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Appl i cat i ons of Power
El ect r oni cs t o Power
El ect r oni cs t o Power
Tr ansmi ssi on & Di st r i but i on
Tr ansmi ssi on & Di st r i but i on
Syst ems
Syst ems
Ar indam Ghosh
Ar indam Ghosh
Dept . of Elect r ical Engineer ing
Dept . of Elect r ical Engineer ing
I ndian I nst it ut e of Technology
I ndian I nst it ut e of Technology
Kanpur
Kanpur
,
,
I ndia
I ndia
E
E


mail:
mail:
aghosh
aghosh
@
@
iit k
iit k
. ac. in
. ac. in
2
Lect ur e Schedul e
Lect ur e Schedul e
•
•
Day 1:
Day 1:
Pr oblems wit h bulk power t r ansmission
Pr oblems wit h bulk power t r ansmission
& shunt compensat ion of t r ansmission
& shunt compensat ion of t r ansmission
syst ems.
syst ems.
•
•
Day2: Ser ies compensat ion of t r ansmission
Day2: Ser ies compensat ion of t r ansmission
syst ems & ot her FACTS cont r oller s.
syst ems & ot her FACTS cont r oller s.
•
•
Day 3: Power qualit y, cust om power &
Day 3: Power qualit y, cust om power &
net wor k r econf igur ing devices.
net wor k r econf igur ing devices.
•
•
Day 4: Dist r ibut ion STATCOM, Dynamic
Day 4: Dist r ibut ion STATCOM, Dynamic
Volt age Rest or er (DVR) & Unif ied Power
Volt age Rest or er (DVR) & Unif ied Power
Qualit y Condit ioner (UPQC)
Qualit y Condit ioner (UPQC)
3
Power Tr ansmi ssi on Li ne
Power Tr ansmi ssi on Li ne
Char act er i st i cs
Char act er i st i cs
Tr ansmission lines ar e r epr esent ed by:
Tr ansmission lines ar e r epr esent ed by:
•
•
Lumped par amet er shor t lines (up t o
Lumped par amet er shor t lines (up t o
50 mi).
50 mi).
•
•
Medium lines r epr esent ed by nominal
Medium lines r epr esent ed by nominal


π
π
or nominal
or nominal


T models.
T models.
•
•
Long lines r epr esent ed by dist r ibut ed
Long lines r epr esent ed by dist r ibut ed
par amet er models.
par amet er models.
4
Lossl ess
Lossl ess
Li ne Repr esent at i on
Li ne Repr esent at i on
reactance line Total Voltage, Midpoint
~
Voltage, Receiving
~
Voltage, Source
~
= =
= =
X V
V V
M
R S
5
Power Fl ow Over
Power Fl ow Over
Tr ansmi ssi on Li ne
Tr ansmi ssi on Li ne
ο
0
~
and
~
Let ∠ = ∠ = V V V V
R S
δ
( )
jX
jV V
I
S
δ δ sin 1 cos ~
Then
+ −
=
( )
X
jV V
I V jQ P
S S S S
δ δ cos 1 sin ~ ~
have then We
2 2
− +
= = +
∗
6
Power Fl ow Over Power Fl ow Over
Tr ansmi ssi on Li ne Tr ansmi ssi on Li ne
X
V
P P P
R S e
δ sin
is line over the power real The
2
= = =
( )
X
jV V
I V jQ P
S R R R
1 cos sin ~ ~
Similarly
2 2
− −
= = −
∗
δ δ
7
Power Fl ow Over Power Fl ow Over
Tr ansmi ssi on Li ne Tr ansmi ssi on Li ne
( )
X
V
Q Q Q
R S l
δ cos 1 2
line by the absorbed power reactive The
2
−
= − =
The power angle cur ves ar e shown in t he next
slide. Not e t hat we have assumed lumped
par amet er r epr esent at ion of t he line. However ,
a similar pat t er n also occur s even when t he line
is modeled using dist r ibut ed par amet er s.
8
Power
Power


Angl e Cur ves
Angl e Cur ves
I t is assumed t hat
I t is assumed t hat
pu 1
2
max
= =
X
V
P
9
Mi dpoi nt Vol t age Sag
Mi dpoi nt Vol t age Sag
( ) ( )
2 2
cos
~
δ δ
∠ =V V
M
10
Fer r ant i
Fer r ant i
Ef f ect
Ef f ect
( )
( )
S R
V
X Y
Y
V
~
2
2
~
−
=
11
Fer r ant i Fer r ant i Ef f ect Ef f ect
I n 500 km long line wher e per kilomet er line
I n 500 km long line wher e per kilomet er line
r eact ance and admit t ance ar e 0.5145 ohm
r eact ance and admit t ance ar e 0.5145 ohm
and 0.0000031734 mho, t he r eceiving end
and 0.0000031734 mho, t he r eceiving end
volt age r ises 25.64% above t he sending end
volt age r ises 25.64% above t he sending end
volt age under no
volt age under no


load (or even light ly loaded)
load (or even light ly loaded)
condit ion. Also since t he par amet er s
condit ion. Also since t he par amet er s
X
X
and
and
Y
Y
depend on t he line lengt h, t he r eceiving end
depend on t he line lengt h, t he r eceiving end
volt age will be dif f er ent f or dif f er ent line
volt age will be dif f er ent f or dif f er ent line
lengt hs. I n f act t he longer t he line, t he
lengt hs. I n f act t he longer t he line, t he
mor e is t he volt age r ise.
mor e is t he volt age r ise.
12
Vol t age St abi l i t y
Vol t age St abi l i t y
•
•
Volt age st abilit y
Volt age st abilit y
is t he abilit y of t he power
is t he abilit y of t he power
syst em t o r et ur n t o t he nominal (pr e
syst em t o r et ur n t o t he nominal (pr e


f ault )
f ault )
volt ages of all buses f ollowing a dist ur bance
volt ages of all buses f ollowing a dist ur bance
in t he syst em.
in t he syst em.
•
•
I n addit ion, t he syst em shall also be able t o
I n addit ion, t he syst em shall also be able t o
maint ain t he nominal volt age at buses in t he
maint ain t he nominal volt age at buses in t he
st eady st at e.
st eady st at e.
•
•
Conver sely, t he volt age inst abilit y occur s
Conver sely, t he volt age inst abilit y occur s
when t he volt ages at dif f er ent buses dr op
when t he volt ages at dif f er ent buses dr op
cont inuously f ollowing a dist ur bance or load
cont inuously f ollowing a dist ur bance or load
change.
change.
13
Vol t age St abi l i t y Vol t age St abi l i t y
( )
ο
0 1
~
pu when
1
1 ~
∠ =
− ∠ +
=
S
R L ratio
R
V
Z
V
θ θ
14
Vol t age St abi l i t y Vol t age St abi l i t y
( ) { }
( )
L R ratio ratio
L R ratio
R
Z Z
Z
P
θ θ
θ θ
− + +
− +
=
cos 1
cos 1 2
2
2
The t r ansmission line impedance is f ixed f or a
The t r ansmission line impedance is f ixed f or a
given line. Ther ef or e
given line. Ther ef or e
Zr at io
Zr at io
decr eases as t he
decr eases as t he
load impedance incr eases. The maximum
load impedance incr eases. The maximum
power occur s when t he load and line
power occur s when t he load and line
impedances ar e same. The power decr eases
impedances ar e same. The power decr eases
af t er t hat and t he volt age monot onically
af t er t hat and t he volt age monot onically
decr eases.
decr eases.
15
Vol t age St abi l i t y Vol t age St abi l i t y
16
Vol t age St abi l i t y Vol t age St abi l i t y
17
Angl e St abi l i t y
Angl e St abi l i t y
•
•
P
P
m m
= Mechanical power
= Mechanical power
•
•
P
P
e e
= Elect r ical power
= Elect r ical power
18
Mul t i machi ne
Mul t i machi ne
St abi l i t y
St abi l i t y
19
Mul t i machi ne Mul t i machi ne St abi l i t y St abi l i t y
•
•
Moder n power syst ems ar e int er connect ed and
Moder n power syst ems ar e int er connect ed and
oper at e close t o t heir st abilit y limit s. I n lar ge
oper at e close t o t heir st abilit y limit s. I n lar ge
int er connect ed syst ems it is common t o f ind a
int er connect ed syst ems it is common t o f ind a
nat ur al r esponse of a gr oup of closely coupled
nat ur al r esponse of a gr oup of closely coupled
machines oscillat ing against ot her gr oups of
machines oscillat ing against ot her gr oups of
machines.
machines.
•
•
These oscillat ions have a f r equency r ange of
These oscillat ions have a f r equency r ange of
0.1 Hz t o 3 Hz.
0.1 Hz t o 3 Hz.
•
•
The lowest f r equency mode involves all
The lowest f r equency mode involves all
gener at or s of t he syst em. This oscillat ion
gener at or s of t he syst em. This oscillat ion
gr oups t he syst em int o t wo par t s wit h
gr oups t he syst em int o t wo par t s wit h
gener at or s in one par t oscillat ing against t he
gener at or s in one par t oscillat ing against t he
ot her par t (int er
ot her par t (int er


