WARMING UP TO THE CONCEPT OF TIME

“Now go on and enjoy yourself, dance to your heart’s content and win the Prince’s heart. But remember, you have to be back before the clock strikes twelve at midnight.” We all are familiar with the words of the Fairy God Mother in the evergreen fairy tale ‘Cinderella’. It’s these words that probably made us aware-for the first time in our lives-of the value of time. We all sympathized with Cinderella when all her splendid gown and other finery turned to rags at the stroke of midnight. Our first acquaintance with the villainous Time! But then, is time such a villain, who should always be painted in black? We have heard the proverb that says “there are no wounds that time cannot heal.” Here of course we get the image of a wizened old woman who comes hobbling up to us with a pitcher full of balm and gentle fingers that soothe away all our pains and sorrows. But that’s enough! This project was not made to sing the praises of time. There is no need of the romance of Cinderella or the soothing finger of an old lady when we are talking about time. And do you know why? It’s because we do not have the time for it. We are going to try and understand time in its many faces. No, I was not referring to the faces of watches or clocks. I was referring to the many meanings that time has. Oh yes it does! You thought that time meant the same to everyone. Well think again; or maybe you could try to explain the logic behind the following cases. Picture a farmer who plants a sapling of a tree that would probably take ten to twelve years to reach the stage when it would start to bear fruit, by then the farmer would in likelihood be under the soil himself.

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Picture a jailbird in bird counting on the bars of his cell waiting for the seconds, minutes, and hours, days, weeks, months and years to go by before he can be free again. Now picture a young couple madly in love with each other cherishing the few minutes they get to spend with each other every day, cursing time because it flies so fast when they are together and never the other way round. So what does time mean to you? When was the last time that you realized the value of time? The answer is probably the last time you watched one of those Bollywood thrillers in which the hero is driving a car in which a time-bomb has been planted and the hero is unaware of this. But we being the getting-to-see-it-all audience watch with bated breath as the tiny needle of the timer ticks towards the point at which the explosion is sure to occur. But just before that, the hero hits the brakes screeches to a halt to avoid hitting that old lady crossing the road. And when he jumps out to help her cross the road the needle reaches the point and the bomb is exploded. And our hero is safe. It’s funny how the hero always escapes without a scratch in these movies. But I expect that’s why they call them heroes. Now we are really transgressing aren’t we? So back to our subject that is Time Management. Do you know what is interesting about the concept of Time? It is absolutely uncontrollable. Personally I believe that there is something very humbling about this concept. Just imagine a man with all his power is just like a helpless babe before time. There it is Time stands tall and strong before man and man remains vulnerable and weak before it. Man, the big strong man who tamed rivers and seas, who reached out to the skies and beyond, who harnessed wind and water and dug up the bowels of the earth is but a worm before Time.

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The best he can do to win the battle against time is die is hair and use some antiwrinkle cream on his face. In fact, the closest that man has got towards conquering time is those many history books that have been penned; they are of course chronicles of events that happened long ago and that is certainly not much to boast about. And so now we come to our subject that is time management because after all the illustrations given above, I hope that I have made one point clear, that is that Time cannot be controlled, it can only be managed. And that is what we are going to do. We are going to learn the art of time management. I don’t want you to have an air of helplessness. You might begin to feel that if the battle cannot be won, then what is point in putting up a struggle? Ah, but there you are missing out on a very important point. In all the illustrations that I used above, I was referring to man in general and not to one particular Tom, Dick or Harry. So you can see that this aspect of time is applicable to every human being and there is no running away from it. Every person has only twenty four hours in a day and no force on earth can alter that. So in order to get the cutting edge what you have to do is to be able to manage your time in the most effective way possible. And that is what Time management is all about. It’s about managing your time effectively and if I may I would like to add the word efficiently too. Now, when we talk about our resources, everyone knows that we are referring to the resources like fossil fuels, forests, mineral wealth, and water bodies and so on. But surprisingly time is never included in this list. When we talk about non-renewable resources, fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas top the list. But what about time? A point that most people tend to forget is that time is the most valuable resource that we have, and time once lost, is lost forever. We can think about alternate sources of energy for fossil fuels like electricity, fuel cells, solar energy and the research goes on. But is there any alternative for time that is lost. Again I stress on the point that time once lost, is lost forever. And hence we have the proverb, “time and tide waits for no man.”

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HISTORY OF TIME MANAGEMENT

The idea of time management has been in existence for more than 100 years. Unfortunately, the term "time management" creates a false impression of what a person is able to do. Time can neither be managed, nor controlled. We can only manage ourselves and our use of time. History of time management dates back to the 6th century AD with the St. Benedictine Monks who "emphasized and encouraged scheduled activities at all times." The concept of time efficiency was introduced by Scottish Economist Adam Smith who developed an assembly line system for factory workers. Benjamin Franklin is considered by many to be the father of modern time management. He mostly emphasized on the effective use of time. Franklin carried around a "little black book" wherever he went, and within it, he wrote about his thirteen virtues. Each night he would reflect upon the day's activities to judge whether he had lived up to these core values. These values were as follows: • Temperance • Silence • Order • Resolution • Frugality • Industry • Sincerity • Justice

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• Moderation • Cleanliness • Tranquility • Chastity • Humility

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Internationally known authority on time management Dr. extremely few can claim to have made the most of it. One can maintain balance between one’s work and personal life. stress and energy levels. Time Management is more than just managing time. The bottom line is how well one manages time. While a vast majority of people confesses faltering to come to grips with it. It is managing oneself in relation to time.” . it is gone forever. While each of the first four can be augmented. 1. It means changing those habits or activities that cause waste of time. transferred or otherwise controlled.Bruce Lee (“Zen in the Martial Arts” by Joe Hyams) Every individual on earth has the same amount of time . physical capital. and 525. It is about controlling the use of the most valuable . It is setting priorities and taking charge of the situation and time utilization.UNDERSTANDING TIME MANAGEMENT “We all have time to either spend or waste and it is our decision what to do with it. 60 minutes in an hour. Alec Mackenzie in his book The Time Trap argues that the very idea of time management is a misnomer because one really cannot manage time in the way other resources can be managed: financial capital.60 seconds in a minute. Time cannot be manipulated. information and time. With good time management skills one is in control of one’s time. human capital. reduced.440 minutes in a day.resource. How is it that they have got it all done? It’s because they have managed a way to figure out how to manage their time effectively. But once passed.600 minutes in a year. One finds enough flexibility to respond to surprises or new opportunities. Page | 6 .and undervalued . It is being willing to adopt habits and methods to make maximum use of time. It is not how much time one has. but rather the way one uses it.

