January 31st , 2002

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January 31st , 2002

If you only want to distribute a load (but not form a rigid region).. A rigid region can be modeled using several methods:: Method A) High Stiffness Plane/Solid Elements Method B) High Stiffness Link Elements Method C) Constraint Equations (CERIG)* *Note that RBE3 distributes a load -. but can result in a high element count. and may be an opportunity to use a Rigid region. instead. Using rigid regions to simulate these areas can keep model size and solution times down. because it will work for all cases. Case Study 1 applies this methodology.Uses constraint equations (CE's) to form a perfectly rigid region. the automatic CE generator.The most common method applied. Case Study 2 applies this methodology. the Mass21 key option must be set such that it expects BOTH a mass and a rotational inertia -. Method A --Uses 2-D elements to simply model a region and sets a very high stiffness for the material properties. Method A is the most expensive.even if the rotational inertia is zero. a region is very stiff compared to another region. and is not further discussed in this article. remember that a rigid region is not formed. It uses link elements with appropriately high stiffness. Because no rigidity is formed. The wagon-wheel spokes are common as depicted below. Method B -. To use CERIG.and the key option for Mass21 must be set to ignore rotational inertia effects!. consider using RBE3 to form constraint equations.but does not form a rigid region. Method C -. . no rotational moments of inertia are transferred to the slave nodes -. This is acceptable. Bonus: ***When using RBE3.Rigid Regions Often in a model. but the applied load(s) are distributed.

Case Study 1: Develop a rigid region using Link8 Elements.-2000 MENU PICKS /Solution > Loads .4 OK ALL DOF OK /Solution > Loads .1.3..all. Fix the lines on the back end (Z=0) of the tube in all directions.. after solving. Geometry: Input File or Equivalent Menu Picks Save as tubecap. INPUT COMMANDS /SOLU lsel.db Boundary Conditions (Constraint Equations): No constraint equations are used in this case. should look as follows: .Apply > Displacement > On Lines Select lines 1.s.4 Dl.FY.Apply > Force > On Node Select node 1 OK FY -2000 The total deflection plot (USUM).2.all F.. Apply a downward (negative Y) 2000 lb.1. load on the node at the center of the spoke.

Case Study 2: Develop a rigid region using CERIG. Geometry: .

4 cerig.Input File or Equivalent Menu Picks Save as linktube.2.s. load on the node at the center of the spoke.s.z. even though we do not intend on specifying any mass or rotational inertia.. INPUT COMMANDS /prep7 nsel.all F.loc.all.-2000 allsel MENU PICKS /Preprocessor > Coupling / Ceqn > Rigid Region > Pick Node 1 OK Pick all other nodes at Z=4 OK /Solution > Loads .4 Dl.Apply > Displacement > On Lines Select lines 1.FY.1.4 OK ALL DOF OK .all.db *Note that the Key Option 3 of the Mass 21 element is set to "3-D w/ Rotational Inertia". Apply a downward (negative Y) 2000 lb.all /SOLU lsel. Setting the Key Option 3 to "3-D w/out Rotational Inertia" will generate erroneous constraint equations! Constraint Equations: Utilize the CERIG function to generate constraint equations representing the rigid region at Z=4.1.3.. Fix the lines on the back end (Z=0) of the tube in all directions.1..

after solving. should look as follows: . Save as cetube.Apply > Force > On Node Select node 1 OK FY -2000 Utility Menu > Select > Everything Utilize the CERIG function to generate constraint equations representing the rigid region at Z=4. load on the node at the center of the spoke./Solution > Loads . Fix the lines on the back end (Z=0) of the tube in all directions.db The total deflection plot (USUM). Apply a downward (negative Y) 2000 lb.

.fini /clear /prep7 cyl4.3 r.icount.1...1.link8 type.0.....icount *enddo !Material Properties MPTEMP..1..4 amesh.30.231 e.shell63 n.PRXY.1.EX.1.1...1.PRXY.3.icount.EX.4 et.0.15 *do.2 mat.0.1 e.1.2..3 MPDATA.12e6 MPDATA.2.2.1.0.12e12 MPDATA..2 e.1 r.icount *enddo *do.221..1 et.1.41.1.1.0 MPDATA.2...1.4 /view.1e5 eplot .. MPTEMP.