ar ea oscillat ion).
ar ea oscillat ion).
20
Mul t i machi ne Mul t i machi ne St abi l i t y St abi l i t y
•
•
The higher f r equency modes ar e usually
The higher f r equency modes ar e usually
localized wit h small gr oups oscillat ing against
localized wit h small gr oups oscillat ing against
each ot her (local modes).
each ot her (local modes).
•
•
Unf or t unat ely, t he int er
Unf or t unat ely, t he int er


ar ea oscillat ion can
ar ea oscillat ion can
be init iat ed by a small dist ur bance in any par t
be init iat ed by a small dist ur bance in any par t
of t he syst em.
of t he syst em.
•
•
These small f r equency oscillat ions f all under
These small f r equency oscillat ions f all under
t he cat egor y of dynamic st abilit y and ar e
t he cat egor y of dynamic st abilit y and ar e
analyzed in linear domain t hr ough t he
analyzed in linear domain t hr ough t he
linear izat ion
linear izat ion
of t he ent ir e int er connect ed
of t he ent ir e int er connect ed
syst ems model.
syst ems model.
21
Power Syst em St abi l i zer ( PSS)
Power Syst em St abi l i zer ( PSS)
•
•
An AVR r egulat es t he gener at or t er minal
An AVR r egulat es t he gener at or t er minal
volt age and also r educes t he peak of t he f ir st
volt age and also r educes t he peak of t he f ir st
swing f ollowing any dist ur bance.
swing f ollowing any dist ur bance.
•
•
However , it s high gain cont r ibut es t o negat ive
However , it s high gain cont r ibut es t o negat ive
damping t o t he syst em and t his r esult s in t he
damping t o t he syst em and t his r esult s in t he
low f r equency oscillat ions in t he syst em.
low f r equency oscillat ions in t he syst em.
•
•
These oscillat ions ar e t he r esult s of t he
These oscillat ions ar e t he r esult s of t he
per iodic int er change of kinet ic ener gy bet ween
per iodic int er change of kinet ic ener gy bet ween
dif f er ent gener at or r ot or s.
dif f er ent gener at or r ot or s.
•
•
A PSS pr ovides posit ive damping t o t hese small
A PSS pr ovides posit ive damping t o t hese small
oscillat ions t hr ough negat ive f eedback of t he
oscillat ions t hr ough negat ive f eedback of t he
changes in r ot or kinet ic ener gy.
changes in r ot or kinet ic ener gy.
22
Subsynchr onous
Subsynchr onous
Resonance ( SSR)
Resonance ( SSR)
SSR usually occur s in ser ies capacit or compensat ed
SSR usually occur s in ser ies capacit or compensat ed
t r ansmission syst ems. For a r adial ser ies compensat ed
t r ansmission syst ems. For a r adial ser ies compensat ed
syst em, t he nat ur al
syst em, t he nat ur al
undamped
undamped
f r equency is
f r equency is
n
C
n
f f
X
X
f f
− =
=
0
0
frequency Complement
f
f
0 0
being t he nominal syst em f r equency
being t he nominal syst em f r equency
23
Subsynchr onous Subsynchr onous Resonance ( SSR) Resonance ( SSR)
•
•
SSR occur s when t he complement f r equency
SSR occur s when t he complement f r equency
is close t o one of t he
is close t o one of t he
t or sional
t or sional
f r equencies
f r equencies
of t he t ur bine
of t he t ur bine


gener at or shaf t syst em.
gener at or shaf t syst em.
•
•
A small volt age induced by r ot or oscillat ion
A small volt age induced by r ot or oscillat ion
can r esult in lar ge
can r esult in lar ge
subsynchr onous
subsynchr onous
cur r ent s
cur r ent s
t hat pr oduce an oscillat or y component of
t hat pr oduce an oscillat or y component of
r ot or t or que whose phase is such t hat it
r ot or t or que whose phase is such t hat it
enhances t he r ot or oscillat ions.
enhances t he r ot or oscillat ions.
•
•
I f t his t or que over comes t he mechanical
I f t his t or que over comes t he mechanical
damping, t he oscillat ion in t he shaf t syst em
damping, t he oscillat ion in t he shaf t syst em
gr ows and can r each damaging levels.
gr ows and can r each damaging levels.
24
Shunt Compensat i on of
Shunt Compensat i on of
Tr ansmi ssi on Syst ems
Tr ansmi ssi on Syst ems
A device t hat t hat is connect ed in par allel wit h a
A device t hat t hat is connect ed in par allel wit h a
t r ansmission line is called a
t r ansmission line is called a
shunt compensat or
shunt compensat or
.
.
I t is r ef er r ed t o as a compensat or since it
I t is r ef er r ed t o as a compensat or since it
compensat es f or t he r eact ive power in t he ac
compensat es f or t he r eact ive power in t he ac
syst em. I t can
syst em. I t can
•
•
I mpr ove t he volt age pr of ile
I mpr ove t he volt age pr of ile
•
•
I mpr ove t he power
I mpr ove t he power


angle char act er ist ics
angle char act er ist ics
•
•
I mpr ove t he st abilit y mar gin
I mpr ove t he st abilit y mar gin
•
•
pr ovide damping t o power oscillat ions
pr ovide damping t o power oscillat ions
25
I deal Shunt Compensat or
I deal Shunt Compensat or
The ideal shunt compensat or is r epr esent ed by
The ideal shunt compensat or is r epr esent ed by
an ideal cur r ent sour ce t hat supplies only
an ideal cur r ent sour ce t hat supplies only
r eact ive power and no r eal power . Let us
r eact ive power and no r eal power . Let us
assume t hat it is connect ed at t he
assume t hat it is connect ed at t he
midpoint
midpoint
of
of
a
a
lossless
lossless
line.
line.
26
Vol t age Pr of i l e
Vol t age Pr of i l e
I mpr ovement
I mpr ovement
The f igur e shows t he ideal volt age
The f igur e shows t he ideal volt age


