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BY: SANKET VALIA RICHA KHARD
retarding dyeing rate. sublimation. making foams. The hydrophilic group is polar and may be either ionic or nonionic. Therefore. These properties provide the means to apply surfactants in wet-ability modification. Micelles consist of hydrophobic interior regions. where hydrophobic tails interact with one another. the chemical processes that take place at the solid/liquid surface between textile fibers and water often determine the success or failure of the process. surfactants are amphipathic molecules. One other way that surfactants interact to satisfy natural forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules is by formation of micelles. coagulating suspended solids. a surfactant molecule has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics. emphasizing their ability to radically alter surface and interfacial properties and to self-associate and solubilize themselves in micelles. its shape will also be affected by the surface tension at the solid/liquid interface. The hydrophobic group in a surfactant for use in aqueous medium is usually a hydrocarbon chain but may be a fluorocarbon or siloxane chain of appropriate length. Surfactants provide remarkable benefits in many textile wet processes. Chemically. Surface active agents interfere with the ability of the molecules of a substance to interact with one another and. A surface active chemical is one which tends to accumulate at a surface or interface. and the displacement of liquid phases through porous media on one hand. and to stabilize dispersions (including foams. making emulsions. softening. rewetting. scouring. emulsification. dispersing. preventing foam formation and defoaming liquids. These in turn lead to a vast array of practical application in textile processing that includes desizing. thereby. Clearly. The hydrophobic regions are surrounded by the hydrophilic regions where the heads of the surfactant molecules interact with water. Examples of important events in textile chemical processes that involve interaction of surfaces include wetting. mercerization dyeing and many more. foaming and defoaming. lower the surface tension of the substance. stabilizing dispersions. detergency. If the droplet of water is in contact with a solid such as a fabric. Surfactant molecules aggregate in water forming micelles. bleaching. chemical or dye adsorption on fibers. 2 . Surfactants used in industrial applications usually cause a dramatic decrease in surface tension when used at low concentration. the most attractive place for them in water is at the surface where the forces of both attraction and repulsion to water can be satisfied. or to destabilize dispersions (again including foams and emulsions) on the other hand.Abstract Surfactants form a unique class of chemical compounds. vaporization. This review provides an introduction to the nature and physical properties of surfactants. froths and emulsions). fixing dyes. Specific functions of surface active agents include scouring. Since surfactant molecules have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts. melting. wetting. catalysis. Introduction The term surfactant is derived from the words surface active agent. heat transfer. adhesion.
Those with more than 20 carbons in a linear configuration are insoluble in water to use in aqueous medium. • Nonionic: hydrophilic head is polar but not fully charged. the sulfonate surfactants are soluble and effective in acidic as well as in alkaline medium. Fatty acids are carboxylic acids derived from or contained in animal or vegetable fats or oils. They contain linear hydrocarbon groups and may be either saturated of unsaturated. 3 . Esters of sulfosuccinic acid. The free acids are insoluble in water. Since soaps are relatively weak acids. sulfonate surfactants are found in high-volume products. Lignin sulfonates are unsuitable for many applications because of their dark color and because they do not produce much lowering of the surface tension of water.Surfactants: · It reduces the surface tension of a solvent. the free acid is liberated in acidic medium. Fatty acids are produced by alkaline hydrolysis (saponification) of fats. The soap (fatty acid solid) thus formed is separate from the glycerol byproduct by neutralization of the alkali or addition of salt to precipitate the soap. Sulfonated lignin is a very good dispersing agent for solids in water and finds textile applications mainly as a dispersing agent in specialty chemicals and dyes. Types (Classes) Of Surfactants Surfactants fall in the following classifications according to the nature of the hydrophilic group: • Anionic: hydrophilic head is negatively charged. · Due to surface tension. Those with less than 10 carbons are soluble in water to have good surface activity. • Cationic: hydrophilic head is positively charged. soaps are only effective in alkaline medium. They do not emulsify oils so they are not good scouring agents. · They are widely used in scouring. charge depends on pH of the medium. They are soluble in organic solvents making them useful in dry cleaning. Sulfates and Phosphates. Anionic surfactants They are the most widely used of the four classes. they are very useful for textile scouring formulations. Since the sulfonate surfactants are resistant to hydrolysis by both hot acid and alkali. such as dioctyl (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). · The good surfactant should have hydrophobic and lyophilic balance (HBL). wetting of fibre surface does not take place thoroughly and quickly. Carboxylates: Most carboxylate surfactants are soaps. Sulfosuccinate ester surfactants are very soluble in water. Sulfonates: Since the sulfonate group is a strong acid. Soaps are effective as cleaning agents in aqueous medium. Soaps can be made by neutralization of free fatty acids by alkali metals hydroxides by alkaline hydrolysis (saponification) of fats and oils. Therefore. and •Amphoteric: molecule has both positive and negative groups. so sulfonate surfactants are not greatly affected by hard water. Important types of anionic surfactants are Carboxylates. · The concentration at which no further reduction in surface tension occurs is known as critical micelle concentration. The calcium and magnesium salts are soluble in water. · Chemically surfactants are long chain of organic compounds contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic component. Since sulfonation is relatively inexpensive. Soaps are alkali metal salts of fatty acids. are excellent fast-wetting surfactants. Sulfonates. · Surfactant doesn’t removes the surface tension but reduces it.
