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UGANDA NATIONAL FARMERS ASSOCIATION Farmers guide series
Raising income through
UGANDA NATIONAL FARMERS ASSOCIATION P.O.BOX 6213, Tel. 256-41-255242, KAMPALA, UGANDA.
UGANDA NATIONAL FARMERS ASSOCIATION - 1999
Written by: Dr. Waiswa, C and Dr. Saamanya, J.P. Afri-Firm Consultants Ltd., P.O.Box 21828, Kampala. For UGANDA NATIONAL FARMERS ASSOCIATION
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.
First published in 1999 by Uganda National Farmers Association No
Printed in Uganda by Uganda National Farmers Association Coordinated, by Alice Eunice Tibazalika Agricultural Advisory Manager
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Uganda National Farmers Association (UNFA) is very grateful to DANIDA fot funding the production of the Farmers Guide Series. We acknowledge the Policy and Resource Committee (PRC) of the Farmers Organisation Component of the Agricultural Sector Programme Support who approved the funds. Ms Alice Eunice Tibazalika Agricultural Advisory Manager, Uganda National Farmers Association is highly commended for initiating and co-ordinating the development of the books. Appreciationlgratitude also goes to Mr. Augustine Mwendya Chief Executive Secretary, Dr. Flemming Eriksen Research and Extension Advisor and Mr. Sylvester Kamanyire Kugonza Coordinator Farmers Organisation Secretariat for their invaluable professional guidance and editing the books. Finally UNFA wishes to thank the farmers and extension workers for providing some of the illustrations used as well as their constructive advice on the drafts.
FOREWORD One of the major functions of Uganda National Farmers Association (UNFA) is to provide agricultural advisory services to lamiers_ This is aimed at increasing farm productivity and production in order to ensure household food security. generation of income and eradication of poverty. Publication of reading materials is one of the ways in which improved agricultural technologies can be extended to farmers. UNFA's agricultural advisory services are demand driven and based on cost recovery. They are implemented by District coordinators, agricultural advisors. extension link farmers and contact farmers. The technologies are introduced to farmers through on-farm demonstrations/trials, courses and visits to special interest groups and individual farmers. However, coverage is still limited due to inadequate resources. To re-enforce these activities, there is need to avail reading materials on specific enterprises of interest to farmers. However, even such materials tailored to their local needs are not readily available. This has contributed to the slow rate of adoption of improved technologies, thus reducing the productivity and production. There has been a growing demand by farmers and private organisations for books that can guide farmers to manage specific enterprises. To address this problem, UNFA has produced farmers' books on improved agricultural technologies with the most up-to-date recommendations in specific disciplines of agriculture. The books are aimed at giving practical guidelines to the farmer on how to manage his or her enterprise profitably. For sustainable production, UNFA encourages all farmers to take on farming as a business. It is advisable that farmers get the relevant training first, and use these books as a reference to re-enforce learning. In addition, they are advised to constantly consult extension workers in their respective areas, as this combination will lead to successes in farming. UNFA, therefore, calls upon all farmers to utilise the information in these books and share it with others so as to cause a multiplier effect in production.
Hon. Maikut Chebet, MP President, Uganda National Farmers Association.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Page
Common pig breeds and selection of pig stock
Systems of pig management
Pig house plans and fittings Feeds and feeding
Management of bar, sow, piglets and growers
Pig diseases, their prevention and control
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is Pig Management? Pig management is the control of a number of factors such as housi rig, feeding, breeding, health and records, to allow pigs perform to the maximum of their genetic potential at least cost. 1.2 Which are the principles of pig production? • • • • • • • Appropriate housing Control of parasites and diseases Proper selection of animals Proper care of replacement stock Adequate feeding Efficient record keeping Proper environment management
Farmers must endeavor to adopt the recommended management procedures, as it is the only way they can protect themselves against heavy losses. Primarily, the requirements of pigs are sometimes the same regardless of where they are kept and it is only reasonable that these requirements are supplied at the minimum possible capital and running costs. 1.3 What are the advantages of pig production? • • • Pigs are well adapted to both specialized and diversified farming They have quick returns The investment in swine breeding stock and in equipment may be relatively small and it is possible to get in and out of a business in a comparatively short time Feeding swine on maize and other grains is usually a profitable method of marketing these grains that are bought at very low prices in the season when the harvest is very big Pig production is an efficient way of producing meat Swine can be raised on small or large farms and in small or large numbers Pigs can be raised on pasture where they will not require expensive housing and equipment Breeding stock and feeding stock are readily available Almost every village has a pig slaughter place that makes the sale of pork easy. In addition, the slaughter weight is ideal such that there is no risk of pork remaining unbought after slaughter
• • • • •
The labour requirements in pig production are low as one person can manage a large swine-breeding herd. With good selection of the breeding stock, pigs carry a big advantage over the other livestock due to the multiple fetuses they carry and This makes therefore giving a big number of young ones. multiplication of pigs easy. Pigs suffer less from metabolic and nutritional diseases. This s because pigs can feed on things ranging from grass as herbivores to meat as carnivores do. In the process they properly balance their nutritional requirements. In addition to being omnivorous pigs enjoy digging the soi, with their snout and they access the minerals in the soil to meet their nutritional requirements. Therefore pig production is a very good avenue for improvement nf` house hold incomes.