It is therefore not for us to choose whether we spend or save time but to choose only how we spend it.Dr. In the world in which we live. One cannot control time as one can control other resources – one can only control how one uses it. one can only manage oneself in relation to it. time cannot be replaced or re-created. Mackenzie contends that when it comes to time. Page | 7 .

• Time management might be good for some kinds of work but my job is creative. • Work is best performed under pressure.all it requires is common sense. One has to keep oneself organized . the self-discipline required to practice effective time management is not easy. Lack of discipline prevents one from being great instead of simply good. They affect everyone including those persons who may be considered quite successful and effective. One does not work well under pressure . Lara’s performance when the West Indies Team is in trouble has more to do with application and determination rather than pressure. While it is true that the concept is simple.MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT TIME There are several misconceptions which we all have about time. Pressure and challenge must not be confused. Page | 8 . Psychological studies show this to be no more than an excuse for procrastination. Mackenzie: • Time management is simple . Here are some of the misconceptions identified by Dr. a to-do list and have a secretary to keep me organized. Time management is not about routine: it is about self-discipline. He then no longer has to work against tight deadlines and under stress which contributes to heart problems and not unusually the ultimate reduction of time on this earth. • I use a diary. • I do not have the time. The trouble with the disorganized person is that he hardly has time to listen to his secretary or look at his diary.no one can do it for others. The effective worker or manager often gets more work done in the earlier hours of the morning than most laggards get done in the whole day.only does the best one can under the circumstances.

making constant excuses and apologies to be fun? Would it not be much more fun if by better organization one had one or two more hours every day to spend with the family. plan for tomorrow and the day and week after or just relax? Page | 9 . forgetting appointments. read a good book.Time management takes away the fun and freedom of spontaneity. Is working under stress. to play games.

the company ends up requiring the employee to do overtime work just to finish a project. it reflects one's priorities and how you are able to properly appropriate them into your schedule. If the overtime Page | 10 . Oftentimes. It takes a considerate amount of skill in order to manage your time properly. Hence. Time Management in School/College: Due to more freedom merited to college students. employees could easily eat up more time for their “breaks” than what is actually spent on actual work. you are usually able to control your time efficiently that you can even finish tasks ahead of time. The liberty to choose your own schedule readily creates a false notion that they can do whatever they want. he or she will be able to properly allocate the time spent for extracurricular activities and assignments. Time Management at Work: When it comes to your job. when you are swarmed with multiple tasks at once. people eat up what is supposed to be their free time to be able to accomplish all pending tasks in time. Too often. companies will try to ensure that each hour you spend at the office is utilized effectively for work. employees still seek out ways to have a break. If you are one of these people. it can become quite challenging for new (freshman) students to cope with time management. Let’s try to analyze the importance of Time Management in different fields. If time is not properly managed. Hence. If a student has prepared his or her own list of work for the day. With lack of proper time management. This is because you are paid for the hours of service you render to the firm. On the other hand. it becomes extremely difficult to identify which ones you must complete first.WHY IS TIME MANAGEMENT SO IMPORTANT? Time management is a common problem faced by most of us. proper usage of your time is more particular. a student will have trouble coping up with deadlines set by professors. Most students would tend to slack off during vacant hours that they end up accomplishing nothing. Despite of this.

But if not. Page | 11 . then you reap the unpleasant effects of poor time management.rendered is reflected on your paycheck. then good for you.

things just don’t move ahead) Impatience (e.g.g. meeting deadlines) Low productivity.g. energy and motivation (e. Managers would do well to look for and reflect on whether they are subject to any of those symptoms with a view to take necessary corrective actions. ‘Oh. between meetings or tasks) Frequent delays (e. I don’t know which way to jump’) • Difficulty setting and achieving goals (e. ‘I can’t seem to get worked up about anything’) • • • Frustration (e. ‘where the hell is that information I’ve asked him for?’) Chronic vacillation between alternatives (e. in attending meetings.g. ‘whichever option I choose it is going to put me at a big disadvantage. ‘I’m not sure what is expected of me’) Page | 12 .g. The following are some of the indicators of poor time management: • • • Constant rushing (e.g.SYMPTOMS OF POOR TIME MANAGEMENT Poor time management shows up by way of one or a combination of typical perceptible symptoms.g.

So let us get that straight. There are many things that a human being should do in order to continue to live like a human being and some of these things do take up a lot of time. you are wrong again. But I have taken the times for each action on what I felt to e reasonable times as far as any normal human being is concerned. we have only 17 hours in a day. But on most days it scarcely seems enough. For this come to the next point. That means that you have already lost seven hours. Maybe it’s because we always talk about the twenty four hours in a day. Waking hours does not mean the hours you take to wakeup but the hours that you are awake. giving us only seventeen waking hours. Point 2 The seventeen waking hours cannot be used completely for productive work. we get the feeling that we really do have twenty four hours to finish our daily business and the fact is that we do not. Now the following list that I have drawn up is sure to vary from person to person. Assuming that you hit the sack at least by twelve in the night and taking for granted the fact that you need at least seven hours of sleep.WHERE DOES ALL THE TIME GO? It is quite surprising when you sit and think about where all the time in one day goes. Now if you think that all those seventeen hours can be used for productive work. Page | 13 . But this is because of certain misconceptions about time. Twenty four hours is really a lot of time. Point 1 We do not really get twenty four hours in a day. For that I have listed out certain points which will help you to get a realistic view about how much time you really have in a day. which we can deduct from twenty four. let me fix your waking time at seven in the morning. Let us proceed to carefully examine where all that time goes and find out if twenty four hours really is.