One of the functions of surfactant is to reduce surface tension. EO-PO ethers 2. Excellent oil solubility. Thioethers. crack and crow’s feet. Surfactant as a wetting agent: Interfacial tension b/w textile fibre and the liquor are high hence wetting may be affected. Phosphates: Phosphate esters of fatty alcohols are useful surfactants. Resistance of phosphate surfactants to acid and hardness ions is poor. Excellent compatibility. Water surface tension is 72 dynes/cm. God emulsifiers. · They do not contain an insoluble group.Sulfates: The sodium salt is most common although salts with diethanolamine. It is possible to bring down the surface tension of water from 72 dynes/cm to 28 dynes/cm. 4. anionic or non-ionic depending upon the pH of the aqueous solution. inhibitor and wetting action and provide a protective colloid for silk and wool. Good wetters and rewetters. 4 . · They are comparatively expensive and some of them are not heat stable and hence cannot be used at elevated temperature. Amphoteric surfactants: · Amphoteric surfactants are may be of cationic. · Non-ionic surfactants are free from precipitation and redeposition onto the fabric and can be safely used. 3. retardants in dyeing. 2. · Cationic surfactants are mainly used as softeners. water repellent bacteria growth inhibitors and emulsifiers. · The hydrophobic part of the molecule of the cationic surfactant is the organic ammonium or pyridinium compound containing one or more hydrophobic residues as shown below. Because of these limitations and their relatively high cost. Foaming properties are enhanced when some unsulfated fatty alcohol is retained in the product. triethanolamine or ammonia are used in cosmetics and shampoos. Sodium lauryl sulfate is an excellent foaming agent. leveling agents. 1. Sorbitan ethers. · Major use is in scouring and dyeing of protecting chafting. · It also permits the caustic to act as a lime soap detergent. corrosion. 4. · Amphoteric surfactants offer an excellent degree of lubrication. EO-PO esters 3. phosphate surfactants are mainly specialty products. Advantages: 1. they are effective for scouring of oil and wax from textile materials Cationic surfactants: · They are unsuitable for use as detergent or wetting agents. Non-ionic surfactants: · They do not contain an ionisable group and have no electrical charge. Since phosphate surfactants are excellent emulsifiers under strongly alkaline conditions.
Wetting agent also displaces the air from the microphores of the cotton by the water. When surfactant soap is dissolved in water the hydrocarbon chain (tail). A lone oxygen atom in the water contains a pair of electrons which is balanced correspondingly large positive charge in the hydrogen atom. If q is greater than 90° the oil will tend to form a globe which easily detached from fibres. The energy of the hydrogen bond is even greater than that of any other molecular interaction. Liquid spread as a continuous film instead of remaining as drops. If q is less than 90 degree. tries to get away from water medium due to its hydrophobicity to the surface. Thus structure of the water distorted and decreases the free energy of the system. The structure of the water has a great dipole moment and also the molecule ‘stick’ to another when water is in the liquid phase. The hydrophilic grouping just dip in the water at the surface and sodium cation is in the vicinity of negatively charged carboxyl heal. The surfactant reduces the values of cos q. the oil will tend to spread over the fibres. In other means micelles with their hydrophobic grouping directed towards the interior of the cluster and their hydrophilic group directed towards the solvent. Surfactant as detergent: 5 . It is a mixture of clusters of tetrahedral linked water molecules and a single molecule occupying space b/w the cluster. All these factors either alone or together make the wetting of textile difficult.
