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January 31st , 2002

Rigid Regions
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January 31st , 2002


Rigid Regions
Often in a model, a region is very stiff compared to another region, and may be an opportunity to use a Rigid
region.. Using rigid regions to simulate these areas can keep model size and solution times down. If you only
want to distribute a load (but not form a rigid region), consider using RBE3 to form constraint equations, instead.

A rigid region can be modeled using several methods::

Method A) High Stiffness Plane/Solid Elements

Method B) High Stiffness Link Elements

Method C) Constraint Equations (CERIG)*

*Note that RBE3 distributes a load -- but does not form a rigid region.

Method A --Uses 2-D elements to simply model a region and sets a very high stiffness for the material
properties. This is acceptable, but can result in a high element count. Method A is the most expensive, and is not
further discussed in this article.

Method B -- The most common method applied, because it will work for all cases. It uses link elements with
appropriately high stiffness. The wagon-wheel spokes are common as depicted below. Case Study 1 applies this
methodology.

Method C -- Uses constraint equations (CE's) to form a perfectly rigid region. To use CERIG, the automatic CE
generator, the Mass21 key option must be set such that it expects BOTH a mass and a rotational inertia -- even if
the rotational inertia is zero. Case Study 2 applies this methodology.

Bonus:
***When using RBE3, remember that a rigid region is not formed, but the applied load(s) are distributed.
Because no rigidity is formed, no rotational moments of inertia are transferred to the slave nodes -- and the key
option for Mass21 must be set to ignore rotational inertia effects!.
Case Study 1:
Develop a rigid region using Link8 Elements.

Geometry:

Input File or Equivalent Menu Picks

Save as tubecap.db

Boundary Conditions (Constraint Equations):

No constraint equations are used in this case.

Fix the lines on the back end (Z=0) of the tube in all directions.

Apply a downward (negative Y) 2000 lb. load on the node at the center of the spoke.

INPUT COMMANDS MENU PICKS

/SOLU /Solution > Loads - Apply > Displacement > On Lines


lsel,s,,,1,4
Dl,all,,all Select lines 1,2,3,4
F,1,FY,-2000
OK

ALL DOF

OK
/Solution > Loads - Apply > Force > On Node
Select node 1
OK
FY
-2000
The total deflection plot (USUM), after solving, should look as follows:
Case Study 2:
Develop a rigid region using CERIG.

Geometry:
Input File or Equivalent Menu Picks

Save as linktube.db

*Note that the Key Option 3 of the Mass 21 element is set to "3-D w/ Rotational Inertia", even though we do not
intend on specifying any mass or rotational inertia. Setting the Key Option 3 to "3-D w/out Rotational Inertia"
will generate erroneous constraint equations!

Constraint Equations:

Utilize the CERIG function to generate constraint equations representing the rigid region at Z=4.

Fix the lines on the back end (Z=0) of the tube in all directions.

Apply a downward (negative Y) 2000 lb. load on the node at the center of the spoke.

INPUT COMMANDS MENU PICKS

/prep7 /Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Rigid Region >


nsel,s,loc,z,4 Pick Node 1
cerig,1,all,all OK
/SOLU Pick all other nodes at Z=4
lsel,s,,,1,4 OK
Dl,all,,all
F,1,FY,-2000 /Solution > Loads - Apply > Displacement > On Lines
allsel
Select lines 1,2,3,4

OK

ALL DOF

OK
/Solution > Loads - Apply > Force > On Node
Select node 1
OK
FY
-2000

Utility Menu > Select > Everything

Utilize the CERIG function to generate constraint equations representing the rigid region at Z=4.

Fix the lines on the back end (Z=0) of the tube in all directions.

Apply a downward (negative Y) 2000 lb. load on the node at the center of the
spoke.