For those of you cleaner ones who shower twice a day put that as twenty minutes. Most of us take a shower at least once in a day and the time I think we can put down for that is ten minutes.  Eating We need to eat to live and though I accept the fact that people have different eating habits and times. we are all very cultured people who have the best of manners and upbringing. But there are several times in a day when we have to go back to nature and summing up all those things we do in the bath room I think a good half hour should be enough. we get another ten minutes. But right now I would like to put down one hour as the time to relax. But I think ten minutes is good enough.  Answering the call of nature Oh yes.  Getting ready and tidying ourselves When we move about in society definitely we have to look our best and adding up all the minutes that we spend in front of that mirror.  Time to relax Please do not raise an argument now. I promise to deal with this bit later on. this figure comes up to half an hour. and this includes the time that you get to yourself for prayer or meditation or just to stare out of your window or perhaps the few extra minutes that you spend in your bed after waking up. We dress ourselves properly and conduct ourselves with the utmost poise. Page | 14 . So that makes it 30 minutes for food. waiting for the last traces of sleep to go away. Taking a shower. I think that and I’m sure doctors will agree with me that a person needs three meals a day and should take at least ten minutes to ingest a meal and not just gobble it down. For some people of course.

For if we continue to believe that we have twenty four hours. But wait there is more to this story than meets the eye. These crucial hours that we have painstakingly added up are not really put to constructive use. Time with family and friends Please we are human beings. That is 3 hours and 20 minutes. Page | 15 . And that is a fact. In figures that is 13 hours 40 minutes. what do we get? We are left with just thirteen hours forty minutes. I would like to deduct another hour from your waking time. let us see how much time we have left for productive work provided we still want to exist as human beings. I put it down in both numerals and words so that you can get a real taste of the figure. and then we are in effect deceiving ourselves. So from now on don’t you think that it would be more realistic to say that we have just thirteen hours and forty minutes to accomplish a day’s work and not twenty-four hours. Now if we proceed to subtract this figure from our 17 hours of waking time. There are certain things called time waster which you have to look out for and that is what we are going to deal within our next chapter. And we proceed to add up all the time that we accounted for in the above mentioned points. So with your permission. That is all that we get. The activities mentioned above would take when put together a good three hours and twenty minutes. aren’t we? And we certainly cannot get along with our business of life without chatting a few minutes every now and then with our friends and the family too. So now what do we have left? We started off with 17 hours of waking time.

They are things that most of us encounter. When I talk about killers. But apart from these.‘Time Killers’ Till now. look out for them and stay wary of tem. each one of us may have unique time killers that are particular to our style of living and way of work. Thee are a lot of time killers in this world and what you have to do is that you have to identify these time killers. Only then can you put your available time to the maximum possible use. Page | 16 . do not get the impression of masked men lurking in shadows brandishing guns and knives. But now we come to a strange concept and that is ‘Time Killers’. Seven terrible Time Killers • Telephone calls • Chatter boxes • Traffic jams • Finding parking spaces • Meetings • Bad machinery • Long queues The list could of course go on. The time killers that I have listed below are more or less general. But before we keep adding to the list. I would like to elaborate on certain of the items listed above. But that’s the way the story goes. we have been harping about how valuable time is and how time lost is time lost forever and so on. Be smart and identify these killers. The killers that I am referring to are quite ordinary every day things that we see and use in our lives but often do not realize how much of our time they take away. The very word sound like sacrilege doesn’t it? How can one talk about killing such a valuable resource.

Another thing about telephones is that most people do not know how to use a telephone properly. Again the same rule applies here. In stead of immediately identifying themselves and asking directly for the person they want.How to handle Time Killers • The funny thing about telephone calls is that these instruments are indeed great time savers. Now coming to mobile phones there is a lot to be said and done. A mobile phone is to be used to get an important message across to a person who you were not able to reach on the land line. The problem arises when telephones are not used properly. Haven’t we all met them? They simply love the sound of their own voices and once they open their mouths. Be brief. So the first thing about a telephone conversation is that it should be brief. some people go on playing a lot of “who is speaking” games once they make a call or answer the telephone. Believe me. Steer clear of such people. there is no stopping them. As soon as you get a call. • The next point is about those chatter boxes. it is much easier to avoid such people than to tell them to shut up and if you get a Page | 17 . another person may be trying to reach you and there is nothing as exasperating as trying to reach a person over the telephone and being confronted with a busy tone. What should be done is turn off your cell phone when you are having a conversation or a discussion with more than one person. Often we tend to give ore importance to the caller than to the person we were having the discussion with. you may ask the people you were talking to excuse yourself but you leave them waiting while you chuckle and giggle over your phone. For one thing. Most people do not understand and even if they do they forget that telephones are not to be used for lengthy conversations. They waste not only your time but their time as well. In fact the amount of time that people get to save thanks to telephones is stupendous.

The only thing you can do is anticipate the traffic jam and leave your home a half hour or one hour early. But that does not really keep the time killer at bay. In this respect you have two options. Either you could find something constructive to do while you wait for the traffic to move along or the traffic light to change or a better option would be to take subway and walk the rest of the way. If you have such equipment or machinery. even a leaky faucet or a stubborn drawer or door knob can waste a lot of time and send us up the wall. It is worth the amount of time and energy that you waste on it every day. Page | 18 . A computer that takes a long time to start up. • Traffic jams and finding parking spaces.telephone call from such a person. • Not surprisingly lengthy meetings and discussions can prove to be awful time killers particularly if the meeting does not have a clear agenda and if there are people who love top talk among the group. By doing so. use a caller ID facility or ask your secretary to divert the call. How many of us have wanted to sit and scream and bang the daylights out of a pc that does not give us the required data or information. There is no getting past a traffic jam at the rush hour. get it changed at the earliest possible date. You can get a long a lot faster on your feet and it is a lot better for your health as well. It just helps you to avoid being late. And will someone tell me whit is called the rush hour when that is the time when the traffic is the slowest. • Bad machinery is a time waster. And in most organizations. a photocopier that gives shamefully faint photocopies. you can also get rid of the headache of finding a parking space. It has been found that most middle and senior level mangers spend nearly 70% of their work time talking. Any one who has lived in the city for at least a day will know what I am talking about. parleying has been made into a fine art.

If you can get the job done over the telephone or can reserve your ticket in advance.• Long queues certainly waste a lot of time. Apart from these each person may have particular time wasters. like for instance. a car that refuses to start in the morning. an elevator that takes forever to reach your floor. Page | 19 . difficult hair that insists on looking like Medusas head on a bad snake day. That does not mean that you have to jump the queue. you could put the time to some use like read your morning paper in the elevator. Use your common sense and try to find alternate methods or even better. do it. it is worth the time you may have to spend waiting. even if it means a few extra dollars. You will get a better idea of how to get over time killers once we handle the section called the time savers. if you cannot find an alternate method.

