Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006








IPRI Factfile

Preface 1. Pakistan Tracing Back Ties with Central Asia Imran Hassan 2. Central Asia’s Pakistan Connection Svante E. Cornell 3. Inaugural Address at Workshop on Central Asian Republics 4 March 1992 4. International Conference on Central Asia 27-30 November 1993: a. Geopolitics of Central Asia Agha Shahi b. Pakistan and the Central Asian States Qutubuddin Aziz c. Impact of Central Asia on Pakistan’s Folk Literature Dr Affan Suljuq d. Military Impact of Central Asia on Northwestern Subcontinent and the Emergence of Pakistan Dr Noor ul Haq 5. Report on Kazakhstan President’s Visit 23 July 1993 6. Foreign Minister’s Address at Seminar on Problems of Security and Cooperation in Central Asia 16 September 1995 7. Report on Talk between Prime Minister and Uzbekistan’s President 11 November 1995 8. Report on the Visit of Turkmenistan’s Chairman of Mejlis 20 February 1996 9. Report on Pak-China-Kazakh-Kyrgyz Protocol 6 July 1996 10. Joint Press Statement by Turkemenistan’s Prime Minister and Pakistan’s Foreign Minister 8 August 1996 11. Joint Statement of Presidents of Pakistan and Kazakhstan 28 October 1996 12. Report on Foreign Minister’s Visit to Central Asian Republics of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan 19-20 June 1997 11 15 20 21 22 vii 1 4


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Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006)


13. Report on Prime Minister’s Visit to Turkmenistan 17 October 1997 14. Economic Cooperation between Pakistan and the Central Asian Republics Defence Journal, May 1998



15. Press Conference Minister of State for Foreign Affairs on Visit to Central Asian States – Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan 6 November 1998 45 16. Report on Turkmenistan’s Foreign Minister Calls on the Prime Minister 27 January 1999 17. Turkmenistan’s Foreign Minister’s Press Conference in Pakistan 27 January 1999

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18. Report on Kazakhstan’s Foreign Minister’s Call on the Prime Minister 5 March 1999 48 19. Report on Pak-Kazakhstan Ministerial Level Talks 5 March 1999 20. Report on Turkmenistan’s Minister’s Call on the Foreign Minister 29 April 1999 49 50

21. Report on Uzbekistan’s Foreign Minister’s Call on the Prime Minister 1 June 1999 50 22. Communiqué on the Chief Executive’s Visit to Turkmenistan 15-16 May 2000 23. Report on the Chief Executive’s Visit to Central Asia – Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan 6-7 November 2000 24. Joint Press Conference by Foreign Ministers of Pakistan and Uzbekistan 25 January 2001 25. Join Press Briefing by Foreign Ministers of Pakistan and Kazakhstan 20 Feb 2001 51


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26. Report on Advisor to Kyrgyz President’s Call on the Foreign Minister 29 March 2001 61 27. Report on Advisor to Kyrgyz President’s Call on the Chief Executive 31 March 2001 28. Report on Talks with Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan 27 January 2003 61 62

Uzbekistan 40. The News. Pakistan Values its Ties with Uzbekistan: Speaker National Assembly Turkish Weekly. A Profile of Central Asian States a. Appraisal of the Visit of the Prime Minister to Tajikistan 15 September 2004 33. Kyrgyzstan c. 13 April 2006 36. Drawbacks of Electricity Import from Tajikistan Dr Habib Gul. Appraisal of President’s Visit to Central Asian States – Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan 12 March 2005 34. Tajikistan d. Uzbek President Visits Pakistan Asma Shakir Khawaja. Trade Gulnoza Saidazimova. The News. 4 May 2006 37. Pakistan and Central Asia Ms Sarwart Rauf. Uzbekistan Courts Pakistan to Boost Security. Pakistan Observer. Pak-CAR Relations: Future Outlook Dr Maqsoodul Hassan Nuri. 11 March 2005 35. 23 August 2004 32. Report onTajikistan President’s Visit to Pakistan 12-14 May 2004 30. Pak-Uzbekistan-Kyrgyzstan Ties Mohammad Jamil. 21 June 2004 31.4 IPRI Factfile 29. Kazakhstan b. 31 May 2006 39. Turkmenistan e. Map of Central Asia 62 68 72 75 77 79 82 84 86 87 90 91 92 94 95 97 . 4 May 2006 38. Pakistan Observer.

insurance. railways. Pakistan-Central Asia relations are based on geographical proximity. 31 May 2006 Noor ul Haq 1 Except Turkmenistan . stability and development. war against terrorism. selected articles and reports on some of the bilateral visits of leaders of Pakistan and Central Asian States and joint statements and press conferences extracted from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ Journal. common history. Tajikistan. notably. Already there is cooperation in several spheres.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 5 P REFACE The Central Asian States (CAS). Kazakhstan. pharmaceutical industry. traditions. Its potential is attracting the attention of extra regional powers. Foreign Affairs of Pakistan. besides a profile of Central Asian States. culture. They can collaborate in numerous areas. such as. Pakistan can also provide CAS comparatively shorter trade and energy corridor to the outer world. are located on historical Silk Route. Being members of regional organizations. information technology. religion. they have common platforms to institutionalize their mutual beneficial relations. The region has adjoining borders with South Asia. They are moving ahead on building inter-state roads. Pakistan and these states can work together in matters of security. The economies of CAS and Pakistan are complementary to each other. Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)1 and Conference on Interaction on Confidence-building Measures in Asia (CICA). tourism and media. combating religious extremism and drug trafficking.e. This IPRI Factfile includes.. with a total population of over 60 millions spread over an area of about four million square kilometers. i. values and destiny. electricity transmission lines. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). West Asia. banking. such as scientific and technical fields. oil and gas pipelines. China and Russia and is of great geo-strategic and politico-economic importance. Kyrgyzstan. Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).


the same age is known as “Borykazhan”. beginning about 8000 B. According to Archeologist S. Khorezm and territories of N. medicine and .Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 1 P AKISTAN : T RACING B ACK T IES WITH C ENTRAL A SIA Pakistan and Central Asia are seats of original cultures and centers of world’s earliest civilizations. The era of Achaemenian state and of the Alexander the Great can be regarded as a special phase in the history of relations between Central Asia and sub-continent as some of the regions of Central Asia like. “the tools of both the cultures are astonishingly similar. The Vedas contain considerable information on Indo-Aryan life. Merv) have counterparts in the Harappa culture. Parthing.” It seems quite probable that the Soan culture originating in the Beas-sutlej Basin moved westward in the Soan region. Later during Neolithic period (late Stone Age. In the Indian (sub continent) context the Paleolithic (earliest Stone Age) culture is know as “The Soan. Whereas in Central Asia. Bactria.Gupta. Ancient relations between Central Asia and subcontinent reached their zenith in the Kushan period.C. Similar processes of social development occurred in both the regions.C. They also established many autonomous states.000 B. the distinctive iron swords discovered at Taxila and especially disc-shaped bronze mirror came from Central Asia. Soghd.W India like Gandhara region and Indus territories became parts of the same empire. men from central Asia went to live in subcontinent and also embraced Buddhism.” (meaning gold) after its first identification on the banks of the river of that name. faience beads and pottery. Pakistan’s cultural contacts with central Asia can be traced back to the Prehistoric times. In 15. For instance. Buddhist monasteries also played a great role in extending the culture of subcontinent. giving rise to urban civilization and states. some of the finds from south Turkmenistan (i.C. designated after the type-site in Southern Kazakhstan. They even brought Shalwar Qameez to our region. In 2nd century BC when the Saka tribes migrated from Bactria to N. literature.e. Likewise in the historical period.) in many territories of central Asia and North India (Indus valley where the world’s first village was established) prevailed similar agricultural cultures. is beyond doubts. e. The existence of links between Pakistan and Central Asia at the end of 3rd and the beginning of 2nd millennium B. with the rise of Kushan Empire incorporating many territories of Central Asia and a considerable part of subcontinent. crossed the Himalayas and reached the Pamirs (Central Asia). which was adopted and later became Pakistan’s national dress. During Kushan’s period.g. metal and ivory articles. India via the Pamirs they carried with them elements and traditions of Central Asian culture.P. The discovery of Buddhist remains in Central Asia and subcontinent has got an important bearing on the arts of both the regions.. Indo Aryans came from Central Asia and settled in Indus. Yamuna and Ganges plains.

Samanids period enlightened the world with the wisdom of great people. wrote the Hadith. mathematician Al-Biruni and poets such as Firdusi. philosophy and mysticism. In addition to historical links. By AD 900 several independent Muslim kingdoms had sprung up in Central Asia. theaters. the Samanids built up extensive trading links with Europe and China.2 IPRI Factfile astronomy to Central Asia. from where they acted as patrons to one of the greatest periods of Islamic art. invaded Central Asia. The famous Indologist Max Mueller remarked on the riches of subcontinent. They had a lot to learn from them as the genius of the people of subcontinent created the great civilizations of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. which is still revered as one of the most important works in Islam. consequently increasing the course of cultural interaction with the people of sub-continent. This applies primarily to astronomy. The Arab conquests saw a flowering of Islamic thought. culture and science that Central Asia was ever to see. If we look for a country in the whole world which nature endowed with beauty. The most important of these dynasties were the Persian Samanids who ruled from 874-999 and made their capital at Bukhara. thus regulating the silk route. when Bukhara and Samarqand were conquered. which was to turn Bukhara into a city second only to Mecca for its religiosity and learning. The second wave of Arab conquests began in 705. I would point to India. when Arabs of Umayyad dynasty based in Damascus. If I am asked now as to where under the Sun human explored its own workings fully and thought profoundly about the fundamental problems of life and also from what literature should we Europeans . Some 50. its houses. mathematics and medicine. With a well organized army and bureaucracy. riches and spiritual powers. Religious ties can be traced back to 7th century AD. the philosopher and commentator on the Koran. Central Asia despite reaching the height of glory saw declension with the Mongol invasion led by Genghis khan (Temujin) in 13th century when he captured Bukhara in 1220. yet the relations between two regions were not affected as many Central Asian thinkers and people from different walks of life came to subcontinent in order to find refuge. baths and reservoirs were closer to the people than the builders of the Egyptian pyramids.000 Arab families arrived to settle in Merv (south Turkmenistan). The builders of the superb structures of Mohenjo-Daro. Though initially the social and political fabric of Central Asia was torn to pieces. declaring freedom of religion. shared religious ties further strengthened the relations of the Muslim’s of the Sub continent with the Muslims of Central Asia. The contribution made by the people of subcontinent to world science cannot be overlooked. one of the great civilizations in the history of mankind. Culture of the people of subcontinent influenced all European and near eastern cultures through Greece and Central Asia. Al_Bokhari. such as Physician Ibn-sina.

During the Moghul period the cultural interaction between the two regions was still greater. Pakistan for many reasons couldn’t establish friendly relations with Central Asian. Islam and Christianity flourished but Central Asia regained its glory with the emergence of Tamerlane or Timur. “as soon as I cross the Attock bridge across the Indus river I feel as if I am in central Asia. The traditional links among the people of these regions. The Arabic script was replaced with Cyrillic script. For several decades they lived behind Iron curtain oblivious of their past history and their link with Muslim nations on their southern border. especially the culture of Frontier Province is so similar to the Central Asian culture that whenever ‘Jawaharlal Nehru’ visited Peshawar during the days of undivided India. the identity of Central Asians was also changed. social or economic relations among them. despite sharing common faith and relations that are rooted in the hoary past.” Later when subcontinent was divided. cutting them off from their roots. The British colonists increasingly strove to isolate the people of subcontinent from those of Central Asia but their efforts failed. Without Timur’s conquest there would have been no Moghul Empire in subcontinent. 3 Let me clarify that by India he means Indo-Pak sub-continent. capturing most of Turkistan by 1380 and moved the cream of vanquished regions’ intelligentsia and craftsmen to Samarqand. One of the major reasons was the fear of communism that prevented any kind of political. The struggle waged by the people of Central Asia for their social and traditional regeneration inspired the finest men of Subcontinent. Economic relationship between the subcontinent and central Asia was so vital throughout this period (i. In his time period foundations of many mosques and madrassahs in different parts of the empire led to the patronage of Islamic learning. After Genghis Khan many ruled Central Asia allowing people to worship as they chose. relations that can be traced back to prehistoric times. The cultures of both the regions were so much related. wide and more human-I would point to India. Buddhism. What Europe owes to the Greeks for cultural characterization. Central Asia owes to the Timurids for cultural transformation and a rebirth into a new age that has sustained them till today.e. were severed during the colonial rule in both the regions. where he began to build the grandest capital city of ancient Asia. In fact the revolutionary idea of socialism reached subcontinent not from Britain. founded by Babur. .Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) take those principles which can make the inner world of the man more perfect. he is known to have remarked. Besides. but from Central Asia. Perhaps the most important import from Central Asia was its horses. the medieval period) that even when ruling dynasties of these regions had strained relations. movement of men and commodities never came to standstill.

The old relationship shared by the people of two regions can only be revived through some convenient communication network. For 44 years Pakistan remained an unfriendly country whereas India. and Turkish special forces a direct access to the heartland of Afghanistan. Cornell is optimistic that the removal of the Taliban and the threat that the regime was seen to pose to the Central Asian states will enable Pakistan to re-establish lost confidence in the region.newscentralasia. when Central Asian states got independence from IPRI Factfile Relations between these regions were also strained because of Pakistan’s move to join anti-communist pact against Soviet Union. Finally. Initially these states were not very inclined to enter into any political arrangement with the Muslim nations on their southern and western borders. a long-sought objective of the US-led alliance. But beyond being a staging point for American bases. They were also not very happy with opening their borders with conservative Muslim countries as they feared the intrusion of Muslim extremist organization into their republics. what are the Central Asian states' interests in Afghanistan? The first aspect of Central Asia that deserves mention is that it does not constitute a coherent region with states holding similar interests and concerns. British. Pakistan increased its linkage with Central Asian states when the later signed the charter of the ECO on November 28. However. and may give US. 1992. Whereas Tajikistan is a poor. This has put the US bases in Uzbekistan in close proximity to 'friendly territory' in Afghanistan. they soon realized the importance of establishing political and economic ties. and Uzbekistan) are very different. in 1991. The three states that border Afghanistan (Tajikistan. which is affordable and accessible to the people belonging to all walks of life. it also illustrates the importance of Central Asian states' proximity to Afghanistan. While this is crucial to humanitarian relief and the war effort. on the other hand became much closer to them because of its treaty of Peace and Friendship with Moscow. Pakistan strove to establish political and economic links between them but the cultural relations were not revived. Turkmenistan.php?name=News&file=article &sid=1247> C ENTRAL A SIA ' S P AKISTAN C ONNECTION Svante E. Imran Hasan <http://www. conflict- . The end of Taliban rule in Kabul and the Northern areas of Afghanistan brought the Northern Alliance in control of the country's border with Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Still there is hardly any movement of people between Pakistan and West Turkistan neither there is any flow of cultural information through electronic or print media.

Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006)


ridden and Persian-speaking country under Russian tutelage, Turkmenistan is a resource-rich, Turkic and primarily nomadic country that has deposited a document of permanent neutrality with the United Nations. Uzbekistan is the only truly independent state in Central Asia, with significant resources, a large population, a strategic location, and a very strong sense of national identity. Uzbekistan is feared by most of its neighbours, and has come to play the role of a regional power in Central Asia. Independent for just ten years, the Central Asian republics have come to develop their own national interests that depend on their unique geographic, demographic, economic, and political characteristics. As far as relations to their Southern neighbours are concerned, the Central Asian states all share similar concerns, although their responses to developments in the region have varied drastically. Central Asia and Afghanistan are intimately linked ethnically. Tajiks, Uzbeks and Turkmens form considerable populations in Afghanistan, Tajiks being the second largest ethnic group of the country, with more Tajiks living in Afghanistan than in Tajikistan. Uzbeks are the fourth largest ethnic group, but their home is the area around the key strategic city of Mazar-e-Sharif; one of the most known, though not most esteemed, commanders of the Northern Alliance is the Uzbek warlord Rashid Dostum. These ethnic linkages have been a factor in the relations between Central Asia and Afghanistan and Pakistan. Some analysts have boiled the relations down to an ethnic game where Central Asia is seen to support the Persian- and Turkic-speaking minorities in the North, and Pakistan supporting the Pashtuns of the South. This is at best a highly simplified version of reality. Religious, geopolitical, and economic factors have often superseded the ethnic factor. To Central Asia, there are two main concerns that arise out of Afghanistan, concerns that are intimately linked with these states' relations with Pakistan. The first concerns security; the second is economic. For the Central Asian countries that have territory in or near the Ferghana valley -- that is all except Turkmenistan -- Afghanistan has been a major security concern in the 1990s. Unrest in Afghanistan contributed to the upheaval in Tajikistan that led to the civil war of 1992-97, and to the emergence of Islamic radical groups in the Ferghana valley areas of Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Tajikistan remains a weak state, where the government controls little outside the capital Dushanbe. Hence the civil war in Afghanistan, and the spectre of a Taliban victory, has been Tajikistan's main concern. It was feared that a total defeat of the Northern Alliance would lead to refugee flows of Tajiks to the country that it could not handle; but moreover that the Taliban's next step would be to instigate Islamic upheavals inside Tajikistan. On the other hand, the drugs trade that has involved both the Taliban and the Northern Alliance has


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involved the Tajik government as well, with over a third of the country's unofficial GNP estimated to be linked to the opium trade. Among the Central Asians, Tajikistan has like its mentor, Russia, been the staunchest supporter of the ethnic Tajik-led Northern Alliance leadership of the late Ahmad Shah Masoud and Burhanuddin Rabbani. Tajikistan recently reiterated its opposition to any Taliban participation in a future Afghan government. Turkmenistan, on the other hand, has adopted a totally different approach. It shares a border with Afghanistan as long as Tajikistan's, though less rugged and more porous. Turkmen tribes live on both sides of the border, and Turkmenistan could ill-afford a refugee flow of hundreds of thousands of Turkmens. When the Taliban conquered Herat and the areas adjacent to Turkmenistan, the Ashkabad government assumed a very pragmatic policy, and followed the doctrine of positive neutrality that the country adopted after independence, and which, in retrospect, has served the country well. As a result, Turkmenistan developed good functional relations with the Taliban. It provided proof that a country that didn't actively support the Taliban's enemies could establish good relations and live in peace with the radical militia. For Turkmenistan, the Taliban never constituted a major threat. Quite to the contrary, the Turkmens tried to deal with the Taliban to have their large natural gas resources exported through Afghanistan. Uzbekistan saw Afghanistan as a much greater threat. Coping with a religious revival in the Ferghana valley with sectarian and radical violence attached, Tashkent saw the Taliban conquest of Afghanistan as bad news. As the Taliban sheltered the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) which most likely tried to assassinate the Uzbek president in 1999 and subsequently launched two military incursions into southern Central Asia in 1999 and 2000, Uzbekistan felt directly affected by the turmoil and radicalism emanating from Afghanistan. Meanwhile, the Uzbeks were well aware that the IMU operated on Tajik territory and that Russia was utilizing the IMU threat to restore Uzbekistan's dependence on Russia for security purposes. Still, the IMU obviously operated in Afghanistan thanks to its leaders' connections to the Taliban and Osama Bin Laden, and thus the Taliban were a direct security threat to Uzbekistan. Although Kyrgyzstan has no border with Afghanistan, it was perhaps even more affected than Uzbekistan, since it is a much weaker state and since the IMU incursions mainly took place on its territory. On a more general level, Central Asian leaders increasingly came to realise that their separation from Afghanistan in the Soviet era had been artificial, and that Afghanistan formed an integral part of their region. Their security could not be dissociated from the situation in Afghanistan.

Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006)


This was also true in economic terms. One of the major features of Central Asia is that it is landlocked. Uzbekistan, for example, is doubly landlocked since all its neighbours are landlocked; goods traveling between Uzbekistan and the high seas must pass through at least two other countries. During the Soviet era, the harbour used by Central Asia was Riga on the Baltic coast; this was a decidedly illogical solution dictated by political terms. Both geographically and historically, Central Asia's most logical route to the seas is through Afghanistan and Pakistan to the Arabian sea. A significant part of the Silk Route in fact went across this route. This fact was soon realized at independence, and the issue of opening up transportation links for goods as well as energy resources in this direction was gradually recognized. However, these problems have not been resolved and Central Asia remains poorly connected to the world markets. Afghanistan's civil war in the early 1990s acted as an obvious impediment to the restoration of these historical trade routes. The utter anarchy during Rabbani's tenure in Kabul made it impossible to conceptualise the drawing of pipelines, or the use of road or rail resources through Afghanistan. In this context, the arrival of the Taliban to power led to hopes that Afghanistan would stabilize and become a possible transportation route. In fact, the hope of access to Central Asia was one of the several reasons that Pakistan extended its diplomatic support to the Taliban movement at its emergence in 1995. However, the Taliban's policies that alienated and isolated the movement from the world community, and its inability to effectively control the entirety of Afghanistan's territory, dashed the hopes of a stabilised Afghanistan. Worse, the perception of the Taliban as a serious threat to Central Asian states also affected Central Asia's relations with Pakistan. In fact, Pakistan's support for the Taliban, and the Taliban's support for the IMU led to a perception in Central Asia, heavily fuelled by Russian propaganda, that Pakistan was pursuing an Islamic agenda in Central Asia and covertly seeking to overthrow the secular governments of the Central Asian republics. Relations between Pakistan and Central Asia plummeted, and mistrust for Pakistan has spread in the region. In this light, the events in the last two months provide new opportunities. The Taliban no longer pose a security threat to Central Asia, and real efforts to reinvigorate traditional trade routes can now resume as integral parts of the economic development package for Afghanistan and the entire region. Central Asian states are well aware of the mutual economic interests they share with Pakistan. It is hence time for Pakistan to capitalise on its improved standing in world politics to rebuild lost confidence in Central Asia.

A KRAM Z AKI S ECRETARY -G ENERAL F OREIGN A FFAIRS AT T HE W ORKSHOP ON C ENTRAL A SIAN R EPUBLICS H ELD AT THE M INISTRY OF F OREIGN A FFAIRS (E XTRACT ) Islamabad: 4 March 1992 The emergence of independent states in Central Asia is a veritable watershed. its role may gradually be restored to that of an influential regional power. It is to focus on the contemporary scene. we need to study the present political culture of the Central Asian states. The resumption of our severed links with Central Asia will refurbish the Central Asian character of our identity and revitalise the whole region. but Pakistan's geopolitical and geo-economic position cannot be ignored by its northern neighbours. It is quite clear that these states have become . keeps in mind the sensitivities of the Central Asian states. First and foremost. Our food. It is the beginning of a new historical phase for the vast region stretching from the Aral Sea to the Arabian Sea. Culturally. our dress and our language show our Central Asian roots. this momentous development carries great significance. this marks the end of isolation and artificial division of the region and segregation of its peoples whose destinies were closely interlinked from the tenth to the 17th century. geographically. If Islamabad. Our poets and scholars. The division imposed by the rivalry of Russian and British imperialism since the 18th century. architects and builders derive their inspiration from Central Asian sources.htm> I NAUGURAL A DDRESS BY M R . culture and who share common history. we straddle the divide separating the South Asian subcontinent from Central Asia and South West Asia.cornellcaspian. With the passing of the interregnum of the great game. the interaction between the peoples of the region. and funds channeled to the rebuilding of road links and pipelines could speed up this process. will be resumed and intensify rapidly in the modern technological age. goes beyond the rediscovery of our shared historical and cultural experience with Central Asia. Cornell <http://www. For Pakistan. had finally come to a close in 1991. we are inheritors of Central Asian traditions. The purpose of this seminar. In its historical perspective.8 IPRI Factfile Reestablishing trust for Pakistan in Central Asia may take time. the opportunities that have become available and how we must respond to the new situation in terms of broad policy and practical action. Svante E. however. Economic and trade ties are set to increase rapidly. this time.

We need to examine the views of these international players before we can make a realistic assessment of Pakistan’s role in the region In addition to the perception of other states about Central Asia it is important to understand the role that the Central Asian states desire for themselves in the region and the world. Also the Afghan issue that has dominated the region for more than a decade. Japan and East Asia. the societies are in a flux.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 9 independent as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union and not as an achievement of indigenous freedom movements. Yet. Iran. How best can we promote this objective? We need to identify areas that hold . For example. five newly-independent Central Asian states of the former USSR have joined the ECO and Kazakhstan is likely to follow suit. The expansion of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) is an event of considerable significance. an early political settlement will enable Afghanistan to join the organisation. Pakistan. the competing regional interests and of course the involvement of USA and the West as already evident from the visits paid by US Secretary Baker to the central Asian capitals Driven by its fears of the so-called Islamic fundamentalism and its concerns over the presence of nuclear weapons in some states. the Gulf states. Several issues deserve attention. in all these states. Politically. their communist philosophy and assumed new “nationalist” but still secular orientation. They are also poised to transform their economies. We need carefully to examine the internal dynamics of these states and to reach conclusions that can set the broad parameters of our approach. Much has been written about their preference for the Turkish model. the fate of commonwealth and independent states. the West will be keenly interested in future developments in Central Asia. An early settlement of the issue or the absence of a solution. Turkey appears to assume a special role given the ethnic Turkish background of Central Asia. either of the two scenarios. remains unresolved. of development nevertheless.. Their political perception and security considerations will be germane to the consideration of political and economic relations in the region. the direction of change remains nuclear. the Islamic and ethnic sentiments appear to be on the rise. the old leadership has survived. Iran and Turkey. China and India will represent other major political and economic interests in the region. Hopefully. The ECO has all the natural advantages and great potential to turn into a vibrant economic fraternity. It is important that in addition to the three original members i.e. would have far reaching implications that must be carefully analysed. We also need to analyse and assess the external environment of Central Asia. A stable peaceful and economically progressive and dynamic ECO region of Central Asian and West Asian states can once again serve as link between the European Community and oriental economies of China. the relations between these states and the Russian federation. though the leaders have discarded.