COMMON PIG BREEDS AND SELECTION OF PIG STOCK
Common pig breeds
Hampshire breed This breed is black in colour with a white belt around the shoulder fore quarters. It is a medium size breed that originated from Southern England It has a straight face, erect ears, good nursing ability and also produces an excellent lean carcass.
Picture I: Shows the Hampshire Boar
Large white breed This breed is white in colour, has erect ears and a ditched face It originated from Yorkshire, England. Although it is not quick in maturing, it is a good feed converter.
Figure 2: Shows the Large White Boar
Landrace breed This breed is white in colour with a long and big body that has deep sides It has a straight snout and loped ears which cover most of the face. T his breed originated from Denmark and has been widely used for cross breeding especially with the large white to produce prolific breeding sows. The breed is mainly used for bacon.
Figure 3: The Landrace Boar
This breed is mahogany to red in colour. It has good mothering ability. It is resistant to stress and is adaptable to various environmental conditions and is very useful in crossbreeding programs.
Figure 4: Showing a female Duroc breed
Crossbreed Cross breeding is practiced because it combines the desirable traits in the parent breeds into one animal. The major traits that a pig producer should target to improve in a crossbreeding program include, fast growth rate, good feed efficiency, resistant to diseases and good litter size and mothering ability.
All cross breeding programs should be followed by good management practices in order to benefit from the good characteristics that are targeted. 2.1.6 Local pigs: Most of the local pigs that are kept in villages have arisen as a result of improper management of the exotic or crossbred pigs. It is only those that can survive the poor management practice that stay. The biggest advantage of these pigs is that they are able to survive on low quality feeds and are resistant to some diseases. However, such pigs have low growth rate. 2.2 2.2.1 Selection of pigs for stocking One can select pigs for stocking using pedigree When selecting a pig for rearing, base on the following: • Individual merit whereby the pig selected must have the desired characteristics. The pig must be a good feed converter and the female pig must have atleast 12 to 14 well developed teats.
Based on records, where the pig will be selected using the available records. The records used must have the information about the sow and boar and their performance. Such pigs will be selected with a view that they will be able to exhibit the characteristics of their predecessors.
When selecting pigs basing on individual merit, the pig must be of' the following characteristics: • Females: Females to be selected must have a good body condition, teats should be well developed (atleast 12-14 in number), the pig must not have abnormalities like lameness and the posture must be normal (See Figure 5).
Figure 5: Showing the characteristics of an ideal female
Males The male selected as a future boar to be used for mating must be selected from a sow which gave birth to atleast 10 piglets with s or more at weaning. The male should be selected from a sow with 12 or more fully developed and well spaced teats. In addition it must have strong feet and legs with a weight of about 110kg liveweight at 155 days.
Selection of replacement stock from farmers own farm Many farmers obtain their replacement stock through breeding and reproduction on their own farms. Farmers that adopt this practice must note the following:
Under poor management, losses due to sterility, abortion and death of immature animals can reduce the number of animals available for replacement. Farmers must avoid underfeeding and other factors that retard growth and delay puberty. Always have a pool of' young females and males from which to select replacements.
+ Caution must be taken to avoid over feeding as it can lead to: excessive fatness, high expense on feeds and may be a danger to the production and reproductive ability of the animals.
SYSTEMS OF PIG MANAGEMENT There are basically 3 systems of pig management. The classification depends on the levels of inputs in raising the pigs and therefore the system to be adopted depends on the capital available.
Backyard or Scavenging System • The pigs are completely left on their own to scavenge for food all the time. Usually the pigs are left to the compound of the owner and some form of supplementary feed either as family food leftovers or occasionally commercial pig feed is offered. Indigenous pig types are predominantly used because they are tolerant to low quality feeds and are resistant to some parasites such as ascaris. As might be expected, the growth rate and body condition of pigs under the scavenginglba.ckyard system of management are generally poor. The meat quality of the pigs kept under this system is poor. It is difficult to control the spread of diseases under this system and there will be high piglet mortality caused by disease infections and other factors like malnutrition, predators, crushing, and chilling.
Semi-Intensive System • This is the system practiced under situations varying from backyard/scavenging conditions to conditions similar to that of an intensive system. Commercial feed is commonly used as kitchen leftovers are not sufficient to sustain the requirements of the pigs.