Save as cetube.db

The total deflection plot (USUM), after solving, should look as follows:
fini
/clear

/prep7
cyl4,0,0,1,,,,4
/view,1,1,1,1
et,1,shell63

n,1,0,0,4
amesh,3,4
et,2,link8
type,2

mat,2
e,1,15
*do,icount,30,41,1
e,1,icount
*enddo
*do,icount,221,231
e,1,icount
*enddo

!Material Properties
MPTEMP,,,,,,,,
MPTEMP,1,0
MPDATA,EX,1,,12e6
MPDATA,PRXY,1,,.3
MPDATA,EX,2,,12e12

MPDATA,PRXY,2,,.3
r,1,.1
r,2,1e5
eplot
Preprocessor > Modeling - Create > Cylinder > Solid Cyclinder +
WP X 0
WP Y 0
Radius 3
Depth 4
OK

Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete


ADD
Structural - Shell - Elastic 4node - 63
OK
Preprocessor > Create > Nodes > In Active CS . . .
Node Number 1
X,Y,Z Location in the active CS 0 0 4
THXY,THYZ,THZX 0 0 0
OK

Preprocessor > Meshing - Mesh > Areas - Free >


Pick areas 3 and 4
OK
Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete
ADD
Structural - Link - 3D Spar - 8
OK

Preprocessor > Create > Elements > Auto Numbered - Thru Nodes +
Selct nodes
1 15 APPLY
1 30 APPLY
1 31 APPLY
1 32 . . . 41 APPLY
1 221 APPLY
1 222 APPLY
1 223 . . . 231 APPLY
Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models . . .
Material Model Number 1
Structural
Linear
Elastic
Isotropic
EX 12E6
PRXY .3
OK
Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete
Add . . .
Type 1 Shell 63
Shell Thickness at Node I 0.1
OK
Add . . .
Type 2 Link *
Area 1e5
OK

Plot > Elements


fini
/clear

/prep7
cyl4,0,0,1,,,,4
/view,1,1,1,1
et,1,shell63

n,1,0,0,4
amesh,3,4
et,2,21
type,2
real,2
e,1

!M aterial Properties
M PTEM P,,,,,,,,
M PTEM P,1,0
M PDATA,EX,1,,12e6
M PDATA,PRXY,1,,.3

r,1,.1

r,2,0
eplot
Preprocessor > Modeling - Create > Cylinder > Solid Cyclinder +

WP X 0
WP Y 0
Radius 3
Depth 4

OK

Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete

ADD

Structural - Shell - Elastic 4node - 63

OK

Preprocessor > Create > Nodes > In Active CS . . .

Node Number 1
X,Y,Z Location in the active CS 0 0 4
THXY,THYZ,THZX 0 0 0

OK

Preprocessor > Meshing - Mesh > Areas - Free >

Pick areas 3 and 4

OK
Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete

ADD

Structural - Mass - 3D Mass - 21


OK
Preprocessor > Attributes - Define > Default Attribs
Type Mass21
Mat 1
Real 2

Preprocessor > Create > Elements > Auto Numbered - Thru Nodes +
Select node 1
OK

Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models . . .

Material Model Number 1


Structural
Linear
Elastic
Isotropic

EX 12E6
PRXY .3

OK
Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete
Add . . .
Type 1 Shell 63
Shell Thickness at Node I 0.1
OK
Add . . .
Type 2 Mass
(Leave all entries blank)
OK
Utility Menu > PlotCrtl > Symbols >
[/PBC] Boundary condition symbol
Select All Applied BC's
OK

Plot > Elements


What's New . . .
ANSYS, Inc. and SAS LLC enter into
strategic NASTRAN partnership
Use Benchmarking to get a New
Computer!
Rapid Prototyping Guide

Archives

ANSYS Focus is a periodical publication provided by Phoenix


Analysis & Design Technologies (PADT).
ANSYS, Inc. and SAS LLC enter into
strategic NASTRAN partnership
Agreement Includes Joint Development of New NAS TRAN S olution and
Exclusive OEM Distribution

Canonsburg, PA - November 27, 2001 - ANSYS®, Inc. (NASDAQ: ANSS), the


global innovator of simulation software and technologies designed to optimize
product development processes, today announced a strategic OEM partnership with
SAS LLC, a provider of NASTRAN simulation software and services. The global
alliance is focused on the joint development of a new NASTRAN computer-aided
engineering solution that will be distributed exclusively by ANSYS, Inc.