Initial contacts were also established even earlier by sending a delegation comprising eminent scholars. issue 3-4. Exchange of delegations in various fields.10 IPRI Factfile promising prospects and tackle problem areas and pitfalls that need to be avoided. Of course. President of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan are expected to pay visits soon after Ramazan. we have already taken several initiatives to establish and to develop our relations with Central Asian states. But the realities on the ground and a proper understanding and evaluation of constraints and opportunities must provide the foundation for policy postulates Facts without vision remain barren and visions divorced from realities turn into smoke. PIA air link with Tashkent which may be extended to other Central Asian capitals. Under instruction of the Prime Minister. aspirations of the people. Pakistan was the second country following Turkey to extend diplomatic recognition to Central Asian states. … Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Pakistan had lost no time in responding to the historic transformation of Central Asia. trade and cultural relations and multi-dimensional cooperation with Central Asia. dreams and visions of the leaders are also essential elements in policy formation. businessmen. March-April 1992 . XIX. Dushanbe and Ashkabad. pp. Opening of missions in Tashkent. Vol. These include:• Prime Minister’s invitation to the presidents of all six Muslim republics. • • • • • Serious and analytical research must provide the raw material for reflection. The primary objective of the seminar/workshop is to discuss the development of Pakistan’s political. Despatch of life-saving drugs and urgently required medicines to all the Central Asian Republics. economic. I am confident that with the benefit of your expert and scholarly inputs we will be able to reach sound conclusions that could help the formulation of our Central Asian policy in the short-term. An offer of dollar 30 million credit to Uzbekistan and dollar ten million each to other five republics. 22-26. President of Kazakhstan has already visited Pakistan from 22 to 25 February. medium-term as well as in long-term perspectives. journalists and officials led by the minister of state for economic affairs. Alma Ata.

there is talk of the PLO-Israeli agreement. It may be mentioned that the European community. now the Europe Union (EU). of such a role. the global politics is in such a state today that it would not be realistic for the ECO countries to speak only in geo-political terms. if not a federation then a confederation of the European States. I think we should concentrate on the geo-economic perspective. the ASEAN also has begun to think in terms of an orientation towards security in the South East Asian Zone. It is indeed. the EU has embarked on an attempt to arrive at a common security policy. genocide and aggression in Bosnia. Vietnam. Besides EU. it is premature to think of folding upon cooperation that would give these countries communality of approach towards security. Nevertheless. which is considered to be the fountain-head of fundamentalism and the potential regional power by reason of its wealth. China. But the EU has taken nearly 30 years to move from an economic community to a single market and then to think of a common foreign and Security policy and then the Maastricht treaty. Secretary of State that incremental exploring of Security has met with a setback. are all assuming the security role of exploring the possibility. for security—security directed against Iran. the USA etc. even the newly formed forum of APEC. which is basically an economic grouping should try to assume a political role and in due course of time also aspire to the possibility of geopolitical role. as elucidated by Warrant Christopher. a grand alliance of Arabs and Israel. Israel wants to bring with the help of the USA. through sanctions) and isolation and there is possibility of it being the object of a grand Arab. close to forming. Similarly.Israel Alliance. indeed. Apart from the fact that development from an economic organization . But it has taken ASEAN 30 years. to harmonise and prevent rivalry among these powers from creating tension and in order to reach settlement of disputes. the ASEAN. close to political integration. and to this end it is trying to cope with Russia. containment to Iraq and Iran. The US attempt to turn APEC from a trading bloc to. However. But we also know how the EU has failed to cope with the carnage. The Americans have already instituted a policy of what they call it. It is. Iran is also the object of containment (after Iraq. size and population. because the South East Asian countries are not prepared to let APEC security structure supersede the ASEAN Since the ECO has been newly formed.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 11 G EO —P OLITICS OF C ENTRAL A SIA There is a desire in Pakistan that the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) of the Central Asian States.

So this could be termed as Neo-Imperialism. because the west could rather see stability in Russian Chauvinism than the possibility of destablization due to the penetration of Islamic Fundamentalism. For instance. there is supposed to be a Russian army for the Soviet minority in Moldova. and the restoration of a former communist government. So for as Islamic resurgence is concerned. Thus. The Russian troops are deployed along the Southern borders of these (so-called) Independent states. Similarly in Moldavia. for its former union republics which ceded from her after the collapse and some of these have acceded to the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Russia is now setting a sort of its own version of ‘Monroe Doctrine’. In the pursuance of this policy Russia has the full support of USA. which does not want to join CIS has been compelled because of the defeats at the hands of Armenians to appeal to the Russians. although the Americans have been occupying parts of Azerbaijan’s Nakarno-Karabagh. Recently we know that the intervention of the Soviet armed forces to help Edward Shevardnedze over Georgia was attained at the price of giving bases to the Soviet Union and rejoining the CIS. and it has in fact given a warning to Turkey and Iran not to take their forces right up to the border in Azerbaijan. the sphere of its influence. the leadership of these countries being former communist sees the commonality of interests with Russia and the West in opposing the Islamic forces and their activities. since the time of its independence. The first and foremost would be the opposition of Russia. Ismael Karimove of Uzbekistan is on record that he is opposed to . Russia’s chief of the staff has said that it was necessary to deploy these troops to block the entry of the fundamentalist forces from Afghanistan and elsewhere to prevent their penetration right from the borders of Turkey Iran and CIS. But the increasing influence of the Russian armed forces in the region and the reaction of the national segments of Russia in its former republics is of immense importance. Alia-Haider has refused to give bases to Russia. a new style of Russian control right along the borders of former Soviet Union and not the borders of Russian Federation only. The great powers would be opposed to any form of geo-political dimension being assumed by the ECO. Russia does not even want. Then Azerbaijan.12 IPRI Factfile into security organization takes enough time and reconciliation of diverse interest. as a first step any move towards geo-political unification would be confronted with opposition from Russia. in particular those on its southern territory. there has to be a common perception of the nature of the threat and a communality in countering that threat which has to be discovered in the case of the ECO. as a result the territories of Azerbaijan continue to be under aggression.

So also is the government of Tajikistan under Sultan Nazerbeyof. Again. This goes back to the 1980’s when Nixon himself during his trip to Russia had mentioned how Russia and the West share their common interests against Islamic fundamentalism. there is another essay written by Samuel Huntington. Here one may also refer to the combination of India and Israel to join together against Islamic Fundamentalists. Of course the US does not want to concede to the exclusive influence of the Soviet Union (Former) over Ukraine and Baltic republics. till the collapse of the Soviet Union. As regards the containment of Iran by the USA. Turkey is now more cautions in trying to project its cultural and economic interests to these regions. basically former communists. Russia is now confident that the Central Asian states attach priority to their relationship with the CIS. Turkey’s influence has diminished. One might have heard of Fukohama’s essay that the West has conquered. that conceptualized the American foreign policy and it operated till 1985-1990. In 1947 they talked of containment of communism. the US is of the view that stability is needed in order to keep out Islamic Fundamentalist forces. the west’s concern about human rights is the second priority given to their strategic interests. Now they are in search of similar concepts but the thinking seems to be focused on Europe. The inner elites in the Central Asian republics. are not at all interested in any sort of Islamic geo-politics and they have taken measures to suppress its manifestation. in future there would be wars of civilizations and in the coming confrontation it would be the West against Islam and Confucius bloc (mainly China) and in this . their record of human rights in the Central Asian states is much to be debated. The combination also serves the American strategic interests in the Middle East and is now being focused on Central Asia. Russia’s primary geo-political purpose in Central Asia is to block the penetration of Islamic fundamentalism. For him. they believe that the influence of Saudi Arabia and Turkey will curtail the influence of Iran in central Asia. Similarly. Here. So. want to conceptualize foreign policy. they have not challenged except the values of Islamic fundamentalism. they want a grand team which encapsulate the whole foreign policy. one may add a little more about the Islamic Fundamentalism. Georgia and Armenia are concerned. rather than any close association with their southern neighbours. but now they have said that Turkey has been unable to be of effective help to Azerbaijan in coping with the aggression of Armenia. The West and especially the USA. They have the community of interests and the purpose to compete. However. As such. but so far as the Central Asian Republics.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 13 fundamentalism. Then also there is the internal opposition. There is then the attempts of Azerbaijan Prime Minister to move close to Turkey.

trade and economic cooperation It also seems to have influence over Turkish speaking people for a political model that is both Muslim and secular as well as pluralistic and democratic towards free market economy. Karimov of Uzbekistan has made declaration that Uzbekistan will not allow Islamic ideology to influence and the Russian Foreign Minister has asked the United Nations assign it the peace keeping functions in the former Soviet Union. not acceptable to negotiation or peaceful settlement but would lead to extermination. Iran has also established contacts with the six republics. India is also associated with this project. religious issues. Here. Toeing the line. the vice premier of Russia gave an ultimatum to the CIS states. There are critics of this theory who say that there would be wars on the ethnic. Turkey. either through the pipeline project under the Arabian Sea from Bander Abbas to Bombay or by Surface . in the fight against fundamentalism and the war would be between the West and Islam. It includes Co-operation between the CIS Republics and their southern Islamic neighbors namely Afghanistan. the philosophy of the state may be that countries like secular Turkey and Islamic Iran to be contained. Any resurgence of Islamic groups in politics consider a danger. one may point out that the scope of cooperation between Pakistan and Central Asian Republics has significantly expanded and the emergence of these republics has opened the road of many sided options. that would also link-up with Azerbaijan oil production centres and beyond that to the Russia Federation points. Even with regard to economic cooperation. Armenia. trade and cultural ties. Iran and Pakistan. especially with the Persian speaking Tajikistan. there is some thinking on these lines. This. that they have to chose between the CIS states or the ECO and this led the Secretary General of ECO to issue a clarification that the ECO is not a common market nor is customs union. If there are ethnic conflicts any where in Azerbaijan. Thus. In the intellectual circles in the West and America. is in order to sweep out Islamic resurgence and maintain stability in the area which was under the Russian domination till recently. This is a kind of (new) philosophy. An ambitious project has been concluded with Turkmenistan to build oil and gas pipeline from there to Bander Abbas Port. such as those taking place in Bosnia.14 IPRI Factfile struggle the liberal and West oriented classes in the developing world would be the allies of the West. nor a close economic bloc. no matter how secular or liberal. the Russians would send the peace keeping forces but it should be financed and mandated by the UN. as can be seen. Among these southern neighbours. for the ECO. Georgia. Turkey has established extensive cultural and Islamic influence through investment. carefully eschewing theological intervention and concentrating on the economic. Tajikistan or elsewhere. Our intellectual and government circles have to take into account the forces which are opposed thus to any geo-political orientation towards the ECO.

Moscow. 1999. James Baker. Pakistan has to face a tough competition. If we can see what others can offer in term of economic corporation. with broad network of communication connections from Central Asia to Pakistan and China. pp. Politics and Culture (Karachi: Institute of Central & West Asian Studies. 93-98. Pakistan would enjoy the role of middle man between the SAARC. Many Russians view the ECO as a source of Islamic influence that could penetrate to the north and Volga region. Commerce Secretary also visited it. Pakistan has entered into as many as seven agreements embracing trade and economic cooperation. ECO and EEC. Hence Pakistan’s policy makers should take into account all these developments and adopt a realistic policy. International Conference on Central Asia at Karachi. An important agreement has been concluded with Germany for a railroad from Hamburg to Shanghai. Persian Gulf and the Black Sea has clearly given discomfort to Russia. Delhi and Shanghai. They are interested to invest here. . The pull extended by the Islamic states on the Southern flank of the Central Asian states and the attraction of the shortest land route to the Arabian Sea. The Russian body-guards dispatched to the Tajikistan border with Afghanistan is for the purpose to check the spread of Islamic militancy in other Central Asian Republics nearer the Russian borders. University of Karachi). The mighty multinational corporations (MNC’s) have made agreements with Kazhakistan to export oil. (Agha Shai. Likewise. History.). But we have to make a beginning if diplomacy is conducted smoothly. Tashkent. This would open the rich mineral deposits of Uzbekistan and Kazhakistan for exploration and export by Pakistan and through the Arabian sea again. through Eastern Europe. and for the time being opt for more geo-political approach. the bonds of history and religio-cultural affinities make it imperative that Pakistan should strengthen its relations with the newly independent West and Central Asian states of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijan is an oil lake and there are foreign Western companies with which Russia wants association to have control over Central Asia. One should admit that so far economic Co-operation is concerned. Central Asia. The US doubtless has been taking interest in this region. with a new railway road from the Khyber pass to the Russian land. 27-30 November 1993) Riazul Islam and other (eds. Secretary of State visited it. P AKISTAN AND T HE C ENTRAL A SIAN S TATES Geographical proximity. Lahore. Kabul. Pakistan’s offer is rather limited. the homeland of the Turkish minorities who could turn towards separatism. Kazakstan.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 15 transportation. Look what the West can provide to these countries.

In spite of the strong Islamic base in Pakistan’s nationhood. Pakistan demonstrated its keen wish to build speedily the bridges of contact. In some ways. banking and exchange of technology and technical know-how are rapidly emerging. friendship and cooperation with them when it hastened to accord them full a diplomatic recognition as independent and sovereign states on their declaration of independence in 1991 following the demise of the Soviet Union. Tajikstan.16 IPRI Factfile Kyrgistan. the Government of Pakistan appears to have avoided making religion the only basis for developing its relations with tire CA States. Sardar Assef Ahmed Ali (now Foreign Minister). Pakistan. In developing relations with the CA States. has provided a number of credit facilities to the Central Asian States to encourage mutual trade and the setting up of stable banking channels. Despite their ethnic bonds with Turkey. providing the easiest and quickest land link. Bilaterally and through the ECO. particularly of their transit trade with the countries of the Gulf. South Asia. despite its economic difficulties. Pakistan cooperated with the CA States in their admission to the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). South East Asia and the Far East. the Pakistan Government has laid stress on the economic field because it is in this realm that Pakistan has much to offer to these landlocked States. The Government of Pakistan. industrial enterprises as joint ventures. the CA States can benefit more from Pakistan’s port facilities. economics and cultural cooperation. Turkmanistan and Uzbekstan. on a swing tour of their capitals and he signed a series of accords and protocols with their Governments to facilitate the establishment of diplomatic relations. it has been giving more . this process would have been far more speedy if peace. which are partners in the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) admitted the five Central Asian States as the ECO’s full members. A direct airlink between Pakistan and Uzbekistan pioneered by their national airlines. many schemes and projects for intra-regional cooperation in trade and travel. unveiling immense possibilities of mutuallybeneficial cooperation. Pakistan’s ages-old transit trade facilities for landlocked Afghanistan are a model for their extension to the landlocked Central Asian States. order and normalcy had been rehabilitated in war-affected Afghanistan which for Pakistan is a gateway to Central Asia. The Pakistan Government lost no time in befriending these Central Asian States when it promptly deputed a Federal Minister. paving the way of accelerated cooperation among them in diverse fields. Iran and Turkey. whose speedy implementation would be to their mutual advantage. An exchange of visits by the Governmental leaders of Pakistan and the Central Pakistan States has enlarged the canvas of their mutual understanding. gave air impetus to quicker and easier travel between Pakistan and the Central Asian region. Iran and Afghanistan. trade and commerce with the countries in tire Southern Hemisphere.

Unlike the Baltic States which. set up their own common market. like the USA. as ECO partners. is allergic to what in the lingo of the West is called Islamic fundamentalism. despite its economic strains. But if they succeed in developing cooperation among themselves and with other countries and regions outside the CLS fold. have succeed in almost eliminating their economic dependence on Russia. If the Central Asian States. will oppose Islamic resurgence in any Central Asian State. A strong.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 17 importance to the imperatives of economic cooperation and cultural affinities. is a dire need of all Central Asian States and Pakistan has the expertise and the infrastructure to assist them in this direction. to begin with. Any impartial observer of the Central Asian scene cannot ignore the fact that some of the CA states have sizable Russian minorities which command influence in the power base and usually look up to Moscow for guidance. economic independence may become more tangible sooner than expected. Recent events in Tajikistan and the role of Russian troops there. Central Asian States are still heavily beholden to Moscow for its economic support. Moscow’s covert help to Armenia in its war with Azerbaijan and its armed grab of some 20 per cent of Azerbaijani territory and Moscow’s big brother attitude in its dealings with the government in Kazakstan (where the former USSR’s nuclear installations are located) show that Russia. has been helpful to these States. Before the dream of an ECO on market becomes a reality. This is a sound approach because independence has only recently dawned on them after nearly 75 years of communist rule during which religion was curbed by the State. the CA states can gain much by setting up their own Central Asian Common Market with the cooperation of the other ECO countries and their immediate neighbours. Pakistan and Iran. All the five CA states are members of the Moscow-dominated Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and they continue to have strong financial ties with Russia which. The CA States have vast untapped natural resources which are attracting multinational interest and investments for their rapid exploitation and Pakistan. Pakistan’s loans of $ 10 to 30 million to each of the CA States and its commitment to cooperate in the building of $500 million hydel power station in Tajikstan are some of the many indicators of its keen wish to assist them in their economic development. Getting Russia’s cooperation for this venture will be essential and beneficial. It is noteworthy that the development of inter-State relations and cooperation among the Central Asian States since their independence is still in the incipient stage and the institutions and instruments required for the important process may take time to evolve and stabilize. the biggest and most powerful partner in the CIS. modern banking system capable of operating internationally without dependence on or control by Moscow. with massive Western help. can expand their port facilities for .

Anxious to expand Pakistan’s trade ties with the CA States.O to handle a large part of their transit trade.18 IPRI Factfile handling the transit trade of these States with the countries of the southern Hemisphere. The PIA is finalizing plans for air services to the capitals of the other three Central Asian States. In the meanwhile. male as well as female. the Pakistan Government allows this person-to-person barter trade. and thus using the Karakorum Highway between Pakistan and China for trade via the land mute. Afghanistan provides the best access route to Pakistan for the Central Asian States and it is. (In March 1996. have shown interest in building rail and road links with Urumchi. it can be an asset for this province as well as for the CA States. and Karachi’s wayside markets are now full of merchandise brought by air by Central Asian traders. profoundly important that all the efforts should be made by its neighbours to enable it to return to complete peace and normalcy. a cheap and regular air cargo service between Pakistan and the CA states is the need of the hour. The ports of Abadan and Bander Abbas in Iran and the Karachi port in Pakistan can handle this transit trade by expanding their facilities rapidly. capital of the Chinese province of Xinjiang. Ashkabad. Media exchanges between Pakistan and the Central Asian States are at present skimpy and their canvas must be expanded rapidly. Kazakstan’s ruling leaders. Iran is building a railway line between Bander Abbas and Turkemanistan’s capital. The expansion of PIA’s air network to Tashkent in Uzbekistan and Alma Ata in Kazakstan is a major step forward in cementing ties with these two states. A lively air barter trade by individuals is in existence between Pakistan and Uzbekistan. hoping that in time to come more lucrative and stable trade channels will develop and the Central Asian people will know more about Pakistan and its people and the common ties of pre-1917 history and culture. covering all of Afghanistan as well. in the style of the famed Silk Route of the Middle Ages. a railway link between Iran and Turkmenistan was ceremoniously inaugurated at . The landlocked Central Asian states can even set up a joint shipping company with Iran and Pakistan under the aegis of the EC. who are energetically improving their relatiom with Beijing. The Tajik capital of Dushanbe is about 3000 kilometers from Bander Abbas in Iran and about 2200 kilometers from Karachi while the Black Sea port of Odessa for access to the Mediterranean is about 4200 kilometers away. therefore. On the face of it. Pakistan should sign treaties of friendship with the CA States similar to the one India signed with Uzbekistan in May 1993. An expansion of Pakistan Television’s transmission facilities in Peshawar can enable it to beam its TV programmes to the entire Central Asian region. Radio Pakistan is working on projects to strengthen its service for the Central Asian region so that the people there can be informed and educated about Pakistan in their own native languages. If Pakistan speeds up the development of the Gawadar port on the Baluchistan coast into a large-size modern port.

Kazakstan and other CA states. garments and pharmaceuticals. in the past 48 years of its independence With Governmental encouragements. petrochemicals. The winds of change are now undoubtedly blowing there hut their pace is slower than the mind-boggling changes in Russia and its ventures in a free market economy of the Western type There is immense scope for cooperation between the Universities of Pakistan and those in the CA States. production and distribution. a proper understanding of their rules and regulations fur for foreign investment and industrial operation is essential before undertaking a joint venture. Pakistan. especially for footwear. which has a low literacy rate of 30 per cent. These vital land links will give a boost to intra-regional trade among these states. Iran’s ports are now being used for Turkmenistan’s trade with countries in the Indian Ocean region. But because of the highly centralized and Moscow-controlled economic system under which the CA States had worked for 75 years under Soviet rule. should he linked via Iran with Turkmenistan. Many Western investors find it easier to launch a joint industrial venture in Russia than in Kyrgistan or Turkmenistan. textiles. can learn a great deal from the CA States which have made nearly 95 per cent of their population literate. cold storage. Trade teams sent by the Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry of Pakistan to the Central Asian States in the past 18 months have done considerable scouting for collaborative opportunities in many economic fields and worked out specific proposals for joins ventures.) In developing its relations with the newly independent Central Asian States. Pakistan has neither sought to obstruct nor envied what other countries are doing to cultivate the friendship and cooperation of CA region. especially its industrialization. Pakistan and China are now working on the expansion of the Sino-Pakistan and Karakorum Highway in such a way that it will be extended to Tajikistan. On the contrary. Kyrgistan and Kazakstan. building materials. The recently established Pakistani diplomatic missions in capitals of the CA countries have shown care. The Pakistan railway network. Pakistani entrepreneurs can set up industrial units in Uzbekistan. It is.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 19 a meeting of the heads of the member States of the ECO in Turkmenistan capital of Askhabad. which runs Zahidan in Iran. Kudos should go to those far-sighted . restraint and propriety in their conduct and waged no hostile propaganda against any other country. agro-processing. important that the Pakistan should invite senior editors of newspapers of the Central Asian States to Pakistan and provide them with ample opportunities to know facts for themselves and to study Pakistan’s economic development. The Socialist regimes there still hug the Soviet-style red-tape of controls in planning. Indian diplomats in the CA region ate said to miss no opportunity to malign Pakistan and distort the facts of Kashmir dispute in their private talks with local journalists. therefore.

27-30 November 1993) Riazul Islam and others (eds. All these foreign conquerors were of Turkish descent belonging to Central Asia. 1999. the Arghuns and the Turkhans in Sind and their relations with the rulers of Hirat and Qandhar accelerated the pace of Central Asian impact on the literary scenario. International Conference on Central Asia at Karachi. Afghanistan and the six West and Central Asian States. Establishment of Turkish Dynasties. Iran. one after the other. 169-74. pp. Politics and Culture (Karachi: Institute of Central and West Asian Studies.). may form a Common Market. University of Karachi). 27-30 November 1993) Riazul Islam and others (eds.Guran Naz and Dostin wa Sharin. Pakistan. Timurid dynasty. After the advent of Islam Indus Valley attracted attention of many invaders through Khyber Pass. continued during the Sultan-ate period till Baber the Great in 1527. I MPACT OF C ENTRAL A SIA ON P AKISTAN ’ S F OLK L ITERATURE (A BSTRACT ) Relations between Central Asia and Indus Valley were established since times immemorable. Central Asia: History. perhaps sooner than expected. patient and wise handling on the part of the States concerned. In this context it is interesting to see that the folk literature in Pakistan has numerous references to the legend and folk tales of Central Asian origin. Aryans came to the region in 1500 B. when Turkey. The stabilization and steady expansion of these relations may take time and would require deft.). building bridges of friendship and understanding between Central Asia and Indus valley. (Qutubuddin Aziz. having a population of nearly 300 million and an area larger than that of the SAARC region. A time may come. Punjab. It started from Mahmood of Ghazna.C. it would have a salubrious effect on their relations with Pakistan for their mutual benefit. reciprocally if the Universities in the CA States set up Chairs for Pakistan Studies. also contain such references. Femz-Sharan cycle of tales Biburg . Frontier and Sind.20 IPRI Factfile Pakistani Universities which have instituted Chairs for Central Asian Studies. cities and territories of Central Asia have been frequently referred in folk tales of Baluchistan. 1999. pp. Politics and Culture (Karachi: Institute of Central and West Asian Studies. In the Baluchi legends of Rind and Lashari tribes. During the long Centuries of Turkish domination they introduced Central Asian traditions and literary trends. all have references to places and personalities belonging to Central Asia. (Dr Affan Suljuq. 3560. . International Conference on Central Asia at Karachi. The Punjabi folk epics War like Dhol Badshah and Shah Dawood etc. Central Asia: History. University of Karachi).

