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Definition of Management:

Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in

which people working together in groups to achieve settled objectives or
The term management refers to the process of getting activities
completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
Efficiency means relationship between inputs and outputs seek to
minimize cost and effectiveness means to achieve the settled goals and
“ OR”
• 1 Management involves coordination and overseeing the work
activities of others so that activities are completed effectively and

Qualities of a Manager:
Successful manager should possess certain qualities during job.
HARBRIDGE house a Boston firm identified ten qualities of a
manager of age, male, female industry, organization.

1. Provide clear direction: An effective manager needs to establish

explicit goals and standards for people. Managers must involve people
to communicate in setting of goals and assigning those duties to
achieve settled goals. Managers must be clear and through in
delegating responsibility.

2. Encourage open communication: Managers must be candid or frank in

dealing with people. Managers must be honest, a straightforward and
establish a climate of openness and trust.

3. Coach and support people: Managers must be helpful to employees,

working constructively to correct performance, problems and to
support subordinates.
4. Provide objective recognition: Managers must appreciate employees
for good performance and less criticizes them for bad work or
problems. Rewards, gifts, shields and benefits must be awarded to
employees for quality performance and not for seniority or personal

5. Establish on going controls: This means following up employees on

important issues or actions and giving them feed back if required or

6. Select the right people to staff, organization: Attracting and selecting

the best people in terms of quality performance, skills and competence
to accomplish organization mission, objectives and goals.

7. Understand the financial implication decisions: This managerial

quality is important to guide the managers or employees of human
resource department, research and development department etc who
have no direct responsibility for generating profit.
8. Encourage innovation and new idea: Innovation and new ideas from
employees or managers for quality performance is important for
organization development. These types of ideas or innovation must be
appreciated and encouraged.

9. Give subordinates clear cut decision: Give subordinates clear cut

decision where they are needed. These types of decisions are needed
when employees are not upto that standard or not producing quality
performance. So this is the time to convey clear cut decisions.

10. Consistently demonstrate of high level of integrity: All the

people of organization must be honest. It is proven that most of the
employees want to work for those managers who are honest or who
respect them.

Henry Fayol 14 principles of management

1. Division of work: Specialized persons are necessary for organization
2. Authority: Responsibility must be with authority.
3. Unity of command: Each employee should receive orders only from
one superior.
4. Esprit de corps: Harmonious effort among individuals is the key to
organization’s success.
5. Unity of direction: The efforts of everyone in the organization should
be focused in one direction i.e. quality performance.
6. Remuneration: Employees should be paid fairly accordance with their
7. Centralization: The relationship between centralization and
decentralization is a matter of proportion. i.e. the optimum balance
must be found for each organization.
8. Discipline: Obedience and respect help an organization to run
9. Scalar chain: Subordinates should only follow the commands of his
immediate boss or superior.
10. Equity: Fair and justice work provide loyal and quality service.
11. Stability: Jobs security is needed to gain quality performance
from employees.
12. Order: Both material things and people should be in their
proper position, places.
13. Initiative: Employees who are allowed to originate and carryout
plans will exert high levels of efforts.
14. Subordination of individual interests to general interests:
The interest of employee or group of employees should not take
precedence over the interest of the organization as a whole.