The pigs are housed at night but are allowed to gaze out. Farmers are usually able to keep about 20-30 pigs under this system of management. 1f this system is well managed, the performance of the pigs will be as well as those managed under intensive system. It requires plenty or land and pigs must be confined in fenced paddocks
Intensive -Large Scale Commercial System Under this system, • Pigs are kept in total confinement • Herd size ranges from 50 sows and more • Commercial feed is used • There must be good husbandry practices with respect to feedi,lg, hygiene, disease control and housing • The growth rate is fast., there is good feed conversion ratio, high sow reproductive efficiency and good quality carcass
Requirements for a commercial pig production enterprise For proper management on the farm, the pigs should be separated into different units according to their age, and/or reproduction stage The following are the common groupings: • • • • • Breeding: these are the pigs that are mature enough and are ready to mate and reproduce. Gestating: these are the pigs that are pregnant Farrowing: these are the pigs that are about to give birth. Growers: These are the young pigs that have been weaned. They can be kept for fattening or as replacement stock. Finishing: These are the growers that are nearing marketing for pork or bacon
Depending on the market situation one can decide on one or more of the following enterprises • • À. furrow to finish operation: This is where the farmer rears piglets up the age when the pigs are ready to slaughter for pork or bacon. Furrow to wean operation: This is a system where by the farmer rears the piglets up to weaning and sells them to the other farmers for breeding or fattening. Finishing pig operation: In this system the farmer buys pigs which are almost ready for slaughter, gives them feed for purpose of attaining the required market weight and meat quality before they are slaughtered
Whatever the system of management chosen, the following are the targets/goals for a profitable pig production enterprise:
Pig production Targets and Goals • Farmers must always adopt a system that will ensure that all the females that are for mating become pregnant. At least farmers should aim at about 85% conception rate at first service and 100% with repeat service. The sows kept should give birth 2-3 times per year with at least 8 piglets per litter at weaning. The practice of early weaning will enable the sow give birth three times a year. If weaning early is practiced, the piglets must be fed on high quality creep feed to enable the piglets weigh 18kg at weaning. The feed conversion efficiency should not be more than 3.5 (i.e 3.5kg of the feed used must be able to add on 1kg of meat to the pig being fed). The Production life span of 5 years for the sows. Farmers must aim at marketing the pigs for slaughter at 4 to 6 months. At this age, the fatteners should have attained a weight of 45 to 65kg and can be slaughtered for pork.
HOUSING Importance of housing Housing of pigs is important as it provides an environment which will improve feed efficiency, reduce on the labour in husbandry and management tasks like feeding and handling. In addition, housing will increase efficiency in control of diseases and parasites thus it will minimize mortality and encourage production of healthy pigs.
Requirements of an ideal Pig house An ideal pig house should have proper drainage and should always be kept dry. The house must be well ventilated and should have adequate space per pig. There must be enough light in the pig house as this will enable the attendant to carry out the management routines properly
The following factors should be considered while planning the layout of a pig house: • Feeding arrangement: the feed troughs and water containers must be put in a place where the attendant is able to put in feed and water without entering the pig pen. Feed store: the feed store should be located. near the pig pens as this will enable the attendant to supply the feed to the pigs without lifting feed for long distances. There must be enough room to enable weighing of the feed. Observation of animals: The pen must be constructed in such a way that the fanner is able to observe all the pigs without entering the pen. Access to pens: For systems where many pens are constructed, each pen must have a gate near the corridor so that the farmer can enter each pen without passing through another pen. This will ass() facilitate the movement of pigs when being shifted from one pen to the other during the different management undertakings.
Where should you build the pig house on your land? The siting of the pig house should be based on the following: • • The house must be constructed at a well drained ground as this will avoid dumpiness in the pig house. The place must be accessible for the people working on the farm and must be in an area where it is easy to deliver incoming feed and other farm inputs The house should be constructed in an area where it is easy to load outgoing pigs and their products The area must have access to a source of water
• • 4.4
Parts of a pig house The type of house depends on the system of production. Whatever system is adopted, the following must be put into consideration while constructing a pig house. • Roof It is important that the roof is able to protect the pigs from direct sunlight and rain. It should be preferably thick so that the underside remains cool and water tight.
Wall The wall must be partially open to allow movement of air through the house. Some walls may be solid to give protection against the outside environment and predators Movable partitions can be put as walls. Such partitions if used can be moved and the layout is changed according to need.
Floor The floor must have proper drainage such that it is possible to keep it clean and dry. Dung and urine on a damp floor create conditions ideal for the spread of disease organisms. To achieve this, the floor should be made of concrete and sloping, or slatted so that water drains away. A slope of at least 5% (a fall of y arn for every lm) is recommended. Ensure that water troughs and feeders are placed at the lower end of the sloped floor so that the floor remains dry. Slats as a floor for your pig house: Slats are a good way of keeping the floor clean and dry. However, they are less suitable for young animals because the feet get stuck between them. Slats can be made using different types of materials, which include wood, split bamboo, concrete, wires or expanded metal mesh. The space between slats should be big enough to allow manure to drop easily but small enough to prevent the feet from passing through.
Materials used for construction of a pig house? + Local materials These reduce on the costs. However, their greatest disadvantage is that they are easily destroyed by fire and are less durable. Examples are wooden poles, bamboo etc. . Purchased timber, concrete and galvanized: iron Although these are expensive, they are the best to use because they are more long lasting. Note: The bi ggest problem observed in pig units is poor hygiene, which consequently causes parasitic infestations in pigs. Contrary to the widely held view that the pigs are dirty animals, they are actually clean animals They usually defecate and urinate in a specific area far from their resting
or sleeping place. To enhance hygiene in a pig unit, it is highly recommended that the floor of the pig houses be made of concrete. 5.0 5.1 PIG HOUSE PLANS AIN FITTINGS Farrowing Unit This is the unit where pregnant sows or gilts are taken. when they are clue to deliver (starting at clay 110 of pregnancy). The components and equipment of a farrowing unit include the following:
Farrowing rails These are metal bars which guard young ones against being crushed by the mother sow when it lies down (see Figure 6)
Figure 6: Showing a pregnant sow in the farrowing unit.The farrowing rail can be seen as a metallic guard running behind the sow
Creep feeding area This is a section in the farrowing pen where the feed for the piglets is put. A simple creep feeding area can be made quite easily by barricading off the corner of the pen. A small inlet door is put to allow piglets to enter and nat the sow. This is done because the nutritional requirements of piglets are different from the sow and the feed for the piglets is very expensive to feed to the so.v.