It was because of the better system that Islam spread in India and large territories in the Northwest and Northeast became Muslim majority areas. Mughal. Greek. generalship and offering a better system than the caste system prevalent in India. mobility. This was possible with the help of the native Army and the British simply could not ignore the Muslims in the Armed Forces. It is due to the Aryan. The presence of substantial number of Muslims in the Indian Army. Turkish Rule in the Subcontinent: Turkish conquerors like Mahmud of Ghazna and Muhammad of Ghor established permanent Muslim rule in India. The Cold War Period and Afterwards We have witnessed qualitative changes in the region: the entry and withdrawal of the USSR from Afghanistan. the main profession of Muslims during their rule was soldiering. Punjabi Muslims and Pathans.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 21 M ILITARY I MPACT OF C ENTRAL A SIA ON N ORTHWEST S UBCONTINENT AND T HE E MERGENCE OF P AKISTAN (A BSTRACT ) Introduction Northwest Subcontinent is a cross-rood of civilizations. About 70. the proximity with Afghanistan and Central Asia were factors which helped in the creation of Pakistan. Iranian and Arab influences. the break-up of the Soviet Union and independence of Muslim States in Central Asia. Turkish. the formation of ECO. The British Supremacy Almost simultaneous to the Soviet occupation of Central Asia there was the British supremacy in India. India and Pakistan becoming nuclear states and the armed struggle in the state of Jammu and Kashmir for independence. Their conquests were possible due to superior cavalry. which in 1942 consisted of about 400 million people. mostly from Central Asia. In the Northwest the social complexion of the population mostly consisted of people with military background who fought against or alongside each successive invader. were included in the “martial races”. . the emergence of China as a great power.000 British were ruling a subcontinent. In fact. among others. The Muslim element in the British Indian Army was most of the time almost equal in number to Hindus. the semi-independent but armed Muslim tribes in the Northwest.

there will be greater exchanges and movements in bringing Central Asian States and Pakistan closer economically. 1999. (Brig. President Nazarbayev said that the Possibility of the establishment of a cement plant by Pakistan in Kazakhstan was also discussed during the talks. University of Karachi). The improvement of communication will give a fillip to these activities. R EPORT ON A B RIEF V ISIT OF T HE P RESIDENT K AZAKHSTAN TO P AKISTAN OF Islamabad: 23 July 1993. historical and cultural affinity. pp.). 346-47. 27-30 November 1993) Riazul Islam and others (eds. He said the two sides focussed their attention on matters relating to carrying out joint projects in various areas of economic activity for enhancing fruitful cooperation between Pakistan and Kazakhstan. President Nazarbayev who made a brief stopover of three hours in Islamabad on July 23. . He said “we will do everything possible to further strengthen bilateral relations with Pakistan” adding that Kazakhstan will also take a number of concrete steps to attract Pakistani businessmen for investment there. This will help them in becoming strong militarily. Responding to a question. International Conference on Central Asia at Karachi. Noor ul Haq. Central Asia: History.22 IPRI Factfile Conclusion Now due to geographical. Dr. Politics and Culture (Karachi: Institute of Central and West Asian Studies. said the two countries have developed close and fruitful relations adding that during his today’s talks with Acting President Wasim Sajjad and caretaker Prime Minister Moeen Qureshi a number of areas for cooperation came under discussion. he said that the issue of establishing transportation links between the two countries would come under further discussion during the forthcoming meeting of the transport ministers of Pakistan and Kazakhstan. President Nur Sultan termed the talks as a continuity of ongoing consultations between the two countries and said that the talks between him and Pakistani leaders were held within the framework of strengthening bilateral relations. socially and culturally. He said the two sides discussed the possibility of supply of commodity credit to Kazakhstan while the issue of strengthening transportation links between Pakistan and Kazakhstan through Karakoram Highway also came under discussion during the talks.

the two countries (Pakistan and Kazakhstan) have been adopting concrete measures to reestablish their old and historic links. Excellencies. Tashkent is a symbol and a long reminder of the rich and dynamic cultural heritage of Central Asia. Acting President Wasim Sajjad said “ever since Kazakhstan achieved independence. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. pp. Wasim Sajjad said that Pakistan agreed to provide supplier’s credit for Kazakhstan. He said that the two countries are cooperating with each other in several areas. the Acting President and other senior officials bade farewell to President Nur Sultan Nazarhayev on his departure for Kazakhstan. Mr. He said “on our part. Chairman. The Acting President said that the experts of the two countries would be meeting soon to consider further areas of meaningful cooperation. Allow me to begin expressing my profound appreciation to President Islam Karimov for organising this Seminar. It is most befitting that the important concept of Central Asian cooperation is being elaborated in this . 1993. the issue of setting up of a cement plant in Kazakhstan with the help and assistance of Pakistan also came under discussion during the talks. Central Asia needs peace. security and development.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 23 Speaking on the occasion. He said the two sides discussed possibility of establishing road links between Kazakhstan and Pakistan. we are keen to further develop friendly relations with Kazakhstan” adding that President Nazarbayev’s visit had been highly successful and helped strengthen bilateral ties. he added. Mr. We are convinced that this landmark event will make an important contribution to the advancement of these objectives. particularly in economic field adding that “we utilized President Nazarbayev’s brief visit to Pakistan and discussed with him concrete proposals for enhancing economic cooperation”. Later. I am no stranger to this historic city. Ladies and Gentlemen. The principles embodied in this initiative enjoy our complete support. I would also like to avail this opportunity to express my delegation’s sincere thanks for the warm and generous hospitality extended to us. 79-82 F OREIGN M INISTER ’ S A DDRESS TO T HE T ASHKENT S EMINAR ON T HE P ROBLEM OF S ECURITY AND C OOPERATION IN C ENTRAL A SIA Tashkent: 16 September 1995.

The United Nations should be encouraged and enabled to intervene in a preventive capacity. They must remain the basis of our actions to diffuse tensions. Equally important is the prerequisite of strict adherence to the provisions of the Charter in decision making. It is imperative that the international community reaffirms its total commitment to the principles of the UN Charter. resolve conflicts and promote the goals of peace and security at the global and regional levels. Despite its many failings the UN remains the only credible global mechanism for ridding mankind of the scourge of war. This must be avoided. subjected to brutal and savage attack resulting in deaths and severe injuries. States must conduct themselves within the norms of behaviour. The provisions of the Vienna Conventions on Diplomatic and . Selective use of sanctions and penalties detracts from the credibility of the United Nations. Outstanding disputes remain unresolved. The United Nations continues to be hamstrung. consistently and without discrimination. Yet we live in a dangerous world. The existing mechanisms have failed to effectively resolve the ongoing conflicts. President Karimov’s initiative is. The concept of preventive diplomacy currently being elaborated at the United Nations deserves our full support. These be applied uniformally.24 IPRI Factfile capital city. The principles of peacekeeping should be enlarged to include conflict prevention. We should adhere to its decisions and implement its resolutions. are passing through an uncertain and unstable transition. Existing tensions have been aggravated. We note with satisfaction that the quest for peace in Central Asia is being pursued within the principles and purposes of the Charter. In this context the idea of preventive deployment is a valuable one and needs to be seriously pursued. It will strengthen the forces of peace and cooperation in this region. New mechanisms need to be developed to prevent conflicts. The old world order has disappeared. therefore. The treat of unclear catastrophe has indeed receded. Our efforts should be to strengthen this Organization. Vast arsenals of destructive weapons are being dismantled. A new one is not yet in place. Defiance of the will of the United Nations has caused great suffering and instability. In some cases diplomats have been. Of late there has been an alarming increase in instances evolving manhandling of diplomatic personnel. This is reprehensible. relevant and timely. Regional conflicts have proliferated. International instruments to prohibit weapons of mass destruction are being formulated. This will enhance the role of the world body in promoting international peace and security particularly in this region. We must uphold these principles in all circumstances. Chairman.

non-interference and mutual benefit. innumerable regional conflicts and the use of nuclear weapons. The commonality of our interests make us natural partners in quest of promoting and consolidating peace. These are the objectives that we hope to promote at this seminar. We must close the chapter of conflict.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 25 Consular Relations must be fully respected. Would it be yet her episode of wars. We hosted the Third Round of inter-Tajik peace talks in Islamabad and participated in other rounds as observer. Pakistan has no favourites in the internecine warfare that has engulfed that country. security and progress. We must strengthen the forces of freedom. Many conflicts need our urgent attention. It was also a period of unprecedented triumph of freedom from subjugation and oppression. Or would it bring peace. Yet freedom had to be defined within the parameter of the operational realities. Chairman. The people of Afghanistan yearn for peace. Liberation came through a natural process of historic evolution. It is in this spirit that we have come to Tashkent.conflict among nations and for freedom. Central Asian freedom was won without blood-shed. We hope that the two Tajik sides will sincerely address their . insurgencies and tensions which marked predecessor. Our relations are underpinned by respect for the principles of sovereign equality. We look to the day when Afghan leaders will rise above their partisan political interests to work together for unity and peace and bring hope to a generation that has known no hope. The twentieth century was a century of conflict. conflicts. We in Pakistan have great affection for the Afghans who are our brothers and neighbours. old and new conflicts fester. cooperation and prosperity in the region. Geographical proximity. The emergence of the Central Asian Republics marked the’ resurrection of a vibrant civilization which had given so much to the world. A new century beckons us. We support the efforts of the regional countries as well as the United Nations to promote peace in Tajikistan. Our actions today would define future. We have counselled restraint and have urged all sides to reach a peaceful solution to the crisis. Pakistan also wished peace and prosperity for the people of Tajikistan. non-intervention. Pakistan has a strong sense of kinship with the peoples of Central Asia. It is for us to determine its character. Yet the channels of our cooperation with the young Republics were defined with utmost precision. It witnessed two great wars. We do not have to go far in our immediate neighbourhood. We support the OlC and United Nation’s efforts in this regard. Chairman. common values and a well organized commercial interaction had created historic affinities between our peoples.

Chairman. and the continued instability in . We look forward to further consolidating our fraternal and manifold ties with Central Asia. of peace. “no other country has suffered as much as Pakistan. Mr. The winds of freedom. We hope that this statement will serve as a beacon in directing our individual and collective efforts to promote peace and security in this region and beyond. I thank you Mr. Let us today. 1995 R EPORT ON T HE T ALKS BETWEEN P RIME M INISTER B ENAZIR B HUTTO AND P RESIDENT I SLAM K ARIMOV D URING H ER V ISIT T O U ZBEKISTAN Tashkent: 11 November 1995. Kashmir and Tajikistan “with main focus on Afghanistan” were discussed elaborately by both the leaders. The Uzbek President emphasized that because of unrest in Afghanistan. Suppression of the Kashmiri people must also stop.the vision of a common destiny-a glorious and prosperous future for our nations and peoples. It was agreed during talks between Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and Uzbek President Islam Karimov in Tashkent on November 11. Issue 9-10 pp 48-52. Mr. of economic and social development. Sept-Oct. I would like to express our appreciation to the Expert Group for their commendable work in preparing the Draft Joint Statement on Security and cooperation in Central Asia. peace and security is seriously endangered by the festering Jammu and Kashmir dispute. which swept Central Asia five years ago undoubtedly gave new momentum to the popular Kashmir movement for the realization of their basic human rights including their in-alienable rights of self-determination.26 IPRI Factfile differences and resolve their problems amicably. as we stand at the threshed of a new millennium resolve to work together for realizing this vision and sharing a new era of hope.” Afghanistan. Vol XXII. Chairman. Pakistan remains committed to the peaceful settlement of the Jammu and Kashmir dispute in accordance with UN resolutions and in the spirit of the Simla Agreement. In South Asia. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Chairman. Our peoples are inspired by a common vision nourished by history and the imperatives of geography. that Pakistan and Uzbekistan would cooperate with the United Nations and OlC in their efforts to assist the Afghans arrive at an agreement among themselves “for peace and durable solution of Afghan conflict.

” Both the sides agreed that they would cooperate with the UN Secretary-General’s personal representative. the UN and OlC for a lasting settlement of the problem. “would be the most suitable solution of the crisis. On bilateral scene. XXII. for this purpose. President Islam Karimov agreed that a broad-based government representing all ethnic and other groups in Afghanistan. On Kashmir. both the sides expressed their concern for the continued fighting and expressed the hope that positive results would be forthcoming at the fifth round of intra-Tajik talks. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto briefed President Karimov about the situation there and recalled that “Kashmiris have rejected the Indian Government’s proposal for elections which are no substitute for demand of the Kashmiri people for a plebiscite”. Issue 11-12. President Islam Karimov stated that Uzbekistan sympathies with the Kashmiri people and reiterated his country’s well-known stand of finding a solution of the Kashmir problem.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 27 Afghanistan has also affected Pakistan more than any other country. situation in the region with particular reference to Afghanistan. The talks lasted about two and a half hours and covered bilateral relations. beginning in Ashakabad from Nov. in accordance with UN Security Council resolutions. 20. Vol. Mehmoud Mestiri. On Tajikistan. both sides agreed that development of these relations was extremely beneficial for both sides and one of the principal impediment to further development of these relations was the absence of quick communication links. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. 25-26 Nov-Dec 1995 .” Both the sides agreed that “Afghans must arrive at a solution without external interference and noted that there might be certain powers who might be interested in prolonging the period of instability in Afghanistan. economic and strategic interest in the restoration of peace and stability in Afghanistan. pp.” Uzbekistan was deeply interested in the restoration of peace and stability in Afghanistan and would offer its full cooperation to Pakistan. That is why. The two leaders continued their discussion and exchanged views during lunch hosted by President Islam Karimov. both the countries have deep commercial.

Welcoming the delegation. He also apprised the Chairman Senate about the mode of election and composition of the Mejlis.28 IPRI Factfile R EPORT ON A OF V ISIT OF T HE C HAIRMAN OF T HE M EJLIS T URKMENISTAN TO P AKISTAN Islamabad: 20 February 1996. Muradov Sahat Nepesovich appreciated Pakistan for co-sponsoring a resolution at the UN General Assembly declaring Turkmenistan to be a neutral state. Muradov Sahat Nepesovich visited Pakistan at the invitation of the Senate Chairman as leader of a 7member parliamentary delegation from 18-20 February. Wasim Sajjad stressed the need for closer cooperation between Pakistan and Turkmenistan. He noted that the continuing conflict in Afghanistan has caused tremendous death and destruction and called upon Turkmenistan and other well-wishers of Afghanistan to persevere in their efforts for peace and stability in Afghanistan. The Turkmenistan delegation. He added that Pakistan’s desire to develop special relationship with Turkmenistan was manifested in Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto’s undertaking her first visit to Central Asia from Turkmenistan. 1996. Chairman of Mejlis of the Turkmenistan. Mr. He said that President Saparmurat Niyazov has carried very good memories of his visit to Pakistan and we ourselves feel as if we are amongst our own brothers and sisters. The Chairman of the MejIis of Turkmenistan Mr. Pyshtyeva Jazgul Shamyradovna and . he said. while President Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari’s visit was yet another step in that direction. Mr. Senate Chairman expressed the hope that the visit by the delegation of Mejlis would prove to be a mile-stone in further developing the friendly relations between both the countries on the basis of internationally recognized principles of sovereign equality. Ms. Malikgulyev Garly. He said that he was very happy to note that after independence of Turkmenistan both the fraternal countries were trying to revive their relationship and intensify bilateral contacts in every possible field. Mr. Wasim Sajjad said that Pakistan would be happy to assist Turkmenistan in its transition from a command and control economy to a market economy. also included MPs Mr. Call on Chairman Senate: The delegation called on Senate Chairman Wasim Sajjad in his office on 18 February. Senate Chairman also briefed the delegation about the working of the Parliament of Pakistan. which met Chairman Senate. non-interference and mutual benefit.

” The Speaker specifically mentioned about the MoU signed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and President Niyazov for the establishment of natural gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to Pakistan. Berdiniyazov Fapar were also present in the meeting. “Ironically enough”. but specifically mentioned the long outstanding Kashmir dispute which was a source of tension and conflict between India and Pakistan. He also invited the Speaker to visit Turkmenistan. “Pakistan is ready to enter into negotiation with. “which shows closer economic links between the two countries. the Speaker emphasized. recognizing the need to holding a free and fair plebiscite to determine the future of Kashmiri people. Call on Speaker National Assembly Later. Senator Khalilur-Rehman.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 29 Mr. The Chairman of the Mejlis thanked the Speaker and Pakistani nation for the warm hospitality extended to him and his delegation and agreed with the Speaker to have more closer economic ties between the two countries. Senator Sardar Yaqoob Khan Nasir. The Speaker expressed Pakistan’s desire to have good relations with all the neighbour countries including India. the Speaker remarked. While talking to the delegation National Assembly Speaker remarked about the two visits of the President of Turkmenistan to Pakistan and the visits of the Prime Minister and the President of Pakistan to Turkmenistan which clearly “show the desire of both the countries to evolve special relationship between them. Babayev Gurbangeldi. Later. the 7-members parliamentary delegation of Turkmenistan also called on Speaker of National Assembly Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani.” The Speaker also underlined the need of more closer parliament to parliament contacts between the two countries. Secretary Senate Abdul Qayyum Khan and ambassador of Turkmenistan in Pakistan Mr. The Speaker also hosted a . “It was India which moved the resolution of 1948. Chairman of the Turkmerristan Mejlis planted a tree in the compound of the Parliament House as a memento of his visit and also as testimony to the friendship between both the countries. Ashyrov Saprmamed and Head of the Managing Department of Cabinet Mr.” He also remarked about the establishment of Railway link between Chaman and Kushka via Herat which the Ministry of Railways and Board of Investment are actively pursuing under the memorandum of understandings signed with the Spanish institute of foreign trade. India to resolve this dispute through peaceful means within the framework of UN Resolutions and in the spirit of Simla Accord.

under the directives of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. the agreement deals with a standard procedure relating to scrutiny of documents at the port of entry. work on the up-gradation project of the Karakorum Highway is being completed at full speed. by the four countries. Kyrghystan 30 days. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyz Republic signed a Protocol agreeing on set of rules and regulations and making a major breakthrough for transit trade between the four countries. The agreement also specifies procedure for verification of goods transit with transfer across border and principals of implementing the passport and visa regime. Jan-Feb. who presided the concluding session said the agreement is expected to result in a gradual switch-over of transit trade to this route due to less and inexpensive distance. On July 6. drivers and importers if accompanying the Goods-in-Transit. Basically. loading of cargo and movement in transit. China 180 days and Pakistan 30 days. examination of goods. The Chairman said. Of the four contracting parties. China and Kyrgystan agreed to recommend to the competent authorities of their respective governments to extend the same facility. Shahid Aziz Siddiqui. transporters. The quadrilateral agreement signed between the customs and immigration officials will allow a common set of documents to be accepted by the customs officials at the entry and exit border posts of four countries. The Chairman National Highway Authority. Under the agreement. 185-187. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Pakistan. 1996 R EPORT ON S IGNING OF P AK -C HINA -K AZAKH -K YRGYZ P ROTOCOL ON U NIFIED C USTOMS P ROCEDURES Islamabad: 6 July 1996. China. assessment of goods.route is in excellent condition and those needed improvement will be done in the next one to two yeas. pp. Pakistan and Kazakhstan agreed that one-year multiple entry visas be endorsed on valid passports of the personnel concerned with Goods-in Transit. The concerned personnel include freight forwarders. visas would be issued for undertaking maximum of six visits and would be valid for the duration of the international road transit permit.30 IPRI Factfile lunch in the honour of Turkmenistan visiting delegation. . The parties also agreed that the following transit time will be allowed for movement of goods from point of entry to exit: Kazakhstan seven days. Pakistan. He said most of the sections of the road on the 3 570 km.

However. Chairman NHA. 2. reflective of the excellent relations existing [between] the two fraternal countries. or in the case of goods. The Examining Officer may carry out visualinspection to verify the declared description/quantity. friendship and understanding. such vehicles shall be covered with Tarpaulin and secured with ropes and properly sealed. M R . prohibited under respective national legislation or restricted by the signing parties.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 31 According to the agreement the Goods-in-Transit shall be processed under visual examination system. The Deputy Prime Minister of Turkmenistan called on the President and Prime Minister of Pakistan and held official talks with the Foreign Minister. Government of Pakistan. territorial integrity. national independence. regional and international interest. The goods in transit shall preferably be transported in covered/containerized-vehicles. In case of the commodities which cannot be containerized or due to non-availability of containerized vehicles. July 1996 J OINT P RESS S TATEMENT I SSUED AT T HE C ONCLUSION OF V ISIT TO P AKISTAN BY H. However. held in an atmosphere of warmth. the case shall be processed further as per the existing relevant national laws. The talks. Mr. due to this agreement there will be a significant improvement in trade. 3. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Boris Shikhmuradov. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Shahid Aziz Siddiqui further said that at present. he hoped. D EPUTY P RIME M INISTER AND F OREIGN M INISTER OF T URKMENISTAN Islamabad: 8 August 1996. During his stay in Pakistan. at the invitation of Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali. In case of any discrepancy in description or quantity. Views were exchanged on matters of bilateral. Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Turkmenistan paid an official visit to Pakistan from 6-8 August. Islamabad pp. The Foreign Minister of Pakistan briefed Shikhmuradov about the salient features of Pakistan’s foreign policy based on firm adherence to the principles of sovereignty. were marked by a commonality of views. But now. Foreign Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. 185-186. B ORIS S HIKHMURADOV . Policy Planning Division. he shall examine the goods. noninterference in the internal affairs of other States and respect for the right of all states to . open vehicles shall be permitted.E. in case of doubt or where the seals have been found broken/tempered with. the Turkmen Deputy Prime Minister was accorded warm and cordial welcome. 1996. by land routes there is hardly any trade.

The Turkmen Deputy Prime Minister also expressed Turkmenistan’s readiness to assist in the just resolution of the Jammu and Kashmir dispute. Based upon the principle of permanent neutrality of Turkmenistan. 4. They agreed that continuing instability in Tajikistan undermined peace and tranquility in the region. The two sides reviewed the latest situation in Afghanistan and expressed their deep concern at the continuing fratricidal conflict and its consequences for peace and security of the neighbouring countries. They stressed that the restoration of peace and stability in Afghanistan was essential for the reconstruction and rehabilitation of that country. Both sides expressed their opposition to any nuclear and ballistic missile race in the region and expressed their strong support for nuclear nonproliferation and for an early conclusion of a universal and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. electricity transmission. The two sides also expressed their concern about the situation in tan. 7. they urged leaders of various Afghan parties to sit together for working out a just and equitable political settlement in accordance with the aspirations of the Afghan people. He emphasised that such a solution would reduce tensions in South Asia and enable that South Asian States to devote their energies and resources to ameliorating the well-being of their peoples. The Foreign Minister briefed the Turkmen Deputy Prime Minister of Pakistan’s persistent efforts for a peaceful negotiated settlement of the Jammu and Kashmir dispute in accordance with UN resolutions. The two sides discussed the situation in Kashmir.32 IPRI Factfile choose freely their own political and economic systems. 5. Both sides recalled that these projects were being undertaken under the umbrella of the Tripartite . railway. the Deputy Prime Minister appreciated Pakistan’s efforts for a just political settlement in Kashmir. 6. The Turkmen Deputy Prime Minister briefed the Foreign Minister outcome of the third phase of the 5th round of Inter-Tajik Peace Talks under the UN auspices in Ashgabat. oil and gas pipeline which would provide a north-south solution for the Central Asian region and beyond to market its energy resources and other goods and products and also constitute the shortest route to the sea for this region for imports as well. Both sides reaffirmed that they would continue to give priority to communication projects linking the two countries of the region by road. While reaffirming the policy of strict non-interference in the internal affairs of Afghanistan. 8. The Turkmen Deputy Prime Minister assured the Foreign Minister of Pakistan of his country’s support for achieving peace and conciliation in Afghanistan and Turkmenistan’s willingness to cooperate with Pakistan towards this end. They reiterated that political differences could not be resolved through the use of force and urged that steps be taken to allow the UN peace process and other efforts to achieve peace in Tajikistan.

Vol. 1996. Issue 8. rejection of any kind of pressure. 9. with a view to development of dynamic inter-state relations which will meet the common-interests of the people of the Republic of Kazakstan and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan: • The Republic of Kazakstan and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan shall strive to develop relations in conformity with the UN Charter and shall contribute in every way to strengthening peace and stability in the Asian continent and in the world at large: The Parties also confirm their intention to cooperate closely within the framework of the UN and other international and regional organizations of which they are members: The Parties will support United Nations in its efforts to maintain peace and security on the basis of its Charter and UN Security Council Resolutions. pp 281-283. Farooq Ahmed Khan Leghari desirous of further expanding and deepening the friendly relations between the two countries. based on principles of equality of states and respect for each others sovereignty. • • . August 1996 T EXT OF P AK -K AZAK J OINT S TATEMENT I SSUED ON THE C ONCLUSION OF P RESIDENT F AROOQ A HMED K HAN L EGHARI ’ S V ISIT OF T HE R EPUBLIC OF K AZAKHSTAN Almaty: 28 October 1996. XXIII. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. 10. The President of the Republic of Kazakstan Nursultan Nazarbaev and the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Mr.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 33 Accord to further develop such projects signed between Turkmenistan. Afghanistan. Afghanistan and Pakistan in Islamabad in August 1993 and a Quadripartite Accord signed between Turkmenistan. Uzbekistan and Pakistan in Ashgabat in May. hne agreed as follows: The Parties. The Turkmen Deputy Prime Minister expressed gratitude for the gracious welcome and the generous hospitality extended by the Government and the people of Pakistan during his visit to Pakistan. determined to develop mutually beneficial and friendly relations through mutual confidence and understanding. Taking notes of the momentous transformation the world over and the importance of regional cooperation the two sides called for providing greater impetus to collaboration among the member states of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Both sides renewed their commitment to promote the ECO as an effective instrument for regional economic cooperation.

trade. exchanges of high technologies. Kazakstan and Pakistan will support the business circles of the two countries in their efforts to expand cooperation in such fields as agriculture. illegal traffic of narcotics and for that purpose the Parties shall cooperate within the framework of international and regional organizations. 28 October 1996. culture. scientific research and the promotion of joint ventures. In this context they expressed support for the initiatives taken by the two sides in these fields. that the development of ties and contacts between the Republic of Kazakstan and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan will further promote the strengthening of peace and cooperation on regional and global scale. culture. particularly in the field of economy and transportation. science and technical cooperation. Almaty. The Parties re-affirmed their resolve to promote strengthening of peace and stability in the region actively. and encourage the exchanges of intellectual and cultural delegations as well as expansion of contacts in the fields of education. They shall also conduct consultations between respective agencies of Kazakstan and Pakistan to elaborate concrete proposal for cooperation on bilateral as well as multilateral basis. and shall also render necessary support to the development of contacts between government. organized crime. The Parties agreed that establishment of peace and stability was a prerequisite for the socio-economic development and progress of the region. manufacturing industry. as well as on bilateral basis. The Parties shall coordinate their efforts in the struggle against international terrorism. disarmament and non-proliferation in Asia. economy. oil and gas production. The Parties proceed from the shared understanding. The Parties shall promote and strengthen interaction in the fields of politics. youth and sport organizations. . public. The Parties shall encourage the activity of the Joint Commission on economic. tourism and sport. The Parties particularly underlined the importance of adequately preparing for the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia. The Parties shall undertake the dissemination of information about Kazakstan and Pakistan respectively through the mass media.34 IPRI Factfile • • • • • • • • The Parties will cooperate closely to promote peace.