cur r ent
cur r ent
char act er ist ics of an ideal shunt compensat or
char act er ist ics of an ideal shunt compensat or
in which t he midpoint volt age held const ant
in which t he midpoint volt age held const ant
ir r espect ive of t he cur r ent inj ect ed.
ir r espect ive of t he cur r ent inj ect ed.
27
I nj ect ed Cur r ent I nj ect ed Cur r ent
We t hus have t o gener at e a cur r ent t hat is
We t hus have t o gener at e a cur r ent t hat is
phase quadr at ur e wit h t he midpoint
phase quadr at ur e wit h t he midpoint
volt age. As a consequence t he r eal power
volt age. As a consequence t he r eal power
inj ect ed by t he compensat or is zer o.
inj ect ed by t he compensat or is zer o.
( )
( ) ( )
( ) { } ( ) 2 2 cos 1
4 ~
~ ~ ~
Since
2
2 ~
,
2
2 ~
2
~
,
~
,
~
For
δ δ
δ δ δ
δ δ
∠ − − =
− =
− ∠
=
∠ − ∠
=
∠ = = ∠ =
X
V
j I
I I I
X j
V V
I
X j
V V
I
V V V V V V
Q
S R Q
R S
M R S
28
Real & React i ve Power
Real & React i ve Power
Midpoint shunt compensat ion impr oves t he power
Midpoint shunt compensat ion impr oves t he power
f low over a line. The r eal power f lowing t hr ough
f low over a line. The r eal power f lowing t hr ough
and t he r eact ive power absor bed by t he line
and t he r eact ive power absor bed by t he line
ar e
ar e
( ) ( ) [ ] 2 cos 1
8
, 2 sin
2
2 2
δ δ − = =
X
V
Q
X
V
P
l e
The r eact ive power gener at ed by t he shunt
The r eact ive power gener at ed by t he shunt
compensat or is
compensat or is
( ) [ ] 2 cos 1
4
2
δ − =
X
V
Q
Q
29
I t is assumed t hat
I t is assumed t hat
pu 1
2
=
X
V
Power Angl e Char act er i st i c
Power Angl e Char act er i st i c
30
React i ve Power React i ve Power
Requi r ement Requi r ement
•
•
For a r eal power
For a r eal power
t r ansf er of 1.0 per
t r ansf er of 1.0 per
unit , a r eact ive
unit , a r eact ive
power inj ect ion of
power inj ect ion of
r oughly 0.5359 per
r oughly 0.5359 per
unit will be
unit will be
r equir ed f r om t he
r equir ed f r om t he
shunt compensat or .
shunt compensat or .
•
•
However f or 2.0
However f or 2.0
per unit r eal power
per unit r eal power
an inj ect ion of 4.0
an inj ect ion of 4.0
per unit is needed.
per unit is needed.
I t is assumed t hat
I t is assumed t hat pu 1
2
=
X
V
31
React i ve Power React i ve Power
Requi r ement Requi r ement
For a r eal power
For a r eal power
t r ansf er of 1.0
t r ansf er of 1.0
per unit , t he
per unit , t he
r eact ive power
r eact ive power
inj ect ion can be
inj ect ion can be
lower ed by
lower ed by
lower ing t he
lower ing t he
midpoint
midpoint
volt age.
volt age.
32
I mpr ovement of St abi l i t y
I mpr ovement of St abi l i t y
Mar gi n
Mar gi n
33
Power Swi ng Dampi ng
Power Swi ng Dampi ng
The swing equat ion is given by
The swing equat ion is given by
( )
M e m
s
V P P
dt
d H ~
,
2
2
2
δ
δ
ω
− =
wher e
wher e
P
P
m m
is t he mechanical power input . Not e
is t he mechanical power input . Not e
t hat t he elect r ical power
t hat t he elect r ical power
P
P
e e
is def ine as a
is def ine as a
f unct ion of t he load angle
f unct ion of t he load angle
δ
δ
and t he
and t he
magnit ude of t he midpoint volt age. This is
magnit ude of t he midpoint volt age. This is
because bot h t hese quant it ies can alt er t he
because bot h t hese quant it ies can alt er t he
power t r ansmit t ed over a t r ansmission line,
power t r ansmit t ed over a t r ansmission line,
f or const ant volt age at t he t wo ends.
f or const ant volt age at t he t wo ends.
34
Power Swi ng Dampi ng Power Swi ng Dampi ng
The
The
linear izat ion
linear izat ion
of t he swing equat ion gives
of t he swing equat ion gives
0
~
~
2
2
2
= ∆
∂
∂
+ ∆
∂
∂
+
∆
δ
δ
δ
ω
e
M
M
e
s
P
V
V
P
dt
d H
The r egulat ion of t he midpoint volt age implies t hat
The r egulat ion of t he midpoint volt age implies t hat
t he magnit ude of
t he magnit ude of
V
V
m m
is held const ant and hence
is held const ant and hence
0
~
= ∆
M
V
Ther ef or e we get
Ther ef or e we get
0
2
2
2
= ∆
∂
∂
+
∆
δ
δ
δ
ω
e
s
P
dt
d H
35
Power Swi ng Dampi ng Power Swi ng Dampi ng
•
•
The r oot s of t he above equat ion ar e locat ed
The r oot s of t he above equat ion ar e locat ed
on t he imaginar y axis of t he s
on t he imaginar y axis of t he s


plane. This
plane. This
implies t hat t he load angle will oscillat e wit h
implies t hat t he load angle will oscillat e wit h
a const ant f r equency of
a const ant f r equency of
δ
ω
∂
∂
e s
P
H 2
•
•
Obviously t his solut ion is not accept able. We
Obviously t his solut ion is not accept able. We
must t her ef or e add a der ivat ive of t he load
must t her ef or e add a der ivat ive of t he load
angle in t he
angle in t he
linear ized
linear ized
swing equat ion.
swing equat ion.
36
Power Swi ng Dampi ng Power Swi ng Dampi ng
Let us var y t he midpoint volt age accor ding t o
Let us var y t he midpoint volt age accor ding t o
dt
d
K V
M M
δ ∆
= ∆
~
We t her ef or e get
We t her ef or e get
0
~
2
2
2
= ∆
∂
∂
+
∆
∂
∂
+
∆
δ
δ
δ δ
ω
e
M
M
e
s
P
dt
d
K
V
P
dt
d H
This is t he equat ion of a 2
This is t he equat ion of a 2
nd nd
or der syst em in which
or der syst em in which
0 >
M
K
Ther ef or e a st able solut ion is guar ant eed if
Ther ef or e a st able solut ion is guar ant eed if
0 , 0
~
, 0 2 > ∂ ∂ > ∂ ∂ > δ ω
e M e s
P V P H
37
An Exampl e
An Exampl e
MJ/MVA 0 . 4 , pu 3 . 0 , pu 5 . 0
rad/s 100 , pu 0 1
~
, pu 40 1
~
= = =
= ∠ = ∠ =
H X X
V V
F
R S
π ω
ο ο
38
Exampl e ( Cont i nued) Exampl e ( Cont i nued)
Let us r egulat e t he midpoint volt age t o 1.0
Let us r egulat e t he midpoint volt age t o 1.0
per unit using a PI cont r oller of t he f or m
per unit using a PI cont r oller of t he f or m
( ) ( )
∫
− + − = dt V K V K V
M I M P F
~
1
~
1
~
Not e t hat f or pur ely r eact ive inj ect ion by t he
Not e t hat f or pur ely r eact ive inj ect ion by t he
shunt compensat or , t he angle of t he volt age
shunt compensat or , t he angle of t he volt age
sour ce is set such t hat it is in phase wit h t he
sour ce is set such t hat it is in phase wit h t he
midpoint volt age, i.e.,
midpoint volt age, i.e.,
P
M
M
F
V
V
V
V
~
~
~
~
× =
39
Exampl e ( Cont i nued) Exampl e ( Cont i nued)
Syst em r esponse t o a per t ur bat ion
Syst em r esponse t o a per t ur bat ion
40
Exampl e ( Cont i nued) Exampl e ( Cont i nued)
To impr ove damping, we now int r oduce a t er m
To impr ove damping, we now int r oduce a t er m
t hat is pr opor t ional t o t he deviat ion of
t hat is pr opor t ional t o t he deviat ion of
machine speed in t he f eedback loop such
machine speed in t he f eedback loop such
t hat t he cont r ol law is given by
t hat t he cont r ol law is given by
( ) ( )
dt
d
C dt V K V K V
P M I M P F
δ ∆
+ − + − =
∫
~
1
~
1
~
The last t er m adds damping t o t he syst em.
The last t er m adds damping t o t he syst em.
41
Exampl e ( Cont i nued) Exampl e ( Cont i nued)
Syst em r esponse when t he br eaker A opens
Syst em r esponse when t he br eaker A opens
inadver t ent ly.
inadver t ent ly.
42
Pr act i cal Shunt
Pr act i cal Shunt
Compensat or
Compensat or
•
•
The above example demonst r at es t he
The above example demonst r at es t he
f unct ioning of a
f unct ioning of a
St at ic Compensat or
St at ic Compensat or
(
(
STATCOM) t hat pr oduces a volt age, t he
STATCOM) t hat pr oduces a volt age, t he
f undament al component of which is in phase
f undament al component of which is in phase
wit h t he midpoint volt age. I t consist s of an
wit h t he midpoint volt age. I t consist s of an
inver t er based Synchr onous Volt age Sour ce
inver t er based Synchr onous Volt age Sour ce
(SVS) and a connect ing t r ansf or mer .
(SVS) and a connect ing t r ansf or mer .
•
•
The f ir st gener at ion shunt compensat or is
The f ir st gener at ion shunt compensat or is
t he
t he
St at ic
St at ic
VAr
VAr
Compensat or
Compensat or
(SVC). I t
(SVC). I t
act ually is a var iable r eact ance.
act ually is a var iable r eact ance.
43
Uncompensat ed Syst em
Uncompensat ed Syst em
I n t he f igur e below t he power syst em is
I n t he f igur e below t he power syst em is
r epr esent ed by it s
r epr esent ed by it s
Thevenin
Thevenin
equivalent looking
equivalent looking
f r om t he midpoint . I t is assumed t hat a var iable
f r om t he midpoint . I t is assumed t hat a var iable
r eact ive load is connect ed at t he midpoint .
r eact ive load is connect ed at t he midpoint .
44
VI Cur ve VI Cur ve
The midpoint volt age incr eases linear ly wit h
The midpoint volt age incr eases linear ly wit h
capacit ive load cur r ent and decr eases
capacit ive load cur r ent and decr eases
wit h induct ive load cur r ent .
wit h induct ive load cur r ent .
45
VI Cur ve VI Cur ve
Ef f ect s of incr easing
Ef f ect s of incr easing
V
V
t h t h
(lef t ) and
(lef t ) and
X
X
t h t h
(r ight ).
(r ight ).
46
Component s of SVC
Component s of SVC
The building blocks of an SVC ar e
The building blocks of an SVC ar e
•
•
Sat ur at ed React or
Sat ur at ed React or
•
•
Thyr ist or
Thyr ist or
Swit ched Capacit or (TSC)
Swit ched Capacit or (TSC)
•
•
Thyr ist or
Thyr ist or
Cont r olled React or (TCR)
Cont r olled React or (TCR)
•
•
Thyr ist or
Thyr ist or
Swit ched React or
Swit ched React or
•
•
Thyr ist or
Thyr ist or
Cont r olled Tr ansf or mer
Cont r olled Tr ansf or mer
An SVC is made of t he combinat ion of one or
An SVC is made of t he combinat ion of one or
mor e t han one of t he above component s and
mor e t han one of t he above component s and
f ixed capacit or banks.
f ixed capacit or banks.
47
Thyr i st or Swi t ched
Thyr i st or Swi t ched
Capaci t or ( TSC)
Capaci t or ( TSC)
I n a TSC a capacit or is connect ed in ser ies
I n a TSC a capacit or is connect ed in ser ies
wit h t wo opposit e pole t hyr ist or s. A
wit h t wo opposit e pole t hyr ist or s. A
cur r ent f lows t hr ough t he capacit or when
cur r ent f lows t hr ough t he capacit or when
t he opposit e poled t hyr ist or s ar e gat ed.
t he opposit e poled t hyr ist or s ar e gat ed.
48
TSC TSC   Equi val ent React ance Equi val ent React ance
TSCs
TSCs
always come in a pack. The ef f ect ive
always come in a pack. The ef f ect ive
r eact ance of t he TSC pack can be changed
r eact ance of t he TSC pack can be changed
by swit ching a TSC on or of f . For example in
by swit ching a TSC on or of f . For example in
an
an
n
n