Water and feed troughs These are placed near the corridor passage where the farmer passes while giving the pigs feed and water.
The lay out and measurements of the different areas are given in Figure 7,
Figure 7: Drawing of furrowing unit with dimensions
The farrowing unit should always be kept clean. It should be scrubbed with soap and water, disinfected and left unused for 5-7 days before a new sow is introduced. Cleaning can be accomplished by using a stiff scrub brush. Disinfectants are ineffective unless the cleaning is thorough. 5.2 Minimum size rearing pen After farrowing, the sow and its piglets can be transferred to the minimum size rearing pen. This is the pen where the sow and its piglets are kept up to the time when the piglets are weaned It has prevision for the creep feed and it is very important for the first weeks of the piglet as it helps them :o avoid extreme cold and thus chilling. Figure 8 shows a typical design of a minimum size rearing pen.
•_ ^N . --g3u.3'.s
Figure 8: Showing the design of a minimum size rearing pen
Fattening/Growers Unit The fattening or growers pigs houses the young pigs after weaning. They are housed in groups of 10 -30 pigs. However, there should be provision for individual pens to isolate sick pigs. Figure 9 shows part of a fattening/growers unit.
Figure 9: Papa of a fattening/growers unit
The plans and fittings can be constructed and arranged in a homestead ns shown in Figure 10a. The arrangement of the pens in the house of the intensive system is shown on the ground plan in Figure 10b. The measurements for the different pens and space requirements per pig should be maintained as given in the specific sections for these units. The size of the rearing pen depends on the number of pigs to be kept in the pen and their age group.
Figure 10a: Showing the farm arrangement in a senti-intensive system of pig management
Slo e _ Exercise area
Pregnant sows and Farrowing pen gilts pen F_.l _iI I Feed passage
Growers pen gate
Pregnant sow, and gilts pen _ Exercise area
Dra^na e Slc_ae
Drainage pit \--'
Figure 10b: Ground plan of the intensive system pig unit
FEEDS AND FEEDING What are the important facts about feeds and feeding of pigs? • Feed costs represent 60 - 70% of the total cost of production in the pig industry. Therefore the profit from a pig enterprise is affected by the efficient and economical use of the feeds. The pig is omnivorous, i.e. it can eat all types of food except that it can not digest too much fiber and therefore can not live entirely on roughage Pigs thrive best on foods that are suitable for humans and fortunately they also thrive on by-product feeds and other materials that are practically useless as food for man. Farmers should always aim at using cheaper, lower grade feed stuffs to the fullest extent and to supplement them by the more expensive nutritious feeds to the point that true economy dictates. Nutrient requirements vary with age and physiological condition (e.g the nutrient requirements for piglets is different from that of weaners and similarly the feed requirements for a pregnant sow are different from that of a sow with suckling piglets. Diseased pigs cannot utilize feed efficiently and therefore farmers must ensure that the pigs are in good health. 4lso, poorly fed pigs are susceptible to diseases.
What should you feed your pigs on? Feeds for pigs are classified as: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water. • Carbohydrates These provide energy and are necessary for fattening. he following are the common feeds used in pig production as a source of carbohydrates • Cereals and cereal products Corn and cob meal: This is a meal made from the whole maize cob While feeding pigs on this meal, farmers must know that it has only about two-thirds the nutritive value of maize. It is commonly used as feed for sow and boar. Maize or corn: Of all cereal grains, maize is one of the richest in carbohydrate and fat.
Proteins This is a nutrient required for forming muscle, internal organs, skin, hair, hooves and also milk in adults Sources of protein Blood meal: this is one of the common sources of protein during the formulation of pig feeds. It can be used at a rate of 5 0/0 of the feed ration Cotton seed meal: this is another good source of protein. However its inclusion should not exceed 10% of the ration because of the risk of gossypol poisoning if it is fed in excessive quantities. Fish meal: This is another source of animal protein, and its inclusion in the ration should not exceed 10% This is the best source of animal protein for pig rations. Meat and meat plus bone meals: This one can be used at the tale of 5-10% of the ration. Farmers must always exercise caution while feeding pigs with meat left overs as pork left overs from eating places may serve as a source of disease. Milk and milk byproducts: These can also be used as a source of protein and ratios vary from 10-30% of the ration Soya bean meal: Soya bean is best source of plant protein for pig feed formulation. Its quantity should not exceed 10% of the ration.
