NAME: MUHAMMAD AFIQ B. HAMZAH MATRIC NUMBER: 0629991 DEPARTMENT: DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY CONCENTRATION: BIOTECHNOLOGY (MARINE) TITLE: HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION IN MOLLUSC (BIVALVE) ALONG THE COASTAL AREA OF LANGKAWI ISLAND SUPERVISOR: PROF. DR. KAMARUZZAMAN B. YUNUS Co-SUPERVISOR: NIL INTRODUCTION Aquatic environments are often at risk of exposure to pollutants, either from specific and non-specific sources. Most of the pollutants released to the aquatic ecosystems are heavy metals which are frequently present at elevated concentration, as a result of industrial discharges, domestic sewage, non-point runoff and atmospheric precipitation (Tao et al., 1998). The environment impact of introducing heavy metals (like Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) into estuaries and coastal areas has been an issue of great concern and significance. Toxicity of metals is well known for centuries. Heavy metals like copper, zinc and iron are essential metals for fish and shellfish since they play an important role in biological systems. Some others such as mercury, cadmium and lead are non-essential metals and have no known role in biological systems as they are toxic even in trace amounts (Ong et al., 2007). However, if the essential metals are taken in excessively, it can also be a threat to the organisms. Accumulation of pollutants in fishes can be passed to human through the food chain which can causes severe health effects. In modern history, mass poisonings by metals especially

it is prominent to monitor the impact of the pollution occurred and it can be done by measuring the heavy metals presence in the mollusc (bivalve) along the coastal area.mussels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the concentration of heavy metals (Pb . cockles. for instances lead. 1975). iii. To evaluate concentration of heavy metals in mollusc (bivalve) with respect to national standard for human health. However. These cases often occur at developed areas of human activities. and some serious case in Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean had lead the scientific community to intensification of research of the toxic effect of heavy metals to living organisms. mercury. The booming of tourism industries led to exponential development of resorts and hotels to accommodate such activities. nickel. copper and zinc are essential to maintain the metabolism of the human body. This will act as a bioindicator to determine the level of pollution. ii.Cu and Zn) in the mollusc (bivalve . Some heavy metals are neurotoxin. i. The studies will be conducted at Langkawi Island as it is well known as a tourist attraction site.Hg in many countries as for example the Minamata case in Japan. Thus. zinc. Yet. To determine the degree of heavy metal contamination in marine commercial mollusc (bivalve) of these areas. at higher concentrations they can lead to poisoning as heavy metals tend to bioaccumulate in the affected . chromium and manganese (Stewart. cadmium. Heavy metals are natural components of the Earth's crust and they cannot be degraded or destroyed. the amount of sewage disposed also increase. some heavy metals for example. As more buildings are built. LITERATURE REVIEW Heavy Metal Heavy metals are defined as any metallic chemical element that has an atomic number over 20 which relatively are high in density and are toxic or poisonous at low concentrations. as trace elements. etc) along the coastal of Langkawi Island.

According to Shahnaz and Dayanthi (2006). rubbers.2005). Zinc (Zn) Zinc. Zinc is an essential trace element for all living organisms but an excess or a deficiency in zinc uptake might lead to stimulation or retardation of cancer in human and certain animals. 2005). heavy metals from natural and anthropogenic sources are continually released into aquatic system and they are serious threats because of their toxicity. 2002). (2007). Copper sources are normally from drinking water from copper pipe. but in high doses it can cause deleterious effects to human health. has a molecular weight of 65. It is said that the primary anthropogenic sources of zinc in the environment are from the metal smelters and mining activities (ATSDR. Copper (Cu) Copper with the symbol Cu is group IB element in periodic table with an atomic number of 29 and atomic mass of 63.14 g/cm3. . die castings metal.5°C and 908°C (EPA.38 and a density of 7. herbicides. and soil amendments.organisms. bronze. and paints may also lead to its release to the environment through various waste streams (EPA. bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the food chain. 1995). mining and mineral leaching. Copper is an essential substance to human life. copper is an essential metal and important component of the respiratory pigment haemocyanin in crustaceans.. According to Kamaruzzaman et al. metal plating. Coppercontaining compounds have been used in Florida as fungicides. Compounds accumulated in the living things are taken up and stored faster than they are metabolized or excreted. compared to the chemical's concentration in the environment. industrial and domestic waste. Lead (Pb) The symbol of lead is Pb and its atomic number is 82 with atomic weight of 207.2. long persistence. with its molecular formula is Zn. Zinc and copper are used in small amounts as fertilizers in some soils deficient in these elements. It has a melting point and boiling point at 419. resulting in elevated Cu in the aquatic ecosystem (Rogevich et al.546 (Hill and Petrucci. alloys. while the production and uses of zinc in brass. 2008). Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of a chemical in a biological organism over time.

