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Applied Chemistry & Chemical Technology

Chemical Technology
1. What is oil?
cvwgwUK, w÷qvwiK, IwjK, wj‡bvwjK cÖf©wZ D”PZi d¨vwU GwmW I wMmvwi‡bi UªvBG÷vi‡K †Zj
ev Pwe© e‡j|
2. What is wax?
‡Zj I Pwe©i gZ †gvgI GKwU G÷vi| Z‡e †gv‡gi A¨vj‡Kvnj Ask wMmvwib bq| D`vniY¯^iƒc
†gŠgvwQi PvK, gvBwimvBj A¨vj‡Kvnj I cvwgwUK Gwm‡Wi C15 G÷vi|
3. What is saponification value?
1 gm ‡Zj ev Pwe©‡K m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c mvevbvqb Ki‡Z hZ wgwjMÖvg cUvwmqvg nvB‡Wªv·vBW
cÖ‡qvRb nq †m msL¨v‡K mvevbvqY gvb ejv nq|
4. What is iodine value?
100 gm ‡Zj ev Pwe©i mv‡_ hZ MÖvg Av‡qvwWb hy³ n‡Z cv‡i †mB msL¨vB Av‡qvwWb gvb bv‡g
cwiwPZ| †nbvm c×wZ‡Z Zv wbY©q Kiv nq|
5. What is acid value?
1 gm ‡Zj ev Pwe©‡K m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c cÖkwgZ Ki‡Z hZ wgwjMÖvg cUvwmqvg nvB‡Wªv·vBW cÖ‡qvRb
nq †m msL¨v‡K GwmW gvb ejv nq|
6. What is drying oil?
†Zjmg~‡ni g‡a¨ WªvBs †Z‡j me‡P‡q †ewk Ask Am¤ú„³ GwmW _v‡K| Gme Gwm‡W mvaviYZ 2 A_ev
3 wU wØeÜb _v‡K| †hgbÑ wj‡bvwjK GwmW| Giv Aw·‡Rb †kvlY K‡i Ges ﮋ Pvgovi gZ n‡q hvq| G‡`i
Av‡qvwWb gvb 140 Gi Dc‡i| wZwm †Zj ev wjbwmW †Zj, UvsM †Zj, kb cvU exR †Zj BZ¨vw` GB
RvZxq †Z‡ji D`vniY|
7. What is non-drying oil?
GB †Z‡ji g‡a¨ me‡P‡q Kg cwigvY ev Ask Am¤ú„³ GwmW Av‡Q| Gme Gwm‡W mvaviY 0/1 wU
wØeÜb _v‡K| Giv Aw·‡Rb †kvlY Ki‡Z cv‡i bv Ges Pvgov‡KI ﮋ Ki‡Z cv‡i bv| G‡`i Av‡qvwWb gvb 100
Gi wb‡P| RjcvB †Zj, cvg †Zj, bvwi‡Kj †Zj, ev`vg †Zj GB RvZxq †Z‡ji D`vniY|
8. What is semi-drying oil?
Gme †Z‡j gva¨wgK Abycv‡Z Am¤ú„³ GwmW we`¨vgvb hviv 1/2 wU wØeÜb aviY K‡i| †hgbÑ AwjK,
wi‡mv‡bvwjK BZ¨vw`| Giv evZvm †_‡K ax‡i ax‡i Aw·‡Rb †kvlY K‡i Ges evZv‡m wKQy¶Y ivLvi ci
¸i“Z¡ ev‡o wKš‘y ﮋ nq bv| G‡`i Av‡qvwWb gvb bb-WªvBs †Z‡ji †P‡q †ewk Ges GB gvb mvaviYZ
95-140 nq| f~Uªvi †Zj, wZj †Zj, mwilvi †Zj BZ¨vw` G RvZxq †Z‡ji D`vniY|
9. What is essential oil?
DØvqx †Zj myMÜhy³ Ges DØvqx (voltatite)| wewfbœ Dw™¢‡`i ¶wiZ e¯‘ (exude), cvZv I dzj‡K ev®ú-
cvZb (steam distillation) K‡i GB †Zj Drcv`b Kiv nq| eû cÖKvi Am¤ú„³ A¨vj‡Kvnj, †hgb- wRivwbqj
(geranial), wbij (nerol) cÖf„wZ GB †Z‡j we`¨gvb _v‡K| ‡Mvjvc †Z‡j (rose oil) wRivwbqj _v‡K| G‡`i g‡a¨
Am¤ú„³ A¨vjwWnvBW Ges G÷vi, †hgb- †ebRvBj A¨vwm‡UUI _v‡K|
10. What do you mean by hydrogenation?
d¨vwU Gwm‡Wi wMmvivB‡Wi wewfbœ cÖKvi Am¤ú„³ g~jK mg~n‡K cÖfve‡Ki Dcw¯’wZ‡Z
nvB‡Wªv‡Rb mn‡hv‡M AwaK D”P A_ev m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c m¤ú„³ wMmvivB‡W cwiYZ Kivi cÖYvjx‡K
nvB‡Wªv‡R‡bkb e‡j| Pwe© A‡c¶v †Z‡j Am¤ú„³ Gwm‡Wi AbycvZ †ewk _v‡K| Kv‡RB †Zj I Pwe©‡Z
we‡klZ †Z‡j nvB‡Wªv‡Rb ms‡hvRb N‡U; d‡j †Zj Pwe©‡Z i~cvš—wiZ nq| A_©vr Zij e¯‘ n‡Z KwVb
e¯‘‡Z iƒcvš—wiZ nq| †Zj I Pwe©i nvB‡Wªv‡Rb ms‡hvRb‡K LiKiYI ejv nq| evRv‡i cÖvß gvLb, eb¯úwZ