Minerals: Most essential minerals for pigs are calcium, phosphorus and iron. Calcium and phosphorus can be fed to pigs by including bone meal in the ration Iron is very important especially in piglets and can be given to pigs by allowing them access to clean red soil otherwise iron sulphate can be given to the pig as an oral formulation or as sLo injection.
Other nutritional requirements include vitamines which must be purchased and put in the feed ration as feed additives, Water must always be available to the pig and water containers must not be empty at any one time.
Nutritional requirements for the different pig catagories • Piglets Each newborn piglet should be fed on colostrum within the first 18 hours after birth. If the sow is hostile, bottle feeding of the colostrum to the piglets is recommended. Sow's milk does not contain enough iron to meet the requirements of baby pigs. Iron should be given to baby pigs within their first 3 or 4 days to prevent anemia. Iron formulations are available and can be given by injection ok orally. Figuire 11 shows how to administer nutritional fluids to piglets using the oral route. The nutrients to be given must be measured out correctly, preferably using a syringe.
Figure 11: Showing administartion of nuitritional fluids using the oral route
Creep feed: starting at one week of age, piglets should be given creep feed. Creep feeds should be fed dry and piglets prefer feeding them when pelleted. Water shculd always be available Creep feeds are commercially available in feed meals. It is very important that the creep feed used between one week and three weeks of age contains 20% crude protein. At 3 weeks farmers may switch to starter feed which contains 18% crude protein and this is fed to the piglets until they reach weaning age where the weight will also be about 15kg. • Weaners/Growers After weaning the pigs should be switched from the creep feed to a lower cost pig grower feed which contains 16% of crude protein Clean fresh water should be available to the pigs at all times • Boar Boars may be fed on rations containing 14% crude protein. Water must always be available for the boar.
Pregnant sow During gestation the sow is limit fed for 2-3 Kilograms per day of a 14% protein diet (Sow and weaner meal). Close to farrowing, maize bran may be added as 25% and this will be mainly the source of energy. Maize bran will also increase bulk and this prevents constipation. Water must always be available for the sow.
Lactating sow Bulky ingredients should be removed from the sow ration soon at}er farrowing. Sews are fed on rations containing 14% protein and those nursing large litters need full feeding during lactation. Sows that finish lactation with excessive weight losses have delayed estrus beyond the usual 3 to 7 days post weaning. Sows nursing fewer than eight piglets may be fed an amount of 3 kg per day with an added bonus of 0 25 kg for each piglet being nursed.
REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF PIGS Female reproductive behavior Female pigs can corne on heat at any time of the year and they don't show seasonality in their reproductive behavior. They come into heat on average at 21 day intervals (19 to 24 days) throught the year with gilts having a shorter period than sows. Within this cycle the heat period lasts 24 hours only. The signs that will indicate that the sow or gilt is on heat include the following: • Grunting • Restlessness • Swelling and red appearance of the vulva • Gilts or sows on heat will stand still when pressure is exerted on their hind quarters The period of maximum fertility in pigs occurs during mid-estrus and farmers should mate their pigs during this time. Because of the complexity of farmers not knowing the exact time when the heat signs began, farmers may mate the sow twice. In this practice, the first mating is done immediately the first heat signs are seen and the second mating done l2 24 hours later. Farmers may use different boars at the two matings as this is thought to increase the litter size. Gilts should be bred for the first time on or after their third heat period. This should occur when they are about 6 to 8 months of age.
Sows normally come on heat 3 to7 days after weaning and may be bred at this first heat period if they have good condition. If the sow is not in good body condition after weaning, then it should be bred on the second heat After mating, the gestation period lasts 114 days (3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days). Otherwise the gestation period falls between 112 to 120 days. This allows the sow to reproduce 2 to 3 times a year. 7.2 Male reproductive behavior Boars may be used for the first time when they are 7 to 8 months old as long as they are well grown. A mature boar of more than 15 months of age can serve 20 to 40 times a month if he is managed together with the females. Immature boars under 15 months of age should not be used for service more than 25 times in a month. The average boar to female ratio is 1:50 (1 boar for every 50 female pigs). 7.3 Inbreeding Farmers should avoid using the same boar on the farm for a long time however good the boar may be as this will result into inbreeding. Inbreeding will result into expression of the hidden bad characteristics. These bad characteristics may result in bad performance of the offsprings Boars must not be used to serve their own offsprings or their own mother sow. To avoid inbreeding, farmers must arrange to buy boars from other farms. 8.0 8.1 MANAGEMENT OF BOAR, SOW, PIGLETS AND GROWERS How to Manage a Boar The purpose of keeping boars is to use them for mating with gilts or sows when they cone on heat. It is recommended that boars are kept in individual pens to eliminate fighting, riding and competition for feed. Besides, the time when the boar remains serving is improved by penning boars separately. Boars in confinement should be kept in individual pens about 8 x 8 feet. In the semi-intensive system, the minimum space requirement is 75x 100 feet and under this system, housing and feeding areas should be separate to encourage exercise. Newly purchased boars must be put in an isolation pen for 30 days. The pen should have been disinfected two weeks earlier, should be located away from the rest of the herd and should be well protected from extreme weather conditions. This will enable the farmer to observe if the boar has
any disease that may not have expressed itself and thereby avoiding introduction of diseases to the farm Young boars need to be reared in-groups so that they have the opportunity for physical contact and interaction with other pigs during development. This will help in the development of normal sexual behavior. 8.2 Management of the sow The major goal of managing a sow is to obtain a large litter of healthy pigs at birth that will remain healthy and grow rapidly up to weaning. To achieve this, farmers must ensure the following: • Properly balance the feed ration and ensure that it is fed in the recommended amounts so that newborn pigs are well developed and strong. • Sows are dewormed about 2 weeks before moving to a farrowing pen. The most common dewormer used is piperazine.and antihelmintic drugs that contain levamisol. Treatment for external parasites, at least twice, should be done within a few days before moving to a farrowing house. ^ Before a sow is placed in a farrowing pen, wash her, especially the under side and hindquarters using a mild soap and warm water. This will eliminate soil and fecal material that may contain bacteria and worm eggs, which could infect the nursing pig Figure 12 shows a farmers washing the sow before taking it to the farrowing pen
Figure 12: A pregnant sow being washed
Farmers must make sure that they attend to the sows at the time of farrowing as this will decrease on the number of piglets that die during the farrowing process or a few hours afterwards. The duration of labour ranges from 30 minutes to 5 hours on average, although it may extend to 12 hours. If the labour is unnecessarily long, then call in a veterinarian for assistance.