ANSYS, Inc. has been selected by SAS to be the sole distributor and support
network for the new NASTRAN solution. The NASTRAN solution is also being
developed in coordination with key aerospace and automotive companies, providing
additional guidance about the core capabilities needed.
Development of the new NASTRAN product is being driven by Dr. Richard
M acNeal, founder and former chairman of M acNeal-Schwendler Corporation, and
Dr. Harry Schaeffer to advance current NASTRAN capabilities.

"This joint development effort will provide companies with the next generation of
NASTRAN solutions. As we work together to broaden users options, we also will
provide the most innovative NASTRAN product implementation ever produced,"
commented Dr. Harry Schaeffer, president of SAS LLC and Dr. Richard M acNeal.
"ANSYS, Inc. was the perfect partner for our initiatives. They have a proven
dedication to providing the highest-quality solutions through highly-skilled and
reliable global sales and distribution networks."

"By being data compatible, this new offering directly addresses the inertia against
change within the NASTRAN user community, " stated Don Brown, chairman of D
H Brown & Associates. "Combining this with the unique open architecture of the
AI*Workbench platform will dramatically broaden the opportunities for users and
ANSYS, Inc. as a supplier."

The solution will integrate the technologies of ANSYS, Inc., CADOE S.A., ICEM
CFD Engineering and SAS LLC to provide users with the most comprehensive
NASTRAN product. Building off of ANSYS, Inc. architecture, NASTRAN will also
be fully compatible with existing customer data and processes, and will provide a
unique open architecture design and economic solutions for complex product and
manufacturing processes.

The NASTRAN solution is expected to ship in early 2002. ANSYS, Inc. is providing
an Early Adopter Program that is now available for organizations that want to ensure
long-term affordability for their NASTRAN usage. For more information, please
email earlyadopter@ansys.com.
"We are fortunate to have the technology and expertise of the pioneers of
NASTRAN technology to make this offering the richest solution available," stated
M ichael J. Wheeler, vice president of marketing for ANSYS, Inc. "The inclusion of
this technology further advances ANSYS, Inc.'s support of the overall product
development process. This new solution will allow companies upgrade their
simulation tools and processes with minimal impact on the existing infrastructure."

About S AS LLC
Implemented by the pioneers of NASTRAN technology, SAS LLC provides
worldwide software and services that improve engineers' ability to perform
automated simulation of product and process performance.
About ANS YS , Inc.
ANSYS, Inc., founded in 1970 as Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., develops and
globally markets engineering simulation software and technologies widely used by
engineers and designers across a broad spectrum of industries, including aerospace,
automotive, manufacturing, electronics and biomedical. Headquartered at
Southpointe in Canonsburg, PA, ANSYS, Inc. employs 400 people and focuses on
the development of open and flexible solutions that enable users to analyze designs
directly on the desktop, providing a common platform for fast, efficient and cost-
conscious product development, from design concept to final-stage testing and
validation. ANSYS, Inc. distributes its ANSYS®, DesignSpace®, AI* Solutions™
and ICEM -CFD Engineering products through a network of channel partners in 37
countries, in addition to its own direct sales offices in 18 strategic locations
throughout the world. For additional information on ANSYS, Inc., please visit
http://www.ansys.com.

CONTACT:
Dawn Tappy
ANSYS, Inc.
PR M anager
globalpr@ansys.com
ANSYS is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. All other trademarks
and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Back to list of articles . . .


Get a New Computer by Benchmarking
Justifying hardware expenditure is always difficult. Benchmark your current
machine and compare it to others. Using this data, provide your manager / IT
department with true-life performance comparison. Also, when hardware upgrades
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tasks most efficiently. Perhaps you can use this to justify your new hardware
purchase.
Check http://www.padtinc.com/bench/bench.htm to review benchmarking on different
hardware and platforms. This site allows users to enter data from their hardware and
also compare to data that others have entered. Three types of tests exist --

1. Hard Drive

2. CPU

3. Graphics Card
Also check out benchmarking at ANSYS --

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