pack TSC, t he ef f ect ive r eact ance is
pack TSC, t he ef f ect ive r eact ance is
n k
C k
j X
eq
, , 1 , 0 ,
1
Κ = − =
ω
wher e
wher e
k
k
is t he number of
is t he number of
TSCs
TSCs
conduct ing.
conduct ing.
49
TSC TSC   Tr ansi ent Tr ansi ent   f r ee Swi t chi ng f r ee Swi t chi ng
•
•
TSC suddenly blocks cur r ent or allows t he
TSC suddenly blocks cur r ent or allows t he
cur r ent t hr ough it .
cur r ent t hr ough it .
•
•
Hence sever e swit ching t r ansient s occur s if a
Hence sever e swit ching t r ansient s occur s if a
TSC is swit ched of f while t he cur r ent
TSC is swit ched of f while t he cur r ent
t hor ough it is not zer o.
t hor ough it is not zer o.
•
•
Similar ly, t he device must be swit ched on at a
Similar ly, t he device must be swit ched on at a
par t icular inst ant of t he volt age cycle.
par t icular inst ant of t he volt age cycle.
•
•
For example, let us consider t hat a TSC is
For example, let us consider t hat a TSC is
supplied by a volt age sour ce
supplied by a volt age sour ce
v
v
S S
and has a
and has a
capacit or volt age
capacit or volt age
v
v
C C
and a cur r ent
and a cur r ent
i
i
C C
t hr ough
t hr ough
t he capacit or .
t he capacit or .
50
TSC TSC   Tr ansi ent Tr ansi ent   f r ee Swi t chi ng f r ee Swi t chi ng
•
•
Then as
Then as
i
i
C C
=
=
C
C
(
(
dv
dv
C C
/
/
dt
dt
),
),
t he cur r ent is zer o
t he cur r ent is zer o
when
when
dv
dv
C C
/
/
dt
dt
= 0, i.e., when t he capacit or
= 0, i.e., when t he capacit or
volt age r eaches it s peak.
volt age r eaches it s peak.
•
•
Thus f or t r ansient
Thus f or t r ansient


f r ee swit ching, it must be
f r ee swit ching, it must be
ensur ed t hat t he capacit or volt age is in eit her
ensur ed t hat t he capacit or volt age is in eit her
it s posit ive peak or negat ive peak f or eit her
it s posit ive peak or negat ive peak f or eit her
t ur n on or t ur n of f .
t ur n on or t ur n of f .
•
•
The t r ansient
The t r ansient