Piglets may be enclosed in the afterbirth or may be covered with excessive mucous. In such circumstances, remove the mucous and afterbirth to prevent suffocation. Farmers must ensure a health program that minimizes exposure of the new born piglets to disease carriers. Hygien practices must strictly be adhered to. After farrowing the sow must be well fed to ensure that it maintains a good body condition. This will make it possible for the sow to come on heat within the recommended 3 to 7 days after weaning
Management of baby pigs
management of baby pigs farmers must note the following: Improved management at farrowing and on through weaning will result in more pigs weaned per sow per year. On the average, farmers lose more than 25 percent of the live pigs farrowed before they are weaned. Many of these deaths occur in the first few days after birth. Stillbirths, injury and starvation account for more than 60) percent of these deaths which normally occur within the first four days after birth. Proper management can reduce these deaths and result in weaning two or more additional pigs per sow per year. Therefore extra time and effort spent is essential for the litter. One management factor that will save piglets is to be present at farrowing. The baby pig should have assistance in removing mucus from its mouth and in starting to breathe. It should be wiped dry, and be assisted in nursing for the first time. The farmer can assist with a difficulty of a prolonged birth that might otherwise result in stillborn pigs by summoning for professional help from a veterinary officer. Soon after birth the navel should be cut 3-4 cm from the body and if still wet, treated with iodine tincture. The navel is a good route for bacteria to enter the body. Treating the navel could reduce on the navel infection with bacteria. If excessive bleeding occurs from the navel, tie the navel cord off with a piece of string about 2.5 cm from the body Ensure that each newborn piglet takes colostrum from the sow within the first 18 hours after birth. Piglets start suckling immediately after birth. The strongest pigiets find the best teat and eventually after a few hours of interchange each piglet keeps to its own teat. Therefore no attempt should be made to make the sow raise more piglets than its number of teats. however many piglets are born. However in a well managed system the surplus piglets can be raised by hand or on a
foster mother. This is why it is important that breeding pigs should have at least 12 to 14 teats. • Sometimes sows may give birth when they have niastitis or inflammation of the mammary glands caused by one or more microorganisms. Similar)/ the sow may have a condition known as agalactia or failure to secrete milk. In such circumstances the sow will not have the milk for the piglets to suckle. If there is failure of the sow to release milk, then do foster nursing by getting milk from another sow which has given birth and bottle feed the piglets with a bottle. Alternatively the piglets can be given to a foster mother. Piglets are usually born with relatively small reserve of iron in their body and their mothers milk does not normally provide sufficient iron for their requirements. Consequently, piglet anaemia caused by iron defficiency often occurs. Therefore to prevent piglet anaemia, it is recommended that farmers put clean red soil in the pen each day as red soil is a rich source of iron. Also daily oral administration of 4ml of a 1.8% of ferrous sulphate solution is recommended. Alternatively farmers may inject the piglets with ferrous sulphate or it may be smeared on the teats of the sow where the piglets will take it in while suckling.
Figure 13: Piglet being given iron sulphate
After considering these aspects the piglets must be well fed as already recommended in the section of feeding until weaning time. At weaning; the sow should be taken away from the piglets and not the piglets from the sow. Weaning should be gradual and not an abrupt process. At first the sow should be taken away for a few hours, then for a whole day and finally all the time. After weaning the piglets now must start to be managed as growers
Management of growing and finishing pigs The routine is to mix the pigs and make weaner pools, which consist of 20-25 weaners. These will initially fight but will settle after a while and start feeding and drinking normally. After this, the pigs are put in-groups and the number of pigs in a group depends on the size of the pen and the final body weight to be reached. Therefore space and feed requirements must be considered as critical factors in the management of growers and finishing pigs. • Space requirements for growers and finishing pigs Generally 4 x 5m is enough for 10-12 pigs up to marketing for slaughter. Growing pigs 23-57 kg require 1 square meter per pig while finishing pigs of 57-100kg require 1.8 square meters per pig. When paddocks are used like in the semi-intensive system, it is recommended to keep 50-65 pigs per hectare for the. growers while the finishers should be stocked at 40-50 pigs per hectare. • Feed requirements for growing and finishing pigs Growing pigs should be fed to appetite if the farmer can afford. This gives a faster growth rate but it is expensive. Finishing pigs should be limit fed on a scale of body weight. Restricted feeding avoids development of fatty carcasses. Growing pigs can also be limit fed as follows: Body weight (kg) 20 40 60 80 100 Amount of feed (kg per day) 1.2 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.5
The feeds given must contain at least 16% crude protein and pigs on pasture should also be given a full daily ration once a day. Feeding once a day will reduce on the labour requirements.
