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Milestones in the
history of OFDM
Collected By: Eng. SINAN M. A. DHEYAB


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Milestones in the
history of OFDM

C ollec ted B y: E ng . S I N A N M. A .

Year Milestone

1957 Kineplex, multi-carrier HF modem (R.R. Mosier & R.G.

TheconceptofparalleldatatransmissionbyDoelzet al.
1964 Some earlier work was Holsinger’s 1964 MIT dissertation
andsomeofGallager’s earlyworkonwaterfilling.
1966 Chang shows that multi-carrier modulation can solve the
multipath problem without reducing data rate. This is
generally considered the first officialpublication on multi-
1967 Saltzberg studied a multi-carrier system employing
orthogonalQAM(O-QAM) ofthecarriers.
1970 U.S. patentonOFDM issued.
1971 WeinsteinandEbertshow thatmulti-carriermodulationcan
beaccomplishedusingaDFT. Weinstein& Ebertproposed
useofFFT andguardinterval.
1980 Hirosaki designed a subchannal-based equalizer for an
orthogonallymultiplexedQAM system.

Keasleretal.describedanOFDM modem fortelephone

CyclicPrefix(CP) usedin1980 – orthogonalityproblem
1985 Cimini atBellLabs identifies manyofthekeyissues in
OFDM transmissionanddoes aproof-of-conceptdesign
.Cimini describeduseofOFDM formobilecommunications

TelebitTrailblazer Modem introduced incorporatinga 512

1987 Alard& Lasalle: COFDM fordigitalbroadcasting
1988 TH-CSF LER, firstexperimentalDigitalTV linkinOFDM,
(September) Paris area
1989 OFDM internationalpatentapplicationPCT/FR 89/00546,
filed in the name of THOMSON-CSF, Fouche, de
Couasnon, Travert, Monnier and all
1990 October1990: TH-CSF LER, firstOFDM equipmentfield
test, 34 Mbit/s inan8 MHzchannel, experiments inParis
December 1990: TH-CSF LER, first OFDM test bed
comparisonwithVSB inPrincetonUSA.
1991 ANSI ADSL standard.
1992 September 1992: TH-CSF LER, second generation
equipmentfieldtest, 70 Mbit/s in an 8 MHz channel, twin
polarisations. Wuppertal, Germany
October 1992: TH-CSF LER, second generation field test
andtestbedwithBBC, nearLondon, UK
1993 DSL adopts OFDM, alsocalleddiscretemulti-tone,
successful field trials/competitions at Bellcore versus
TH-CSF showinMontreuxSW, 4 TV channelandone
HDTV channelinasingle8 MHzchannel
Morris: Experimental150Mbit/s OFDM wireless LAN
1994 US patent5282222, Methodandapparatus formultiple
access betweentransceivers inwireless communications
usingOFDM spreadspectrum.
ANSI HDSL standard.
1995 ETSI Digital Audio Broadcasting standard EUreka: first
OFDM basedstandard.
1996 .ETSI WLAN standard
ThefirstpaperonopticalOFDM intheopenliteraturewas
1997 ETSI DVB-T standard.
1998 MagicWAND projectdemonstrates OFDM modems for
wireless LAN.
ANSI VDSL andETSI VDSL standards.
ETSI BRAN standard.
1999 TheIEEE 802.11 committeeonwireless LANs releases the
802.11astandardforOFDM operationin5GHzUNI band.
IEEE 802.11awireless LAN standard(Wi-Fi)

ETSI BRAN Hiperlan/2 standards forwireless LAN.

2000 Proprietary fixed wireless access (V-OFDM, Flash-OFDM,
2001 OFDM consideredfornew802.11 and802.16 standards.
Dixonetal. proposedtheuseofOFDM tocombatmodal
2002 TheIEEE 802.16 committeereleases anOFDM-based
standardforwireless broadbandaccess formetropolitanarea
networks underrevision
IEEE 802.11gstandardforwireless LAN.

2003 The IEEE 802.11 committee releases the 802.11gstandard

Themulti-bandOFDM standardforultra-widebandis
developed, showingOFDM’s usefulness inlow-SNR
OFDM consideredforUWB (802.15.3a).
2004 IEEE 802.16-2004 standardforwireless MAN (WiMAX)

ETSI DVB-H standard

Candidate for IEEE 802.15.3a standard for wireless PAN
Candidate forIEEE 802.11n standard fornextgeneration
wireless LAN
2005 OFDMA is candidate forthe 3GPP LongTerm Evolution
(LTE) airinterface E-UTRA downlink.Candidate for3.75G
mobile cellular standards(3GPP &3GPP2 Long Term
Evolution) named High Speed OFDM packet Access
Candidate for 4G standard in China, Japan and South
2007 The first complete LTE air interface implementation was
demonstrated, including OFDM-MIMO, SC-FDMA and
multi-userMIMO uplink.
Multi-userMIMO-OFDM fornext-generationwireless.
AdaptiveHSDPA-styleOFDM andMC-CDMA transceivers
Todate, 100 Gb/ CO-OFDsM transmissionover1000 km standard
single-modefiber(SSMF) withhighspectralefficiencyof2
bit/s/Hzhas beendemonstratedbyvarious groups.
Future As the industry is embracing the imminent commercial
rolloutof100 Gb/s Ethernet(100 GbE), thefeasibilityof1
Tb/s Ethernetis the nextlogicalstep.Also,multimode fiber
in conjunction with multiple-input multiple-output OFDM
(MIMO-OFDM) is proposedas atechnologytoachieve100
Tb/s perfiberthattakes advantageofmodemultiplexingin
2) OFDM and MC-CDMA A Primer, L. Hanzo & T. Keller.
3) Multiuser MIMO-OFDM for Next-Generation Wireless Systems, Vol. 95,
No. 7, July 2007 | Proceedings of the IEEE, Jiang and Hanzo.
4) OFDM for Optical Communications,, William Shieh&Ivan Dj ordj evic.
5) Synchronization and Channel Estimation in OFDM: Algorithms for
Efficient Implementation of WLAN Systems Systems,, Alfonso Lu
Luíí s Troya
6) Multicarrier Communications,Lecture 1 :Introduction & ofdm basics ,
Jian(Andrew) Zhang..
7) MIMO-OFDM for LTE,WiFi, and WiMAX : coherent versus non-coherent
and cooperative turbo-transceivers , L. Hanzo
Hanzo,, JJ.. Akhtman, L. Wang,
M. Jiang.