f r ee swit ching is shown in t he
f r ee swit ching is shown in t he
next slide, in which t he inst ant of swit ching on
next slide, in which t he inst ant of swit ching on
and of f ar e also indicat ed.
and of f ar e also indicat ed.
51
TSC TSC   Tr ansi ent Tr ansi ent   f r ee Swi t chi ng f r ee Swi t chi ng
•
•
The capacit or volt age
The capacit or volt age
v
v
C C
is kept at t he peak of
is kept at t he peak of
t he supply volt age when t he swit ch is of f
t he supply volt age when t he swit ch is of f
indicat ing an open cir cuit .
indicat ing an open cir cuit .
52
Thyr i st or Swi t ched
Thyr i st or Swi t ched
React or ( TCR)
React or ( TCR)
I n a TCR a r eact or is connect ed in ser ies t o t wo
I n a TCR a r eact or is connect ed in ser ies t o t wo
opposit e poled t hyr ist or s. One of t hese
opposit e poled t hyr ist or s. One of t hese
t hyr ist or s conduct s in each half cycle of supply
t hyr ist or s conduct s in each half cycle of supply
f r equency.
f r equency.
53
TCR TCR   VI Rel at i onshi p VI Rel at i onshi p
•
•
The gat ing signal t o each t hyr ist or is delayed
The gat ing signal t o each t hyr ist or is delayed
by an angle
by an angle
α
α
(of t en called t he f ir ing or
(of t en called t he f ir ing or
conduct ion angle) f r om t he zer o cr ossing of t he
conduct ion angle) f r om t he zer o cr ossing of t he
sour ce volt age.
sour ce volt age.
54
•
•
The conduct ion angle must be in t he r ange
The conduct ion angle must be in t he r ange
90
90
º º
≤
≤
α
α
≤
≤
180
180
º º
. For
. For
α
α
=
=
90
90
º º
, t he cur r ent will have f ull
, t he cur r ent will have f ull
conduct ion and will lag t he volt age by 90
conduct ion and will lag t he volt age by 90
º º
.
.
TCR TCR   VI Rel at i onshi p VI Rel at i onshi p
55
TCR TCR   VI Rel at i onshi p VI Rel at i onshi p
•
•
For
For
α
α
= 18
= 18
0
0
º º
, t he cur r ent will be zer o.
, t he cur r ent will be zer o.
56
TCR TCR   Fundament al React ance Fundament al React ance
•
•
The TCR f undament al r eact ance is der ived
The TCR f undament al r eact ance is der ived
f r om t he f ollowing equat ion
f r om t he f ollowing equat ion
( ) ( )
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ < ≤ +
+ < ≤ − =
=
∫
for 0
for cos cos sin
1
π α ω σ α
σ α ω α ω α
ω
λ λ ω
ω α
t
t t
L
V
d V
L
i
m
t
m
L
•
•
The f undament al cur r ent is given f r om t he
The f undament al cur r ent is given f r om t he
above equat ion as
above equat ion as
( ) ( ) ° − − = 90 sin sin t
X
V
i
L
m
Lf
ω σ σ
π
57
TCR TCR   Fundament al React ance Fundament al React ance
•
•
Since t he TCR f undament al cur r ent must lag
Since t he TCR f undament al cur r ent must lag
t he volt age by 90
t he volt age by 90
º º
, we have t he f undament al
, we have t he f undament al
f r equency
f r equency
suscept ance
suscept ance
of t he TCR as
of t he TCR as
( )
L
s
Lf
X
V
I
B
L
π
σ σ
σ
sin
~
~
−
= =
•
•
The
The
suscept ance
suscept ance
is zer o f or
is zer o f or
σ
σ
= 0
= 0
º º
(
(
α
α
= 180
= 180
º º
)
)
and
and
r ecipr ocal of t he chosen value of
r ecipr ocal of t he chosen value of
X
X
L L
f or
f or
σ
σ
= 180
= 180
º º
(
(
α
α
= 90
= 90
º º
).
).
58
TCR TCR   Fundament al React ance Fundament al React ance
59
TCR TCR   Har moni cs Har moni cs
•
•
The TCR cur r ent will not cont ain any dc or
The TCR cur r ent will not cont ain any dc or
even har monics, but only t he odd har monics.
even har monics, but only t he odd har monics.
The peak of t he har monic cur r ent s ar e given
The peak of t he har monic cur r ent s ar e given
by
by
( ) { }
( )
( ) { }
( )
Κ , 5 , 3 ,
sin
cos
1 2
1 sin
1 2
1 sin 4
_
=
−
−
−
+
+
+
= n
n
n
n
n
n
n
X
V
I
L
m
n L
α
α
α α
π
•
•
The nor malized har monic spect r um f or var ious
The nor malized har monic spect r um f or var ious
values of
values of
α
α
ar e shown in t he next slide.
ar e shown in t he next slide.
•
•
As t he f ir ing angle incr eases, t he magnit ude of
As t he f ir ing angle incr eases, t he magnit ude of
t he har monic cur r ent incr eases.
t he har monic cur r ent incr eases.
60
TCR TCR   Har moni cs Har moni cs
•
•
Bot h t he peak and
Bot h t he peak and
conduct ion per iod
conduct ion per iod
(
(
σ
σ
/
/
ω
ω
)
)
decr ease
decr ease
wit h incr ease in
wit h incr ease in
α
α
r esult ing in a
r esult ing in a
r educt ion of t he
r educt ion of t he
peak of
peak of
f undament al
f undament al
cur r ent and
cur r ent and
incr ease in
incr ease in
har monic
har monic
cont ent s.
cont ent s.
61
Typi cal SVC Scheme
Typi cal SVC Scheme
62
SVC VI Char act er i st i cs
SVC VI Char act er i st i cs
63
SVC VI Char act er i st i cs SVC VI Char act er i st i cs
64
SVC VI Char act er i st i cs SVC VI Char act er i st i cs
•
•
Assume t hat t he syst em is oper at ing
Assume t hat t he syst em is oper at ing
wit h a volt age
wit h a volt age
V
V
0 0
.
.
•
•
I f t he syst em volt age incr eases,
I f t he syst em volt age incr eases,
V
V
will
will
incr ease t o
incr ease t o
V
V
1 1
wit hout SVC. However
wit hout SVC. However
t he SVC moves t he oper at ing point t o
t he SVC moves t he oper at ing point t o
B
B
by absor bing induct ive cur r ent and
by absor bing induct ive cur r ent and
holds t he volt age at
holds t he volt age at
V
V
3 3
.
.
•
•
Similar ly t he SVC holds t he volt age at
Similar ly t he SVC holds t he volt age at
V
V
4 4
f or a decr ease in t he syst em
f or a decr ease in t he syst em
volt age.
volt age.
65
Synchr onous Vol t age
Synchr onous Vol t age
Sour ce ( SVS)
Sour ce ( SVS)
66
SVS SVS   Vol t age Wavef or ms Vol t age Wavef or ms
67
12 12  St ep SVS St ep SVS
The t r ansf or mer pr imar ies pr ovide a phase
shif t of 30
º
.
68
12 12  St ep Out put St ep Out put
Wavef or m and Har moni c Wavef or m and Har moni c
Spect r um Spect r um
69
Mul t i
Mul t i


St ep SVS
St ep SVS
•
•
I n a similar way 6
I n a similar way 6
n
n


st ep out put volt age can
st ep out put volt age can
be obt ained by connect ing
be obt ained by connect ing
n
n
basic 6
basic 6


st ep
st ep
inver t er s and by pr oviding phase shif t
inver t er s and by pr oviding phase shif t
t hr ough t r ansf or mer connect ions.
t hr ough t r ansf or mer connect ions.
•
•
For example, a 24
For example, a 24


st ep inver t er can be
st ep inver t er can be
const r uct ed by phase shif t ing each of t he
const r uct ed by phase shif t ing each of t he
f our 6
f our 6


st ep inver t er s by 15
st ep inver t er s by 15
º º
.
.
•
•
Similar ly a phase shif t of 7.5
Similar ly a phase shif t of 7.5
º º
bet ween 8
bet ween 8
basic inver t er out put will pr oduce a 48
basic inver t er out put will pr oduce a 48


st ep out put wavef or m.
st ep out put wavef or m.
70
Mul t i Mul t i   St ep SVS St ep SVS
•
•
Not e t hat t he f ir ing pulses of t he 6
Not e t hat t he f ir ing pulses of t he 6


st ep
st ep
basic inver t er s must also be phase shif t ed
basic inver t er s must also be phase shif t ed
by 15
by 15
º º
or 7.5
or 7.5
º º
t o obt ain 24 or 48
t o obt ain 24 or 48


st ep
st ep
out put wavef or ms r espect ively.
out put wavef or ms r espect ively.
•
•
The lowest or der har monics in a 6
The lowest or der har monics in a 6
n
n


st ep
st ep
inver t er is 6
inver t er is 6
n
n
±
±
1 in t he
1 in t he
ac side and 6
ac side and 6
n
n
in
in
t he dc side.
t he dc side.
71
24 24  St ep Out put Wavef or m St ep Out put Wavef or m
and Har moni c Spect r um and Har moni c Spect r um
72
3
3