PIG DISEASES, THEIR PREVENTION AND CONTROL How do you tell that a pig has ill health? A pig is suspected to have ill health if it shows any or a combination of the following signs: ^ General signs: these include dullness, loss of appetite, laboured or rapid breathing, sudden deaths, loss of weight, low weight gain and fever usually manifested by shivering of the pig. • Signs expressed on the skin: these include reddening of the skin or skin discoloration, loss of hair and hardening of some parts of the skin, itching of the skin and cracking of the skin. Others signs commonly observed include: lameness, cough, abnormal nasal discharges, diarrhea with bad smelling feces, abnormal contents and colour of feces and abortions. Figure 14 below shows some of the signs which can be observed in sick and malnourished pigs
Figure 14: Showing a pig with signs of illness
Common diseases of pigs Pig diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa, nutritional deficiencies, poisonous substances, internal and external parasites. * Bacterial diseases include swine erysipelas, swine dysentery, infectious poly-arthritis etc. Viral and mycoplasrna diseases include African swine fever, swine influenza, enzootic pneumonia of pigs, vesicular exanthema of swine, transmissible gastroenteritis etc.
Helminthiasis as a health problem in pigs is mainly caused by worms like the Lungworm, Ascaris worms etc.
Nutritional diseases include piglet anemia, parakeratosis etc External Parasitic infestations infestations include mange, lice, jiggers etc.
The common diseases of pigs, their clinical signs, treatment and control are given in the appendix. 9.3 Guidelines of disease prevention/control To be able to manage and control pig diseases, farmers must take care of housing and ventilation including cleaning and disinfection of the pig pens, manure disposal, proper disposal of the dead pigs and isolation of the sick pigs. • Housing and ventilation The way the house is constructed should facilitate proper cleaning, disinfection and maintenance of sanitary conditions e.g suitable floors, adequate waste disposal, absorbent bedding. Good ventilation is essential in disease control and air must move through the building such that foul air is replaced with fresh This can be secured by using an open shed, doors, windows ana incomplete walls • Proper manure disposal Disease causing agents may be contained in urine, feces, exhalation and nose and mouth discharges. These may act as media for growth of disease causing agents. Excrement must he removed frequently from the immediate surroundings. Manure may be heaped so that the heat generated kills the parasites and microbes. It is recommended that manure be kept in a covered concrete pit and the manure in the pit sprayed with insecticides to inhibit development of disease causing or ganisms and flies. • Pigs kept on pasture should be rotated in the paddocks Rotation on pasture will disrupt the life cycle of many disease causing agents as these agents are sometimes specific for certain hosts. Pastures may be rotated between different species.
Provide suitable feed and water containers Use feed and water containers which will avoid water and feed spilling over the floor. The feed and water containers must be easy to clean
Isolate new animals When introducing new animals, secure a health certificate from the farm where the animal is being purchased and thereafter isolate them for a minimum of 3 weeks. Thoroughly clean and disinfect the isolation stall after each animal is removed and before animals are introduced.
Dispose of dead pigs properly Pigs that die can be a source of infection and should be disposed off by burning to eliminate contamination of the surrounding ground. Burial is another disposal technique and the pig should be put in a 4 ft deep pit if this method of disposal is used. On death of an animal, call a veterinarian to carry out examination and ascertain cause of death before disposal.
Use of disinfectants Disinfectants are used to create conditions unfavourable for survival of microbes. Proper cleaning removes most microbes, but in case of a disease outbreak, the buildings must be disirtfected Foot disinfection for visitors visiting pig pens is a good arrangement in disease prevention and control
Use a Veterinarian Effective health control program calls for co-operation between the pig farmer and veterinarians.
ROUTINE PROCEDURES Castration of male piglets Male pigs that are not required for breeding are generaly castrated to avoid indiscriminate breeding. Castration of male piglets can be done immediately the testicles are palpable in the scrotum. It is however recommended that it is done a week or ten days before weaning.
I)eworming Deworming should be carried out routinely at least after every three months. Pigs start to be dewormed after weaning. Adult pigs may fight when being dewormed and must therefore be held properly to avoid pouring of the dewormer. Figure 15 shows how a pig can be given a dewormer using a bottle.
Figure 15: Shows oral administration
a dewormer to a mature pig
Identification Farmers must be able to identify their pigs always. In pig management, the easiest way is to do the ear-punching pattern. Punching of the different parts of the ear will give different numbers. The numbers given for each region punched are given in Figure 16 while inset is an example of a patten for identification number 1178.