Not Important and Not Urgent Page | 20 . “getting her ducks in a row.Lining Up Your Ducks: Prioritize! “Lining up your ducks” is a familiar and charming phrase. Time management experts like Stephen Covey S R (The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. they can evaluate their activities in terms of importance and urgency. Simon & Schuster) have developed a model called a time management matrix. you’re sure to bring efficiency and results to your efforts. It derives from the tendency of baby ducklings to swim in a perfectly straight line behind their mother. the mother duck will invariably “shepherd” them back into line—thus. It is therefore imperative that people perform their activities in the order of priority. This model enables managers to prioritize their activities and use their time more effectively. With the help of the model. Important and Urgent 2. Not Urgent but Important 4. orderly sequence. Let’s face it. The art of prioritizing covers 4 major task groups: 1. 24 hours in a day is not enough time for many people to do everything in their schedule. Not Important but Urgent 3.” The application of this phrase to time management is clear. When your “ducks” begin to stray too far afield. If the ducklings begin to stray too far. danger is lurking—for them and for you. If you deal with things in a logical.

TIME MANAGEMENT MATRIX Page | 21 .

A good example would be the preparation of an important talk. An example would be bills that are due today. family time and personal relaxation/recreation are also part of Quadrant 2. or consequences may result. Activities belonging to this category need to be acted upon without delay. Important but Not Urgent Quadrant 2 represents things which are important. As a result.he/she has had to interrupt whatever he/she is doing to answer it.Important and Urgent Quadrant 1 represents things which are both urgent and important – labeled “firefighting”. and contribute to achieving the goals and priorities . Prayer time. but not urgent . you would incur additional charges or they might cut off their services to you. If you don’t pay your bills on time. when a person answers an unwanted phone call. Urgent but Not Important Quadrant 3 represents distractions.they do not have to be done right now.labelled “Quality Time”. You should give them the highest priority. Although the activities here are important. . but frankly. For example. They must be dealt with right now. or mentoring a key individual. Not Important and Not Urgent Page | 22 . These tasks are the ones that must be done right away. and they are important. are not important. they can be scheduled when they can be given quality thought to them. The activities need to be dealt with immediately.

so they won’t engage in these activities much. senseless chatting for hours on the phone. Write it down on your notebook under Important and Urgent. put the title: Important and Urgent. such as watching TV and movies. Page | 23 . ”All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. At the back page. If you really want to succeed.” as they say. it is essential for people to relax and unwind once in a while. shopping for new clothes. Every time something comes up during your daily work or on your mind. put the title: Important but Not Urgent. playing video games. You might think activities in this section are not worth people’s time. Of course. At the front page of the notebook. Numbered Priority Tactic Here’s one of the most powerful techniques that you can use to manage your time efficiently – the Numbered Priority Tactic. if you really want to accomplish a lot in your life. But you should be strict in limiting your time for these activities. etc.Quadrant 4 represents Time Wasting. strictly limit your time in doing these activities or don’t do them at all. You would be surprised to know that people spend most of their time doing things that are both unimportant and non-urgent. that is. If an idea or event you encounter is Urgent but Not Important. You want to utilize your time well. So let’s say your boss told you to submit a report due tomorrow. Buy a very small notebook that you can put in your pocket. You should be able to bring it anywhere you go. then you may put it under Important and Urgent. Ignore Not Important and Not Urgent tasks. Focus on those that will bring you fruitful results. Then your friend told you that there’s a big 2-day sale at the downtown furniture store. Treat activities belonging to this section with the lowest priority. put it in the appropriate page of your little notebook. won’t you? If you think it’s significant in some way. then forget it.

with 1 being the highest priority. you may switch or change the numbers of the items in the list. But if you think your house would do fine without it. If distractions come about. As the list increases in each category. examine each of them carefully and start numbering each item in the order of priority . You may put it under Important but Not Urgent. The important thing you must do is to buy that little notebook and to start doing this super tactic right now! Time is running fast. Transfer your writings to a new page when you see that it’s getting untidy. you may take care of them first but always come back to your numbered list when you’re done. Because priorities may change. and vice-versa. thought. or event that comes to your mind. then don’t write it anymore.You may put it under Important and Urgent if you simply must have that furniture you’re drooling for months. As the day goes on. and never go to Number 2 until you’re done with Number 1 for each category. Start working on Number 1. make sure your notebook stays clean. You may also transfer one item from Important and Urgent to Important but Not Urgent. As you’re walking down the street you suddenly thought of a great new idea for your part-time business. This method can enable you to achieve more in one week than what most people can accomplish in a month. When you do any changes. write down each and every idea. Start off with a new page every day. Page | 24 .

" Once again. and that 80 percent of our results are achieved from 20 percent of the overall energy expended. Many students and professionals spend the day in a frenzy of activity.Pareto's Principle or the 80/20 Rule It was developed in the 19th century. James McKay authored the first book on time management. In the 1950s. the focus was on the manager and his organization skills. Covey describes the first generation of modern time management techniques as notes and checklist reminders. Stephen R. The third generation was committed to "planning. prioritizing and controlling. Covey describes several myth of third generation time management and its ideals of the following: • Planning for efficiency • Personal values' prioritization • Controlling other people Page | 25 . but achieve very little of their desired results because they are not concentrating on the right things. these techniques were not working. Later in that decade. The second generation focused on planning and preparation through the use of calendars and appointment books. The principle states that 80 percent of our unfocused effort generates only 20 percent of our end results.

the individual is actually categorizing these tasks as short-term. intermediate or long-range goals. finish tasks at assigned times. For example.” This approach uses letters to prioritize what is truly important to the individual. Covey has developed another prioritization technique that deals with the problem of importance versus urgency. This system can be taken one step further by assigning numerical rank to each task. The ABC technique of prioritization was limited because "A" list priorities may be confused with urgency more often than true importance.ABC System Alan Lakein developed the “ABC technique. as the professional is expected to be organized. Some "B" and "C" ranked priorities may actually be more important. Page | 26 . time management instruments and instruction has blossomed into a sophisticated business. and working on tasks that are important but not urgent can help alleviate many crises of life that the professional may otherwise encounter. No good excuses can be given for being lazy in this area. In the later half of this century. B or C. In labeling a task as A. planning ahead. and be able to use time management principles to lead others. The professional is left to a personal search for those instruments that will be the most effective and efficient for his or her lifestyle. The professional who does not use time management skills may risk missing appointments and due dates of assignments. A-1 is the most important task and A-2 is secondary to A-1. but not as urgent. Setting goals with balance in mind.