Level I nver t er
Level I nver t er
73
5
5


Level I nver t er
Level I nver t er
74
STATCOM
STATCOM
•
•
A STATCOM consist s
A STATCOM consist s
of a SVS t hat is
of a SVS t hat is
supplied by a dc
supplied by a dc
st or age capacit or
st or age capacit or
C
C
dc dc
.
.
•
•
The SVS is connect ed
The SVS is connect ed
in shunt wit h t he ac
in shunt wit h t he ac
syst em bus t hr ough a
syst em bus t hr ough a
coupling t r ansf or mer
coupling t r ansf or mer
wit h a leakage
wit h a leakage
r eact ance of
r eact ance of
X
X
T T
.
.
75
STATCOM STATCOM   VAr VAr Gener at i on Gener at i on
I f
I f
∠
∠
θ
θ
=
=
∠
∠
φ
φ
, t hen t he dir ect ion of t he f low of
, t hen t he dir ect ion of t he f low of
pur ely r eact ive cur r ent
pur ely r eact ive cur r ent
I
I
q q
will depend on
will depend on
t he volt age magnit udes
t he volt age magnit udes
V
V
1 1
and
and
V
V
2 2
.
.
•
•
I f
I f
V
V
1 1
>
>
V
V
2 2
t hen t he cur r ent f lows f r om t he
t hen t he cur r ent f lows f r om t he
ac syst em t o t he SVS and t he conver t er
ac syst em t o t he SVS and t he conver t er
absor bs r eact ive (induct ive) power .
absor bs r eact ive (induct ive) power .
•
•
I f
I f
V
V
2 2
>
>
V
V
1 1
t hen t he cur r ent f lows f r om t he
t hen t he cur r ent f lows f r om t he
SVS t o t he ac syst em and t he conver t er
SVS t o t he ac syst em and t he conver t er
gener at es r eact ive (capacit ive) power f or
gener at es r eact ive (capacit ive) power f or
t he ac syst em.
t he ac syst em.
76
STATCOM STATCOM   DC Capaci t or Cont r ol DC Capaci t or Cont r ol
•
•
However pur e r eact ive inj ect ion or absor pt ion
However pur e r eact ive inj ect ion or absor pt ion
is neit her possible nor desir able.
is neit her possible nor desir able.
•
•
Since t he conver t er is supplied by a dc
Since t he conver t er is supplied by a dc
capacit or , t he volt age acr oss t he capacit or
capacit or , t he volt age acr oss t he capacit or
will f all if t he STATCOM is not
will f all if t he STATCOM is not
lossless
lossless
.
.
•
•
The dc capacit or volt age can be r egulat ed by
The dc capacit or volt age can be r egulat ed by
r eplenishing t he losses due t o swit ching and
r eplenishing t he losses due t o swit ching and
in t he coupling t r ansf or mer cir cuit by dr awing
in t he coupling t r ansf or mer cir cuit by dr awing
power f r om t he ac syst em.
power f r om t he ac syst em.
•
•
Ther ef or e
Ther ef or e
∠
∠
φ
φ
must lag
must lag
∠
∠
θ
θ
by a small amount
by a small amount
such t hat t he dc capacit or volt age is held
such t hat t he dc capacit or volt age is held
const ant .
const ant .
77
STATCOM STATCOM   Cont r ol Cont r ol
•
•
I n a mult i
I n a mult i


st ep conver t er , t he f undament al
st ep conver t er , t he f undament al
component of t he out put volt age is
component of t he out put volt age is
det er mined by t he magnit ude of t he dc
det er mined by t he magnit ude of t he dc
capacit or volt age.
capacit or volt age.
•
•
Ther ef or e t he volt age magnit ude
Ther ef or e t he volt age magnit ude
V
V
2 2
can be
can be
incr eased or decr eased
incr eased or decr eased
vis
vis


à
à


vis t he
vis t he
magnit ude of
magnit ude of
V
V
1 1
by char ging or dischar ging
by char ging or dischar ging
t he dc capacit or t hr ough t he cont r ol of
t he dc capacit or t hr ough t he cont r ol of
φ
φ
.
.
•
•
This makes t he cont r ol loop slow.
This makes t he cont r ol loop slow.
78
STATCOM STATCOM   Cont r ol Cont r ol
•
•
Pulse widt h modulat ion (PWM) can
Pulse widt h modulat ion (PWM) can
ef f ect ively be used in a mult ilevel conver t er .
ef f ect ively be used in a mult ilevel conver t er .
This has a bet t er cont r ol r esponse.
This has a bet t er cont r ol r esponse.
•
•
I n a sinusoidal PWM, t he f undament al
I n a sinusoidal PWM, t he f undament al
component of t he out put volt age magnit ude
component of t he out put volt age magnit ude
can be changed by changing eit her t he
can be changed by changing eit her t he
capacit or volt age or t he modulat ion index.
capacit or volt age or t he modulat ion index.
•
•
The capacit or volt age imbalance pr oblem in
The capacit or volt age imbalance pr oblem in
diode
diode