It was agreed to intensify efforts to overcome the administrative and technical problems for expeditious implementation of the Quadripartite Agreement on road transport so that the route would be effectively utilized. R EPORT ON V ISIT OF T HE F OREIGN M INISTER . During the talks both sides reviewed the progress of bilateral relations with particular emphasis on the road link through the Karakorum Highway and the proposed oil and gas pipelines. 1997 The Foreign Minister. Both sides also noted that peace in Afghanistan was a prerequisite for development of the proposed infrastructure projects. The proposed conference. Iran. Kazhegeldin. The Foreign Minister also briefed the CARs officials on the rationale behind Pakistan’s decision to recognize the Taliban government in Afghanistan. Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Sd. November 1996. Mr.! x x x x (Nursultan Nazarbaev) Foreign Affairs Pakistan. the dates for which are yet to be fixed. Kazakstan and Uzbekistan as part of Pakistan’s consultations with neighboring countries to host an intra Afghan meeting. The United States and Russia will attend the proposed moot as observers. Turkmenistan. Mr. .Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Gohar Ayub Khan. During his visit he held talks with the Foreign Minister of Kazakstan Mr. under the UN auspices in order to achieve national reconciliation and restore peace and security to Afghanistan. He discussed the latest Afghan situation with the officials of these Central Asian Republics.!xxxx (Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari) President of the 35 Republic of Kazakstan. will be attended by five immediate neighbors of Afghanistan Pakistan. M R . G OHAR A YUB K HAN TO C ENTRAL A SIAN R EPUBLICS FROM 19-20 J UNE . 252-254. pp. visited Almaty from 18-19 June 1997. The Foreign Minister briefed the Kazak authorities on the efforts Pakistan was making in this regard both internationally and within Afghanistan. Both sides agreed on the necessity of an intra-Afghan dialogue. Sd. Turkmenistan has already okayed the Pakistani proposal. Gohar Ayub Khan paid a three-day (19 -21 June) visit to three Central Asian Republics Tajkistan. Visit to Kazakstan The Foreign Minister of Pakistan.

Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub expressed satisfaction over the growing bilateral ties between Pakistan and Uzbekistan. The two Foreign Ministers reviewed the situation in Afghanistan with particular reference to Pakistan’s proposal to convene a Conference under UN auspices on Afghanistan. commercial and cultural fields. Pakistan welcomes the process of political reconciliation between the Tajik government and opposition and fully supports the latest agreements about National Reconciliation Commission. He said durable peace in Afghanistan was the need of the hour so that the vital road and rail links and the oil and gas pipeline projects are launched. The meetings covered bilateral relations and the evolving situation in he region Both sides agreed that further steps should be taken to strengthen already cordial relations between the two countries. ln this regard. These relations were rooted in the past and are a reminder of our strong cultural affinity and a shared history. The Foreign Minister stated that his visit to Uzbekistan was reaffirmation of Pakistan’s desire to further promote these ties. Expressing concern over the . The Foreign Minister held talks with Uzbek Foreign Minister Abdulaziz Kamilov. It was agreed that there should be regular consultations between Pakistan and Tajikistan on the situation in Afghanistan. These relations had been reinforced through exchange of high level visits. He had detailed meetings with President Emomali Rahmonov and oreign Minister Mr. he said. Tajikistan’s decision to participate in the proposed Conference of the Afghan parties and neighboring countries being organized under UN auspices is an important step in this direction. 1997. therefore. Foreign Minister Kamilov said that Uzbekistan and Pakistan shared a common outlook on promoting their bilateral ties. agreed to be a guarantor state as per General Agreement on Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan.36 IPRI Factfile Visit to Tajikistan The Foreign Minister of Pakistan visited Tajikistan from 19-20 June. Talbak Nazarov. regional and international issues. Pakistan has. The talks focused on bilateral. 997. particularly in economic. Both sides agreed that solution of Afghan problem through an intraAfghan dialogue should be pursued and the proposed conference of the Afghan parties and neighboring countries under UN auspices in Pakistan would provide an opportunity to bring about lasting peace in Afghanistan. Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub Khan reiterated Pakistan’s commitment to unity and territorial integrity of Afghanistan and urged the need for an intra-Afghan dialogue among all the Afghan parties in order to achieve national reconciliation. Visit to Uzbekistan Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub Khan arrived in Tashkent on June 20.

Foreign Minister Kamilov called for accelerating international efforts to bring about peace in Afghanistan. Iran. pp. “We don’t want to fail in our endeavor under the UN auspices” said the foreign minister. he added. To a question. the date had not been fixed so far. Issue 7. the Foreign Minister said. He expressed support for a Conference on Afghanistan under the UN auspices. Uzbekistan and Tajikistan were desirous to use the proposed oil pipeline from Turkmenistan to Pakistan for their exports. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Press Conference On arrival in Islamabad on completion of his visit to three Central Asian Republics. Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have supported Pakistan’s initiative to convene an international conference on Afghanistan under the UN auspices for promoting intra-Afghan dialogue for the establishment of a broad based government there. he added. VI. 119-123. during his recent visit to Pakistan had expressed his country’s interest in the said pipeline. He said. with the participation of all the Afghan groups and the neighboring countries of Afghanistan. The details about the conference were being worked out. “The purpose of my visit to the three countries has been achieved”. The US and the Russian Federation will participate in the conference as observers and were included to ensure the implementation of the accord if reached among the Afghan factions. Even the deputy foreign minister of the Russian Federation. Pakistan. China. he said. he said. I will leave for Moscow on July 7 to get support of the Russian Federation for the conference on Afghanistan. did not succeed as these were not attended by all Afghan groups. He hoped that the Russian Federation would also favor it. he said.5 million refugees were still living in its territory…. Many such conferences in the past. . Kazakhstan. Turkmenistan and the United States. the three countries were keen to strengthen their road and rail links with Pakistan as it would give them the shortest passage to have access to sea. July 1997. the foreign minister said. However. Gohar said. Vol. was the most affected country by Afghanistan crisis as 1. already expressed their support to the proposed conference. they wanted to utilize the Karakoram highway and similarly.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 37 situation in Afghanistan.

Both the leaders discussed the pace of economic cooperation. Sakhat Muradov and the top Turkmen Government leadership.38 IPRI Factfile R EPORT ON V ISIT OF P RIME M INISTER M UHAMMAD N AWAZ S HARIF TO T URKMENISTAN ON O CTOBER 17. Issue 11. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Premier Nawaz Sharif was assisted by Foreign Minister Gohar Ayub Khan. 1997 On October 17. 1997 Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif flew into Ashqabad for a day long visit to Turkmenistan and held talks with President Saparmurat Niazov on bilateral relations and regional situation. XXVI. Vol. The Prime Minister briefed the President on Pakistan’s talks with India in the context of the urgent need to help resolve the Kashmir issue. pp. Kashmir and Afghanistan figured prominently during talks which lasted more than an hour. 116-117. On the bilateral plane. Chairman Turkemanistan Parliament Sahat Muraday. President Niyazov expressed his great happiness at this visit by the Prime Minister.. the Prime Minister was warmly received at the airport by the Speaker of the Turkmen Mejlis. The Prime Minister and the President also had an in depth discussion on Afghanistan and agreed that both countries had a common position on trying to help the UN peace process. President Niyazov hosted a lunch in honour of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. This is the third visit of the Prime Minister to Turkmenistan. The primary purpose of the Prime Minister’s visit was to enquire the health of his very close friend. Saparamurat Niyazov. . NWFP Chief Minister Mehtab Ahmed Khan and Pakistan’s Ambassador to Turkemenistan Tariq Usman Haider. November 1997. On his arrival. who recently had a heart bypass operation. Foreign Minister Boris Shihmuradav. After lunch the President showed the Prime Minister around the grounds of the Feroza Guest House Palace including the horse farm housing the world famous Akhal teke horses which are considered the origin of the modern thoroughbred horses. trade and investment in each other’s country. Afghanistan and Pakistan. both agreed to give the highest priority to the implementation of the gas and oil pipeline projects which will link Turkmenistan. Since his operation. Minister for Oil and Gas Batir Sartaev and Minister for Trade and Economic Affairs Rejep Saparov assisted President Niazov during talks. this is the first time that he has received any head of government. President. They reviewed the progress already made on these projects with a view to their early implementation. After the detailed discussion between the two leaders.

Southern Kazakhstan still gets its electricity from Kyrgyzstan. still remain. for this region has more oil than the entire Middle East. Turkemenistan still sends part of its oil to Russia to be made into jet fuel. Nationhood has been reluctantly accepted. Each president of the Central Asian Republics heads a country whose economy is still fully intertwined with those of its neighbours.S. The Central Asian Republics have more importance now. As the cold war has ended. rather than the South and for their government structure their model is secular Turkey rather than Iran. Its land is among the most productive agricultural lands in the world. in the strategy of the world.fuel. and to set up joint ventures. Pakistan or Saudi Arabia. They are as follow: 1. Its inter-regional economic links.the coordinating structures that regulate such commerce have shrunk or have entirely disappeared.R. while northern Kazakhstan helps service Siberia's energy grid. the KGB. What they need at the moment is modern technology. There are no super powers in the field. energy and raw materials . The Central Asian republics are still tied to the other Republics of the defunct Soviet Union. 2. for which they are looking towards the West. they are secular. has collapsed. though damaged. therefore. nor any buffer zones left. The first-order challenge now facing the states of Central Asia. Before we discuss Pakistan's policy regarding Central Asia. but it processes Siberian oil in its own refineries. and the communist bureaucracy. the whole Geo-political scenario has changed. 3. the Soviet Army.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 39 E CONOMIC C OOPERATION B ETWEEN P AKISTAN C ENTRAL A SIAN R EPUBLICS AND T HE With the dissolution of the Soviet Union and opening up of the Central Asian Republics.S. While each new nation continues to depend on its neighbours' basic inputs . The system they had during the communist period is still intact. is to emerge from political obscurity and economic isolation. It contains some of the rarest metals which are not found anywhere in the world. and are closely tied to the economy of the other Republics in the former Soviet Union. It has carried with it enormous . Economically this region has bypassed the Middle East. and there is no question of any republic breaking up in the future. The Central Asian Republics have a 100% literacy rate. Only the U. and they have a very strong industrial base. we have to consider certain factors. especially in Asia than any other region of the world. All the Western countries are now rushing in to exploit the resources of Central Asia. and their nuclear arsenals are all intact. economic warfare has now taken its place.

however. The popular movements for independence that paralyzed the communist-led governments of Latvia. The Kirghiz. democrats and national democrats. by virtue of its own legislation. one striking difference between those cases and the republics of Central Asia. certainly none between Armenia and Azerbaijan. local economy and traditional society.R. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan the communists. although each republic was named for a local nationality. who gathered in that Tashkent hall believed that Uzbekistan had succeeded from the U. as now. For some the vote was an expression of support for the goal of eventual independence.40 IPRI Factfile burdens . other than Kazakhstan.mostly economic .and its strategic role would be enhanced if the union preserved. As head of a republic with several thousand miles of common border with Russia and whose population is almost evenly divided between Kazakhs and Slavs. Then. none was a national homeland. Central Asia's leaders were also aware that. Given the intertwined nature of the party.a link between Central Asia and Russia .for which none of the region's leaders could have been prepared and which even the most able have consistently tried to avoid. then Moldavia. In Kazakhstan. Stalin's map-making skills were sufficient to ensure that no Soviet republic would have an easy transition to nation-statehood. and Russian migrants make up a far greater percentage of the population in the three Baltic republics than they do anywhere in Central Asia. There is no historically recognized border between Russia and Ukraine. construction materials and oil. There is. did not exist in Central Asia prior to the August coup. these republics communist elites can fall only when attacked from within. Armenia. That was precisely what happened in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.and large irredentist populations on which to base them . It was rumored that support for Uzbekistan's independence bill was so lukewarm. that President Karimov had to make a formal motion to mark its passage with applause. Turkmen and Kazakhs. his position has been that Kazakhstan is unique . Uzbeks and Tajiks all have border claims on one another . Although the Communist Party technically no longer existed. Lithuania and Estonia in the late 1980s. Nazarbaev was anxious to minimize a potential split between Kazakhstan and Russia. With substantial shortfalls in Russian deliveries of grain. pressed for do Uzbeks. wood. But few. President Karimov was looking for new legal grounds to deny Russia the cotton and gold that Uzbekistan was required . with only minimal public support. now renamed socialists. Uzbekistan's leaders were using independence as a synonym for full economic autonomy.S. Georgia and finally Azerbaijan and Ukraine in the early 1990s. in fact. most Uzbekistan legislators voted for independence simply to tow the party line. if any.S.

Russian President Boris Yeltsin was quick to take control of the U. Turkmenistan is obviously still sensitive to Russian in oil and natural gas -was similar.S.S. the Russian successor to the USSR Ministry of Oil and Gas was not passing on hard-currency earnings to a now independent and sovereign Turkmenistan.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 41 to supply U. all are expected to allow Russia's interests to take precedence over their Kazakhstan did with Saudi lenders in 1990.R. In April 1992 Moscow got Turkmenistan to cut off gas shipments to Azerbaijan. and so the earnings went to the centre. To some degree this is the product of confusion over the purpose of the Commonwealth itself . Though each president must now defend the national interests of his republic. provided that plans were deposited with central banking institutions.S. But they could not use those banks as repositories for foreign earnings.S.whether it is designed to be a coordinating body between the republics or a device for preserving an integrated economic zone on the territory of the former U. None of the Central Asian republics yet has complete control of her economy. The logic behind the independence decree of Turkmenistan .R's foreign holdings and ministries and to use economic blackmail to press republics to accept Russia as the centre of a single financial system and currency zone. This has been a particular problem in a number of Central Asian republics. They had been given the right to negotiate directly with foreign governments and companies.S. which still shipped all its oil and gas through Russia.S. Yet everyone knows that Yeltsin does not treat them as equals. The Republics could also invite foreign banks in . . and some see the Turkmen decision to increase by more than ten fold the price for natural gas shipments to Ukraine as a concession to Russia as well. Central Asian presidents have increasingly sought foreign partners to help them develop their economics in ways that are beneficial to their own republics but of little advantage to Russia. Thus even before the collapse of USSR central structures the republics had received a degree of economic autonomy. where the leadership's limited foreign policy experience may have made them appear pliable to economic pressure from Moscow. When CIS republican presidents gather.S. Central Asia's leaders. first among equals or the inheritor of the U. Russia's leadership has variously played each of those roles.R. Turkmenistan. Moscow still owned the natural resources and finished goods that the republics produced.whether it was an equal partner in the union. which produces just over ten percent of all natural gas exported by the former USSR temporarily shut down foreign gas shipments in early 1992. for example. enterprises. Yeltsin makes symbolic gestures to reinforce the image that all are on an equal footing. Adding to that confusion from the outset was the nature of Russia's relationship to the CIS .R.S. however. have proven less malleable than expected. Rather than ceding power back to Russia.

. Kazakhstan sends a much larger percentage of its transit goods across Russia than vice verse. Russia will remain an over-shadowing military and economic power. with many of Kazkhstan's key industries standing idle. Given Kazakhstan's greater isolation and generally low standard of living. While seemingly equitable.R. Ultimately the accessibility of an expanded Central Asian market depends on a resolution with Russia of questions of railway ownership and maintenance. but each would pay in hard currency for transit shipments. Even with the formation of national armies. That project has the full support of all five Central Asian republics. A number of neighbouring states realize this fact and are seeking to capitalize on new opportunities. There is also the promise of new international rail connections through Iran. it will create a direct rail link that stretches from Urumchi to Ankara. Pakistan and parts of Iran. Russia began to boycott the republic. the agreement could lead to disproportionate hardship.S. When Kazakhstan carved out a degree of financial autonomy for itself in December 1991. Those nearby states that help the Central Asian republics emerge from that physical isolation will eventually enjoy a foreign policy advantage. isolation is even more serious. Moscow has also held Kazakhstan to tighter definition of shared mutual self-interest than the region's other republics. rather than diplomatic. the agreement worked to Russia's advantage. including construction of a pipeline across Iran to ship gas to Turkey. The two neighbouring republics signed an agreement calling for full coordination of their financial and trade policies. A month later. depositing his 1992 oil profits in a New York bank that has no ties with Russia or the former U. Not withstanding the ambiguous status of former Soviet forces in the region. Goods priced in rubles were guaranteed free movement between the two republics. The financial agreement also puts Kazakhstan under enormous pressure to join Russia in a convertible rouble.S. The problem of physical. telephone and telegraph links and most international travel. And for at least the immediate future Russia will also remain Central Asia's main link with the outside world.42 IPRI Factfile At the same time Turkmen president Saparmurad Niazov is pursuing a strategy independent of Russia. These new states are still fully dependent on the old Moscow based USSR transportation and communication grids which control international mail. The nationalization of rail and rolling stock has begun throughout the region and has progressed furthest in Turkmenistan. Since 1990 the two states have signed nine bilateral agreements containing plans for joint development of some of Turkmenistan's oil and gas reserves. in large part to avoid any ownership ambiguity of the planned rail-road to Iran. Russia's presence in Central Asia is constant. Moreover he has listened with great interest to the propositions of neighbouring Iran. Nazarbaev caved in.

When Central Asian leaders meet among themselves. have complained that they are sometimes roughed up by nationalist Uzbek youths. For many states it is a potential arms broker of considerable importance.irrigation technology and hopes to encourage investment by those Jews who have left the republic to live in Israel. however. as well as text-books written in Persian script. Jews fear. seem eager to pursue close ties with Israel. But the presence of religious activists in the Tajik government could make Iran a more attractive ideological model. As proof.Jewish. Israel has open its second CIS embassy in Tashkent. The international community has formally accepted the independence of the Central Asian republics . but Akaev would not permit the republic to enter the Islamic Conference Organization. Kyrgyzstan joined the Economic Co-ordination Council.and which sometimes lacks even that . Returning Jews. If these republics become Muslim states. Iran has provided Tajikistan with financial infra-structure. by extension. Now they are competing for investment from a far greater pool. and plans full diplomatic representation throughout the region.granting them membership in the United Nations and even honorary status in Europe through participation in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and the NATO advisory council. anti . the new Central Asian states. Jews in Central Asia are particularly concerned. Kyrgyzstan is also sensitive to the Islamic state issue. Nabiev decided to emphasize a Persian model in Tajikistan. lest Russia be offended. air links and satellite communications. especially if the new regime in neighbouring northern Afghanistan proves to be pro-Iranian as well.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 43 Central Asia's physical isolation and continued access mainly through Russia highlights an even greater problem.potentially far larger than the whole of Central Asia. as they did in April 1992 in Bishkek. As head of a republic whose main export is electricity . Iran is exporting Persian soap operas for local consumption rather than the religious broadcasting that dominates its own television. precisely because its membership was explicitly restricted to Muslim states.Nabviev could only play the cards in hand. they will also turn anti-Israel and. Despite its crippled economy Russia is still regarded as a greater power. and each is striving to define the uniqueness of his republic. Iran says it has no interest in missionary work among Tajikistan's overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim population. Uzbekistan is interested in Israel's drip . especially since president Akaev enjoys strong support from a large Russian minority. This is true of Muslim and Western states alike. Regional cooperation in Central Asia was always more ideal than real. But the post-Soviet diplomatic strategies of the Central Asian leaders have pushed their republics even further apart. Contrary to such fears. . Yet there is no interest in championing the cause of Central Asia. however. For others Russia is a vast market ripe for development . Under Soviet rule the leaders competed for Moscow's favour. they find little of substance on which to agree.

economic or technological know-how. They have no inhibitions in dealing with nations diametrically opposed to each other. Healthy competition with Turkey and Iran must not be allowed to end up in rivalry. A check must be exercised on those political parties whose religious activities run counter to the policies of the Muslim Republics. and Pakistan lacks in all. Competition with Iran and Turkey and of course with the industrialize world in assisting the Central Asian States will not be easy. which was formulated by ten ECO members. or the West. What the world needs now is a country having a stable government. They are keeping their options open and assessing a wide variety of alternatives available to them including creating an economic union of their own. Pakistan has. however. Pakistan does not enjoy the advantages which the other two Muslim neighbours have. 3. 5. Every effort must be made to get the Afghan leaders to settle their differences so that a secure route to Central Asian can be assured. done well in establishing diplomatic relations with most of these countries. if implemented would go a long way in achieving the desired co-operation. But dreams will only come true if Pakistan plays its cards well. 2. Pakistan's geostrategic location is no longer important to the U. Until peace and stability returns to Afghanistan Islamabad cannot reach out meaningfully to its northern neighbours. Pakistan and India can both enter the Central Asian market while opportunities for other nations to establish mutually beneficial relations with these newly independent countries exist irrespective of their religious or cultural affiliations. These countries urgently need foreign exchange and appropriate technology which is hard to come by in Pakistan. Each of the six countries has its own arms. can help in the economic development of the Central Asian States during this transition phase. Pakistan must put its own house in order. 1. Investments from USA and China are both welcome and visitors from Iran and Israel are treated alike. 6. Emphasis must be on establishing mutually beneficial economic relations only. along with a host of other countries. The situation in the Central Asian Republics is presently quite fluid. Pakistan. Presently. The Quetta plan of Action. . ambitions and problems. Pakistan is not geographically linked with them. 4.44 IPRI Factfile With the end of Cold War and super power rivalry.S. Afghanistan is no longer a buffer zone nor the Soviet Union a threat. The uncertain political uture is least conducive to entering into long term arrangements with these countries. however. Russian susceptibilities must be kept in mind. plenty of natural resources.

we initially will go and start off with Taliban. . 8. In addition to state to state relations greater people to people contacts would prove useful.defencejournal. Pakistan is the only country which suffered most from the Afghan conflict. He told reporters that the Joint Mission’s visit to Afghanistan will be in complementarity to the UN and OIC missions and exercise. Dr Azmat Hayat Khan <http://www. Responding to a question.” He described his discussions with his counterparts in the CARs as very “fruitful and constructive”. the Minister said. “Definitely.” About the Schedule of the Joint Mission he said. The privatization of foreign policy must not be allowed. The ingredients which Pakistan puts into the melting pot of Central Asia must be such that it results in shaping a mutually beneficial relationship. the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Saddique Khan Kanju said: Pakistan and Turkmenistan have decided to send a Joint Mission to Afghanistan as part of the international initiatives to bring about durable peace to the wortorn country. Any input which detracts from this aim must be nipped in the bud. Kyrgistan.htm> E XCERPTS F ROM A P RESS C ONFERENCE BY T HE M INISTER OF S TATE FOR F OREIGN A FFAIRS S IDDIQUE K HAN K ANJU ON R ETURN F ROM A V ISIT TO C ENTRAL A SIAN S TATES Islamabad: 6 November 1998. which he said. we are already in touch with Tehran which is a friendly and a brotherly country and a very important member of the Six Plus Two. Tajikistan and Turkmenistan on the specific instructions of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to discuss the evolving situation in Afghanistan for bringing sustainable peace to this war-ravaged Building of infrastructure on the Pakistan side must be expedited to give an outlet to the sea to the land locked Central Asian States. Kazakistan.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 45 7. The Minister visited Uzbekistan. Responding to a question if the Joint Mission will like to visit Iran the Minister said. “We are the people for whom peace in Afghanistan is very important and vital. was an apt remark by a well known columnist. were within the framework of the UN and the OIC missions which recently visited the region. On his return from a visit to the Central Asian States. Whom ever we have to meet in Afghanistan will be after we visit Taliban.

Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Jan 1999 . pp. while responding to a question. 70-71. XXV. Vol. “This is the promotion of Six Plus Two and this all has to be done within its framework where all the concerned countries in the Six Plus Two adhered to the points of common understanding”. about any differences between Pakistan and Iran. Talking to the visiting Foreign Minister of Turkmenistan Boris Shikhmuradov. Vol. He expressed satisfaction at the growing cooperation between Pakistan and Turkmenistan adding that the countries should try to further expand trade airlinks people to people contacts and cultural exchange. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif called for immediate restoration of durable peace in Afghanistan saying it will pave way for the promotion of enormous potential for commercial and economic cooperation between Pakistan and Turkmenistan. Nov-Dec 1998 R EPORT ON A C ALL ON T HE P RIME M INISTER BY T HE V ISITING F OREIGN M INISTER OF T URKMENISTAN Islamabad: 27 January 1999. “There is a realization of taking a very realistic view of the around situation in Afghanistan by all the colleague whom I met during the visit. “The engagement on the individual basis of these countries will Insha Allah take place collectively as the Six Plus Two will also be trying to carry it forward. Boris Shikhmuradov was accompanied by a delegation of senior Turkmen officials He conveyed the fraternal greetings and good wishes of President Niazov which were warmly reciprocated by the Prime Minister.46 IPRI Factfile The Minister to a question said the talks were based on the Six plus Two Conference held in Washington recently. He conveyed his gratitude to the Prime Minister for sparing time to receive him. Shikhmuradov agreed with the Prime Minister that Pakistan and Turkemenistan shared affinities which provided a sound basis for further enhancing mutually beneficial cooperation between the two countries He held out the assurance that his country would work closely with Pakistan for promoting the Afghan peace process.” he said and expressed the hope there would be interaction and engagements to the ground realities by the CARs representatives. 159. Issue 1. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Issue 11-12.” He dispelled the impression. p. XXVI.