there are time savers. If there is white.Time Savers Everything in this world has something to balance its existence. The Top Ten Time Savers • Telephones • Computers • Elevators • Fax Machines • The Internet • Coffee Machines • Bulletin or Notice Boards • Photo Copiers • Efficient Filing Systems • Good Secretaries and Junior Staff Page | 27 . if there are time wasters. if there is darkness there is light. there is black. These are hereby few general examples of time savers. So now let us focus our attention towards those time savers because they are our best friends when we talk about Time Management. They are by no means the only time savers in the world.

Surprise! Surprise! I had included telephones under the list of time killers but telephones are in fact one of the best time savers that man has invented. • Computers I don’t think that enough can be said about the time saving roles of the computer.Let’s take a quick look at all these. But one annoying thing about elevators is that sometimes even f we punch the button repeatedly. Just imagine the amount of time you get to save by just making a telephone call! Suppose you are to have a business lunch (sometimes called a working lunch) with an important client. But of course. the elevator takes for ever to reach or floor. imagine you have to go there in person and get things done directly. But then I don’t think that I have to say much. It’s better for your health too. Obviously you have to reserve a table in your favorite restaurant. • Elevators Next we come to elevators and elevators too we know save a lot of time that we would other wise have to spend plodding up flights and flights of steps. So telephones are certainly one of the best time savers in this world. Elevators save not just time but energy as well. it all depends on how you use the telephone. On the other hand. the traffic and all that. Now. Now. top climb a few stairs every day. if you just have to go two or three floors up or down in such cases it is always better to take the stairs instead of waiting ten or fifteen minutes for the elevator to come to your floor. I suppose every one will agree that computers are indeed time-saving machines. The task would easily take away at least two or three hours of your time when you take into account the journey. this is something you can easily do over the telephone while you are comfortably seated in your office. Page | 28 . • Telephones.

Oh yes. fax machines too save a lot of time by enabling us to send important documents across continents if needed and that too within a few seconds. Instead of conducting one of those long meetings in which every one gets a chance to go on and on. Simple.• Fax machines Like telephones. it’s is bets to convey messages with the help of notice boards and bulletins which can be displayed at a place accessible to all. include space on the notice where the concerned people can put down their initials as proof that they have read the message. people used to take coffee breaks that lasted up to half an hour? • Bulletin or Notice Boards Bulletin and Notice Boards are very time effective way of reaching out to a large number of people. But would you believe that earlier. then comes the question of how to make sure that the message is read by all those concerned. they tend to screw up their noses and raise their eyebrows. • The Internet It goes without saying that the internet has revolutionized our concept of time itself. before coffee machines had made their presence felt in offices. When people see that a coffee machine has been included among the list of time savers. Page | 29 . scanners. I did it on purpose. With facilities like email. even the fax machine has become outdated. voicemail and video conferencing. Talk about fast… • Coffee machines.

If your secretary is as dependable as a screen saver. we understand their worth. But once these machines fail.• Photocopiers Often we tend to underestimate the importance of photocopiers in an office. And in the files. • Good Secretaries and Junior Staff Good secretaries are always an asset to an office. And the files should be kept in a proper order with easy to read and intelligible name tags and labels. Those machines just sit there and take copies of what is fed into them all day long. Being able to find an important document or file should not be a matter of luck. but cost wise and time wise a photocopier is much better. then half the battle is won. I told you earlier that it is not always necessary that you do everything by yourself. And that is why we do not give these machines any credit. you should name the files properly and not use abbreviation that could stand for anything. You should be able to delegate a lot of things. then heaven help you! The advantage of having good secretaries and junior staff is that you can delegate a lot of things to them. but first of course you have to be sure that the people you are delegating to do something are good enough. the documents should not be filed in a haphazard order but should have an order that makes it easy to locate a paper. Of course we can take multiple prints using a printer. • Efficient Filing Systems This had already been dealt with under office organization. but I just want to add that a good system of filing definitely saves a lot of time. But on the other hand if your secretary is as feather brained as a hen. Page | 30 . It does seem like a job which does not require any brains. There should be a proper place to keep the files something which people call a cabinet. People tend to try and save time by using abbreviations which sound quite ridiculous once they forget what it really stands for. It is really faster than a printer and it costs nothing to take copies. The same thing applies to the files you have on your computer.

Page | 31 . Answering machines for one save a lot of time. If you really are too busy to attend your calls. It would be a good idea for you to look around and identify things that could save your time. and I am sure you will be able to put that hand to some good use. Now. you will have at least one hand free. and that is trying to do two things at the same time. over here I have just highlighted ten time savers. In this context I think it would be appropriate to talk about one thing that most people often go wrong with in their quest to save time.Once you are able to share your work load with someone. let the machine do the talking for you.

You probably have experienced chasing deadlines or suddenly realizing that you set up two meetings on the same date. You just have to learn the basic concepts in order to set things in motion. Since all these problems stem from stress. This could lead to lower efficiency and lots of time wasted. You need to create a balance in these activities and make sure each is properly done. the main advantage of time management is the reduction of stress. successful time management is quite tricky. Too often. Proper time management creates a few of the most powerful advantages within and outside your job sphere. You have to incorporate a little self-discipline in order to set up your events properly. you are very much likely going to fail in meeting your deadline or you can schedule more than one meeting at the same time. You get a lot of stress relief and a lot of time to prioritize your life. You have to remember that productivity does not just mean doing several things. you could be facing a lot of stress. The problems without proper time management. However. The remedy Time management can help prevent such events from happening. Most people lose a lot of time just trying to think about their job. Although you might not lose your job in the process. you could easily forsake other aspects of your life. all of these are due to improper management of time. However. These prerequisites are easy to attain. you give yourself the chance to set up a great schedule that suits your planned activities both in and out of Page | 32 .ADVANTAGES OF TIME MANAGEMENT Having a job can be a stressful activity. your job consumes you that it becomes a part of your everyday life and you tend to lose priorities on other activities. You also have to be more flexible with your goals and priorities. When you have so many things to consider. By having a clear plan. This is because you won’t have to worry about things when you schedule your events properly. You can prevent such scenario from happening if you practice clear time management plan and a timetable for your activities.