clamped t opology makes it s use
clamped t opology makes it s use
r est r ict ive. Alt er nat ively f lying capacit or
r est r ict ive. Alt er nat ively f lying capacit or
t opology can be used.
t opology can be used.
79
STATCOM STATCOM   VI VI
Char act eri st i cs Char act eri st i cs
80
Compar i son Bet ween SVC
Compar i son Bet ween SVC
and STATCOM
and STATCOM
For Further Reading
Flexible AC Transmission Systems
The following two books cover most of the aspects of FACTS
[1] N. G. Hingorani and L. Gyugyi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of
Flexible AC Transmission Systems, IEEE Press, New York, 2000.
[2] Y. H. Song and A. T. Johns (eds.), Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), Institute of
Electrical Engineers, London, 2001.
The following book mainly deals with thyristor based FACTS devices like SVC and TCSC.
[3] R. M. Mathur and R. K. Varma, Thyristor Based FACTS Controllers for Electric Power
Transmission Systems, IEEE Press and Wiley Interscience, New York, 2002.
The following book is a classic. It discusses most of the early thyristor based technology.
[4] T. J. E. Miller (ed), Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems, John Wiley, New York,
1982.
The following book covers some of the aspects of shunt and series compensation and in general
is a good reference book on Power Systems
[5] P. S. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control, McGrawHill, New York, 1994.
Power Quality and Custom Power
The following books cover many aspects of power quality problems.
[6] R. C. Dugan, M. F. McGranaghan and H. W. Beaty, Electric Power Systems Quality, 2
nd
ed., McGrawHill, New York, 2003.
[7] J. Arrillaga, N. R. Watson and S. Chen, Power Quality Assessment, John Wiley, New York,
2000.
Voltage sag and interruptions problems have been discussed in great detail in the following
book.
[8] M. J. Bolen, Understanding Power Quality Problems: Voltage Sags and Interruptions,
IEEE Press, 2000.
Various aspects of custom power technology are discussed in
[9] A. Ghosh and G. Ledwich, Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices,
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002.
Lecture Schedule
• Day 1: Problems with bulk power transmission & shunt compensation of transmission systems. • Day2: Series compensation of transmission systems & other FACTS controllers. • Day 3: Power quality, custom power & network reconfiguring devices. • Day 4: Distribution STATCOM, Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) & Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC)
2
Power Transmission Line Characteristics
Transmission lines are represented by: • Lumped parameter short lines (up to 50 mi). • Medium lines represented by nominalπ or nominalT models. • Long lines represented by distributed parameter models.
3
Lossless Line Representation
~ ~ VS = Source Voltage, VR = Receiving Voltage, ~ VM = Midpoint Voltage, X = Total line reactance
4
Then I S = Power Flow Over Transmission Line ~ ~ ο Let VS = V∠δ and VR = V∠0 ~ V (cos δ − 1) + jV sin δ jX 2 2 We then have ~ ~∗ V sin δ + jV (1 − cosδ ) PS + jQS = VS I S = X 5 .
Power Flow Over Transmission Line Similarly ~ ∗ ~ V sin δ − jV (cos δ − 1) PR − jQR = VR I S = X 2 2 The real power over the line is V sin δ Pe = PS = PR = X 2 6 .
Power Flow Over Transmission Line The reactive power absorbed by the line 2V (1 − cos δ ) Ql = QS − QR = X 2 The powerangle curves are shown in the next slide. However. 7 . Note that we have assumed lumped parameter representation of the line. a similar pattern also occurs even when the line is modeled using distributed parameters.
PowerAngle Curves It is assumed that Pmax V2 = = 1 pu X 8 .
Midpoint Voltage Sag ~ VM = V cos δ ( 2 )∠(δ 2 ) 9 .
Ferranti Effect ~ VR = (2 Y ) V ~ S (2 Y ) − X 10 .
64% above the sending end voltage under noload (or even lightly loaded) condition. the receiving end voltage will be different for different line lengths.5145 ohm and 0. 11 . the receiving end voltage rises 25.Ferranti Effect In 500 km long line where per kilometer line reactance and admittance are 0.0000031734 mho. Also since the parameters X and Y depend on the line length. the more is the voltage rise. In fact the longer the line.
the system shall also be able to maintain the nominal voltage at buses in the steady state. • Conversely. • In addition.Voltage Stability • Voltage stability is the ability of the power system to return to the nominal (prefault) voltages of all buses following a disturbance in the system. 12 . the voltage instability occurs when the voltages at different buses drop continuously following a disturbance or load change.
Voltage Stability ~ VR = 1 ~ ο pu when VS = 1∠0 1 + Z ratio ∠(θ L − θ R ) 13 .
The maximum power occurs when the load and line impedances are same. The power decreases after that and the voltage monotonically decreases.Voltage Stability 2Z PR = 1+ Z 2 ratio 2 ratio {1 + cos(θ R − θ L )} + Z ratio cos(θ R − θ L ) The transmission line impedance is fixed for a given line. Therefore Zratio decreases as the load impedance increases. 14 .
Voltage Stability 15 .
Voltage Stability 16 .
Angle Stability • • Pm = Mechanical power Pe = Electrical power 17 .
Multimachine Stability 18 .
This oscillation groups the system into two parts with generators in one part oscillating against the other part (interarea oscillation). In large interconnected systems it is common to find a natural response of a group of closely coupled machines oscillating against other groups of machines. • The lowest frequency mode involves all generators of the system.1 Hz to 3 Hz. • These oscillations have a frequency range of 0.Multimachine Stability • Modern power systems are interconnected and operate close to their stability limits. 19 .
• These small frequency oscillations fall under the category of dynamic stability and are analyzed in linear domain through the linearization of the entire interconnected systems model. the interarea oscillation can be initiated by a small disturbance in any part of the system.Multimachine Stability • The higher frequency modes are usually localized with small groups oscillating against each other (local modes). 20 . • Unfortunately.
21 . its high gain contributes to negative damping to the system and this results in the low frequency oscillations in the system. • These oscillations are the results of the periodic interchange of kinetic energy between different generator rotors. • However.Power System Stabilizer (PSS) • An AVR regulates the generator terminal voltage and also reduces the peak of the first swing following any disturbance. • A PSS provides positive damping to these small oscillations through negative feedback of the changes in rotor kinetic energy.
Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) SSR usually occurs in series capacitor compensated transmission systems. the natural undamped frequency is fn = f0 XC X Complement frequency = f0 − fn 22 f0 being the nominal system frequency . For a radial series compensated system.
the oscillation in the shaft system grows and can reach damaging levels.Subsynchronous Resonance (SSR) • SSR occurs when the complement frequency is close to one of the torsional frequencies of the turbinegenerator shaft system. • A small voltage induced by rotor oscillation can result in large subsynchronous currents that produce an oscillatory component of rotor torque whose phase is such that it enhances the rotor oscillations. • If this torque overcomes the mechanical damping. 23 .
Shunt Compensation of Transmission Systems A device that that is connected in parallel with a transmission line is called a shunt compensator. It can • Improve the voltage profile • Improve the powerangle characteristics • Improve the stability margin • provide damping to power oscillations 24 . It is referred to as a compensator since it compensates for the reactive power in the ac system.
25 . Let us assume that it is connected at the midpoint of a lossless line.Ideal Shunt Compensator The ideal shunt compensator is represented by an ideal current source that supplies only reactive power and no real power.
26 .Voltage Profile Improvement The figure shows the ideal voltagecurrent characteristics of an ideal shunt compensator in which the midpoint voltage held constant irrespective of the current injected.
VM = V∠(δ 2 ) We thus have to generate a current that is phase quadrature with the midpoint voltage. 27 . IR = IS = jX 2 jX 2 ~ ~ ~ Since I Q = I R − I S 4V ~ {1 − cos(δ 2)}∠(δ 2) IQ = − j X ~ ~ ~ For VS = V∠δ .Injected Current ~ V∠δ − V∠(δ 2 ) ~ V∠(δ 2) − V . VR = V . As a consequence the real power injected by the compensator is zero.
Real & Reactive Power Midpoint shunt compensation improves the power flow over a line. The real power flowing through and the reactive power absorbed by the line are 2V 2 8V 2 [1 − cos(δ 2)] Pe = sin (δ 2 ). Ql = X X The reactive power generated by the shunt compensator is 4V 2 [1 − cos(δ 2)] QQ = X 28 .
Power Angle Characteristic V2 It is assumed that X = 1 pu 29 .
0 per unit real power an injection of 4. However for 2. 30 X = 1 pu .Reactive Power Requirement • • V2 It is assumed that For a real power transfer of 1.0 per unit.5359 per unit will be required from the shunt compensator.0 per unit is needed. a reactive power injection of roughly 0.
0 per unit. the reactive power injection can be lowered by lowering the midpoint voltage. 31 .Reactive Power Requirement For a real power transfer of 1.
Improvement of Stability Margin 32 .
33 . for constant voltage at the two ends.Power Swing Damping The swing equation is given by 2H d δ ~ = Pm − Pe δ . VM 2 ω s dt 2 ( ) where Pm is the mechanical power input. This is because both these quantities can alter the power transmitted over a transmission line. Note that the electrical power Pe is define as a function of the load angle δ and the magnitude of the midpoint voltage.
Power Swing Damping The linearization of the swing equation gives ∂Pe ∂Pe 2 H d ∆δ ~ + ~ ∆ VM + ∆δ = 0 2 ω s dt ∂δ ∂ VM 2 The regulation of the midpoint voltage implies that the magnitude of Vm is held constant and hence ~ ∆ VM = 0 Therefore we get 2 H d 2 ∆δ ∂Pe + ∆δ = 0 2 ω s dt ∂δ 34 .
We must therefore add a derivative of the load angle in the linearized swing equation. 35 . This implies that the load angle will oscillate with a constant frequency of ω s ∂Pe 2 H ∂δ • Obviously this solution is not acceptable.Power Swing Damping • The roots of the above equation are located on the imaginary axis of the splane.
Power Swing Damping Let us vary the midpoint voltage according to d∆δ ~ ∆ VM = K M dt We therefore get ∂Pe 2 H d 2 ∆δ d∆δ ∂Pe + ~ KM + ∆δ = 0 2 dt ω s dt ∂δ ∂ VM This is the equation of a 2nd order system in which ~ 2 H ω s > 0. ∂Pe ∂ VM > 0. ∂Pe ∂δ > 0 Therefore a stable solution is guaranteed if KM > 0 36 .
