths in bars 31-34. This is therefore fulfilling the purpose of the exposition. The bridge passage (or transition) spans from bar 24 to bar 55. apart from the strings-only consequent phrases of bars 3-4 and 7-8. bars 8-9. to introduce themes and establish the ‘home’ key. in dynamics. Mozart keeps the transition in keeping with the first subject by repeating some of its thematic material. Mozart needs a transition section to change the main thematic material and the key. (but more prominently bars 9-14 with just the repetition of a C pedal on a bold. Though to get to the second subject. the opening bars of the exposition are repeated. In the previous bar the double bass or cello signifies this change with an upward moving . the timpani play between C and G. This loud and proud first subject enables Mozart to then be able to make a stark contrast in the second subject. shown by the forte markings in bars 1. which is strengthened by the timpani on the strongest beats of the bar. as a result they were tuned to the most commonly required degrees of the scale at the time. the complete modulation to G is announced with a forte. To begin the transition through various keys to get to G.strings in bar 5). Despite the previous subtlety of the change. tutti G major chord in bar 37. 11-12 etc. In the Classical period. The subsequent bars return to C major. reflecting the overall T-D tonality structure of the sonata form. In bar 24. The first subject is mainly loud. due to the first violin playing F natural at the end of bar 7. I-IV-V. The strong perfect cadence (bars 11-12 and 14-15) reinforces the tonic key of C Major.). 5 and 9. which is slightly longer than the first subject itself. Therefore throughout the first subject. to emphasize the key of C. the tonic key tone is maintained throughout the first subject through use of a tonic pedal and perfect cadences (ie. the timpani were limited to only two notes.

which forms an extended dominant preparation leading to the second subject. Overall. which all hold for almost 8 bars. most obviously they do so in tonality. contrasting with the previous tutti texture of the first subject. contrasting with the previous section.accidental of F♯. Then in bars 49-55. only the strings play. which successfully announces the modulation as it is the leading note of the key of G. For bars 56-61. The third section is subsequently introduced in bar 99 with a descending arpeggiated chord of D7 before a dramatic general pause of 3 . Mozart has done this to announce the second subject. the previous marking of forte is now piano. The three sections are from bars 56-80. After striking chords which lead to bar 88. this contrast of the second subject between the first subject and the transition calmly announces the second subject. although the bassoon cannot play the trill seen in the violin part of bar 59. Mozart breaks convention again in bar 62. and 101-111. and not forgetting another dramatic pause. where the key of G is then strengthened by a sustained pedal on G. Mozart brings the second subject back to G with a leading note of F♯ in the flute and oboe parts. In sonata form sections A and B are designed to contrast. with a bold forte chord with tutti orchestration. A tonic pedal is also played on a quaver rhythm in the bass and viola parts. with the first violin introducing a new idea for the first section. There is also reduced orchestration in this subject. This happens after a G7 chord. with use of the bassoon as a melodic instrument. the woodwind and brass play the dotted rhythm from bar 9 on a chord of D and the timpani plays a repetitive rhythm. because there were fewer keys at the time. This overall ‘G sound’ strengthens the new key before the second subject has even begun. Mozart splits his second subject into three sections. which was uncommon for the first movement of a symphony. and in other obvious ways such as texture. before introducing a section starting minor which comes as a surprise. which gets the ‘hook’ of this melody in the head of the listener. the desired key for the second subject. Slightly pushing the boundaries of the typical sonata form. The use of sonata form draws away from the model here – the key of C minor is brilliantly proclaimed in bar 81. 81-100. also on D. and the strong chord of D major expertly lends the music to then start on G major. in thematic material and dynamics. This creates a perfect cadence into bar 89. The second subject is finally declared with an imperfect cadence and then a dramatic pause of 3 crochet beats of silence in bar 55. and on a dotted rhythm in the horns and trumpets. creating suspense and tension. The first violin and the bassoon repeat bars 56-61 (although from the third beat of bar 64 in the bassoon part the tune is displaced by an octave). The dynamic markings also reflect the change in texture. G is then confirmed in bar 39 through an inverted tonic pedal in the flute and oboe parts. for Mozart then to dramatically introduce the next section in bar 81. This forms a dominant pedal.