Lead enters aquatic environment by a number of pathways. Heavy Metals in Mollusc (bivalve) Metals deposited in the aquatic environment may accumulate in the food chain and cause ecological damage and even form threats to human health (Bervoets et al. Aquatic microflora and microfauna. Benthic organisms tend to accumulate more heavy metal due to the higher metal level in the sediment compared to the water (Vigh et al. They feed by consuming the nutrient-rich water and sediment. are capable of incorporating and accumulating heavy metals into their living cells from their environment. coal burning. 1999). Bioindicators not only reflect chemical exposure but also have the capacity to integrate many of the physical. Green Mussels as bioindicator Bioindicator organisms have been used in pollution monitoring studies for detecting pollution in certain ecosystem. One of the few negative effects of lead to human is impairment of mental and physical development. and can be passed throughout generations.502 °C and the boiling point is about 1740 °C (Hill and Petrucci. geologic weathering phenomena and volcanic activity account for natural sources. their mechanism do not separate the heavy metals present in the environment thus consuming them as part of their diets. brain and teeth. It also can cause nervous system impairment and muscle pain. 2003). chemical and biological stressors . The organisms chosen as bioindicators should show tendency of accumulating the pollutant in their body or sensitivity towards certain pollutants... but most waterborne lead derives from human activities such as mining and smelting. 2002). This will lead to bioaccumulation of the heavy metal in the organism. 1996).a melting point at 327.. The earth’s crust. Lead can reacts with the red blood cell membrane to increase its mechanical fragility. They are benthic organisms which mean they live on the ocean floor. Bioindicators are organisms that are used to assess pollution by either measuring the organism’s tissue content or by their sensitivity towards pollution. Lead is usually stored in the human bones. Mostly all type of bivalve is filter-feeder organism. Their filter-feeder mechanism act by separating the essential nutrients from the unwanted debris like soil. which constitute fish food. cement manufacturing and is used in gasoline (Rogers et al. However.

ecology and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by green mussels along the Malacca Straits only. 1997). three locations will be selected as sampling site prior to the sampling. easy sampling. Samples will be collected in labelled bags or boxes. This place fall under West Coast of Malaysia. So. three species of bivalve (to be determined at the sampling site) of the same size will be collected at each site. Mussels were suggested long time ago to be good biomonitoring agents due to their wide geographic distribution. in Malaysia only limited studies has been carried out on the biology. samples will be kept at storing temperature (0oC to -20oC) for transportation to lab for further analysis. tolerance of salinity. Langkawi Island is located in the state of Kedah and part of the Malacca Straits. HYPOTHESIS There might be accumulation of Copper (Cu). sedentary lifestyle. METHODS The place where the study will take place is the coastal area of Langkawi Island. and Lead (Pb) in mollusc (bivalve) caught along the coastal area of Langkawi Island.. Next. stable population. resistance to stress of high accumulation of wide range of chemicals and they can provide an assessment of bioavailability. Sampling Procedure: First. Green mussels have been long established as a bioindicator for heavy metals in Thailand and Hong Kong. Then. bioaccumulation and correlation with the average pollutants of the environments.that operate in aquatic ecosystems (Ham et al. Laboratory Work: . However. Zinc (Zn). the study on the bioaccumulation of green mussels in the coastal water of Langkawi Island could enable us new array on this commercial importance species.