All the irritants in the context the project have been overcome. On the occasion Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz was also present.” He added that hectic technical meetings are expected to take place in Islamabad and Ashgabad. he announced. He said the Pak-Turkmenistan Joint Commission comprising Technical experts was meeting in next two weeks to thrash out the details of the pipeline project.440 km gas pipeline project would cost $1. he said that his country fully . Talking to a group of journalists at PAF Base Chaklala on the conclusion of his visit.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 47 E XCERPTS F ROM A P RESS B RIEFING BY F OREIGN M INISTER OF T URKMENISTAN ON C OMPLETION OF H IS T WO D AY (26-27 J ANUARY ) V ISIT TO P AKISTAN Islamabad: 27 January 1999. he added. About 1. Pakistan and Afghanistan have agreed to expedite the work concerning the pipeline project. Unocal was holding 46 percent share in the pipeline consortium linking Turkmenistan to Multan with an option of supplying the gas to India’s vast markets at a later stage.” the Turkmenistan minister said. Turkmenistan’s foreign minister Boris Shikhmuradov announced that the gas pipeline project from his country to Pakistan through Afghanistan would be launched within 6 weeks and that the parties have moved all related irritants. The US company Unocal pulled out of the consortium funding the project in the take of Washington’s cruise missile attacks against suspected training camps in Afghanistan of anti-America Saudi dissident Osama bin Laden. refused to give details of international companies intend to construct the pipeline. “Besides technical experts from Pakistan and Turkmenistan many international experts are also pooling their expertise in the technical call meetings of the project. Replying to a questions from the reporters Shikhmuradov made it clear that “the project is very much on and many international companies are interested to construct the same.” The minister however. He said his talks with ruling Taliban militia in war-battered Afghanistan over the project were satisfactory. Turkmenistan as ground work before kicking off the project’s construction. “We will be in the position to tell you details of the project after six weeks. Meanwhile talking on the Afghanistan. The Turkmenistan pipeline would be entering Balochistan.9 billion to serve sub-continent’s fastest-growing energy market in the world. All the three parties Turkmenistan. Pakistan through Western Afghanistan and would go upto Multan.

” the minister said. Mr.” said the minister. Issue 1. Kasymzhomart Tokaev. He said that Taliban government agreed with Turkmenistan to kick off joint economic ventures. called on the prime Minister. 160-161.” “I hope that by the end of this year peace would be restored in Afghanistan. The anticipated opening of the Karakorum Highway in May under the Quadrilateral Agreement of Traffic in Transit would substantially facilitate economic and commercial interaction between Pakistan and Kazahkstan. oil and gas pipelines. He said that his country attached the highest of importance to its relations with Pakistan and expressed confidence that these ties would be further strengthened in the coming years. but recognizes all the habitants of the country as Afghans. Vol. M R .48 IPRI Factfile supported 6+2 talks formula and has full understanding with Pakistan and Iran to see peaceful and stable Afghanistan. Foreign Minister Tokaev handed over a letter from President Nazarbaev to the Prime Minister.” he said. pp. “We are neighbours and most of our interests are common and in coming days we (Turkmenistan Afghanistan) would be moving together to take our share in the world market. Nawaz Sharif. Jan 1999 R EPORT ON A C ALL ON T HE P RIME M INISTER BY T HE V ISITING F OREIGN M INISTER OF K AZAKHSTAN . K ASYMZHOMART T OKAEV Islamabad: 5 March 1999. The Prime Minister recalled his visit to Almaty in May last year to attend the ECO Summit during which he had extensive discussion with the Kazakh President on ways to further expand bilateral cooperation between the two countries particularly in the economic and commercial fields. The Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan. this afternoon (5 March). The entire region would benefit through the opening of trade routes. The Prime Minister also conveyed his warmest felicitations to President Nazarbaev on his re-election as the President of Kazakhstan. The prime Minister underscored the need for the early restoration of durable peace in Afghanistan as that would enable Pakistan and Kazakhstan to develop bilateral cooperation to its fullest potential. Mr. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. XXVI. He conveyed the cordial greetings and good wishes of President Nursultan Nazarbaev which were warmly reciprocated. He stressed that representative government in Afghanistan is the only solution of the crises “besides discouraging war between the rival Afghans. He expressed the hope that President Nazarbaev would be able to avail of his earlier invitation to visit Pakistan soon on mutually convenient dates. .

Formal talks were held this afternoon in a warm and cordial atmosphere between the two Foreign Ministers. for a two-day visit to Pakistan. Mr. Siddique Khan Kanju and the Foreign Secretary. Mr. arrived in Islamabad this morning on the invitation of the Foreign Minister. the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs. Sartaj Aziz.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 49 telecommunication links and people contacts. The Foreign Minister Mr.129. Mr Siddique Khan Kanju. particularly Afghanistan. as well as high ranking officials from the relevant government departments of Kazakhstan. Mr. The two Foreign Ministers noted that with the opening of the Karakorum highway in May under the Quadrilateral Agreement of Traffic in Transit. Sartaj Aziz. Siddique Khan Kanju. It was decided that the two sides would enhance bilateral cooperation in multiple areas including banking. The Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan. Foreign Minister Tokaev is accompanied by high level delegation from the concerned government departments of the Kayak government. aviation. This would also give an impetus to the augmentation of bilateral trade between the two countries. the shortest possible route to the sea would be available to Kazakhstan. The Pakistan delegation included the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs. 1999 R EPORT ON P AKISTAN -K AZAKHSTAN M INISTERIAL L EVEL T ALKS FOR E NHANCING E CONOMIC C OOPERATION Islamabad: 5 March 1999. Tajik and Turkmen Foreign Ministers have visited Pakistan in quick succession of each other to carry forward the discussions. p. Shamshad Ahmad and senior officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Mr. Since then the Uzbek. economic and commercial . Mr. The Kazak Foreign Minister was assisted by the Ambassador of Kazakhstan. He expressed his deepest gratitude to the Prime Minister for receiving him. paid Afghanistan-related visits to the five Central Asian Republics in November last year. the Foreign Secretary. The Kazakh Foreign Minister held out the assurance that his country would work closely with Pakistan for promoting the Afghan peace process. Mr. Feb. Vol. XXVI. Kasymzhomart Tokaev. The Minister of State for Foreign Affairs. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Shamshad Ahmad were also present at the meeting. The visit of the Kazak Foreign Minister signifies the growing interaction between Pakistan and the Central Asian Republics. Issue 2. The discussions covered the entire range of bilateral matters and regional issues of mutual concern.

Foreign Affairs Pakistan. at length. 1999 R EPORT ON A C ALL ON T HE F OREIGN M INISTER BY T HE M INISTER OF T URKMENISTAN M R S ARDJEV B ATIR Islamabad : 29 April 1999. XXVI. Vol. called on Minister Nawaz Sharif. Issue 2. people-to-people contact and culture. Sartaj Aziz expressed the hope that the meeting between Oil Ministers of Pakistan. Vol. road and railway links between Pakistan and Turkmenistan were also discussed during the meeting. The two sides emphasized the need to recognize the ground realities in Afghanistan and expressed the hope that a multiethnic dispensation would emerge through an indigenous Afghan process. Foreign. Sardjaev Batir accompanied by the Oil Minister Mr. The Foreign Minister of Uzbekistan. p. Deputy Prime Minister of Turkmenistan Mr. pp. Turkmenistan and Afghanistan will give new impetus to the gas pipeline project and also pave the way for cooperation in other areas. Abdulaziz Kamilov. The two Foreign Ministers agreed on the need for restoring durable peace and stability in Afghanistan. During their meeting they discussed. XXVI. He was accompanied by the Uzbek Ambassador and senior officials from the Foreign Ministry of Uzbekistan. It was agreed that the fourth session of the joint ministerial commission between the two countries would convene shortly in Astana. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Arazov Redjepbay called on Mr.Minister Mr. Both sides-emphasised the importance of this project and their commitment to its implementation at the earliest Other possible areas of cooperation including a proposed power transmission line. present position of the proposed gas pipeline project from the Turkmenistan which will pass through Afghanistan. The Kazakh Foreign Minister also visited Lahore where he held further talks on ways to expand Pakistan-Kazakhstan cooperation. March 1999 R EPORT ON A C ALL ON T HE P RIME M INISTER BY T HE V ISITING F OREIGN M INISTER OF U ZBEKISTAN Islamabad: 1 June 1999.50 IPRI Factfile interaction. 171. Feb. This would unlock the enormous potential or economic and commercial cooperation between Pakistan and Central Asian region. . Issue 3. Sartaj Aziz Minister of Pakistan. 146-147.

Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 51 Foreign Minister Kamilov conveyed the cordial greetings and good wishes of President Islam Karimov to the Prime Minister which was warmly reciprocated. He realization that the two countries should fully exploit the enormous potential that exists through the establishment of oil and gas pipelines. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Jan-June 1999 T EXT OF THE C OMMUNIQUÉ I SSUED A FTER THE V ISIT OF C HIEF E XECUTIVE TO T URKMENISTAN FROM 15-16 M AY 2000 T HE Ashgabat: 16 May 2000 The Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan General Pervez Musharraff paid a visit to Ashgabat on May 15-16. 2000. The Chief Executive of Pakistan acknowledged the progress achieved by Turkemenistan since its independence and highly appreciated its foreign policy based on . He stressed the need for Pakistan and Uzbekistan to work closely to facilitate the realization of this objective Foreign Minister Sartaj Aziz. he said. Minister of State Siddiqu Khan Kanju. The leaders of Turkmenistan and Pakistan informed each other about the political and socio-economic developments in their countries. He also handed over a letter to the Prime Minister from the k President on the Afghanistan issue. prospects for trade. During the course of his talks with the President of Turkemenistan Saparmurat Turkmenbashi. self-sustained growth and prosperity. XXVI. In fact. Vol. they are not affected by political changes and not directed against any third country. the two leaders discussed important aspects of bilateral relations. trade routes. 93. communication networks as well as transport and road links. Issue 4-6. The Prime Minister underscored the paramount importance of the countries ordering Afghanistan to concert their efforts to promote the Afghan peace process. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif stressed the importance of giving substance to the excellent relations between Pakistan and Uzbekistan through enhanced economic and commercial cooperation. Foreign Secretary Shamshad Ahamd Khan and the Foreign Ministry Officials were also present during the meeting. The leaders of Turkemenistan and Pakistan agreed that Turkmen . for which it was essential that durable peace should return to Afghanistan. p. regional and international problems and issues of mutual concern. economic and humanitarian exchanges. the entire region could be transformed to one of economic vibrance.Pakistan relations fully reflect the national interests of the people of Turkemenistan and Pakistan.

Leaders of the two States reiterated their resolve to actively assist in finding ways for an early normalization of the situation in Afghanistan. the development of the regional infrastructure and strengthening the security and stability in Central and South Asia. Both sides condemned all forms and manifestations of terrorism. The Chief Executive of Paksitan highly appreciated the policy of Turkmenistan regarding Afghanistan which is distinguished by its consistent adherence to the principles and genuine desire . In this context the two leaders discussed programmes of regional cooperation. President Saparmurat Turkmenbashi and General Pervez Musharraf expressed satisfaction at he progress and sustainable growth of bilateral relations in various fields during the last decade of the 20th century and noted their vast potential in the 21st century. shared spiritual relationship and mutual feelings of friendship between the people of two countries. Considerable attention was devoted to the subject of Settlement of the Afghanistan problem.52 IPRI Factfile principles of permanent neutrality. future prospects of ECO and the participation of two counties in other international organizations. establishment of peace and restoration of the economy which has suffered due to protracted war. This partnership is founded on common historical roots. The President of Turkemenistan expressed satisfaction at the level of mutual understanding with Pakistan. a state which occupies an important position in global and regional geopolitics. Both sides underscored the importance of peaceful resolution of all existing disputes and conflicts in the region including Kashmir in accordance with the principles of UN Charter and taking into account the United Nations’ Security Council resolutions. Emphasis was laid on long term cooperation in the petroleum and power sectors and the project for the laying down of gas pipeline from Turkmenistan to South Asia passing through Afghanistan. Such projects can contribute significantly to. rich cultural heritage. Turkmenbashi on his part expressed the confidence that the wisdom and experience of the two great Asian nations shall facilitate an early achievement of this objective. This commonalties provide a sound basis for steady development of future bilateral relations in the interests of the people of the two countries and peace and stability of the region. The Chief Executive of Pakistan General Pervez Musharraff informed President Saparmurat Turkmenbashi about the efforts of his Government to normalize Pakistan-India relations. In this context both parties discussed the latest initiatives of the UN and Organization of Islamic Conference for finding a solution to the Afghanistan issue. Practical steps for further development of trade and economic cooperation also came under discussion. He expressed the confidence that the people of Pakistan would be able to overcome the current economic and political difficulties and achieve stability and prosperity.

Pakistan’s relations with Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. 288-90. Both leaders had common views on these matter. Vol. economic and other matters of common concern with special reference to Afghanistan. At the conclusion of the Visits the Chief Executive of Pakistan expressed his gratitude to President Sapatmurat Turkemenbashi for the hospitality which has been extended to him and his delegation and invited him to visit Pakistan at his convenience. have particularly remained warm and cordial throughout. G ENERAL P ERVEZ M USHARRAF TO C ENTRAL A SIA FROM 6-7 N OVEMBER 2000 The Chief Executive General Pervez Musharraf who flew into Astana on Monday for a two-day official visit held in-depth. As a matter of . the two leaders discussed trade and security environments in the region and ways to strengthen it. The Chief Executive’s talks with President Niazov and President Nazarbavev have been quite encouraging and will hopefully significantly contribute towards the expansion of economic ties with them. The invitation was gratefully accepted. cordial and wide-ranging talks on bilateral and regional issues of common concern with Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbayev. pp. which are based on common faith and shared values and perceptions. It also manifests Islamabad’s constant endeavour to deepen its traditional and historic ties with the countries of the Central Asian region. The exact date of the visit will be determined through diplomatic channels. Issue 3-4. On way to Astana. Their leaders have had regular exchange of views on the matters of mutual interests and the Chief Executive’s visit to Astana and Ashqabat represents Pakistan’s keen desire to further promote its ties with the people of Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. XXVII. Apart from the wide-ranging discussions on bilateral and regional matters. Foreign Affairs Pakistan.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 53 to help people of Afghanistan. March-April 2000 R EPORT ON V ISIT OF T HE C HIEF E XECUTIVE . gone a step further to promote its historic and traditional ties with the countries of the Central Asian region and has always been willing to extend any help necessary for their development. the official delegations of both sides held talks on concrete issues of the bilateral partnership. Within the framework of the visit of General Pervez Musharraff. Pakistan enjoys excellent relations with the Central Asian States ever since their independence following Soviet Union’s dissolution. Pakistan has as a matter of fact. the Chief Executive had a brief stopover at Ashqabat airport with Turkmenistan President Saparmurat Niazoy and discussed bilateral.

after the Soviet Union’s dissolution. compilers of the treasures of Hadith. 11-12. and Hazrat Bahauddin Naqshbandi are part of our memory as much as they are of the Uzbek people. Forts and gardens mosques and mausoleums in various parts of Pakistan testify to that heritage. as well as strong spiritual bonds. XXVII. I wish more of us were familiar with the poetry of Ali Sher Navoi. as there are immense potentials to mutual economic advantage. We would then be even more impressed and inspired by the close cultural affinities between our nations. but its domination by the defunct Soviet Union had stood in its way. Standing on the bank of Amu Darya in 1990 along with other participants in the Imam Tirmizi Centenary celebrations. Issue 11-12. perhaps hundreds of thousands of people who mixed and merged into the people of our land. He brought with him not only soldiers and administrators but also creative writers and artists. All of us in Pakistan will join me in extending a particularly warm welcome to Pakistan. It is however. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. he brings with him the fragrance of a land with which the people of Pakistan have deep-rooted ties of history and culture. Vol. pp. and paintings by Changhez Ahmar. architects and tens. We have a shared tradition in art and architecture. Nov-Dec 2000 T RANSCRIPT OF T HE J OINT P RESS C ONFERENCE BY T HE F OREIGN M INISTERS OF P AKISTAN AND U ZBEKISTAN ON 25 J ANUARY 2001 Statement by the Foreign Minister of Pakistan It gives me great pleasure to join His Excellency Abdulaziz Kamilov at press conference. Truly we can say that Uzbekistan is a cradle of our culture and civilization. Emir Temur not only built an empire but a grand civilization which is a source of pride also for people beyond the territories of Uzbekistan. short stories by fiction writers.54 IPRI Factfile fact Pakistan always desired to maintain close political and economic ties with the Central Asian region. the historical novels of contemporary Premqul Kadirov and Adil Yakubov. a matter of satisfaction that the successive governments have pursued the policy to forge special relationship with the regional countries. Astronomer-King Ulgh Beg’s discoveries benefited sailors for centuries and helped advance scientific knowledge for benefit of mankind. Imam Ismail Bukhari and Imam Tirmizi. Zaheeruddin Babar founded not only an empire but a new civilization. I looked across and dreamed of a day when Afghanistan at peace would provide a bridge between . whom Babar aspired to emulate. For. Like his great ancestor.

And that jolts one to lament the realities of today. passports and visas must be obligatory. devastated by Soviet intervention and internecine war. Afghanistan. travellers and traders could reach Termez in a day and see sights. Uzbekistan is a progressive country with many blessings. Syed Ahmad Khan. The excellence of scientific research in Uzbekistan is illustrated by success in evolving varieties of cotton that are internationally prized for their quality With nearly 100 percent literacy.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 55 Pakistan and Central Asian Republics. Expansion of cooperation between Pakistan and Uzbekistan will be manifestly beneficial. To same end. I want to assure him publicly. as I have done during our talks in the afternoon. Air travel between Islamabad and Tashkent takes just 70 minutes. modem Islamic State. Taking advantage of Foreign Minister Kamilov’s presence with us. Pakistan has extended cooperation to the United Nations and the Organization of lslamic. cast a shadow on relations between neighbours. aware that economic progress requires hard work. the people of Uzbekistan are sophisticated. urged them to acquire knowledge in fields of science and technology which are indispensable for achievement of progress and economic development. We shall extend unstinted cooperation in arresting and deporting terrorists and saboteurs. distressed by the political decline of Muslims in South Asia. Starting from Peshawar. listen to music and meet people to discover and savour the commonalties that link and bind our two peoples. As far back as the 19th century. We respect the principle of noninterference in internal affairs. the aim of our Government is to translate the vision of Allama Mohammad lqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah into reality. and at times defying understanding. confounded by divergent interests and interpretations. maintenance of peace and harmony. . To that end. We are prepared to join with Uzbekistan in great effort to ensue compliance with laws and regulations regarding travel between the two countries. Despite current obstacles we can enlarge and intensify interaction. that Pakistan can never entertain even the notion of harming the security of Uzbekistan.Conference. Pakistan is ready to work with Uzbekistan in and outside the Six-Plus-Two forum The two of us and the other member States of the Economic Cooperation Organization will reap great gains from return of peace to fraternal Afghanistan. has become a barrier instead of providing a bridge. relish delicious fruits and dishes. Peace in Afghanistan is the key to the realization of better understanding and closer cooperation among he neighbours. We do not and will not allow any activities on our territory that the Government of Uzbekistan considers prejudicial to its peace and security. They reject violence extremism in all its forms and manifestations Our founding fathers envisioned Pakistan as a forward-looking. For the sake of our renaissance. It has a highly developed physical infrastructure of communications and education. Complexities of politics.

thank you very much first of all for the invitation to visit lslamabad. we don’t want Afghanistan to have camps on its soil for elements from Central Asia. Minister once again for this invitation and would add that His Excellency knows Central Asia. are very important to create a juridical base for our cooperation. specially Uzbekistan very well. the position. specially the situation in Afghanistan. first is a Consular Agreement. its history civilization and culture but also many famous personalities of our history. the Uzbek Foreign Minister said: As a neighbour. has unfortunately changed. We have our well known position that the principle of non-interference into others’ internal affairs be respected. however. and on the issues of common interest. there should be guarantees from both sides for security on our common borders. we have had very useful talks with H. the Foreign Minister. after the foreign invasion and the continuing civil war in Afghanistan. We want to have good relations with Afghanistan as a neighbour and the fact remains that we never have had problems with this country throughout our history. of course. We have also signed three agreements between Uzbekistan and Pakistan. the second one is about Cooperation between Customs Services of the two countries and the third is an Extradition Treaty. the Foreign Minister and the Interior Minister. not only the country. Statement by the Uzbek Foreign Minister Your Excellency. Also I have assured him of our desire to expand cooperation with Uzbekistan in all fields. as well as our cooperation in the Six Plus Two forum.56 IPRI Factfile Excellency Kamilov’s visit has given us an opportunity to exchange views on bilateral relations. We have agreed to continue bilateral cooperation on this issue.E. including Uzbekistan. We share a desire for early establishment of peace in Afghanistan. Today. and. Also I have apprised him of recent developments in regard to Kashmir. I would like to thank Mr. Question-Answer Session • When his comments were sought on recent UN sanctions against Afghanistan and continued supply of arms to that war-torn country. During the last two decades. Many years ago there was an Uzbek initiative . I hope we will continue contacts in the near future at all levels to strengthen the existing mutual cooperation between the two countries. We have also discussed with His Excellency the Foreign Minister our bilateral relations and the regional situation. together with all those reached previously between the two countries. we favour the implementation of the United Nations decision. I think all the three agreements signed today. I have informed him of the fall-out of UNSC resolution 1333.

in Uzbekistan. don’t agree with the ideology of the Taliban. We. but in no case in thousands in Afghanistan. we should have dialogue with them without caring that . According to our old lists. and some of them are unfortunately in Tajikistan now. is not believable. This embargo needs to be for whole of the country and should not be implemented selectively in one part of the country or the other. Uzbekistan has been generous enough to offer hospitality. We also held meetings with the Taliban and hopefully today we would be meeting their representative in lslamabad. the Foreign Minister of Pakistan said: Actually the efforts to convene that meeting are being made by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General. We are cooperating in this field with each other and the agreement on extradition signed today is very important in this regard. controlling 90 to 95 percent of the Afghan territory. and if he could give the exact number of such people. At the most they could be 100-150. So far as the number. an answer or a comment can be best made by the Special Representative of the Secretary General of the United Nations. the Uzbek Foreign Minister observed: We also think in Uzbekistan that the United Nations should play the important role in this process.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 57 • • for arms embargo against Afghanistan. the Uzbek Foreign Minister said: We have participated in this process in the Six Plus Two forum. at a time when the Taliban have denounced any concern with the UN mediation. but at the same time we recognize them as a reality. Supplementing this reply. When his comments were sought on a proposed meeting of e Afghan parties. Asked if he requested Pakistan for help in seeking Taliban’s assistance to deal with the Uzbek opposition elements present in Afghanistan. the Uzbek Foreign Minister said: We discussed this problem and handed over a list. there are some difficulties to find those elements from this list but we hope that our friend Pakistan would try its level best to find them out. following the sanctions. They should be involved in this process. they could be between 30 to 35 and the news appearing in a section of the foreign media. giving the figures in thousands. Of course. but on the particular question you have asked. I don’t remember exactly. and it must not be dominated by one country. • Asked as to how the Taliban being the biggest partner could be drawn into the process. big or small.

Russia and China. It does not deal with Afghanistan. We wish the United Nations to pay an important role in Afghanistan. Asked if the Extradition Treaty signed between Pakistan and Uzbekistan could also be effective to extradite Uzbek nationals residing in Afghanistan. But this does not mean that Uzbekistan recognizes their government as the central government of Afghanistan. To a question with regard to Pak-India relations and proposed of visit the APHC delegation to Islamabad. the Uzbek Foreign Minister said: We will recognize and respect any government in Afghanistan which comes into being as a choice of the people of Afghanistan. as the guest Foreign Minister has just stated that his country respects the ground realities. as it remains the only international mechanism on the issue. Foreign Affairs Pakistan.58 IPRI Factfile • • • • • we agree or disagree with them. In order to bring both the conflicting groups close. it is a Treaty between Pakistan and Uzbekistan. namely United States. the Uzbek Foreign Minister said: We were briefed by His Excellency the Foreign on the subject and we support any progress towards dialogue between India and Pakistan. 205-12. When his comments were sought on a broad-based government in Afghanistan. Asked if Uzbekistan was prepared to give recognition to the Taliban government in Kabul. Vol. This is our position. Mulla Mutawakkal and the Afghan Ambassador in Islamabad. Under the provisions of this Treaty if a criminal of Uzbek citizenship is found to be on Pakistani territory. the Uzbek Foreign Minister said: We have been talking with the Taliban. the Government of Pakistan would. Jan-Feb 2001 . pp. XXVII. we discussed this issue with all the neighbours of Afghanistan and three permanent members of the Security Council. in accordance with this Treaty. All of them think that the only mechanism which can help is the mechanism of the United Nations. proceed against that person with a view to his extradition. We have had meetings with their leaders including Mulla Urnar. Issue 1. and the reality is that the Taliban control 90 to 95 percent area of the country. China is a neighbour of Afghanistan and also a member of the Security Council.2. the Foreign Minister of Pakistan said: Let me clarify.