Example of Number 1178
Figure 16: Illustration of identification by punching
Pigs should not be ear-punched too early. The recommendation is that this is done at six weeks of age. Some pigs are purchased when they are grown up and it is necessary that such pigs also get an identification number Punching of such pigs and other routine procedures may be done after thorough restraint of the pig as shown in Figure 17.
Figure 17: Showing restraint of a pig on a pole using a rope
Cleaning of the pig pens This should be done on a daily basis in order to maintain hygiene. All movable equipment must be removed, cleaned and returned. The féces should be removed before washing with water.
Breeding and mating Breeding and mating is one of the activities that a farmer will carry out on almost a day to day basis. Farmers must check on the pigs in the breeding herd and ensure that they know the gilt or sow on heat and give them to the male. Breeding is of two types: • Pen breeding: In pen breeding, a boar is left to run with a group of sows as opposed to keeping the boar in a pen to which sows on heat are brought for service. Pen breeding requires less labour and there is less stress on the boar in getting a large number of females mated to him. When using pen breeding divide sows or gilts into groups of 8-10 and one boar be put with each group. It is advisable to rotate boars among groups every 12 .-24 hours. Hand breeding: This is where the pig on heat is taken to the boar for service. The boar is kept in a separate pen It has an advantage that it is easy to know the exact breeding date.
RECORD KEEPING Importance of record keeping Record keeping is important because records provide: early warning of developing problems, clues to basic weaknesses in the management program, information for budgeting or feasibility studies and can be used to monitor herd health. Records are also used to identify major costs, comparison with other producers and to provide a basis _or seasonal adjustments in management.
Types and characteristics of good records Records must be as simple as possible and kept where they are easily accessible in a way which minimizes transfer from one record sheet to another. There are many types of records and they are broadly categorized into individual, herd and financial records.
Individual records These include, animal identification number, age, breeding date, health status, date of birth, weight at birth, growth rate and weight at weaning. This type of records is mainly used in culling of nonproductive animals and in selection of animals for future breeding purposes.
Herd records These are the records where information is kept regarding feed consumption by different classes of pigs, new purchases, death losses per a given period, herd reproductive performance which gives number of breeders and the number that has farrowed in the herd and still have suckling piglets. In pig farming farmers first and foremost ensure that they have record on the expected date of farrowing, correct identification of the sow and boar with which it was bred. Also keep the feed and liveweight record for measurement of feed efficiency, cost to produce a kg gain in weight, mortality record and use health record cards to show vaccinations and treatments.
Other records which must be kept by the farmer as a row ine include: • Heats and services record where farmers must record the dates when the pig was on heat and the dates when the next heat is expected. • Financial records which include: feed costs, pig purchases, and sales, health and treatment costs, labour costs, charges for electricity, taxation, fuel costs, machinery operation costs and transport costs for feed, animals etc.
APPENDIX Common diseases and disease conditions that affect pigs
Disease African fever swine Clinical signs _....]_Treatment _ Fever, loss of Attempt control dullnes, appetite,huddling together, measures only. incoordination, coughing discolouration of the skin to bluish, serous nmcopun^lent ocular and nasal discharges, vomiting and diarrhoea. __ Sudden death, loss of appetite, Penicillin is very red and bluish appearance of effective and is the the skin and ears. Diamond drug of choice shaped skin lesions which may become necrotic Sow fails to release milk after Use antibiotics and farrowing. The udder may be oxytocin swollen and _` Fever and vesicles on the Advisable to institute coronate and sometimes on the control lips and tongue _ Ferrous Signs appear mostly in piglets Give of 3 weeks of age, pale mucous sulphate injections er membranes and skin, dullness oral formulations and diarrhea _ Iver^nectin Itching and scratching, Use especially al mid-day, scabs on (lvo^nec), tactic at skin, the wTinlding and recommended dosage hardening of the skin, loss of levels hair and shaking of the head if _ _ the ear is affected. _ Similar signs to those of mange Give Zinc but with no itching and formulations like zinc scratching carbonate or Zinc sulphate Louse will be seen in the folds Use insect ides like of the pig skin epecially in the Ivomec arid Tactic acaricide neck and at the base of the ears Control Restrict movement of pigs from or meat areas. affected Slaughter of all on pigs the affected farm. Disinfection _es Clean the pen :andl disinfect. Treat the incontact pigs with penicillin _ . Good hygiene the pig pen Slaughter of pigs in the affected houses. Vaccination Put red soil in pig pen or give iron injections to young piglets ` Treat the pigs when ever they are entering a new pen which has been cleaned and disinfected Ensure that there is enough zinc in the diet. - se Routine spraying with tactic or treatment with Tactic Deworm pigs every three after months weaning
Mastitis, metritis and agalactia (MMA) __ Foot and mouth disease
Poor performance of the pigsW Antihelmintics like and with low growth rate, coughing . 1„ evamisol Piperazine are helpful I in case of lungworms ^_ 1 _ - - _--
FURTHER READING 1. Animal husbandry in the tropics by G. Williamson and W.J.A Payne 2. Pig diseases by D.J. Tayt,er
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