†Z‡ji AvswkK nvB‡Wªv‡Rb ms‡hvR‡bi d‡j Drcvw`Z nq| nvB‡Wªv‡Rb ms‡hvR‡bi Øviv †Z‡ji ïay
MjbvsKB e„w× cvq bv, G‡`i ¯’vwqZ¡, ¯^v` I M‡ÜiI DbœwZ nq|
11. What do you mean by deodorization of oil and fat?
‡Zj ev Pwe©i g‡a¨ mvgvb¨ cwigvY †Kvb c`v_© _vKvi `i“b Zv‡Z `yM©‡Üi m„wó nq| GB `yM©Ü
m„wóKvix c`v_©mg~n‡K Zvov‡bvi bvg wWA‡WvivB‡Rkb| mvaviY †Zj gvby‡li kix‡ii c‡¶ ¶wZKi ZvB
mvaviY †Zj‡K LvIqvi Dc‡hvMx Kivi Rb¨ wWA‡WvivB‡Rkb Kiv nq|
12. What do you mean by bleaching of oil and fat?
Pwe© ev †Z‡ji weiÄb ej‡Z †Zj ev Pwe©‡K eY©nxb Kiv eySvq| mvaviYZ `ywU c×wZ‡Z †Z‡ji
weiÄb Kiv nq|
(K) †kvl‡Yi Øviv weiÄb t GB c×wZ‡Z †Zj ev Pwe©‡K weiÄb- Gi Rb¨ dzjvi Av_© e¨envi Kiv nq|
(L) ivmvqwbKfv‡e weiÄb t Rvi‡Yi mvnv‡h¨ †Zj ev Pwe©i ivmvqwbK weiÄb Kiv nq| Rvi‡Yi Rb¨
†mvwWqvg WvB‡µv‡gU me‡P‡q fvj KvR K‡i| GQvovI Rvi‡Yi Rb¨ CaO, MgO e¨eüZ nq|
13. What is soap?
mvevb nj AbyØvqx, j¤^v wkKjx wewkó KZ¸‡jv d¨vwU Gwm‡Wi avZe jeY hviv cvwb‡Z `ªebxq Ges
†h¸‡jv †aŠZ Kv‡h© I cwi®‹vi Ki‡Z e¨eüZ nq|
14. What is detergent?
wWUvi‡R›U nj GKwU RwUj c„ôZj mwµq c`v_©| G‡`i Aby `ywU As‡k wef³| GKwU nvB‡WªvwdwjK
Ask AciwU nvB‡Wªv‡dvweK Ask|
15. What are the fillers of soap?
mvevb‡K k³ Kivi Rb¨ wdjvi e¨eüZ nq| wdjvi mvev‡bi LiP Kgvq Ges mvev‡bi ¶q †iva K‡i I AvVv‡jv
K‡i| †mvwWqvg wmwj‡KU, mvevb cv_i, ÷vP©, U¨vjK, †mvwWqvg Ke©‡bU, †eviv· BZ¨vw` e¨eüZ
nq|
16. What is cement?
wm‡g›U nj me‡P‡q ¸i“Z¡c~Y© wewìs mvgMÖx, hv‡Z K¨vjwmqvg I A¨v‡jvwgwbqv‡gi KZ¸‡jv Abv`ª
wØ-wmwj‡KU _v‡K Ges hv cvwbi mv‡_ ivmvqwbKfv‡e mshy³ n‡q k³ wcÛ MVb Ki‡Z mg_© Ges Zv
`ywU UzKiv cv_i ev BU‡K mshy³ K‡i GKwU wc‡Û cwibZ Ki‡Z cv‡i| Pvi ai‡bi wm‡g›U Av‡Q|
†cvU©j¨vÛ, †cvRyIjvbv, K¨vjwmqvg A¨vjywgwbqvg Ges we‡kl ev ¶q‡ivaKvix wm‡g›U|
17. What is Protland cement?
‡cvU©j¨vÛ wm‡g›U nj K¨vjwmqvg A¨vjywg‡bU I nvB‡WªvwjK K¨vjwmqvg wmwj‡K‡Ui wbw`©ó
AvbycvwZK wgwn ¸ov wgkªY hv cvwbi ms¯ú‡k© RgvU †eu‡a k³ KswµU ˆZix nq| †cvU©j¨vÛ
wm‡g›U mvavibZ UªvBK¨vjwmqvg wmwj‡KU, WvBK¨vjwmqvg wmwj‡KU Ges UªvBK¨vjwmqvg
A¨vjywg‡bU Gi wgkªY|
18. What is Pozzuolana cement?
GwU mvaviYZ Av‡MœqwMwii Uzdvm n‡Z ˆZix Kiv nq| Uzdvm †bcj‡mi (cvRyIj) wbK‡U BZvwj‡Z †`Lv
hvq| Uzdvm‡K wm‡g‡›U cwibZ Ki‡Z ïaygvÎ m~² P~Y©b I Pz‡bi mv‡_ wgkªb Kiv Qvov Ab¨ †Kvb
cÖwµqvi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv| GB wm‡g›U k³KiY Lye axi m¤úbœ nq, wKš‘ †mwUs Gi ci †ek k³ nq|
19. wbqwš¿Z wm‡g›U wK?
‡cvU©j¨vÛ wm‡g‡›Ui mv‡_ 10-20% K¨vjwmqvg mvj‡dv A¨vjywg‡bU wgwkªZ K‡i wbqwš¿Z wm‡g›U
cÖ¯‘Z Kiv nq| GwU mvaviYZ KswµU Gi dvUj †iv‡a e¨envi Kiv nq|
20. What is the role of Fe2O3 in cement?
hw` wm‡g‡›U mvgvb¨ cwigvb Fe2O3 _v‡K Z‡e wm‡g‡›Ui is Kvj‡P nq Ab¨_vq mv`v nq| GwU wm‡g›U
ˆZixi mgq D”P ZvcgvÎvq wdDm Ki‡Z mvnvh¨ K‡i|
21. What is clinker?
wm‡g›U ˆZixi KvPvgvj‡K fvwU‡Z 1400-1450oC ZvcgvÎvq weMj‡bi ci cÖvß Drcv`‡K wK¬sKvi ejv nq|
22. What is the composition of sand?