Mongolia and Central Asian republics etc. we are here in order to once again stress the importance of our joint efforts. We believe that this move now is a joint initiative of those countries who have actively participated in this process. Of course. Conference On Interaction on Confidence-building measures in Asia. i. the CICA process is now ready to become a real fact of political . Iran. great civilizations of humankind have appeared in this part of the world. Pakistan. Fifteen Asian countries including Russia. Therefore. is a very unique part of the world. especially Pakistan has always been actively participating in the CICA process. as I said. Egypt. Comments by the Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan It is indeed a great pleasure for me to be here in Islamabad this morning . we believe that Asia as a region deserves common structure of cooperation. Within 8 years of its development. China. We have had a brief conversation which will be continued in the afternoon when he would call on the Chief Executive. Mr. India. are on board and this is a very significant and very visible group. On the contrary. was initiated in 1992 by our President at the 47th Session of the UNGA. In other words. The CICA is in no way an isolated initiative. was to have a forum for combined efforts to bring about a cooperative structure for security and cooperation in Asia in the new environment after the collapse of the bi-polar world. Nazarbayov to General Pervez Musharraf.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 59 T RANSCRIPT OF T HE J OINT P RESS B RIEFING A DDRESSED BY T HE F OREIGN M INISTERS OF P AKISTAN AND K AZAKHSTAN ON 20 F EBRUARY 2001 Comments by the Foreign Minister of Pakistan His Excellency the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan is visiting Islamabad today. we do not want to have any replicas or blue-prints of whatever regional structures we have in other parts of the world. it is a political initiative which tries to be complementary to other regional efforts in Asia to promote cooperation and security. in Asia. Asia. which is not absolutely new.e. General Pervez Musharraf to convey to him an invitation from the President of Kazakhstan for participation in the Summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-building measures. which would bring the nations of this vast and very diversified part of the world together. to be held towards the later part of this year. Now I will request His Excellency the Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan to inform you about this forum and to say something in the context of our bilateral relations. I am here on a special mission to deliver a personal message of invitation by our President. The basic idea behind this initiative. It is very diversified. The CICA. Turkey.

that it is a home of old civilizations of thought. we believe that the CICA process has a bright future even in the context of those differences which we continue to have in our region. and if he thought that the new organization could play a role in resolving this long-standing problem.60 IPRI Factfile life in the world. there was a meeting of Foreign Ministers of CICA in Kazakhstan and they had adopted a Declaration of principles. In 1999. We are preparing a basic document which will reflect our common vision about how our Asian home should look like. Therefore. which was established in 1993. Mr. We are now heading on a consensus basis and through a joint vision for a Summit of CICA states in Kazakhstan. I have also discussed with my friend. The visiting dignitary responded to all the questions. somewhere in the fall of this year. the bilateral cooperation. • “Including everything” was the visiting Foreign Minister’s reply when asked if Kashmir was also included in those difficulties and differences. At the same time we are quite alive to those differences and problems which exist in Asian region. Kashmir. we enjoy very good bilateral cooperation with this country in trade. we see the Summit as a very important starting point to bring new substance to CICA process in the context of those challenges which we all face in the 21st century. Of course. science and technology and in many areas. Our scholars and thinkers have taught us optimism. But we believe that it is more productive to concentrate on those factors which unite in order to promote our common understanding for cooperation and security in Asia. I may add here that we are heading for the Summit not for the sake of Summit. • Asked if he saw a bright future for the CICA in the presence of a flash point in South Asia i. Let me remind you that Pakistan together with India are first countries which our President visited way back in February 1992. would hold its 4th meeting in Kazakhstan in June this year. We further believe that CICA is the very instrument which can help remove those difficulties and differences. We are trying to concentrate on those factors which unite us. energy and transport sectors. the visiting Foreign Minister said that Afghanistan was very much part of the CICA process and from their point of view President Rabbani should represent the . Abdul Sattar. the Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan said: I intentionally stressed the uniqueness of Asia . • To another question. This statement by the Foreign Minister of Kazakhstan was followed by couple of questions. and what steps and measures should be taken to bring our nations together for the promotion of peace and security in this region. We have agreed that the Joint Commission. regional as well as global issues.e. the Foreign mister of Pakistan.

which could accelerate the economic development of both the countries and also promote regionaI harmony and prosperity. He stated that a stable and peacefuI Afghanistan could provide vital overland link between Pakistan and the Kyrgyz Republic. During the discussions the two sides decided to further consolidate bilateral ties between the two countries and explore fresh avenues to strengthen the existing cooperation. The two agreed that it was essential for the development and economic progress of the region that peace and normalcy was restored in Afghanistan and a broadbased. March 2001. Vol. p. ahead of the forthcoming visit of the Kyrgyz President. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. . A SKAR A ITMATOV Islamabad: 29 March 2001 Mr. Askar Aitmatov held detailed discussions on bilateral regional and international issues with the Foreign Minister. He is presently visiting Pakistan in order to hold consultations.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 61 country at that forum. During the discussions. March 2001 A R EPORT ON A C ALL ON T HE C HIEF E XECUTIVE BY T HE A DVISOR TO T HE K YRGYZ P RESIDENT ON I NTERNATIONAL A FFAIRS M R . Foreign Affairs Pakistan. The discussions focused on matters of bilateral cooperation as well as regional and international issues. Special emphasis was laid on making concerted efforts to increase bilateral trade and economic relations. A R EPORT ON A C ALL ON T HE F OREIGN M INISTER BY T HE V ISITING A DVISOR TO T HE K YRGYZ P RESIDENT M R . The Foreign Minister informed the Advisor that the situation in Afghanistan has been deteriorating in the last couple of years due to the unprecedented drought. Issue 3. particularly Kashmir and Afghanistan The Chief Executive emphasized the need for further strengthening economic cooperation. A SKAR A ITMATOV Islamabad: 31 March 2001 The Advisor to the Kyrgyz President on International Affairs Mr. Issue 3. pp. 241. XXXIII. Vol. 248-51. Askar Aitmatov called on the Chief Executive today. internal strife and the destruction of physical infrastructure. multi-ethnic and representative government formed. tie Foreign Minister briefed him on the situation in Afghanistan and Kashmir. XXXIII.

XXVIII.Feb 2003 A R EPORT R EPORT ON T HE V ISIT OF T HE P RESIDENT OF T AJIKISTAN TO P AKISTAN FROM 12-14 M AY 2004 Excellency Mr. March 2001 ON T ALKS OF T HE F OREIGN M INISTER OF K AZAKHSTAN W ITH T HE O FFICIAL I N T HE F OREIGN O FFICE I N I SLAMABAD ON A CCOUNT OF R EGULAR E XCHANGES B ETWEEN T HE T WO C OUNTRIES Islamabad: 27 January 2003 Mr. Vice Foreign Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan is in Islamabad to hold consultations as a part of regular changes between the two countries. 137. 1 p. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. Vice Foreign Minister would call on the Foreign Secretary and also exchange views with Secretary Defence Lt General (Retd) Hamid Nawaz Khan on Pak-Kazakh defence cooperation and Secretary Economic Affairs vision. The President of Tajikistan was accompanied by a high level delegation including . whose visit to Pakistan is keenly awaited.62 IPRI Factfile The Chief Executive asked the visiting dignitary to convey his greetings and best wishes to President Askar Akayev. Vol. He hoped that the visit would further consolidate the bilateral relations. Emomali Sharipovich Rahmonov. Dr. cooperation in the field of Science & Technology Culture Sports and Education etc. Vice Foreign Minister held detailed discussions with the Additional Secretary (Afghanistan & ECO) assisted by officials from both sides. Issue. President of Pakistan and His Excellency Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali. Kuanishev. It was also agreed that the Fifth Session of Pakistan Kazakhstan Joint Ministerial Commission (JMC) next month During his stay Mr Dulat O Kuanishev. Issue 3. Dulat O. President of Republic of Tajikistan visited Pakistan from 12-14 May 2004 at the invitation of His Excellency General Pervez Musharraf. Prime Minister of Pakistan. Khan to discuss issues related to Fifth Pak-Kazakh JMC. p. Vol. 242. The two sides also agreed that the relaxation of visa regime would be useful for increased interaction of business community and tourists of the two countries Special emphasis was laid on the need for closer cooperation in the defence field. Waqar Masood. Jan. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. resumption of air-flights between Pakistan Kazakhstan. XXY. The important areas of discussion included enhancement of bilateral trade and the need to explore new areas of bilateral economic cooperation.

Prime Minister Mir Zafarutlah Khan Jamali held official talks and hosted a lunch in honour of the visiting dignitary on 13th May 2004. Minister of Education and Minister of Justice and senior officials. The Tajik President said such cooperation would pave the way for a conducive atmosphere aimed at promoting cooperation in different fields. Pakistan will attend the 8th ECO Summit to be held in Dushanbe on 14th September 2004. He said that there existed vast potential for mutually beneficial cooperation in scientific. Adviser to the President on External Policy. The Tajik President who called on Chairman Senate.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 63 Minister for Foreign Affairs. Pakistan and Tajikistan have traditionally enjoyed close and cordial relations characterized by a common cultural heritage. The two Countries are keen on enhancing bilateral relations. The talks between Pakistani leadership and President Rahmonov will focus on bilateral relations and issues of mutual interest. Pakistan and Tajikistan are also partners in the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) and Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). President General Pervez Musharraf held official talks and hosted a banquet in honour of the President of Tajikistan on 12 May 2004. Talking to Chairman Senate Mohammed Mian Soomro here on Wednesday. regular exchange of high level visits and shared perceptions on major global and regional issues. Emomali Sharipovich Rahmonov underlined the need for an effective cooperation between the Parliaments of Pakistan and Tajikistan. He was appreciative of President Pervez Musharraf’s role in global . The JEC took a number of important decisions to augment economic interaction between the two countries. The visit of President Rahmonov was preceded by the inaugural session of Pakistan-Tajikistan Joint Economic Commission (JEC) at Ministerial level. Meeting with Senate Chairman The President of Tajikistan Mr. which was held in Islamabad. The Tajik President and the Prime Minister witnessed a ceremony for signing of bilateral agreements and also addressed a joint press conference. Minister of Finance. The two countries are keen to enhance effectiveness of OIC to enable it to realize aspirations of the Islamic Urnmah. He said that his country was keen to develop its relations with Pakistan in various fields. Minister for Economy and Trade. transport. from 6-7 May. technical and economic fields. road network and manufacturing of agricultural products would be of immense benefit for the two neighboring countries. invited him to pay an official visit to Tajikistan as the head of a parliamentary delegation. particularly in the economic sphere. He was of the view that joint ventures in the sectors like construction of highways.

Commerce Minister. He said that there is a strong and sincere desire among the Pakistani leadership as well as the people of Pakistan to have very close relationship and more interaction with the brotherly people of Tajikistan. Both the sides agreed to enhance trade and economic relations between the two countries. Nouraiz Shakoor and the members of the Tajikistan delegation were also present during the meeting. He also offered technicai and political assistance to . Parliamentary cooperation could play a very significant role in this regard.64 IPRI Factfile and regional policies particularly war against terrorism and steps taken for improving the regional economic relations. Humayun said that he would send a delegation to explore the prospects of importing cotton from Tajikistan to Pakistan. Mr. Soomro hoped that it would boost economic and trade relations between the two countries. Underlining the need of improving the business and trade ties between Pakistan and Tajikistan. textile. Soomro said that there is a lot of commonalities between the two close neighboring countries. the Chairman Senate said that Pakistan is a big market for Tajikistan businessmen and offers immense opportunities for them. Humayun Akhtar Khan particularly expressed his desire to purchase cotton from Tajikistan and said that the Government of Pakistan would figure out how to do that. Referring to President Musharraf’s recent visit to Tajikistan. the Tajik President underlined the need of more exchanges at all levels to facilitate people to people contact. Solier Khakim. Ch. Sharing the sentiments of Tajik head of State. The Chairman Senate expressed the view that the cultural exchanges and facilitating the students to study in disciplines like Engineering and Medical would also be useful to promote bilateral cooperation and mutual understanding between the people of the two countries. manufacturing units and professional services industries would foster mutually beneficial economic relations. telecommunication and engineering sectors. He said that joint ventures in areas like energy. said the Chairman Senate. Mr. Humayun also stressed on joint ventures in cement industry. The Chairman Senate thanked the Tajik President for extending an invitation to him to visit Tajikistan. Tracing the historical and cultural relations. Federal Minister for Petroleum and Natural Resources. He said that Gwadar port would provide a useful link to promote trade links between Pakistan and the Central Asian Republics. Meeting between Trade Ministers of Pakistan and Tajikistan A three-member delegation of Tajikistan led by Mr. Minister for Trade and Economy called on Federal Minister for Commerce Humayun Akhtar Khan at the Ministry of Commerce.

Rahmonov. Khakim agreed to remove visa restrictions for the Pakistani business community so that both the countries might benefit form bilateral trade.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 65 Tajikistan in joining WTO.” Jamali told a joint press conference. drug trafficking. “All meetings were held in a very cordial atmosphere and the primary goal was . Bilateral committees on counter terrorism and regional stability held their first meetings during Sharipovich’s visit. and diplomatic visas. He also talked about the rationalization of high tariff rates prevailing in Tajikistan in order to facilitate trade between the two countries. He also offered to set up hydro-power projects in Pakistan. The Commerce Minister also pointed out the problems in repatriation of capital form Tajikistan to Pakistan. Mr. Humayun proposed Preferential Trade Agreement between the two countries which. They said that the two sides should participate in each other’s fairs & exhibitions. taxation. held talks with his counterpart Pervez Musharraf as well as Jamali. Mr. Humayun mentioned that the restrictive visa policy by Tajik Government was one of the obstacles in improving people to people contacts as well as enhancing trade ties. Mr. Both the Ministers agreed to enlarge the scope of technical assistance in the field of services sector particularly banking. Singing of Agreements Pakistan and Tajikistan Thursday signed eight agreements on boosting relations and establishing diplomatic missions in their respective capitals. Lahore and Karachi to Dushanbe to resolve Transportation problems. The Tajik Minister. Mr. insurance and instruction. 1 am very satisfied with the contents of agreements. according to him would increase the scope of economic cooperation in future. Khakim assured that his government would try to resolve all the problems faced by the Pakistani business community. Tajik Minister said that Pakistan could import aluminum from his country at reasonable prices and make use of it in various industries especially housing sector. on his first visit to Pakistan since assuming the presidency. tourism. Khakim requested the Government of Pakistan to start flights from Islamabad. They were of the view that the expected growth of trade between the two countries could be achieved through frequent and sector specific interaction between the business communities of both the countries. We have decided that immediate action should be started for their implementation. Mr. The agreements cover education. law enforcement cooperation. They were signed before Pakistani Prime Minister Zafarullah Jamali and visiting Tajikistan President Emomali Sharipovich Rahmonov.

” Rahmonov said. said it is possible to import power from Tajikistan to Pakistan. Joint Press Conference Tajikistan will export 2 billion kilowatts of electricity to Pakistan through the famous Wakhan corridor. Kazakhstan. Pakistan converted a 13 million dollar loan to Tajikistan into a grant during his visit. He said the World Bank is working on a feasibility study for establishment of grid stations for export of electricity from the Central Asia to the West Asia. investment and economic cooperation. but the civil war in Tajikistan and the situation of Afghanistan frustrated all such attempts. who is expected here on May 12. Tajik team showed keen interest to export over 2 billion KW of electricity through PamirWakhan-Afghanistan to Chitral in Pakistan. to export electricity at a concessional rate. besides developing transportation links to promote trade by signing a Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA).66 IPRI Factfile to strengthen relations between the two countries. Tajikistan recently reaIized a deal with General Mohammed Daud. The two countries also decided to resume air links. Tajikistan also expected some $500 million in export credits from Pakistan to generate resources for the dam. value of electricity exports and pricing would be considered on mutually beneficial basis. addressing a press conference after the JEC said the two sides would work together to develop the 42 kilometers long Wakhan corridor to connect Tajikistan to Pakistan through the Karakoram Highway. Tajiks and Afghans also agreed to reduce tariffs on goods in transit. The initial understanding in this regard was reached in 1992. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has also been working on programmes to develop regional communication and transportation infrastructure to enhance regional trade.” Tajikistan also requested Pakistan to help assist in seeking multilateral financing for the construction of Roghun hydel power station (Tajikistan). like cotton and dry fruits on mutual basis. Mr. Kyrgyzstan . He fully supported such plans. commander of Kunduz in northeast Afghanistan. The cost of construction. most of the bilateral agreements and Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs) would be signed next week during the visit of Tajik President Emomali Rakhmonov. However. citing the example of electricity exports from Tajikistan to northern Afghanistan. Aziz. The Tajik side also expressed interest to join the quadrilateral agreement between Pakistan. Finance Minister Shaukat Aziz and Soliev Khakim. Tajik Minister for Trade and Economy. which would generate electricity for exports to the region. The two-day Pak-Tajik Joint Economic Commission (JEC) took these decisions here on Friday. “Pakistan partly agreed to import energy from Tajikistan and initiate construction of 500-750 KV power supply lines. in addition to Dushanbe’s offer to build new bridges across the Arnu Darya River that divides the two countries.

cooperation between APP and Tajikistan News Agency. tourism. Pakistan also agreed to establish a branch of National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) in Dushanbe. the mutual ties between the two countries would further consolidate. The Chief Minister expressed these views while talking to the Tajikistan President at the Chief Minister’s House here. mark-up rate on agri loans has been reduced. He pointed out that Punjab government is fast implementing a comprehensive programme of reforms in agriculture and education sectors as a result of which standard of living of the common man would further improve. whereas the land-less farmers are being provided land at the rate of 12. Avoidance of Double Taxation Treaty. adding that it would unfold new vistas of cultural and economic cooperation. energy irrigation and agriculture as potential areas of economic cooperation. seeds and irrigation water would also be . Pervaiz Elahi said a literate and enlightened society could only be created through promotion of education. He said Tajikistan is a brotherly Islamic country and as a result of establishment of Tajikistan Embassy in Pakistan. tourism cooperation. Emomali Rahmonov to Pakistan would further strengthen the bilateral ties between the two countries. He told the dignitary that provision of medicine and modern equipment. basic health units and district/tehsil headquarter hospitals is being ensured in Punjab. There are nine agreements on the agenda.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 67 and China on transit transportation signed in 1995. industrial cooperation and agreement to declare lslamabad and Dushanbe as sister cities. banking. visa abolition for diplomatic passports. Mr. He informed a composite programme for streamlining emergency system of teaching hospitals of Punjab is being undertaken expeditiously. the Chief Minister said. for which an amount of Rs one billion has been allocated. Two sides have identified infrastructure. expected to be signed during Tajik President’s visit. besides ensuring poverty alleviation. cement. Furthermore. Other areas of cooperation include: banking. Pakistan has agreed to import cotton from Tajikistan. manufacturing. mining. scientific technology. agriculture. textiles. expanding and setting up new cement plants. in case of higher domestic needs.5 acres for which fertilizers. oil and gas capital markets. Pakistan has also offered to help Tajikistan in modernizing. insurance. Visit to Lahore Punjab Chief Minister Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi has said the visit of Tajikistan’s President. including the Investment Protection Treaty. information technology. and the pharmaceutical industry. Tajikistan would formally request the member states to join the treaty. Two sides expressed their desire to pursue joint ventures and promote cooperation between the private sectors.

4 2004. BY D R H ABIB G UL . The rivers that run of the northern slope of the Turkestan range — the Isfara.700 Sq Km and the water 400 Sq Km. Kshtut. which belongs to the Tarim River basin. Emomali Rahmonov appreciated the pace of progress and development in Punjab. 71 00 E with total area of 143. Geographic coordinates of the country is 39 00 N. the Vakhsh River. the initial Understanding of which was reached in 1992 but could not execute due to civil war in Afghanistan.100 Sq Km in which the land occupy 142. p. V. Khodzhasbakirgan. and Magian is located in Tajikistan: its basin occupies nearly . The. the Fandar’ia. the plains of the north and southwest have the fewest number of rivers. upper course of the Zeravshan. Karasu.68 IPRI Factfile made available during the next three years. XXXI. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. which flows for 195 km across northern Tadzhikistan. 1-25. according to the Memorandum of Understanding signed between the Government of Tajikistan (GOT) and the Government of Pakistan (GOP) in early May. Akdzhilga and Muzkol rivers in the eastern Pamirs which carry their water into Lake Karakul and into the Markansu River. the Amu Darya basin includes the Pianzh River. with its tributaries. with the greatest density occurring in mountainous regions. all of which feed the Amu Darya. In this paper. 93 percent of the territory is covered by mountains. The President of Tajikistan. Almost all the rivers belong to the basins of the Amu Darya. 125-133. He emphasised that Punjab is meeting agricultural needs of the whole country with 90 per cent of cotton being produced in the Punjab province. Pakistan partly agreed to import two billion Kilowatt Hydroelectricity from Tajikistan. and Aksu belong to the basin of the Syr Darya. The only exceptions are the small Karadzhilga. AS A PPEARED IN D AILY “T HE N EWS ” ON 21 J UNE 2004 For meeting growing energy demand.495 M at Qullai Kommunizm. “Occupying three-fourths of the country’s area. The lowest point is 300 M at Sar Darya and the highest point is 7. Rivers System: The river system of Tajikistan is uneven. a bird eye view is given in order to understand the proposed project. May 2004 “D RAWBACKS OF E LECTRICITY I MPORT FROM T AJIKISTAN ”. Is the import of electricity or electrical power justified or not. and the Kafirnigan River. Syr Darya and Zeravshan. He said the bilateral ties in the fields of commerce and trade would further be enhanced between Pakistan and Tajikistan in future. Vol. having a long-term impact on socioeconomic development of both countries. Pakistan: Tajikistan GDP was US $ 6 billion in 1998 and has experienced a civil war after the collapse of USSR. Issue.

possessing many times excessive potential of hydroelectricity than its requirements.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 69 one-tenth of the country’s area.” (Dr. The rivers are used for irrigation & to generate hydroelectric energy. are fed by glaciers and snow. The North West Frontier Province (NWFP) The NWFP has also huge hydroelectricity potential like Nas. Kunhar. ASC (CA) Peshawar University).000 Sq. in the Northern Areas and the NWFP. Afghanistan. Khalid Saeed. bordering the Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. Ministry of Science and Technology are engaged in exploitation of the untapped resources of hydel power in NWFP. There are tentatively 30. miles situated at the meeting point of Karakorm. The Nas has total area of 27. those fed chiefly by snow have a maximum discharge in May and June. and groundwater and have their greatest discharge from March to May. Punjab and Sindh also possess huge hydel potential of rivers and extensive canals system. FATA. In the public sector. Kabul etc flow in the area. WAPDA. The major rivers of the area are Astore. PWD Northern Areas is working in this far flung areas to exploit the potential while feasibility reports of a number of planned sites are under conbsideration by the GoP. The rivers are fed chiefly by glaciers have a maximum discharge in July and August. The republic’s 11 known rivers (those flowing for more than 10km) have a hydroelectric potential of 32. rain. Tajikistan has ranking high in terms of absolute reserves of hydroelectric power. Panjkora.000 MW. Himalayan and Hindukush ranges. mini and micro hydroelectric stations. Though no comprehensive survey of the hydel power is conducted due to financial constraints yet the gross potential of the same is estimated as 80. which originate in the high mountains. The slopes of these rivers and streams are high and drop almost 5.000 MW of which a fractional part is exploited. The Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Many perennial streams and rivers like lndus. SHYDO and PCRET. . Most of the rivers. It can create potential of hydel power around 50. medium. small.000 feet in a distance of more than 240 Km. Swat.000 MW potential of hydroelectricity out of which around 15 percent is exploited which enable this province for supplying energy to other parts of the country and is one of the biggest sources of its income. In some parts of the country. Chitral. Pakistan Hydroelectricity Potential: Pakistan is one of the luckiest countries of the world. Hunza and Gilgit which like numerous perennial streams fall into the Indus. The rivers that rise in the middle elevations or lower are fed predominantly by snow-belt. Northern Areas (Nas) of Pakistan are situated on the upper mountainous region. creates numerous sites feasible for giant.6 million kilowatts. India and to some extent Tajikistan through Walkhan Corridor. coal powder is sprayed over snow to melt it for meeting water requirements.

High corona losses are also expected in the prevailing circumstances. insulators etc will have to be imported. To keep the lines in order. the detail cost of construction of this power station. Moreover. three picking centres will have to be. control devices.9l per cent from hydel power.per watt at generation point in Tajikistan. The distance between Doshanbe planned Hydel plant which will be the main source of hydroelectricity to Pakistan. In UHVTL. breakers. will cause a great set back to the economy as there will be no alternate line to exist in case of emergency. on which the World Bank is working for establishing grid stations. Assuming. 1/. The only progress made is the feasibility report.8 billion KWh in 1999. Tajikistan wants to construct Roghun Hyclel Power Station which would generate power for exporting to Pakistan and requested the later to help assist in seeking multilateral financial assistance. meters and pricing of power is not yet worked out.2. is more than 500 KM to Chitral. The total production of electricity was 13. implementation of triple 500 KV single circuit transmission line with sub stations will cost Rs. The Project will also take long time to come in shape.09 per cent produced from fossil fuel and 95. The transmission line will have to pass through Pamir-Wakhan-Afghanistan to Chitral which is the world’s most difficult range. According to our rough estimates. established. Electricity consumption was 12. Drawback of the Hydroelectricity Import The project if implemented would be a wonder of the world.555 KWh.555 billion KWh in which 4. If design is not sought out properly then radio interference and communication interference is also possible. The switch gears. any fault if arises. Besides length.70 IPRI Factfile Tajikistan’s Electricity Situation Tajikistan has no surplus electricity to export to Pakistan. High Cost of Electricity Pakistan planned to import 2 billion KW (2 million MW) electricity. Pakistan has no expertise in ultra high voltage line regulation problems because of inductive reactance and capacitive reactance which are also possible. More than 500 KV line is not justified for Pakistan on the ground that only developed countries have its experience in difficult terrain.000 billion. Tajikistan export of electricity was 3. SCTL for high length will be needed in excess. From Tajikistan to Pakistan. Violent weather losses are higher than fair weather losses. 75 million (25+25+25) per Km. transformers. A triple 500 KV single circuit transmission line will require huge domestic and foreign currency. heavy snow fall and land sliding which is a common feature of the area will cause violent weather. . electricity is purchased @ Re. transmission line. Tajikistan also expects US $ 500 million in credit from Pakistan to generate resources for the project.8 billion KWh against import of 2. it will cost Rs. UHV is costly than 500 KV SCTL.

Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006)


heavy recurring expenditures on the look after, sure and reliable transmission of electricity will be required which will increase its cost of delivery.

Insecure Project
Importing of electricity via Wakhan is said to be insecure on geographical and climatic reasons. From defence point of view, it is not desired to import hydroelectricity as India is also situated near the Pak-border. Peace in Afghanistan will take time to come. The transmission line from Tajikistan will cross the area near China. Tajikistan has most of the boundary with China in dispute and there are territorial disputes between Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. Any act of sabotage from anti-project elements will create lot of disturbance in Tajikistan and Pakistan by disrupting the electricity import. Importing of hydroelectricity from Tajikistan will not help in stopping upward revision of power tariff and politically harmful. Increasing employment opportunities; reducing high inflation and alleviating poverty from the project could not be expected. Almost all enterprises, particularly small and medium will be further squeezing and the number of sick industrial units will increase. In these circumstances, we proposed construction of own multi purposed dams, feasible sites of which are existing in Pakistan.