The polar "heads" of the micelle. CMC (carbomethyl cellulose) and PVP (pyrolidon) can act as anti redepositing agents. due to favorable interactions with water. CMC concentration is that how much amount of detergent is required. The detergency is at maximum while surface tension and inter facial tension are at their minimum. the edges tend to associate with water and thus the removal of soil from the fabric starts. The function of the detergent is to remove the dirt and dust particles and other constituents. form a hydrophilic outer layer that in effect protects the hydrophobic core of the micelle. · The terms colloid and emulsion are sometimes used interchangeably. · In an emulsion. When detergent is added. meaning that not only are micelles soluble in protic solvents such as water but also in aprotic solvents as a reverse micelle. The suspended soil particles with its shealth of oriented soap molecules assume a net negative charge similarly to the globe of soap. Because of the hydrophile. The electrostatic charge of repulsion b/w particles and the fibre play a major role in redeposition. Detergent keeps the soil in dispersed or suspended form in scouring solution and prevents redeposition on the fabric. Surfactant as emulsifier: · An emulsion is a mixture of two or more immiscible (unblendable) liquids. The most important consideration in scouring is the critical micelle concentration CMC of the surfactant. The oil disperses as droplets and the dirt is held in suspension with the droplets. the soil hydrophobe either dissolves into the soil or orient along the fabric surface. · Emulsions are part of a more general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids. The compounds that make up a micelle are typically amphiphilic in nature. · An emulsifier (also known as an emulgent) is a substance which stabilizes an emulsion by increasing its kinetic stability. Micelle is due to unfavorable interactions. emulsion tends to imply that both the dispersed and the continuous phase are liquid. 6 . one liquid (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase).
medium or high HBL). for instance to low. 2. · If hydrophobic characteristic of the surfactant is increased. Quantifying scale: · Covers a range of values from zero to 20 hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions. · The value of 10 approximately representing the point at which hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions are in balance. Examples:1. Surfactants Applications in Textile Processing Some of most important applications of surfactants in textile processing are: Wetting When treating textiles by immersion in aqueous solutions it is essential to ensure that air be displaced quickly and thoroughly from between the fibers or filaments so as to establish 7 .· In some cases. · For some general purpose the HBL can be used qualitatively (referring. HBL 7-9 · Good wetting properties. · This is referred as HBL value and is generally use in expressing the characteristics of a surfactant and it is of particular value in describing the emulsion formation. Theory of surface activity and detergency: · Surface activity generally related to the balance b/w hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions of the molecule. · The balance b/w the hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties of the surfactant is critical factor in determining its major characteristics. 3. aqueous solubility decreases and oil solubility increases. particles can stabilize emulsions as well through a mechanism called Pickering stabilization. HBL 8-18 · Typical for surfactant to give oil-in water emulsion. · Suitable for water-in oil emulsions. HBL 4-6 · Hydrophobic group presents.