X F = 0.An Example ~ ~ ο VS = 1∠40 pu .0 MJ/MVA 37 .5 pu . ω = 100π rad/s X = 0.3 pu . VR = 1∠0ο pu . H = 4.
~ VM ~ ~ VF = ~ × VP VM Let us regulate the midpoint voltage to 1. i..e. the angle of the voltage source is set such that it is in phase with the midpoint voltage.0 per unit using a PI controller of the form ~ ~ ~ VF = K P 1 − VM + K I ∫ 1 − VM dt 38 ( ) ( ) .Example (Continued) Note that for purely reactive injection by the shunt compensator.
Example (Continued) System response to a perturbation 39 .
Example (Continued) To improve damping. 40 ( ) ( ) . we now introduce a term that is proportional to the deviation of machine speed in the feedback loop such that the control law is given by d∆δ ~ ~ ~ VF = K P 1 − VM + K I ∫ 1 − VM dt + C P dt The last term adds damping to the system.
41 .Example (Continued) System response when the breaker A opens inadvertently.
Practical Shunt Compensator • The above example demonstrates the functioning of a Static Compensator (STATCOM) that produces a voltage. the fundamental component of which is in phase with the midpoint voltage. • The first generation shunt compensator is the Static VAr Compensator (SVC). It actually is a variable reactance. It consists of an inverter based Synchronous Voltage Source (SVS) and a connecting transformer. 42 .
43 .Uncompensated System In the figure below the power system is represented by its Thevenin equivalent looking from the midpoint. It is assumed that a variable reactive load is connected at the midpoint.
VI Curve The midpoint voltage increases linearly with capacitive load current and decreases with inductive load current. 44 .
VI Curve Effects of increasing Vth (left) and Xth (right). 45 .
Components of SVC The building blocks of an SVC are • Saturated Reactor • Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC) • Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) • Thyristor Switched Reactor • Thyristor Controlled Transformer An SVC is made of the combination of one or more than one of the above components and fixed capacitor banks. 46 .
A current flows through the capacitor when the opposite poled thyristors are gated.Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC) In a TSC a capacitor is connected in series with two opposite pole thyristors. 47 .
n where k is the number of TSCs conducting. Κ .TSC . The effective reactance of the TSC pack can be changed by switching a TSC on or off.1. k = 0. For example in an npack TSC. the effective reactance is X eq = − j 1 kω C .Equivalent Reactance TSCs always come in a pack. 48 .
• Similarly. the device must be switched on at a particular instant of the voltage cycle. • For example. let us consider that a TSC is supplied by a voltage source vS and has a capacitor voltage vC and a current iC through the capacitor. • Hence severe switching transients occurs if a TSC is switched off while the current thorough it is not zero.TSC .Transientfree Switching • TSC suddenly blocks current or allows the current through it. 49 .
when the capacitor voltage reaches its peak. • Thus for transientfree switching. in which the instant of switching on and off are also indicated. i. 50 . it must be ensured that the capacitor voltage is in either its positive peak or negative peak for either turn on or turn off. • The transientfree switching is shown in the next slide.Transientfree Switching • Then as iC = C (dvC/dt).TSC .. the current is zero when dvC/dt = 0.e.
TSC .Transientfree Switching • The capacitor voltage vC is kept at the peak of the supply voltage when the switch is off indicating an open circuit. 51 .
52 . One of these thyristors conducts in each half cycle of supply frequency.Thyristor Switched Reactor (TCR) In a TCR a reactor is connected in series to two opposite poled thyristors.
TCR .VI Relationship • The gating signal to each thyristor is delayed by an angle α (often called the firing or conduction angle) from the zero crossing of the source voltage. 53 .
54 . the current will have full conduction and will lag the voltage by 90º.TCR . For α = 90º.VI Relationship • The conduction angle must be in the range 90º ≤ α ≤ 180º.
TCR . the current will be zero. 55 .VI Relationship • For α = 180º.
TCR .Fundamental Reactance • The TCR fundamental reactance is derived from the following equation 1 t V Vm sin (ω λ )dλ = m (cos α − cos ω t ) for α ≤ ω t < α + σ i L = L α∫ω ωL 0 for α + σ ≤ ω t < α + π • The fundamental current is given from the above equation as Vm (σ − sin σ )sin (ω t − 90°) i Lf = π XL 56 .
57 .Fundamental Reactance • Since the TCR fundamental current must lag the voltage by 90º. we have the fundamental frequency susceptance of the TCR as ~ I Lf σ − sin σ B L (σ ) = ~ = π XL Vs • The susceptance is zero for σ = 0º (α = 180º) and reciprocal of the chosen value of XL for σ = 180º (α = 90º).TCR .
TCR .Fundamental Reactance 58 .
The peak of the harmonic currents are given by IL_n 4Vm sin{(n + 1)α } sin{(n − 1)α } sin nα = 2(n + 1) + 2(n − 1) − cos α n . but only the odd harmonics.Harmonics • The TCR current will not contain any dc or even harmonics.5. Κ π XL • The normalized harmonic spectrum for various values of α are shown in the next slide. n = 3. 59 .TCR . the magnitude of the harmonic current increases. • As the firing angle increases.
Harmonics • Both the peak and conduction period (σ/ω) decrease with increase in α resulting in a reduction of the peak of fundamental current and increase in harmonic contents. 60 .TCR .
Typical SVC Scheme 61 .
SVC VI Characteristics 62 .
SVC VI Characteristics 63 .
However the SVC moves the operating point to B by absorbing inductive current and holds the voltage at V3. • Similarly the SVC holds the voltage at V4 for a decrease in the system voltage.V will increase to V1 without SVC. 64 .SVC VI Characteristics • Assume that the system is operating with a voltage V0. • If the system voltage increases.
Synchronous Voltage Source (SVS) 65 .
Voltage Waveforms 66 .SVS .
12Step SVS The transformer primaries provide a phase shift of 30º. 67 .
12Step Output Waveform and Harmonic Spectrum 68 .
a 24step inverter can be constructed by phase shifting each of the four 6step inverters by 15º. 69 .MultiStep SVS • In a similar way 6nstep output voltage can be obtained by connecting n basic 6step inverters and by providing phase shift through transformer connections. • For example. • Similarly a phase shift of 7.5º between 8 basic inverter output will produce a 48step output waveform.
70 .MultiStep SVS • Note that the firing pulses of the 6step basic inverters must also be phase shifted by 15º or 7.5º to obtain 24 or 48step output waveforms respectively. • The lowest order harmonics in a 6nstep inverter is 6n ±1 in the ac side and 6n in the dc side.
24Step Output Waveform and Harmonic Spectrum 71 .
3Level Inverter
72
5Level Inverter
73
STATCOM
• A STATCOM consists of a SVS that is supplied by a dc storage capacitor Cdc. • The SVS is connected in shunt with the ac system bus through a coupling transformer with a leakage reactance of XT.
74
STATCOM  VAr Generation
If ∠θ =∠φ, then the direction of the flow of purely reactive current Iq will depend on the voltage magnitudes V1 and V2.
• If V1 > V2 then the current flows from the ac system to the SVS and the converter absorbs reactive (inductive) power.
• If V2 > V1 then the current flows from the SVS to the ac system and the converter generates reactive (capacitive) power for the ac system.
75
• The dc capacitor voltage can be regulated by replenishing the losses due to switching and in the coupling transformer circuit by drawing power from the ac system.STATCOM . • Therefore ∠φ must lag ∠θ by a small amount such that the dc capacitor voltage is held constant. the voltage across the capacitor will fall if the STATCOM is not lossless.DC Capacitor Control • However pure reactive injection or absorption is neither possible nor desirable. • Since the converter is supplied by a dc capacitor. 76 .
77 . • This makes the control loop slow.STATCOM .Control • In a multistep converter. • Therefore the voltage magnitude V2 can be increased or decreased visàvis the magnitude of V1 by charging or discharging the dc capacitor through the control of φ. the fundamental component of the output voltage is determined by the magnitude of the dc capacitor voltage.
the fundamental component of the output voltage magnitude can be changed by changing either the capacitor voltage or the modulation index. 78 . • In a sinusoidal PWM. Alternatively flying capacitor topology can be used.STATCOM . • The capacitor voltage imbalance problem in diodeclamped topology makes its use restrictive.Control • Pulse width modulation (PWM) can effectively be used in a multilevel converter. This has a better control response.
VI Characteristics 79 .STATCOM .
Comparison Between SVC and STATCOM 80 .
1994.). N. Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC Transmission Systems. [2] Y. Hingorani and L. Power System Stability and Control. New York. Voltage sag and interruptions problems have been discussed in great detail in the following book. 2001. Power Quality Enhancement using Custom Power Devices. 2002. Electric Power Systems Quality. 2000. Bolen. John Wiley. It discusses most of the early thyristor based technology. F. Johns (eds. The following book covers some of the aspects of shunt and series compensation and in general is a good reference book on Power Systems [5] P. J. Boston. Power Quality and Custom Power The following books cover many aspects of power quality problems. McGrawHill. 2002. Song and A. 2000. R. New York. M.For Further Reading Flexible AC Transmission Systems The following two books cover most of the aspects of FACTS [1] N. The following book is a classic. J. [7] J. New York. Varma. IEEE Press and Wiley Interscience. T. Kundur. W. Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems. Beaty. 2003. C. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Arrillaga. 2nd ed. Dugan. M. Mathur and R. Power Quality Assessment. H. Various aspects of custom power technology are discussed in [9] A. Understanding Power Quality Problems: Voltage Sags and Interruptions. Gyugyi. McGrawHill. Institute of Electrical Engineers. IEEE Press. [6] R. London. G. [8] M. Watson and S. The following book mainly deals with thyristor based FACTS devices like SVC and TCSC. [4] T. .. 1982. McGranaghan and H. 2000. E. New York. Chen. New York. Ghosh and G. New York. Thyristor Based FACTS Controllers for Electric Power Transmission Systems. Ledwich. K. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). S. IEEE Press. [3] R. John Wiley. Miller (ed).
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