. .Y.1 OK Add .63 OK Preprocessor > Create > Nodes > In Active CS .THZX 0 OK Preprocessor > Meshing . Type 1 Shell 63 Shell Thickness at Node I 0.Create > Cylinder > Solid Cyclinder + WP X 0 WP Y 0 Radius 3 Depth 4 OK Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete ADD Structural .Shell .3D Spar . . 231 APPLY Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models .Z Location in the active CS 0 THXY.Thru Nodes + Selct nodes 1 15 APPLY 1 30 APPLY 1 31 APPLY 1 32 .3 OK Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Add . . . Material Model Number 1 Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic EX 12E6 PRXY . Type 2 Link * Area 1e5 OK Plot > Elements 0 0 4 0 . . . . .THYZ.Free > Pick areas 3 and 4 OK Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete ADD Structural .Mesh > Areas . 41 APPLY 1 221 APPLY 1 222 APPLY 1 223 . Node Number 1 X.Elastic 4node . .Link . .Preprocessor > Modeling .8 OK Preprocessor > Create > Elements > Auto Numbered . .

.EX.0 M PDATA.0...21 type...fini /clear /prep7 cyl4.3.shell63 n.12e6 M PDATA.1 !M aterial Properties M PTEM P.4 /view.PRXY.1 et.1.1...1.3 r.0...4 et.1. M PTEM P..4 amesh.0.0 eplot .2.1.2 e..2.1..2 real..1.1 r.0.1.1..1.

Shell .Y.Thru Nodes + Select node 1 OK Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models .3 OK Preprocessor > Real Constants > Add/Edit/Delete Add .THZX OK 0 0 3 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 Preprocessor > Meshing . . . .1 OK Add . .21 OK Preprocessor > Attributes . . .Mesh > Areas .Create > Cylinder > Solid Cyclinder + WP X WP Y Radius Depth OK Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete ADD Structural .THYZ. .Preprocessor > Modeling .Define > Default Attribs Type Mass21 Mat 1 Real 2 Preprocessor > Create > Elements > Auto Numbered .Z Location in the active CS THXY. Material Model Number 1 Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic EX PRXY 12E6 .Elastic 4node .63 OK Preprocessor > Create > Nodes > In Active CS . . Node Number 1 X.Free > Pick areas 3 and 4 OK Preprocessor > Element Type > Add/Edit/Delete ADD Structural . Type 1 Shell 63 Shell Thickness at Node I 0. .Mass .3D Mass .

Type 2 (Leave OK Utility Menu > [/PBC] Select OK Mass all entries blank) PlotCrtl > Symbols > Boundary condition symbol All Applied BC's Plot > Elements .

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.ansys. Back to list of articles . Inc. founded in 1970 as Swanson Analysis Systems. ANSYS." stated M ichael J. DesignSpace®. from design concept to final-stage testing and validation. Inc. . Headquartered at Southpointe in Canonsburg. including aerospace. Patent and Trademark Office. efficient and costconscious product development.com ANSYS is registered in the U. PR M anager globalpr@ansys.. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Inc. For additional information on ANSYS. distributes its ANSYS®. PA. Inc. ANSYS. SAS LLC provides worldwide software and services that improve engineers' ability to perform automated simulation of product and process performance.. "The inclusion of this technology further advances ANSYS.com. providing a common platform for fast.'s support of the overall product development process. CONTACT: Dawn Tappy ANSYS.S. About ANS YS . please visit http://www." About S AS LLC Implemented by the pioneers of NASTRAN technology. Inc. Inc. This new solution will allow companies upgrade their simulation tools and processes with minimal impact on the existing infrastructure. Inc. electronics and biomedical. vice president of marketing for ANSYS. develops and globally markets engineering simulation software and technologies widely used by engineers and designers across a broad spectrum of industries. automotive. . Wheeler. in addition to its own direct sales offices in 18 strategic locations throughout the world. Inc."We are fortunate to have the technology and expertise of the pioneers of NASTRAN technology to make this offering the richest solution available. manufacturing. AI* Solutions™ and ICEM -CFD Engineering products through a network of channel partners in 37 countries. ANSYS. employs 400 people and focuses on the development of open and flexible solutions that enable users to analyze designs directly on the desktop. Inc. .

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