Economy of Indigenous Generation of Hydroelectricity
In our opinion, Pakistan should generate its own hydroelectricity by constructing big, small, mini and micro level plants at the existing feasible sites, appropriate and above all, non controversial. If resources are mobilized, WAPDA, SHYDO and PCRET can play pivotal role in generation, transmission and distribution of cheap power for the development of industries, agriculture, commerce, construction, mining and household sectors. Increase in indigenous generation of hydroelectricity will lessen burden on conventional and non-conventional sources of energy and store water for irrigation purpose. More or less all feasible sites are situated in the areas where due to non availability of employment resources, masses are approaching to natural resources and very ruthlessly exploiting it, mostly forests reflecting on our plains in shape of heavy floods, destruction of which needs no explanation. Heavy losses of forest impact heavily in degradation of environment and can control through providing employment opportunities by installation of hydel plants. Hydroelectric stations can bring prosperity and alleviate poverty not only in hilly areas but in the plains also by providing cheap electricity, boosting trade and protecting masses from heavy floods. Basha, is one of the site, most feasible for the purpose. There, at the cost of Rs. 290 billion we can get 23.82 billion KWh in one year apart from other benefits.


IPRI Factfile

GOP Future Role in Electricity Generation
The GOP is fully aware of the importance of hydroelectricity. Initial report on Skardu dam is being prepared while feasibility study of Akori dam is under progress. Feasibility report of the Basha dam would be completed in June, current year. Letter of interest for Manda dam has been signed on May 11, 2004 and the President of Pakistan is expected to announce work on one of the big dam next month. WAPDA has planned to construct 33 dams/stations on rivers besides a number of schemes are under consideration on canal network. The GoP is also upgrading Mangla dam. If a few planned dams are constructed by WAPDA, Pakistan will have no need of importing hydroelectricity. If 50 percent ‘of the existing potential is exploited, not only the national requirements will be met but the export of hydel power to neighbouring countries would be possible. Dependence on hydroelectricity import is neither prestigious nor beneficial for Pakistan. Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, in 1948, described shortage of electricity as the major hurdle in establishing sound agricultural and industrial base. He emphasized on the generation of own hydroelectricity instead of importing from India which was 36 percent of the total electricity consumption of Pakistan those days. The author is the Deputy Director of Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies, Peshawar and the opinion expressed in this paper are of the author and do not imply on the part of the Government of Pakistan.
(The author is Deputy Director, PCRET) Foreign Affairs Pakistan, Vol. XXXI, Issue, VI-A, 11-30 pp. 347-353, June 2004

It was popularly believed that Afghanistan given the dynamism, hard work and innovative spirit of the people will surge forward rapidly after the overthrow of the Taliban, appears to have bogged down in problems. Not only it has yet to achieve financial and political stability but to deal with the myriad forces that threaten its national unity. Running the government poses the biggest challenge. The unfairly perceived domination of the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan remains a vexatious issue along with the Pukhtoon majority posing another problem. Jamiat, the powerful faction in the Karzai government, is opposed to monarchy, although the former king who returned from exile soon after the Taliban were eliminated does not want kingship and seeks to reunite and serve his country as Father of the Nation. After the Loya Jirga and the passing of Afghan Constitution in June 2003, preparations are afoot for elections in October 2004. Nearly 8.6 million Afghans out of nearly 11 .6 million are registered as voters and despite opposition from Taliban

Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006)


elements there is great interest amongst women voters. Apparently, the US seems to be in Afghanistan and the Gulf for a long haul. As long as Osama. bin Laden and Taliban network is not completely dismantled, the US-Pak relations will most likely endure; however according to Stephen P. Cohen, the US support to President Musharraf is only “a short term arrangement” and the new administration in the US will not bring any meaningful changes in US policies. On the worst side, fears of Afghanistan breaking up into semi autonomous regions dominated by regional warlords remains a possibility, if the US decides to make a quick exit. Some U.S. leaders and analysts have alluded to Marshall-type reconstruction plan for Afghanistan. This seems an idealistic view. For one thing, Afghanistan is not Europe and is not tied to West by any Anglo-Saxon links. It is one of the most backward, fractious countries in the world and resistant to change. From its territory, unprecedented terrorist acts were launched on the US mainland, which provoked U.S. to undertake military reprisals. Besides, the West has short attention span and donor fatigue syndrome is evident. For the last three years, the U.S. and its allies are busy hounding out the Taliban Al-Qaeda remnants in the south and south eastern regions of Afghanistan; the adjoining Pakistan’s tribal belt is another “wild west” and a haven for these elements; and unless the warlords are controlled, demobilised and disarmed, national army and police raised, any chances of relief, reconstruction and investment will remain a utopia. That is why NATO now wants to beef up the number of ISAF peacekeeping forces. What are prospects of gas and oil pipelines? Firstly, they are still statements of intent. The Afghan government will have to muster financial resources to build pipelines, the plants needed to turn natural gas into liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and to improve the harbour facilities for LPG tankers. The UNOCAL and BRIDAS litigation deterred many U.S. companies to invest, as they are worried about the instability of Afghanistan and even South Asia. ISAF will have to apportion separate funds for the defense of these pipelines, as approximately 700-800 km of these will run through Afghanistan. This all depends if the ISAF is there for a long haul in the region and increases its present force level. In Afghanistan, gas imports need to be supplemented by development of their own gas deposits in Mazar-e-Sharif region. As for Pakistan, it had too has potential gas fields and deposits that are not enough and will need gas in the next quarter of the century. Some energy-deficient East Asian countries may also welcome early building and completion of the pipeline systems. After all, after the demise of the Soviet Union many foreign companies were trooping in Islamabad to explore the possibility of passage of Central Asian oil to South Asia and onwards to the Far East. If the security of these pipelines is underwritten, certain countries of Southeast and East Asia, including Japan and South

in construction and rehabilitation of Afghanistan. transportation and infrastructure sectors. official meetings and communiqués for the last decade. it will need a peaceful Afghanistan and trouble free borders with that country.74 IPRI Factfile Korea. Pakistan and Afghanistan. closely allied with the West against terrorism like theirs. Mutual Pak-Afghan trade is expected to reach Rs one billion in this year. Pakistan has already “missed the Central Asian bus”. including the tribal belt. could not avail the opportunity for any meaningful collaboration. Since the independence of the CARs in the early 1990s. trade. According to some analysts. Pakistan and Afghanistan share cultural and religious ties. Some may argue that the US military presence and Russian influence in “near abroad” act as major constraints. Peshawar. the CARs have to do their bit and make energetic efforts to open up and outreach South Asia. On their part. Afghanistan has to rely on Pakistan for transshipment of incoming and outgoing cargo. Many of these countries are planning to opt for LPG for coal in view of rising threat of pollution. If normalcy and stability does not return to Afghanistan soon. it is high time for the guns in Afghanistan not only to “rest” but also to “rust” away so that the benighted country is finally wrested away from the incubus of fratricidal war. They have to shed away their past inhibitions and accept Pakistan’s new geo-strategic role in the region . Reiterating pious hopes. two ECO members. Pakistan is but one of the many powerful players on the big canvas and is faced with serious limitations. Pakistan can contribute.430 km. Lahore. Hence. any new network of pipelines or trade routes will bypass or ignore the region for better alternatives. In other words. if Gwadar has to become an entry port in the region. may also agree to finance these projects. serious homework has to be done to bring peace to Pakistan’s tribal regions and by Afghans leadership to restore harmony in their country. In the meantime. however. waves of migrations took place to Pakistan and nearly half of the country was displaced by forced migration to neighbouring countries. Quetta and other parts of the country. rhapsodizing over historical-cum religious connections and harping on tantalising future business prospects with the CARs have become the staple of seminars. as this is the only way to unlock the riches of Central Asia. But the region is vast with immense potential and given good . present opportunities if still grasped could open up prospects with the region or else the CAR-Pak nexus will be reduced to a mere pipedream. albeit modestly. Realistically. Afghanistan has remained mired in conflict. Should it be successful. especially in housing. As a close neighbour with a common border of about 2. In the aftermath of September 11. The Afghan refugees have compounded socioeconomic problems in urban cities. Central Asia and Pakistan must keep on vigorously pursing the peace option in Afghanistan. it is going to be a “win-win game” for the entire region. such as Karachi.

it is the “Afghan corridor” that is still blocking Pakistan’s physical access to the CARs. there is a dire need in setting its political house in order by co-opting major political parties and regaining the trust and goodwill of Afghans through trade. The News. the latter should leave no stone unturned in combating international terrorism. Afghanistan and the CARs that will gain the most but also the rest of countries of the Subcontinent.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 75 circumstances and sound planning. in Balochistan.” Central Asia is no longer the “black hole” of the globe as once claimed. Pak-CAR relations could still be jumpstarted. . Yet it holds the ultimate key for Pakistan to gain access to the CARs.” This is different from the told “Great Game. Pakistan’s Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz. which is endowed with natural resources and has assumed importance in the changed world after 9/11. The writer is Senior Research Fellow Islamabad Policy Research Institute (IPRI) Maqsoodul Hasan Nuri. Therefore. building a sound infrastructure along Pakistan-Afghan border and cleansing its own fractious tribal belt of foreign militants. and. Should that eventuate. The Prime Minister emphasized that the Gwadar port. assistance and policy of non-interference. the war-tossed Afghanistan remains a major stumbling block. At the same time. 23 August 2004 A N A PPRAISAL OF T HE V ISIT OF P RIME M INISTER S HAUKAT A ZIZ TO T AJIKISTAN : I SLAMABAD . only its unblocking will materialize the connectivity with South and Southeast Asia. In the final analysis. diversify links with the world outside and reduce its dependence upon Russia and the US. it is Pakistan.” of 19th century as now the internal dynamics in the CARs necessitate that the region should open up. While regional and international circumstances have no doubt conspired against Pakistan. There are opportunities in the region and there is enough economic space in the energy-rich untapped “Stans. who called on President Rahmonov on the eve of Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) summit. discussed a wide range of options with the Tajik president to enhance economic interaction. 15 S EPTEMBER 2004 Pakistan and Tajikistan have agreed to increase economic cooperation and in this regard have decided to establish a road linking both countries. Unfortunately. This is a good augury for the development of this region. vice versa. all efforts need to be focused to prise open this passage to gain access to the ex-Soviet republics. and it was early 1990s that it burst upon the international scene as an object of “New Great Game. could serve as transit for Tajikistan’s trade with the Gulf and other countries.

the spin-offeffects of the war have affected these states.76 IPRI Factfile It was agreed that the joint economic commission of the two countries would meet soon to build on the goodwill generated by Mr.3. Tajikistan is presently transacting trade with the outer world through the ports of Iran and Georgia.2 million in 2000-1. That the region comprising Pakistan. while it imported goods worth $421. Exports to Afghanistan stood at $492.7 million the previous year. they command and for the economic prosperity the utilization of this wealth could bestow to their people. His talks in Tajikistan prior to the ECO meeting seemed to be part of this policy. which is tipped as the world’s economic giant in the future. The Central Asian Republics bordering the Caspian Sea are known for their fabulous reserves of oil and gas. Both States ought to take matching steps to translate this goodwill into tangible gains. Pakistan exported goods worth $218 8 million to Turkey against $146.9 million as against $315. This fact gives added significance to Pakistan’s geographical advantage into economic gains.500 km away. is on a trade expansion mode: which means it would also be looking towards Pakistan for opening up to the world. Aziz’s visit of Tajikistan and his talks with the Tajik leadership. The energy dependence of the world economies requires these reserves to be linked to the international markets through a reliable trade route that avoids its passage through Iranian or Russian territory. Pakistan offers that safe passage through the Gwadar port. Islamabad exported goods worth $6. Pakistan exports to Kazakhstan stood at $9 million. Pakistan’s exports to ECO during the year under review stood at $26 million.6 million. Afghanistan and the Central Asian Republics has become a pivotal spot in the world after Sept 11 cannot be gainsaid. But at the same time.000 km from Dushanbe. Given that Pakistan’s export to Tajikistan are expected to reach $50 million in a couple of years and that Pakistan and Tajikistan are desirous of working closely to explore new avenues for increasing economic links. whereas Pakistani ports . This realization stems from the fact of the wealth of oil and gas. So.are just 2.4 million with ECO member countries in 2003-4. Mr. Pakistan exported goods worth $92. Shaukat Aziz’s Tajik deliberations on bilateral trade as well as diplomatic relations were most adequate. While Afghanistan was the direct target of this war.Karachi and Gwadar . etc.6 million . which offer a viable alternative as a source of energy for the global economy. China. This brings us to the ECO. these States seem to have realized the need for closing their ranks. which are at a distance of 5. showing a trade surplus of over $404. establishing links through road and ports could accrue benefits to both Pakistan and Tajikistan. This is where Pakistan enters the equation. Pakistan achieved a trade surplus of $404.4 million to Iran during the year 2003-4 against $63.4 million.

In pursuit of this objective.3m worth goods exported to Turkmenistan.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 77 to Kyrgyzistan during the year as against $1. Pakistan is making progress on the economic front.5 million the previous year. The four-day visit to the landlocked but energy-rich states also helped consolidate Pakistan’s political and diplomatic relations with them. which entails immense benefits for the country in every respect.2m. He has always stressed upon the imperative of attaining economic prowess. IX. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. $0. The effort to bring India into the loop by initiating talks on all conflicts afflicting both countries is an expression of the same wish. Pakistan’s desire to instill life into SAARC and its entry into the forums like ARF are pointers to the same policy. This is due to the policies adopted by Pakistan after Sept 11. AII this goes to validate Prime Minister Shaukat’s Aziz’s policy of refurbishing links with these countries with the aim of establishing a viable regional economic bloc. for the world is moving towards setting of regional economic blocs. Sep 2004 A N A PPRAISAL OF T HE P RESIDENT ’ S V ISIT A SIAN S TATES TO C ENTRAL Islamabad: 12 March 2005 President General Pervez Musharraf’s “journey of friendship and cooperation” to Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan once again spotlighted Pakistan’s vital geostrategic location as the Central Asian states affirmed a keen desire to have trade corridor to global markets through the South Asian country’s seaports. Aziz. During his talks with the Tajik president. Issue. XXXI. Vol.3m worth goods to Tajikistan during the same period against $0. which the President said would pave the way for much greater trade and economic cooperation. pp. Aziz has played a crucial role in it by using the fiscal room afforded to the country by the debt rescheduling and world market access. Pakistan needs to place maximum premium of links with the countries in its neighborhood. especially the countries adjacent to it. Prime Minister Aziz has expressed his intention to resolving all problems stunting the relations between two countries. an increase of 50 per cent: and $1. Mr. he has worked tirelessly towards reforming Pakistani economy and extending it by linking it with outer world. increase of 340 per cent. he reiterated the centrality of the issue of Kashmir. but of course not at the cost of the central issue of J&K. 261-264. an. “We will underpin the close political and diplomatic ties with a vibrant . The talks in Tajikistan are a continuation of Pakistan’s economic rejuvenation process set in motion by Mr. the ECO summit could provide more such opportunities for Pakistan to expand its trade.

The two presidents also signed a joint statement on forging cooperation in the fight against the menace. We view construction of Gwadar sea port as very significant in terms of advancing trade ties. In fact. Particularly.78 IPRI Factfile trade relationship” President Musharraf said in Kyrgyz capital Bishkek as a series of agreements in the diplomatic. prospects of a commerce corridor via Pakistan become brighter with each passing day the Uzebk President maintained. The two sides also formed a joint working group that will look into the feasibility of transporting electricity from Kyrgyzstan to Pakistan. President Islam Karimov told a joint press Conference after formal talks in Tashkent that a day is not distant when Uzbekistan would transport its major products through Gwadar.” Akaev told newsmen. the President’s policies and firm actions against foreign terrorists. In respect of expandjng regional trade and economic cooperation. On the political side. information and education fields lent substance to the country’s bilateral ties with the two countries. who had taken refuge in country’s tribal region. the visit remained a success for Pakistan as President Musharraf’s counterparts in both countries expressed their deep appreciation for Islamabad’s unstinted fight against international terrorism. whose country is one of the major exporters of cotton and fruits in the region. which will connect his country to Korakoram Highway. In Bishkek. “We are eagerly looking forward to have trade access to worldwide markets through Pakistan. His emphasis on friendship and cooperation in the fast-changing world for the well being of the people of both countries received wide support . bordering Afghanistan. were forthright and emphatic in developing a proper infrastructure and making use of Karachi and Gwadar deep sea ports to the common benefit of all. President Musharraf used the opportunity to reiterate Islamabad’s position that it is against all forms and manifestations of terrorism and could not allow any Uzbek to use its territory for activities against the interests of Uzbekistan.” said the Uzbek leader. President Askar Akaev went a step further. Their deep interest in trade through Pakistan ports symbolized the growing realization in Central Asia that Pakistan is the country. were viewed with great satisfaction. which promised to be hub and gateway of regional trade in the near future. With things looking up in terms of peace and stability in Afghanistan. Karimov observed. responding to President Musharraf’s call for transit trade. the President highlighted the need for revitalizing the Economic Cooperation Organization and said all member countries have to come forward to realize this object. The leaders of the two Central Asian countries. saying Kyrgyzstan is already in the process of building in a road between their capital and southern city of Osh.

Also on the political side. In Uzbekistan.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 79 in Tashkent. expressing the country’s opposition to creation of more centers of privilege at the Security Council. as it violates the basic principle of sovereign equality of nations. President Musharraf and Akaev reported a complete commonality of views on major regional and international issues as the Pakistani leader briefed him about Islamabad’s position on various issues including dialogue process with India for resolution of lingering Jammu and Kashmir dispute and other issues. During the meetings. III. pp. On the diplomatic front. Karimov and Akaev. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. will coordinate its efforts with the Central Asian nations in this regard. the President also spelt out Pakistan’s stance on the UN reforms. he said. Pakistan’s vital contribution to revitalizing the OIC and its efforts for establishment of peace and stability and in Afghanistan received warm recognition from the two leaders situated in the north of the war-hit country. ECO and UN reforms with Uzbak President Islam Karimov and Kyrgyzstan President Askar Akayev. March 2005 P AK -U ZBEKISTAN -K YRGYZSTAN T IES President Pervez Musharaf’s tour of the two Central Asian States was successful as there was unanimity of views on regional and international issues including OIC. the focus was on strengthening economic and trade ties between the countries having linkages of faith and geography and also common cultural heritage. Issue. The President’s visit was also marked by tremendous goodwill the common people outpoured during his visits to historical sites in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan including mausoleum of great Islamic scholar Hazarat Imam Bokhari and hometown of Zaheeruddin Babar. XXXII. Vol.141-44. Pakistan. which will ensure institutional . President Pervez Musharraf while expressing determination to jointly fight terror and extradite terrorists to the country of origin said: “We ought to have a very effective extradition treaty. the founder of Mughal dynasty in the Subcontinent. He thanked the Central Asian leaders for their understanding and support on the key South Asian dispute. The Central Asian media also attached great importance to the Pakistani leader’s visit as the regional media covered his meetings and press interactions extensively. Presidents. also expressed admiration and support for Pakistan’s efforts aimed at steering the Muslim world out of its present turmoil and in this context warmly appreciated President Musharraf’s strategy of Enlightened Moderation as a way forward.

he said the prospects of Central Asian trade through Pakistan look bright. which comprises Russia. In view of the geopolitical situation and current world political scenario whereby Muslim countries are looked upon as places that engender terrorism. He also appreciated Pakistan for offering access to its seaports. Nursultan Nazarbayev visited Pakistan and had one-on-one meeting with President Pervez Musharraf. And remember that strong economy is a prerequisite for strong defence. Iran and Central Asian Republics. it is imperative for Muslim countries to develop strong economies through cooperation. as it reflected positively on our relations with other countries of the region. and cooperation between the Associated Press of Pakistan and its Kyrgyz counterpart KABAR. cultural. historical and economic ties over centuries. Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In Kyrgyzstan. it therefore follows that a sovereign. And also because of its principle city-port . China. With peace and stability gaining strength in Afghanistan. It was rightly so due to Pakistan’s strategic position. Pakistan and Kazakhstan had set-up a Joint Ministerial-Economic Commission.80 IPRI Factfile arrangement on extraditing any terrorist to our respective countries”. it was important to strengthen bilateral relations with the brotherly country. independent and stable Afghanistan is not only in the interest of Pakistan but also in the interest of the entire region. which had first met in 1993 but no progress could be made due to chaotic conditions in Afghanistan. and it looks forward to having access to world markets through Pakistani ports — Karachi and Gwadar. Afghanistan and Central Asian countries should remember that they are bound with each other through religious. President Pervez Musharraf expressed the desire that Pakistan would like to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) and asked Krimov’s support for Pakistani membership in this regional organization. cooperation between the two ministries of education. Kazakhstan. For Pakistan. which is confluence and meeting point between Sinkiang of China. Pakistan had espoused a lot of expectations for establishing an ideal relationship with Central Asian States that became independent countries after collapse of the Soviet Union. In December 2003. encouraging private sector and easing the visa regime between the two countries. President Askar supported Pakistan’s vital role in the fight against terrorism. They had discussed ways and means to augment the multifaceted relations and to benefit from each other’s experience. Iran. and the concept of enlightened moderation. The Uzbek President said his country views Pakistan’s central geo-strategic location as very significant. Kyrgyzstan. The three pacts relate to visa-free regime for the holders of diplomatic and official passports. the two leaders stressed strengthening of their ties by developing communication links. There can be no two opinions that the most logical and viable route for trade with Central Asian countries is Afghanistan.

and the situation obtaining. is a huge country with a billion population and a sound industrial base. or from India’s interference in the internal affairs of those countries. Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz has also recently visited Iran when Iran wished to be a part of the SAARC — Unfortunately. They are likely to save tremendous sums because if they import from Europe they have to pay higher prices and extra freight due to longer distances. Some political analysts are of the view that Iran and Afghanistan have excellent relations with India. India. Recently. which is in a way good for the region. it would help restoring the sense of proportion so far as India is concerned. therefore. It goes without saying that all the countries would benefit from mutual trade and cooperation and also from the import and export of their products. There is a perception that India’s lust for big power status clouds the prospects of unity among the South Asian nations. Since India would benefit most from cooperation. the SAARC — a relative newcomer among regional groupings—has so far proved a non-starter since 1985. the Kashmir dispute between India and Pakistan has stymied the progress. The SAARC summits have been postponed at least five times in the past due to unilateral decision by India. It was also because of the obscurantist elements rushing to those countries presenting distorted version of Islam preaching militancy. Should China become member of the SAARC. But the civil warlike conditions in Afghanistan the progress could not be made. when President Hamid Karzai visited New Delhi. if Iran and Afghanistan were accepted in SAARC’s fold it would tend to reduce the asymmetry to some extent. which was scheduled to be held at Dhaka. And of course other countries of the SAARC also have problems with India because of the contiguity of their borders. However. it should take initiative in resolving its disputes with the neighbours and give practical demonstration to deal with them respecting their sovereignty. The problem is that India’s population is many times more than the populations of other six countries of the region put together. on the pretext of security concern in Dhaka. India. indeed. Bangladesh.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 81 Karachi — the closest trading port for this region. in neighbouring Nepal. but . India’s criticism on the dismissal of Prime Minister of Nepal by the king describing it ‘a severe blow democracy’ was a case in point. As a matter of fact. was dismayed when Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh expressed his inability to attend the 13th SAARC Summit. the latter had expressed the desire to join SAARC. already embittered over India’s river diversion plan. as trade among the seven members accounts for less than 6 percent ot their total trade. which they abhorred and felt unsecured. The disputes emanated either from India’s decision to build dams on the rivers. which was a convenient route for their trade with the Western and other countries. has to improve its image and give practical demonstration that it will deal with other nations on the basis of equal sovereignty.

Former President of Kyrgyzstan Askar Akayev visited Pakistan in early 2005. and the things could move towards creating a union on the pattern of European Union. China would also like to join SAARC. But India will have to resolve the issues with all the neighbouring countries including the Kashmir dispute with Pakistan. With their presence. Having said all. Vol. Although Central Asian States are land-locked and dependent on other regional partners for export purposes but still all eyes are set on central Asian States. All of these three countries are getting close to Central Asian States and they geared up their trade.82 IPRI Factfile Pakistan has some genuine concerns with regard to India’s RAW operating from those countries to destabilise the adjacent Pakistani provinces. This finds ample reflection in our exchanges of high level visits with these brotherly countries. As the story goes. The centuries old ties of shared culture. In these visits of different years. growing potential for a multi-dimensional cooperation and geographic proximity give Central Asia a distinctive place in Pakistan’s foreign policy. President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev visited Pakistan in June 1992. if Iran and Afghanistan become members of the SAARC. Countries such as India. President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov visited Pakistan in August 1992. Pakistan and Afghanistan welcomed new millennium with redefined goals and objectives. they would contribute towards creating balance in the organisation. Issue. President of Tajikistan Imomali Rehmanov visited Pakistan in April 1994. India might change its attitude otherwise it is likely to stand exposed. Joint Economic Commissions . Moreover. a number of agreements have been signed covering the areas as trade and tourism. The Central Asian Republics have become more importance now. The Caspian Sea in Central Asia contains the world’s largest untapped oil and gas resources. Pakistan has also developed institutionalized arrangement to promote cooperation in the economic and commercial fields. Foreign Affairs Pakistan. The historical movement of people between Central Asia and South Asia has contributed to Pakistan’s ethnic and cultural outlook. March 2005 P AKISTAN AND C ENTRAL A SIA With the opening up of the Central Asian Republics. and if that could happen it would present a different scenario. III. Although Pakistan’s ties with Central Asia have gathered strength since the independence of the Central Asian Republics and Pakistan was among the first few countries to recognize these States and establish diplomatic missions there but Pakistan’s links to Central Asia go back to ancient times.300-303. XXXII. President of Turkmenistan Superamurad Nizyov visited Pakistan in August 1994. cultural and economic cooperation. the whole geo-political scenario has changed. pp. in the strategy of the world.