then to lead into the development. A series of tonic-dominant chords. In bar 101. from piano in bar 187 to forte in bar 189. This interruption in the cycle of fifths is to allow Mozart to reach D. made prominent by the flute. especially E♭major. Additionally. therefore they do not play in the second subject or the development. Mozart could get to his original key of C major. Even though the recapitulation is essentially the return of the exposition. there is one explicit difference: both subjects are in the tonic. due to the perfect cadence of D7 to G. the contrast in dynamics. The idea from bar 9 is then repeated in bar 117 in the first violin. Mozart uses an Alberti bass to accompany the strings-only new 4-bar phrase. reflects the change in texture and shocks the audience with a dramatic announcement of the recapitulation. oboe and violin parts. Also. Therefore the transition section almost becomes nullified. The codetta’s function is to prepare the audience both for a repeat of the exposition. the enhanced dominant of his desired key.crochet beats. the leading note of B (the last quaver beat of bar 188). Mozart emphasises the dominant key (G) with a series of cadences and cadential figures. would mean that by a series of two perfect cadences. much quicker. of bars 111-120. strengthen the key of G before the codetta. the ‘dominant of the dominant’. but on the third beat of bar 143 and the first beat of bar 144. making the sonata form even more obvious to listeners that it was already. bar the timpani. The trumpets and timpani play crochets on G which signify the perfect cadence of bars 188-189. for the second subject’s entrance. as opposed to tonic and dominant. reinforcing ideas heard right at the beginning of the piece. before most of the orchestra is introduced a few bars later. albeit minor in this case. Despite exploring various keys in the development. . its sole purpose now is to remain in and around the key of C. The horns hold a dominant pedal from bar 183-188 which represents dominant preparation and an extended cadence. whilst the other orchestral parts are moving on quaver rhythms. or perfect cadences. He begins a circle of fifths in bar 139. strengthens the perfect cadence which successfully brings the key back to C major. for the recapitulation in the tonic key. the interval is not a fifth. Mozart uses descending scalic figures (in C) in the woodwind and strings parts. The enhanced dominant. exhibited in the bass and viola parts (or IV-IIb-V-I). Mozart needs to bring the key back to C. To fully return to the key of C major for the recapitulation. This then leads nicely into the third and final section of the second subject. apart from where C or G is seldom appropriate. The exposition finishes with three firm G major chords with tutti orchestration. This tutti texture after a previously thinner sound boldly brings the timbre and texture back to that of the loud and tutti exposition. such as the greatly-used IIb-V-I in bar 116. C. between A♭major and D minor. the timpani were limited in the notes they could play. As mentioned previously.

To move around the key of C minor. and therefore the following descending scale in bar 213 is C melodic minor. different from the codetta. This occurs in the bassoon part. is the added accidental of E♭. C and G. from the same place in bar 28. This is achieved through tonic-dominant emphasis in bars 306-313 (the end) –the violin semi-quaver figures. bar 212. The last forte bars of the piece represent the coda. dramatic tonic chords. The main difference. are strengthened by the rest of the orchestration who alternate between the tonic and dominant. making the key C minor. The last five bars form an extended cadence and the three final. but serving a similar purpose. interspersed with crochet rests. The following bars from 225-234 are the same as in the exposition.Consequently the first subject is the same up to the transition. . as opposed to the oboe. reminiscent of bar 9-11. Mozart uses two three-bar descending cycles of fifths from bar 219-223. to finish the piece and reinforce the final key. which marks the end of the transition. and from bars 235-243 Mozart uses a dominant pedal in the double bass and cello part to prepare for the imperfect cadence of bars 242 and 243. confirm the tonic key and boldly end the first movement of this symphony.

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