Fatty Alcohol Ether Sulfate 5. impurities of cotton (sizing agents. while raw cotton contaminated with wax is very difficult to wet. scoured and bleached cotton is wetted very easily. Alkali Metal Derivatives of Unsaturated and Aromatic Hydrocarbons 2. Phosphoric Esters 2. Dispersants are required to produce the dye preparation for these processes and to stablize the finely dispersed state during application. Some of the most important surfactants used as dispersing agents are listed below: 1.) are up to 20% and for wool (wax. To maintain the stability of the dispersion throughout the dyeing or printing process. resulting in uneven prints.Different fibers vary in wettability because of their different chemical structures. they wet easily but polyester filaments are wetted only with difficulty. For example. Sulfonic Acids and Salts 4. Dyeing. Sulfuric Acid Derivatives 3. Powdered dispersion and vat dyes contain 50-80% of these products. Some commercially available detergents which are used in textile processing include anionic and nonionic surfactants in their compositions 1. Wetting of compact fabrics is more difficult. Alkanolamides 6. Alkali Metal Alcoholates 3. and they are present in all types of detergents. Carboxylic Acids and Salts 2.) include surfactants in their compositions: 1. Surfactants constitute the most important group of detergent components. Alkylaryl Ethoxylates 3. Diisooctyl Sulfosuccinates 4. Ethoxylated Fatty Acids Dispersing Agents Insoluble dyes applied in the form of aqueous dispersions are used in a large number of dyeing and printing processes. For example. wax. soils. Alkoxylated Alcohols 5.) influence wettability of fabrics. The dyes in print pastes must be in a completely dissolved or very finely divided form. 2. and stablize this state of dispersion. grease.contact between the textile surfaces and the treatment bath. Alkylaryl Polyglycol Ether Sulxzfate Detergency Scouring processes remove foreign materials from the fibers and are more difficult for natural fibers such as cotton and wool than synthetic fibers. Anhydrous Alkali Metal Soaps of Higher Fatty Acid Antistatics 8 . according to presence of polar groups in cotton fibers. Success depends on a number of factors: 1.Geometric arrangements of fibers in yarn and fabric influence wettability of the material. etc. For example. dust. Printing. Dispersing agents can cause insoluble dyes to become finely dispersed during the preparation of the print paste. Some commercially available wetting agents which are used in textile processing (Sizing. soil) are up to 50% of weight of fibers. 3. pectines. etc. additional dispersant is added to the dye bath. otherwise problems could arise during the printing processes.Presence if impurities (wax.
so retard dye sorption. etc. Cationic or Neutral Nitrogenous Compounds 2. or by the human body. These cationic surfactants compete with cationc dyes for anionic dye sites of fibers. they may cause difficulties in the operation of electronic equipment.Leveling agents for dyeing cellulose fibers with vat and direct dyes Ployglycol Ether Phosphoric Esters Alkyl aryl Sulfonate 2. Example of using leveling agents “retarders” are in dyeing of polyacrylonitrile fibers with cationic dyes. The aim of this treatment is to achieve a soft handle to facilitate the processability and improve wearability. Cationic surfactants are recommended for this purpose. Nonionic Surfactants Leveling Agents for Dyeing Leveling agents promote uniform distribution of the dye in the textile in the exhaustion dyeing process. Cationic Surfactants 2. Acetate rayon and wool generate static electricity more readily. By walking over non-conducting floor covering. in which the opposite charge is produced by induction. Different types of antistatic finishes are based on increasing of the electrical conductivity of the fiber surface. auto seat covers. by machine parts. increasing the rate of migration of the dye within the textile. Leveling agents act mainly by reducing the dyeing rate.Leveling agents for wool dyeing with acid dyes Alkyl Amine Ployglycol ether sulfate 9 . Cotton and viscose rayon under normal humidity conditions do not generate static electricity to any troublesome extent. have a marked softening action on cellulosic fabrics. Small and harmless though these shocks are to human beings. The chemical nature of softeners can either be cationic. Antistatic compounds are not only applied at the mill but are also sold for use by laundries and dry cleaners and for home use. Polyhydroxy and Polyethenoxy Nonionic Compounds 3. The latter effect is well known to occur in underwear made from man-made fibers and charges are induced in adjacent garments. Most of the long-chain quaternary ammonium salts. to be applied as a final rinse after laundering. anionic or non-ionic. causing them to stick to the body. Similarly charged textiles repel each other and are attracted by conductors nearby. Anionic Surfactants 3. Commercial antistatics are included surfactants with following structures: 1. The most important leveling agents (surfactants) for different fibers are listed below: 1. 1. so that the dyeing is level. Phosphonates Derivatives 4. Long Chain Phosphates. almost every single textile piece leaving a textile mill is treated with a softener. Antistatic compounds are also used for spray application to rugs. particularly those in which the straight 18 C chain is present. upholstery. and necessitate precautionary measures in the mills where they are fabricated. carpets. Sulfonated Oil and Sulfonated Ester Emulsions Softeners Softeners are of great importance in textile processing and.The rapid growth of the synthetic fiber industry has greatly emphasized the importance of antistatic finishes. the body potential can be raised and an electric shock may be felt when an earthed object is touched. and improving the compatibility of dyes. Cationic surfactants are quite widely used as antistatic agents. these days. with a uniform shade and depth of color.