Another good thing about having a successful time management program is having a higher chance of completing everything on time. Your working schedule is not swamped and so you can leave enough time for relaxing and having fun. never forget to take a break from time to time as it helps you become more productive. Page | 33 . you fall out of favor with your boss. you avoid compromising the most important aspect of all your activities: your health. The best thing about time management is that you get the chance to live your life on a proper routine. This leads to a lot of unnecessary pressure that may cause you to extend your work outside the office just to keep up. It might even mean that you will bring your work to the dinner table. When you miss a deadline. And the worse that could happen. This leads to additional pressure to complete other tasks and even to outdo your other officemates. the more you free yourself of all the stress.the job. And despite of your hectic schedule. The sooner you complete your tasks. you get so stressed out that you pass on the stress to your family members. Furthermore.

Now what is the relevance of your well thought out timetable? Where is your scheme for time management? Your work is waiting in the pantry while you are sweating over somebody else’s work. Page | 34 . by all means help the person. If you are going to help a person at the expense of your work and schedule.” Behave like a diplomat who is a person who can tell you to go to hell in such a nice manner that you will actually start looking forward to the trip. One more definition is that a diplomat is a person who can say the nastiest things in the nicest way. you have a time table which you stick to religiously. tomorrow you might be in that persons position and you may need somebody’s help. requests for help will be coming from all sides. you had better put your foot down and say “sorry boss. And it’s because of the simple reason that you could not say no to the person.e. but I just don’t have the time. Who knows.AVOID THE “KISS OF YES” The idea might sound strange but avoiding the “kiss of yes” i. It is human nature to shirk work and if word gets around that you are a very helpful guy (read that as s-u-c-k-e-r) then before you know it. a colleague or friend comes your way and asks you to help them out by doing certain jobs which are really their jobs. and before you even know what hit you. How many times have you had a similar experience? I’m not saying that you should not be civil. being able to say ‘no’ is fundamental to any scheme of Time Management. you have said yes and agreed to do the work for the person. and you have a ‘to do’ list as well. then you are going to end up in hot water. But just when things are beginning to work out fine. If you find a colleague in distress and have the time to spare. The person smiles very sweetly at you and showers sugar coated words on you. Unless you want to take up from where Mother Theresa left off. But that does not mean that you should let yourself be taken for a ride. you have everything worked out. Yes you have the master plan for time management.

” And then when the person leaves your presence with a crest fallen face. smile back at them. Give them a sugary sickly sweet smile. It is something that will plunge you into the depths of despair and all that. And then tell them that what you are going to say is going to be a life long sorrow for you. Common face the facts. Or if you want you could try the hoola hoola. Extol at length what you think of the person and your relationship with him or her. in today’s world of cut throat competition your very existence may depend on your ability to say “no. Page | 35 . So much that anyone in their normal senses would want to throw up at the sight of your smile. “no.” And its miles better being a selfish pig than a sucker. Then you could try telling them how much you love them. Done the mask of the diplomat and the next time someone approaches you with sugar coated requests to help them out. I’m terribly sorry but N-O.So that is just what you have to do. wait till he or she is out of hearing range and then you can start that war dance. And then put it painfully across.

shown in Figure Page | 36 . but a multitude of opposing emotions serves to short-circuit action. A person may be obliged to achieve certain results. Everyone procrastinates. Everyone feels guilty when they do it and everyone resolves never to do it again. At the root of procrastination. argue psychologists. there are some underlying deep and darker forces. Procrastination—the cat burglar of time management—steals into your life and whisks away one of the most valuable assets you possess. fear.PROCRASTINATION – THE ULTIMATE THIEF Everyone does it. Although the procrastinator may act as if the threat. Procrastination can be a thoroughly amusing concept. indeed. almost always lurks some hidden fear or conflict that urges us to put things off. ultimately. as with all things humorous. corrodes success. it’s till there—both in the real world and in the person’s subconscious—where it generates stress and. But they do. or conflict is gone. Time management experts have identified the eight most typical causes of procrastination. But.

This is not to say that psychological reasons aren’t involved. External Forces Even if you usually don’t procrastinate. they’re conquered for all tasks. they can manifest themselves in very different situations. So. but once psychological obstacles are conquered. for example. They arise. you tend to fear failure and you procrastinate largely for that reason. for the most part. you’ll be able to approach most tasks with renewed energy. But unpleasant or overwhelming tasks—and unclear goals or task flow—are enough to make anyone want to postpone the inevitable. external causes for procrastination tend to be task specific. the four typical external reasons for procrastination. If you procrastinate because of a fear of change. Once you conquer this fear. If. from the procrastinator’s psyche. you can cope with that cause and stop procrastinating— but that victory probably won’t help you with other external causes that are making you procrastinate on other tasks. While a single internal cause can make you procrastinate on many tasks. you’ll procrastinate on any task at which you might fear that you’ll fail. When we have certain tendencies or personality traits. Page | 37 . The above Figure gives.Internal Forces Note that four of the causes (those in the shaded boxes) are primarily inner rooted. your environment can impose procrastination on you. There must be some. if you’re putting off doing something for an external cause. that fear will color many different kinds of tasks. Fighting the Forces Internal causes for procrastination are more difficult to attack than external ones. in the clear unshaded boxes.

most time management procedures even entail stress management as these two usually goes hand in hand. That is how it can impact team building factor. These efforts extend far beyond ensuring a thriving business but also consider one of the most important aspects in any venture. This means that unnecessary distractions can be avoided. This kind of training focuses on increasing the amount of control and focus the company has over its goals and Page | 38 . Any successful time management training program begins with setting up a workable timetable that you and your employees can work with. Hence. Any company that undergoes training will have the capacity to teach employees how to manage time. and that is your health. Indeed. it leads to high levels of stress in the work force because employees are pressured and forced to extend working hours just to meet the company's quota. there is a need to chase deadlines and attend double meetings. it creates a more positive and holistic outlook. Hence. What you need is a slow and steady approach until you have perfected your scheduling needs until you are able to work free of any time-related stress.TIME & STRESS MANAGEMENT Most losses incurred by companies are due to a lack of sound time management program. Time management is a very important aspect of any business. it allows for a tighter bond amongst fellow employees and superiors. It also means that you will be able to live out your life outside of the business sphere. Productivity levels of employees are affected by their time management planning and workload. However. There is no overnight solution to this type of problem. It comes in a very comprehensive package that allows both manager and employee to meet halfway. Then. You might notice that levels of stress drop when you do not have to deal with several meetings and deadlines. if you are able to manage your time properly. Aside from increasing their potential. you can allow your employees to tend to stress relief activities. In fact. there is a way to remedy all that. Stress is crucial because it can tend to make things more complicated.