rinsed with tap water. the bivalves will be thawed under running water at the lab. The digestions of samples were done along with a control (mixed of acids added) and a standard reference material from green mussel for each batch of digestion.0g of the bivalve’s tissues will be heated in Teflon beaker with mixed concentrated acids of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2). the acids will be added constantly until clear. light yellow solutions were obtained. soaked in 5% nitric acid for at least 24 hours. the clear solutions will be filtered and transferred into 50mL Falcon tubes and 5% of nitric acid (HNO3) will be made up to 50mL. Later. nitric acid (HNO3). 2008). they will be stored inside a dry place until further use.For extracting the tissues needed for heavy metal testing. Next. and formula of calculations of heavy metal concentration in bivalve’s tissue according to the equation below: . Lastly. zinc and lead in the tissue samples. hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) will be added as to breakdown any recalcitrant lipid material that remains in the solution. Statistical Analysis: The samples will be analysed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). the samples will be dried in oven at 70oC for 72 hours. 1. first. the Teflon beakers will be cleaned thoroughly with a detergent solution. the bivalve’s shell will be opened to get the organs and meat inside. hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) in the ratio of 1:1 (Kamaruzzaman et al. The samples will be put into different plate and labelled according to the species. the tubes will be sealed and kept in the refrigerator prior to sample analysis. ICP-MS is used for quick and precise determination of copper. Several analysis of the data will be done which are Metal recovery measurement (the recovery for quality assurance). The organs and meat of the bivalve will be weighed using analytical balance. Acid Digestion: Before digestion. Formula for measurements (calculation based on dry weights). Next. Then. After cooling. After the sample dried. 2000). The beakers will be kept heated at 100°C for two to three hours and then. and then rinsed with metal-free water (EPA. It can detect the heavy metals in ppb value an in 100 times dilution.

Malaysia.Y. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. Terengganu.. Effendy. al. A. 117-127. Bervoets. (2002).. L. 11 (18): 2249-2253. 26. Marshall. Kamaruzzaman B. Department of Health and Human Services. and Verheyen.gov/toxprofiles. (1997). General Chemistry: An integrated approach. Ong. U.J and Petrucci.S.W. Zaleha. et. Copper and zinc in three dominant brackish water fish species from Paka Estuary. Kamaruzzaman.C. Ong. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety..C. K. B. Prentice Hall. United States of America. (2007). (2008). Application of multiple bioindicators to differentiate spatial and temporal variability from the effect of contaminant exposure on fish. Public Health Service. S. (1995).µg metal = [(reading/1000) x (weight of test tubes x 1000) x (diluted volume)] g dry weight [(dry sample weight) x 1000] EXPECTED RESULTS 1) Record of concentration of heavy metals in mollusc (bivalve) along the coastal area of Langkawi Island 2) Determine the level of pollution in Langkawi Island coastal area 3) Report and publication for the Final Year Project journal 4) Direct cooperation with various related agencies and departments 5) New methodology for future research and development REFERENCES ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry).M. and Kamaruzzaman. K. and Peterson. M. Y. Atlanta. B.M. Determination of Pb. M. Accumulation of metal in the tissues of three spinned stickelback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from natural sea water.D. Malaysia. M. W. (2007).R.Y. GA. Ham. 37. and Willison. (1999). K. Levels of Heavy Metals in Green-Lipped Mussel Perna veridis (Linnaeus) from Muar Estuary. R. Toxicological profile for zinc.. Hill. Johor.H. Available online at http://www. Malaysian Journal of Science. 53-61.J. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. .cdc.S. 65-70.atsdr. 48.Y. R.

26. R. Aquatic Toxicology. (2003). Toxicological review of zinc and compounds. T. Z.Cu. 2000. DC. C. J. C.S. 68. U. (1975). 691-701. S. Comparison of heavy metal concentration of Grass Carp in a shallow eutrophic lake and fish pond.S.M. Shahnaz. Synergistic effect of copper and lead uptake by fish..V. K. Heavy metals in: Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 5th ed. Ionoregulatory distruption as the acute toxic mechanism for lead in rainbow trout (Onchorchynchus mykiss). Dawson. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Liang. Guidance For Assessing Chemical Contaminant Data For Use in Fish Advisories. Sensitivity of juvenile freshwater Cryfish Cherax destructor (Decapoda: Parastacidae) to trace metals. (1998).. J. .. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. Macmillan. 215-234. 64.S. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. and Balogh. Washington. Goodman L. Pp 924-941. Stewart H. (1996). 190-195. EPA. 71-78. Rogers. 32. 44. Malaysian Journal of Science. and Dayanthi. Tao. Cao. Mastala. Cd and Zn in fish sample of the Mengabang Telipot River surrounding University Malaysia Terengganu by ICP-MS. Chemosphere. and Gilman A. Volume II: Risk Assessment and Fish Consumption Limits. (2005). U. Vigh. Richards.. (ed). J. New York. and Liu. 463-469. N.S. (2006). and Wood.. U.W. EPA.T. P. K.G.

GANTT CHART 2009 Project activities Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Fe b 2010 Mar Apr May Title Finalisation Proposal Proposal presentation Sampling Laboratory Work Data Analysis Paper Presentation Report Submitted Kuantan  Langkawi Island = ±700 km Langkawi Coastal Area (Sampling Site) = ± 10 km .

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