Bilateral meetings on the sidelines offer a closer focus on bilateral relations. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan provides transit trade facility through Karakoram Highway. It has. banking and accountancy to diplomacy. The Trans-Afghanistan pipeline would export Turkmen gas (from Dualtabad gas field) via Afghanistan to Pakistan. Murghab Kulma Road from Tajikistan to China linking by Karakoram Highway to Pakistan is also a good step. In the early 1990’s the Pakistani dream of a common market through ECO did not materialize due to continued instability in Afghanistan. China. Pakistan is also offering Central Asian Republic’s access to sea through Gwadar Port. Exchange of high-level visits has been an important aspect of relations between Pakistan and the Central Asian Republics. It is also hoped such a project would boost regional economic ties and pave the way for further foreign investment. Turkmenistan and Pakistan have decided to push ahead with plans for the ambitious 1. Development of transport and communications network linking Pakistan to Central Asia is still in progress. With improved regional security after the fall of the Taliban. Central Asian Republics such as Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan played a useful role in . Afghanistan. it provides a good opportunity for the Heads of State and Government to meet. which are fully funded. These have contributed to better understanding and closer cooperation. played an important role in integrating efforts to realize the project. Pakistan and Central Asian States are also the members of Economic Cooperation Organization. Another quadrilateral agreement between Pakistan. Priority is also given to road and rail links and related facilities for a more effective and mutually beneficial access to Central Asia. The laying of railway tracks from Turkmenistan to Pakistan via Afghanistan is an important part of it. Pakistan’s relations with the Central Asian Republics have made good progress during the past few years. Pakistan wishes to keep up the momentum. The Program includes courses ranging from English language.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 83 (JECs) have been established with all the Central Asian States. Under a Special Technical Assistance Programme (STAP) initiated in 1992-3 Pakistan provided training facilities. It will boost the transit trade between Pakistan and the Central Asia.500-kilometre-long gas pipeline. in addition to financial and technical assistance. On the other hand Pakistan’s overall trade with the Shinghai Cooperation Organization is around $2 billion. The leaders of the three countries have signed a framework agreement (The Trans Afghanistan Pipeline). from where it could reach world markets. Pakistan’s combined trade with the rest of the Central Asian States is merely $26m. Pakistan has also played a role of an observer in SCO. The Asian Development Bank is the leading coordinating partner. Proponents of the project see it as a modern continuation of the Silk Road. Now it is expected that Shinghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) will promote the free flow of trade merchandise.

PRAGUE. Tajikistan had some reservations about Pakistan’s entry due to alleged support to militancy. Uzbek authorities have also complained that their Pakistani counterparts do not grant them access to dead or captured Uzbek militants. Relations have been strained in recent years by Uzbek perceptions that Islamabad is not doing enough to fight suspected terrorists. This will provide leverage for opening up of bilateral and multilateral cooperation with the Central Asian Republics. On New Delhi's Heels Ahmed Rashid is a Pakistani-based expert on Central Asia and terrorism.Much of the current tension between Uzbekistan and Pakistan surrounds the IMU -.which Karimov regards as a major threat to Uzbek security. Pakistani security forces hunting Al-Qaeda fighters have since killed or captured a handful of IMU militants. in June thought to be alive and hiding in Pakistan. today concludes his first official trip to Pakistan in 14 years. In turn President Musharraf was formally invited in the sixth summit of SCO to take place in Shinghai. in a series of meetings in February 2006 with Chinese officials and media. <http://pakobserver. including remnants of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU) in remote regions of Pakistan. and some IMU loyalists have been extradited to Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan’s fight against Muslim Terrorism and quest for port facilities become the cause to support Pakistan’s membership and an esteemed Pakistan Observer. 2006 (RFE/RL) -. Ms Sarwat of Uzbekistan's most-wanted fugitives -. but security and counterterrorism have not been far from the surface. Islam Karimov. Business and trade were the subject of many of the agreements signed during this visit.84 IPRI Factfile helping Pakistan’s entry into the SCO. and they signed an agreement on combating terrorism. Karimov and Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf discussed security on May 2.asp?txt=Pakistan%20and% 20central%20Asia> U ZBEKISTAN : P RESIDENT K ARIMOV C OURTS P AKISTAN B OOST S ECURITY . 13 April 2006. Hundreds of fighters from the IMU are believed to have settled in Pakistan's tribal region of Waziristan after the downfall of the hard-line Taliban in neighboring Afghanistan in late 2001. May 3. the President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf argued in favour of Pakistan’s qualifications to join the organization as a full member. T RADE TO Uzbekistan's president. He suggested Karimov probably raised concerns about IMU encroachments and . Anyhow. But IMU leader Tahir Yuldosh -.

Karimov evicted U. They include . commercial. and foreign trade. He went to China last year.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 85 related security issues with Pakistani officials. as well as his central-bank chief. and drilling rights in Kazakhstan [and] in Azerbaijan." A Pakistani Foreign Ministry information officer. and European Union calls for an independent probe into his government's deadly crackdown in Andijon a year ago." Musharraf said. and we offered openly the use of our communication network in Pakistan and our ports at Gwadar and Karachi for the access of Uzbek trade and interaction with the world. India [will have] an air base in Tajikistan. told RFE/RL that the two sides signed nine agreements in all. and economic relations -." Rashid said.or a battle. gas. at least -.which at the moment are extremely low. recently visited week after talks with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh -. certainly. troops from Uzbek soil in late 2005. "Musharraf is very keen to improve relations with Central Asia.S. "On the bilateral trade side. At the moment. because there is a proxy war -. "The first thing is that he wants to offset the Indian influence in Central Asia. Islamabad would also like to redirect Central Asian trade flows through Pakistani ports. It has very close relations with all the Central Asian states. "There is a great of deal of tension between India and Pakistan regarding Afghanistan and Central Asia. and South Korea. The European Union has introduced a weapons embargo and an entry ban for 12 senior Uzbek security officials. "I am sure the Indians must have given him a lot of intelligence regarding that [counterterrorism].S." Rashid said Pakistan is motivated by its rivalry with India and its desire for access to Central Asian markets. Rashid also said he thinks the timing of Karimov's visit -. Getting Down To Business Pakistani President Musharraf highlighted common goals in the areas of trade and investment. Russia. finance. we showed mutual desire to enhance our trade. It's buying up oil. Nadeem Hotiana. "We expressed a mutual desire of developing communication linkages between our two countries through road and rail network." Karimov's Charm Offensive The Uzbek president is keen to demonstrate that the Uzbek leadership has not been weakened by the souring of relations with the significant. justice. President Karimov has been traveling extensively since Andijon. and hosted the Indian prime minister in Tashkent in April. He has consistently rejected U. Karimov's delegation in Pakistan includes his ministers of foreign affairs.going on between India and Pakistan. Pakistan has very poor relations with the Central Asian republics." Rashid said.

The Speaker said that Pakistan and Uzbekistan wanted peace in Afghanistan and curb terrorism for the promotion of regional and bilateral cooperation in all sectors of the economy.) Gulnoza Saidazimova <http://www. President of Uzbekistan said that bilateral ties between the two countries will be strengthened with every passing He noted that President Pervez Musharraf's vision of enlightened moderation has helped in removing the west's misconception against Pakistan and addition to the counterterrorism agreement. He underlined the need for strengthening of democratic institutions through enhanced interaction between the parliamentarians and intellectuals of the two countries and sharing their experiences. Uzbek President Karimov called his meeting with Musharraf wideranging. The Speaker also apprised the Uzbek President about strengthening of democratic institutions in Pakistan.P AKISTANI S PEAKER Speaker National Assembly Chaudhry Amir Hussain has said that Pakistan values high its relations with Uzbekistan and both countries have same stance on all important regional and international issues." With both men eager to open avenues of dialogue and boost their influence in the region. culture. He appreciated the economic progress and stability achieved by Pakistan during the past few years. Speaker National Assembly observed this in a meeting with President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov on Wednesday. small and mid-size business. he said. empowerment of women and masses at the grass root level through the local bodies. Speaking on the occasion.rferl. The economies of both the countries can flourish by increasing cooperation and mutual exchange of experiences in all sectors of the economy. and "open and constructive. religion and geography and both the countries are having deep interest in promoting peace in the region. and agriculture -. He said that two countries have similar history. (RFE/RL's Radio Free Afghanistan correspondent Najib Aamir and Uzbek Service correspondent Farruh Yusupov contributed to this report. The Speaker expressed hope that Mr Karimov's visit to Pakistan will bring two countries closer. During the meeting they discussed matters of mutual interest and exchanged views on different aspects of the ties between two countries. Mr Karimov said that there exists similarity .86 IPRI Factfile deals on bilateral trade. even the slightest thaw relations is likely to be viewed positively from Islamabad and Tashkent.html> P AKISTAN V ALUES H IGH ITS T IES WITH U ZBEKISTAN .

In addition. justice. the Uzbek President has expressed admiration for President Musharraf’s vision of enlightened moderation as a way out of international turmoil. President Karimov also voiced support for Pakistan’s long time efforts to attain full membership of the SCO.turkishweekly. while Pakistan has made a point of keeping the Human Rights issue out of its dialogue with Uzbek officials. though. Some analysts also see the latest visit as an effort to extend bilateral defense cooperation. 2006. Mr Karimov also appreciated President Musharraf's vision of enlightened moderation and said that he enjoys high profile image beyond the boundaries of Pakistan. and Islam Karimov often accused Pakistan of designs on Central Asia given its support for the Taliban movement. 4 May 2006 <http://www. the issue of Afghanistan was a rough edge in the formation of mutually beneficial relations. both sides expressed their desire to expand bilateral commerce and economic relations. Pakistan had an early interest. which possesses huge economic. Uzbekistan and Pakistan view each other as valuable neighbors and are trying to forge improved bilateral trade. .net/news.php?id=31204> U ZBEK P RESIDENT K ARIMOV V ISITS P AKISTAN Uzbekistan’s President Islam Karimov arrived in Pakistan on May 2. Ministers for foreign affairs. He underlined the need for increased interaction between the people of Uzbekistan and Pakistan for economic cooperation. commercial and cultural relations. for a two-day official visit. finance and foreign trade along with the head of the central bank of Uzbekistan accompanied him. Now. Turkish Weekly.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 87 in may aspects of life and intuitions of two countries. sending a 23-member delegation to Uzbekistan in December 1991. both countries have common objectives of peace and stability in Afghanistan. President Musharraf announced that Pakistan would develop rail and road links with the Uzbekistan as part of its efforts to take bilateral trade to new levels and also provide access to Uzbekistan to the world markets through its ports. political and military potential. Uzbek President also emphasized the need for exchanging more Parliamentary delegations between two countries. Background: Diplomatic relations between Pakistan and Uzbekistan were established on May 10. 1992. Uzbekistan supports the Kashmiri’ right of self-determination as set out in the relevant UN Security Council resolutions. On reciprocal basis. During the visit. In the mid-1990s. in the context of establishing durable peace and promoting regional trade. Uzbekistan views Pakistan as a large South Asian state. He underlined the importance of Gawadar port for Uzbekistan and the whole central Asian States besides its advantages for Pakistan. Relations have not been unproblematic. and as a result Pakistan established its embassy in Tashkent in June 1992.

an MoU on cooperation between the Tashkent Islamic University and the International Islamic University of Islamabad. Now both states are looking for cooperation in the field of defence and security. excavators.88 IPRI Factfile Pakistan. Firstly. an MoU on cooperation in food. an agreement on mutual legal assistance in criminal matters. yet Uzbekistan remains heavily dependent on Russia. there are vast areas in which the two states can cooperate and lay the foundation of mutually beneficial economic and political relations. and equipment for the textile and cotton-cleaning industries and weaving machines. In 1998. economic and investment cooperation. which is its biggest trading partner. and secondly through the common platforms of various organizations such as the ECO. when total imports equaled $72 million. This figure fell to $8. an agreement on cooperation between the Chambers of Commerce and Industry of the two countries. but it is interested in developing trade. President Musharraf expressed the mutual desire to develop road and rail links and the use of its seaports to develop commerce with other regions of the world. it is forging economic cooperation by improving bilateral relations. Pakistan and Uzbekistan are also looking for Defense cooperation. and cultural interaction between the two countries. economic and political partnership. cars. Uzbekistan is the only country in Central Asia to produce many metals. and lately rose by over 50 per cent during 2005. motors. is not interested in merely becoming a pipeline or trade route for Central Asian States. Implications: There is a great potential of expansion of trade. For instance.7 million in 2000. for its part. and finally. an agreement on cooperation in the field of plant quarantine. which it already does. a MoU on trade. Therefore Pakistani forces have apprehended Uzbek .S. cranes and lifts. Therefore Pakistan is pursuing a two-fold policy towards Uzbekistan. due to its strategy of ‘transition to a mixed economy’. including in the defense field. Another sphere of mutual relations is the potential construction of a gas pipeline. including an agreement on cooperation in small and private entrepreneurship. an MoU on cooperation in customs and foreign trade. and the second largest exporter after the U. cable products. Pakistan imported cotton for US$53 million from Uzbekistan. Russia provides almost 58 per cent of Uzbekistan’s imports and is the recipient of almost 61 per cent of Uzbek exports. Therefore Pakistan can help Uzbekistan export cotton. President Karimov signed four agreements and six Memoranda of Understanding with Pakistan. hence Uzbekistan has offered the sell or lease aircraft IL-76 and IL-114 aircraft for civil aviation to Pakistan. a protocol on cooperation in combating terrorism. Uzbekistan has sixty times more natural gas than does Pakistan. economic. Uzbekistan is the fourth largest cotton producer in the world. agriculture and livestock. aircraft. SCO etc. They have already signed an extradition treaty during January 2001. Since Uzbekistan is pursuing a policy of diversification. cotton-picking machines and other agricultural technology.

Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 89 terrorists during military operations in Wana. For instance. chromium and lead to Pakistan. then such bureaucratic delays need to be avoided. In comparison with Pakistan’s literacy rate. banks.php?articleid=4244&SMSESSION=NO> . Uzbekistanis looking at Pakistan as reliable security partner after the bitter denouement of its ties with U. Asma Shakir Khawaja. while in return Pakistan can supply textiles. Pakistan even agreed upon intelligence sharing with Uzbekistan to deal with the financial linkages of terrorists. Pakistan can also provide Uzbekistan with technological help and skilled labour. cement. ‘Human capital’ is another area of cooperation as Uzbekistan can provide Pakistan with educated human 31 May 2006 <http://www. President Karimov has assured Mr. professional services and helping each other towards the development of communication links. A project of more immediate interest and practicality was the opening of a Pakistani Commercial Bank in Tashkent. though the government of Uzbekistan had granted a license for the purpose in 1992. Uzbekistan has a more than 95 percent literate population. Uzbekistan has the fifth largest gold deposits in the world and ranks seventh in gold production. iron. Barter trade among them is being discussed to save their foreign exchange. medicines. technocrats and military personnel. shoes. If both states really want to move forward. insurance groups. Despite the political will to improve relations they both need infrastructure and economic support to implement their agenda of cooperation. Central Asia has been termed a potential annual market of US$80 billion. The economies of Pakistan and Uzbekistan are complementary. Musharraf that his country will support the Pakistan’s pledge for the full membership in the SCO. If Pakistan secures only five per cent of that market. it could earn up to US$4 billion per year. That could include establishing business and trade houses. on a reciprocal basis.S. Conclusions: Improved bilateral relations with Uzbekistan are on the priority list of Pakistani decision makers. However. military and telecommunication equipments. electricity. including provisions for tax exemptions. gold. to boost bilateral trade. Pakistan’s importance for the international energy market could imply deeper international interest in its stability and security. As an export route.cacianalyst. Waziristan and handed them over to Uzbek officials. including more than 900 PhDs. garments. they both need to conclude trade agreements. machinery. Pakistan has several times expressed its willingness to curb terrorism and cooperate with Central Asian states through the SCO platform. cotton and such minerals as copper. Uzbekistan can supply gas. The NBP (National Bank of Pakistan) representative office was set up in 1995 in Tashkent but it could not facilitate the opening of a branch till 2005. It can also offer education and training facilities to Uzbek students.

4%.012 km border countries: China 1.90 IPRI Factfile K AZAKHSTAN Background: Native Kazakhs.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66. Ukrainian 3.500 sq km Land boundaries: total: 12. iron ore. state language) 64. and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. German 2.5%.846 km.4%. cobalt. gold.800 sq km water: 47. bauxite.9% (1999 census) Religions: Muslim 47%.233.) Government type: republic. Russian (official. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians. Russian Orthodox 44%.051 km.the government moved from Almaty to Astana in December 1998 .533 km. Russian 30%.4%. Kazakhstan and Russia extended the lease to 2050. Natural resources: major deposits of petroleum. with little power outside the executive branch Capital: Astana. Population: 15.4% male: 99. Russia leases approximately 6.) Ethnic groups: Kazakh (Qazaq) 53.7%.669. coal. other 4.52 years (2006 est. Uzbek 2. copper.note: landlocked. uranium Geography . other 7% Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq.4%. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program.203 km Climate: continental. chrome ore. arid and semiarid Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia. in January 2004.56 years female: 72.717. manganese. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century. designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est. Tatar 1. lead.300 sq km land: 2. zinc. Uygur 1. but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture. Area: total: 2. a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century. authoritarian presidential rule. cold winters and hot summers.000 sq km of territory enclosing the Baykonur Cosmodrome. Protestant 2%. Turkmenistan 379 km.244 (July 2006 est.7%. Uzbekistan 2.89 years male: 61. used in everyday business. Russia 6. Kyrgyzstan 1. Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. note . were rarely united as a single nation.) Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98. natural gas.7% (1999 est.1% female: 97. molybdenum. nickel.

Currency (code): tenge (KZT) http://www.overview: Kazakhstan. and some defense items. from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz oilfield to the Black Sea.cia. possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves and plentiful supplies of other minerals and metals. excluding Russia. the largest of the former Soviet republics in territory. the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV. substantially raised export capacity.9% or more per year in 2002-05 thanks largely to its booming energy sector. NAZARBAYEV (chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 22 February 1990. with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. The breakup of the USSR in December 1991 and the collapse in demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products resulted in a short-term contraction of the economy. In 1995-97. agricultural machinery. The opening of the Caspian Consortium pipeline in It also has a large agricultural sector featuring livestock and grain. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises. improving interethnic relations. Kyrgyzstan achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. but also to economic reform. . Kazakhstan enjoyed double-digit growth in 2000-01 . expansion of democracy and political freedoms. Kazakhstan also has begun work on an ambitious cooperative construction effort with China to build an oil pipeline that will extend from the country's Caspian coast eastward to the Chinese border. elected president 1 December 1991) Economy . resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. good harvests. who had run the country since 1990. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a growing machine-building sector specializing in construction equipment. and foreign investment. The country has embarked upon an industrial policy designed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the oil sector by developing light industry. reduction of corruption.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 91 Independence: 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union) Executive branch: chief of state: President Nursultan A. tractors. and combating terrorism. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAYEV.html K YRGYZSTAN Background: A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions.

tobacco. and high-altitude lakes Population: 5.overview: Kyrgyzstan is a poor.898 (July 2006 est. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance. glaciers.cia. mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Russian Orthodox 20%.8 births/1. many tall peaks. and electricity.9%. entirely mountainous.92 IPRI Factfile Area: total: 198. Uygur 1%.48 years female: 72.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68. Ukrainian 1%.200 sq km Climate: dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan. mercury.) Ethnic groups: Kyrgyz 64. subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley). Economy . Russian (official) Government type: Republic Capital: Bishkek Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union) Executive branch: chief of state: President Kurmanbek BAKIYEV (since 14 August 2005). natural gas. other 5% Languages: Kyrgyz (official).300 sq km water: 7. Uzbek 13. There have been no major security incidents in recent years.000 population (2006 est.7% (1999 census) Religions: Muslim 75%. Kyrgyzstan has been progressive in carrying out market reforms.1%.8%. Kyrgyzstan was the first CIS country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sq km land: 191. dominated by the Tien Shan range. temperate in northern foothill zone Terrain: peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation Geography .5%.49 years male: 64. Industrial exports include gold. which could create jobs and . uranium. wool. although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. and meat are the main agricultural products. and it is now in the process of strengthening its democracy and transitioning to a free market economy after its 1992-1997 civil war.html> T AJIKISTAN Background: Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union.note: landlocked. Dungan 1. Russian 12. such as an improved regulatory system and land reform. Cotton. Currency (code): Soms <http://www.7 years (2006 est. other 5.) Birth rate: 22.

hydropower facilities. brown coal. was the tallest mountain in the former USSR Population: 7. Uzbek 15.6% (2000 census) Religions: Sunni Muslim 85%. some petroleum. and small obsolete factories .1%.320. mild winters. uranium.) Government type: Republic Capital: Dushanbe Independence: 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union) Currency (code): Somoni Economy . other 2. include silver. China 414 km. lead.6% female: 99. other 10% (2003 est. western Fergana Valley in north. highest point.94 years male: 62. Uzbekistan 1. mountainous region dominated by the TransAlay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast. cotton is the most important crop.03 years female: 68 years (2006 est.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 93 increase stability in the long term. Only 6% of the land area is arable. uranium. antimony.206 km. gold.1%. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant.note: landlocked.651 km border countries: Afghanistan 1. Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest Natural resources: hydropower.700 sq km water: 400 sq km Land boundaries: total: 3.1% (2003 est. Russian widely used in government and business Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99. Area: total: 143. mercury.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64.overview: Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. varied but limited in amount.) Languages: Tajik (official).220 sq km (2003) Geography . and tungsten.) Ethnic groups: Tajik 79. gold Irrigated land: 7.3%. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace. Mineral resources. Kyrgyzstan 870 km.) Population growth rate: 2.815 (July 2006 est. Russian 1.9%. Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak).100 sq km land: 142.19% (2006 est. tungsten.161 km Climate: midlatitude continental. silver.4% male: 99. zinc. semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains Terrain: Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape. hot summers. Shi'a Muslim 5%. Kyrgyz 1.

other 6% (2003) Religions: Muslim 89%. salt Geography . Uzbek 9%. with little power outside the executive branch Capital: Ashgabat . The Turkmenistan Government is actively seeking to develop alternative petroleum transportation routes in order to break Russia's pipeline monopoly. other 7% Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 98.43 years female: 65. which occupies over 80% of the country.83 years male: 58. President Saparmurat NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997. authoritarian presidential rule.cia. eastern part is plateau Population: 5.100 sq km land: 488. the western and central low-lying.html> T URKMENISTAN Background: Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885.) Government type: republic. Eastern Orthodox 9%. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production.) Ethnic groups: Turkmen 85%. but experienced a slight drop in its growth rate to 8% in 2005 from 10. Continued privatization of medium and large stateowned enterprises would further increase productivity.94 IPRI Factfile mostly in light industry and food processing. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects were to be expanded.note: landlocked. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. low mountains along border with Iran. unknown 2% Languages: Turkmen 72%. Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1924. desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert. sulfur. Even though 64% of its people continue to live in abject poverty.920 (July 2006 est.41 years (2006 est. Area: total: 488.3% female: 98.3% (1999 est.042.8% male: 99.6% in 2004.100 sq km Climate: subtropical desert Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south. borders Caspian Sea in west Natural resources: petroleum. Russian 12%.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61. Russian 4%. Uzbek 5%. < natural gas.

Privatization goals remain limited. Currency (code): Turkmen manat (TMM) <http://www.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 95 Independence: 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union) Executive branch: chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990. shrinking Aral Sea in west Natural resources: natural gas. Area: Total: 447. Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya. broad. gold.400 sq km land: 425.134 (July 2006 est. one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world Population: 27. Kyrgyzstan 1. semiarid grassland in east Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes. long. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton. petroleum. molybdenum Geography . hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. lead and zinc. tungsten.overview: Turkmenistan is a largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources.621 km Climate: mostly midlatitude desert. which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Kazakhstan 2. coal. mild winters. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure. formerly it was the world's tenth-largest producer. when the first direct presidential election occurred).203 km.221 km border countries: Afghanistan 137 sq km Land boundaries: total: 6.) .html> U ZBEKISTAN Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Poor harvests in recent years have led to an almost 50% decline in cotton exports. uranium.161 km. silver. note .307. Syr Darya (Sirdaryo). Turkmenistan 1. intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies. During the Soviet era.note: along with Liechtenstein. Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform.the president is both the chief of state and head of government. Tajikistan 1. copper.400 sq km water: 22.cia. Economy .099 km. and Zarafshon. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. hot summers.

the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices.5%. and oil. other Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 99.) Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis). when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet) head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYAYEV (since 11 December 2003) cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (previously was a five-year term. and deputy ministers appointed by the president Economy – overview: Uzbekistan is a dry.6% female: 99% (2003 est. other 3% Languages: Uzbek 74.2%.96 IPRI Factfile Life expectancy at birth: total population: 64. Following independence in September 1991. authoritarian presidential rule.) Ethnic groups: Uzbek 80%.html . irrigated river valleys. Tatar 1.) Government type: republic. Tajik 5%.3% male: 99. landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated. with little power outside the executive branch Capital: Tashkent (Toshkent) Independence: 1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union) Executive branch: Chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990. prime minister.5% (1996 est. other 7. Currency (code): Uzbekistani soum (UZS) http://www. Russian 14.19 years female: 68. Kazakh 3%. Russian 5. Tajik 4. extended by constitutional amendment in 2002). More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held in 2007). Other major export earners include gold. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer.58 years male: 61.5%. it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings.5%.4%. Eastern Orthodox 9%.14 years (2006 est.3%. Karakalpak 2.cia. ministers. natural gas.

com .maps.Pakistan and Central Asian States (1992-2006) 97 CENTRAL ASIA @ 1999 MAGELLAN Geographixsm (805) 686-3100www.

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