This is because managers sometimes think that employees are better at handling manual activities such as photocopying and sending. this kind of training strengthens the employees' ability to assess the situation and pick out assignments that can help them increase productivity levels. as they should be. Page | 39 . any problem encountered in the workplace does not carry over to your personal lives. In fact. The problem one basic misconception about time management is that it allows no time for break or relaxation.methods. you are able to increase your efficiency. Delegation of tasks is also addressed in such training. managers need to know that delegation of tasks is a huge risk. you have successfully kept your business and other aspects of your life separate. It allows the individual more time to relax because he or she will be able to set aside time for work and other activities. However. Therefore. This means that when you allow improvements to go into the necessary sectors of your business. when you properly manage your time. you get the exact opposite. Aside from being time-efficient. Some tasks are better done by the manager rather than passing them down to subordinates. it saves a lot of energy and allows for a more productive workplace. Therefore. Hence.

) Balance between Work. Indeed. Without proper time management. 1. a student could indeed fall behind and live an imbalanced life. Another benefit for doing this is that you'd be able to allocate these smaller tasks into smaller time schedules that would have a definite start and end. Learn how to adjust your schedule so you won't end up stressing out just trying to make up for lost time. some people tend to overestimate their capacity to manage their time. he or she must be able to classify time allotted for classes. If you have to. we face a lot of distractions every day. you Page | 40 . However. more manageable. However. For a student. for this method to be a success one must need only common sense. Hence. you must learn to cut down or eliminate partying from your schedule to allot more time for study. you have an upcoming quiz or exam. A student must be able to differentiate the various aspects of your student life. 2. Once you have completed those smaller tasks. and partying. tasks. the hard part is being able to practice it and implant it within your subconscious to make it seem natural. you can opt to divide the larger tasks into small. they end up consuming more time doing one task that they have none left for the other. For instance.) Time Portioning Students might initially find doing school assignments and work projects boring and stressful. today's young generation is slowly losing their sense of time management.TIME MANAGEMENT FOR STUDENTS In today's world. Study and Life Contrary to popular belief. If you do not have a clear sense of what to do with your time. working. you won't find yourself eating up several hours of your time just trying to complete one task. The case is especially tough for a typical student who is struggling to create a balance between school and other societal factors that contribute to becoming a holistic individual. The dilemma lies in sifting through all these factors and setting their priorities. However. studying. so there is always a separate time for everything. it is easy to go along with the flow and that is where poor time management all begins. That way. time management works simply. Therefore. write down your schedule so you can keep track of where you need to be at a certain time.

) Reward For Managing Your Time When you manage your time as a student. you can get some more free time to spare as rewards so you have more time to go to parties or just have a bit of fun. Remember that all work and no play would make a student very dull. Page | 41 . 3. it eliminates the boring factor as you continually alter your schedule instead of being stuck on one for hours. Hence.can move on to other tasks.

Are you a "morning person" or a "night person?" Use your power times to study while the down times for routines such as laundry etc. Make Room for Entertainment and Relaxation College is more than studying. Make Sure the Surroundings are Conducive to Studying This will allow you to reduce distractions which can "waste time. 4.TIME MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES FOR STUDENTS As a student. you also need to have a balance in your life. This keeps you from getting fatigued and "wasting time. Page | 42 . use that time for mindless tasks. the brain is still processing the information. Yet. Study Difficult Subjects First When you are fresh. Use Distributed Learning and Practice Study in shorter time blocks with short breaks between. 2. These are as follows: 1. 5." This type of studying is efficient because while you are taking a break. 3. You need to have a social life. you can process information more quickly and save time as a result. Identify "Best Time" for Studying Everyone has high and low periods of attention and concentration. there are some basic principles of time management that you can apply." If there are times in the hostel halls or your apartment when you know there will be noise and commotion.

foreign language tapes. you withdraw a few hours of sleep. Doing this makes the time you spend studying less effective because you will need a couple hours of clock time to get an hour of productive time. Figure out where Time is hidden These instances may include the following: • Sitting in a waiting room • Waiting to pick someone up • Riding in the bus • Stuck in traffic in the car/on your commute (listen to tapes you have made. or of the lecture you just heard Page | 43 ." When you need a few extra hours for studying or socializing. 7.6. This is not a good way to manage you in relation to time. Make Sure you have Time to Sleep and Eat Properly Sleep is often an activity (or lack of activity) that students use as time management "bank. lectures etc) • Waiting in line • Doing laundry • Between classes Take advantage of quick breaks and hidden time in the following manner: • Re-read directions/questions for your next paper or assignment • Survey the next reading assignment • Read one section of a reading assignment • List the main points of what you just read.

inefficiency or laziness.• List today's “to do” items • Write out some questions to ask in class Time management helps to avoid the following: 1. Being chronically late-. 3.Are you always the last one to class? How does this impact your classroom experience? How are things different when you show up on time or early for class? Page | 44 . Self-incarceration-. and failing to do any of them.Do not be a prisoner to your own procrastination. The syndrome of having several major tasks to do all in the same night. 2.

you can easily update what priorities you need to focus one. whether new or not. You can probably easily manage the time at the office but the real challenge lies in organizing your household such as sending or picking the kids up at school. or cleaning up the house. The key here is to recognize the difference in schedule as compared to when you were on your own now that you have your kids as your main obligation. If you do have work. preparing dinner. you also need to juggle that along with your priorities in the family. the solution to this is simple. If not managed well. Page | 45 . Then. you can make the appropriate changes. You just have to cope with your situation since it is only through experience that you'd be able to find a better approach to family life. However. Setting Priorities Learning how to properly set priorities is among the most important skill that every parent. must practice especially for the working ones. That way. You must be able to determine which your top priority is: is it your kids or your work? You have to remember that your decisions have trade-offs. An additional tip that you can employ. therefore you would have to identify which of them has the least tradeoff. these tasks can prove stressful. you can also try setting up a “to-do” list for your set of activities within a day. they face a common dilemma of making that much needed transition.TIME MANAGEMENT FOR PARENTS For new parents. it is only natural to suffer from jitters especially with a new setup. But here are proven and trusted solutions that any parent might find useful. When you have kids for the first time.

