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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Guide to Convective heat transfer
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1. Outline of fluid motion with friction. Real and perfect fluids. Viscosity. Compressibility.

The Hagen-Poiseuille equations of flow through a pipe. Principle of similarity; the Reynolds

and Mach numbers. Comparison between the theory of perfect fluids and experiment.

formation. Turbulent flow in a pipe and in a boundary layer.

equations). Fundamental equations of motion and continuity applied to fluid flow. The rate

at which a fluid element is strained in flow. Relation between stress and rate of deformation.

Stokes’ hypothesis. Bulk viscosity and thermodynamic pressure. The Navier-Stokes

equations.

similarity from the Navier-Stokes equations. Frictionless flow as “solutions” of the Navier-

Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations interpreted as vorticity transport equations.

The limiting case of very large viscosity (very small Reynolds number). The limiting case of

very small viscous forces (very large Reynolds number). Mathematical illustration of the

process of going to the limit R → ∞ .

5. Exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Parallel flow. Other exact solutions.

6. Very slow motion. The differential equations for the case of very slow motion. Parallel flow

past a sphere. The hydrodynamic theory of lubrication. The Hele-Shaw flow.

7. Boundary-layer equation for two-dimensional incompressible flow; boundary layer on

a plate. Derivation of boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional flow. The separation of

a boundary layer. A remark on the integration of the boundary-layer equations. Skin friction.

The boundary layer along a flat plate. Boundary layer of higher order.

a boundary layer on the Reynolds number. “Similar” solutions of the boundary-layer

equations. Transformation of the boundary-layer equations into the heat-conduction. The

momentum and energy-integral equations for the boundary layer.

motion. Flow past a wedge. Flow in a convergent channel. Flow past a cylinder;

symmetrical case (Blasius series). Flow in the wake of flat plate at zero incidence. The two-

dimensional laminar jet. Parallel streams in laminar flow. Flow in the inlet length of a

straight channel. The method of finite differences. Boundary layer of second order.

10. Approximate methods for the solution of the two-dimensional, steady boundary-layer

equations. Application of the momentum equation to the flow past a flat plate at zero

incidence. The approximate method due to Th. Von Kármán and K. Pohlhausen for two-

dimensional flows. Comparison between the approximate and exact solutions. Further

examples. Laminar flow with adverse pressure gradient; separation.

11. Axially symmetrical and three-dimensional boundary layers. Exact solutions for axially

symmetrical boundary layers. Approximate solutions for axially symmetric boundary layers.

Relation between axially symmetrical and two-dimensional boundary layers; Mangler’s

transformation. Three-dimensional boundary layers.

12. Thermal boundary layers in laminar flow. Derivation of the energy equation.

Temperature increase through adiabatic compression; stagnation temperature. Theory of

similarity in heat transfer. Exact solutions for the problem of temperature distribution in a

viscous flow. Boundary-layer simplifications. General properties of thermal boundary layers.

Thermal boundary layers in forced flow. Thermal boundary layers in natural flow.

between the velocity and the temperature fields. The flat plate at zero incidence boundary

layer with non-zero pressure gradient. Interaction between shock wave and boundary layer.

layer suction. Injection of a different gas (Binary boundary layers).

15. Non-steady boundary layers. General remarks on the calculation of non-steady boundary

layers. Boundary-layer formation after impulsive start of motion. Boundary-layer formation

in accelerated motion. Experimental investigation of the starting process. Periodic boundary-

layer flow. Non-steady, compressible boundary layers.

Part C. Transition

16. Origin of turbulence I. Some experimental results on transition from laminar to turbulent

flow. Principles of the theory of stability of laminar flows. Results of the theory of stability

as they apply to the boundary layer on a flat plate at zero incidence. Comparison of the

theory of stability with experiment. Effect of oscillation free stream on transition.

17. Origin of turbulence II. Effect of pressure gradient on transition in boundary layer along

smooth walls. Determination of the position of the point of instability for prescribed body

shape. Effect of suction on transition in a boundary layer. Effect of body forces on transition.

Effects due to heat transfer and compressibility. Stability of a boundary layer in the presence

of three-dimensional disturbances. The influence of roughness on transition. Axially

symmetrical flows.

18. Fundamentals of turbulent flow. Introductory remarks. Mean motion and fluctuations.

Additional, “apparent” turbulent stresses. Derivation of the stress tensor of apparent

turbulent friction from the Navier-Stokes equations. Some measurements on fluctuating

turbulent velocities. Energy distribution in turbulent streams. Wind-tunnel turbulence.

19. Theoretical assumptions for the calculation of turbulent flows. Fundamental equations.

Prandtl’s mixing-length theory. Further assumptions for the turbulent shearing stress. Von

Kármán’s similarity hypothesis. Universal velocity-distribution law. Further development of

theoretical hypotheses.

20. Turbulent flow through pipes. Experimental results for smooth pipes. Relation between

law of friction and velocity distribution. Universal velocity-distribution laws for very large

Reynolds numbers. Universal resistance law for smooth pipes at very large Reynolds

numbers. Pipes of non-circular cross-section. Rough pipes and equivalent sand roughness.

Other types of roughness. Flow in curved pipes and diffusers. Non-steady flow through a

pipe. Drag reduction by the addition of polymers.

21. Turbulent boundary layers at zero pressure gradient; flat plate; rotating disk;

roughness. The smooth flat plate. The rotating disk. The rough plate. Admissible roughness.

22. The incompressible turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient. Some

experimental results. The calculation of two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer.

Turbulent boundary layers on aerofoils; maximum lift. Three-dimensional boundary layers.

23. Turbulent boundary layers in compressible flow. General remarks. Relation between

velocity and temperature distribution. Influence of Mach number; laws of friction.

24. Free turbulent flows; jets and wakes. General remarks. Estimation of the increase in width

and of the decrease in velocity. Examples. Diffusion of temperature in free turbulent flow.

25. Determination of profile drag. General remarks. The experimental method due to Betz.

The experimental method due to Jones. Calculation of profile drag. Losses in the flow

through cascades.

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