Methylene Distear Amide 3. and continuing to the present decade. The water solubility of the long-chain compound may be due to a cationic or an anionic solubilizing group or in some cases even to a nonionizing group. and here surfactants play a useful role. so that on drying and heating a water-insoluble.Leveling agents for dyeing polyacrylonitrile fibers with cationic dyes Quaternary ammonium compound Quaternary Fatty Acid Amine Water-Repellents The term water-repellents. Beginning with the invention of the sulfated oils about 1870. Cationic Surfactants 2. as applied to fabrics. means that the fabric retains its air permeability but resist the passage of liquid water. The use of water as a medium for textile processing ideally requires that liquid wets the fiber surfaces quickly and uniformly. In addition.Leveling agents for dyeing Polyamide fibers Fatty Amine Polyglycol Ether Alkyl Amine Ethoxylate Polyglycol Ether derivatives and sulfonate 4. Methylol Stear Amides . Pyridinium Compounds Summary The Various unit operations of textile industry offer numerous opportunities for advantageous use of surface active agents. During the conversion of textile fibers into various forms of textiles. surfactants may be 10 . a large number of such products is used in textile processing than in any other industry.Leveling agents for dyeing polyester fibers with disperse dyes Modified Phosphoric Acid Esters Alkyl Phenol and Fatty Acid Ployglycol Ethers Carboxylic Acid Alkyl Esters 5. some processes involve treatments in aqueous solutions. water-repellent finish is generated on fabric surface. from scoured fibers or filaments through to yarns or fabrics.Ethoxylated fatty acid amide derivative Alkyl Amine Polyglycol ether Fatty Amine Polyglycol ether 3. As a consequence. almost all new surface active products have been developed with a view toward specific textile applications. Some of the most important surfactants which are used for making fabrics water-repellent: 1. A large number of variations on the above general principle depend on forming a water-soluble long-chain compound which can be applied to the fabric from aqueous solution and which is heatlabile.
H. One of the practical methods for depositing and attaching fatty chain compounds on a fiber surface is to introduce a solubilizing group into the fatty molecule. LTD. Khosravi A.. O. crease resistant finishes. Interfacial Properties. B. Jahad Publisher. Pages 39-46 2. achievement of level dyeing. "Surfactants : Chemistry. scouring.. Seyed Esfehani M. 1.. specific finishing (softening finishes. "Handbook of Surfactant analysis". In most instances. water repellent finishes).. and so on. Applications".. safar Publisher. In order to make a fabric water-repellent or to give it a soft handle.. Fainerman V. Sisley “Encyclopedia of Surface Active Agents”. February 2009. “Dyeing of Synthetic Fibers”. 2000 4. the fact that the finishing compound happens to be surface active has little to do with its application or its utility as a finish. . The resulting compound is then water-dispersible and can be applied from an aqueous medium in controlled concentrations. Issue 2. Textile finishing is any treatment applied to fabric (after weaving process) to improve its properties such as desizing.”Textile Finishing”.required for detergency. dyeing. Sohozade Abyane M. and the choice of a particular surfactant for a particular purpose depends on its ability to interact with fibers and/or other components in the system. 1983 5.”Textile Printing”. Datyner A. Page:18 11 . beaching. John Wiley & Sons. printing.). Hummel D. V. (Ed. Miller R. “Surfactants in textile processing” Colourage Volume 56. Vol. Inc. Tohid Publisher. Active matters of most textiles finishing processes are surfactants. References: 1. "Surfactant in Textile Processing". 1374 (Persian) 6. The introduction of certain solubilizing groups may even confer substantivity.. Marcel Dekker. Elsevier Science B. Mobius D... Gharanjic K. 1372 (Persian) 8. thus facilitating and strengthening the attachment of the finish to the fabric. 2001 3. it is expedient to apply long-chain fatty or oily compounds to the fiber surface. 1377 (Persian) 7.
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