You can divide the chores at home such as washing the dishes. After all. when it is time to prepare lunch or dinner for the family. it is best to plan ahead what you have set out to do for the following day. More than being able to accomplish the chores faster. it is usually the wives' responsibility to handle them. By creating a weekly menu.Delegating other Duties When it comes to work at home. If your kids are old enough. Among these things is creating a menu ahead of time. you can even ask them to help you out with the tasks at home. you already have an idea what to cook for them. Therefore. you increase your efficiency. it forms a bond and creates a healthier working relationship between both of you as parents. If your husband is not acquainted with domestic chores. However. as well as putting their dirty clothes into the laundry basket. wives must not carry the sole burden of looking after the entire house. You can start with training them to fix their beds or clean up their rooms. Aside from the help they can provide you in maintaining your home. If not. who has the time and energy to spend wondering about what to cook for dinner after an exhausting day at the office? Delegate Page | 46 . this is the best time to get him started. doing the laundry. Instead. then you can have him take care of the kids while you finish up on some chores. or cleaning up the house. Planning out in Advance what you have to do for mothers. you can delegate other duties to your husband so you can have equal share of the workload at home. it also teaches them how to be responsible.

there are a few simple tips that any mother would find useful. Shopping at the grocery usually takes a lot of time. you need to also plan ahead your itinerary. For parents. Or else you would eat up more time since you have to return to get the items you've missed.Proper Time for Shopping When it comes to going out with your family. As for shopping. This will help you prepare the things you will bring with you ahead and figure out if you have missed anything. Not only will this help make shopping faster. Enough preparation will ensure that you will have all the things you need for this day off with the family. but will also make sure that you do not forget anything. And when you have properly set your priorities. Hence. you are good to go. time management usually entails mere common sense. you need to produce a list of the essential items you need to pick up. Page | 47 .

With it. they tend to lose track of a lot of events and end up incurring losses in time. The key to solving such problems is a proper time management program. The benefits most people fail to realize that the major cause of losses in terms of productivity and efficiency at work is because of stress. the problem is in terms of poor time management. That is what time management training is for. You also need to know how to apply them so everything you've planned on doing won't end up a disaster. Therefore. However. then you could easily wind up committing more mistakes as you don't know the limitations of the basic concept. On the other hand. There are special training programs that you have to undergo in order to avail of the full benefits of proper time management. Then you will know what kind of timetable you need to have in order to maximize productivity levels within and outside of your job sphere. Hence. It allows you to have a better grasp with regards to time management. You manage to rub off that stress onto your family members and that is when it becomes unhealthy. you can help yourself avoid unnecessary risks when it comes to your job. At its core. time management is a lot more complicated than it seem. The problem is that these losses are unnecessary and are therefore not advisable if you have a job. Hence. It is not enough that you understand the basic concepts of time management. The program although it rests on a simple concept. you get too stressed out that it overflows into your personal life. It may even help prevent losses outside of the job. it allows you to determine what type of job you should accept. there are trainings for time management. If not. stress is your biggest adversary in all of these. Time management training gives you a chance to know what level of stress you are capable of handling. Page | 48 . How many times have you faced the dilemma of having too many meetings in one day or trying to beat an impossible deadline? And the worse thing is.TIME MANAGEMENT TRAINING People nowadays need to get a lot of things done especially with regards to their job. stress is a result of the worries over matters related to one's job.

It allows people to assess which part of their lives to focus on at different times. This will allow each member of the team to boost their efficiency levels with their individual tasks. This is of utmost importance because in order to stay competitive. job. but that does not automatically mean you are being productive. When you are able to manage your level of stress. This means that it allows individuals to live a full and healthy life despite being in a stressful.When you are aware of all these. you can determine whether to accept or defer calls for help from your officemates. you will be able to stay within your optimum productivity and efficiency levels without compromising your work schedule. Hence. You can easily overwork yourself. You cannot be efficient if you do not know your own limitations. or rather busy. Therefore. The biggest gain you can take away with you by undergoing this kind of training is the emphasis on producing efficient work at your job. This not only applies to your professional life though but also with your personal life. you will also be able to lessen whatever losses you might incur during difficult times. Time management training helps individuals manage stress. you have to keep your productivity level at a maximum. you will have a clearer idea on how to create an effective timetable and time management program on your own. Page | 49 . When you undergo this training. This will have its own implication in terms of the working relationship within your workplace. you need to practice such a program in order to gain maximum benefit from your job. Focus is one of the most important lessons you will learn with the training program.

Page | 50 . This chapter winds up all our observations on time management in this project. As with all the precious resources. time is a scarce resource.CONCLUSION Now that we have come towards the end of the project we have realized that how our time gets wasted because we never thought of managing time in an effective manner. It also offers tips to make the best use of time. It summarizes as to what causes us to waste our time and suggests solutions to save time as much as possible. The wisdom lies in making the most of it. It is said that time and tide waits for none so our attempts would be to make the best use of time and prevent others from wasting our time too.

Time Management (2003). Alec.com http://HREra. Course Technology Time Management for Students (2003). Terry Paulson 70 Minute Hour.com/timemanagement/ http://www.edu.unsw. Brian Poser Websites Referred http://www.com http://www. Marion Haynes. McGraw – Hill.scribd.instantstressmanagement.lc.BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Referred Time Trap (1997). Dr. Dr. Career Press Time Investment Strategy.randypausch.infarbor. Marc Mancini. AMACOM Books.com www.com http://www.au http://www.yorku. Mackenzie R. Vince Panella. Jim Henning Personal Time Management.citehr.ca/cdc/lsp www.com Page | 51 . The 26 – Hour Day (2001).

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