23. What is glass?


KvP GK cÖKvi ¯^”Q, k³ I AwbqZvKvi KwVb c`v_©|
24. What is Pyrex glass?
Borosilicate glass Gi †UªW bvg n‡”Q Pyrex glass| G‡Z 10-20% B2O3, 80-87% silica, <10% Na2O _v‡K|
25. What is quartz glass?
Fused silica or vitreous silica is made by the high-temperature pyrolysis of silicon tetrachloride or by fusion of quartz or
pure sand. It is sometimes erroneously referred to a quartz glass.
26. Why our glasses are yellowish?

27. What are the roles of gypsum in cement?

28. What is pigment?

29.
30. What is safety glass?

31. What are the structural differences between thermoplastic and thermosetting?
32. What is affination?
wPwb we‡kva‡bi cÖ_g avc nj A¨vwd‡bkb| GB cÖwµqvq Aweï× KuvPv wPwbi †Kjvmmg~n‡K fvix
wmivc Gi mv‡_ wgwk‡q Av‡jvwoZ Kiv nq| d‡j wPwb `vbvi mv‡_ †j‡M _vKv †gvjv‡mm AcmvwiZ nq|
wmsjv‡ii g‡a¨ A¨vwd‡bkb cÖwµqv m¤úbœ Kiv nq| wmsjvi nj fvix Ges †Mvj K‡I cvKv‡bv enbKvix
hš¿|
33. What is defecation?
A¨vwd‡bkb cÖwµqvq †aŠZK…Z I MwjZ KvuPv wPwb‡K we‡kva‡bi Rb¨ cwi®‹viKiY ev †Wwd‡Kkb
cÖwµqvwU e¨envi Kiv nq| †Wwd‡Kk‡bi Rb¨ hvwš¿K ev ivmvqwbK c×wZ e¨envi Kiv nq| hvwš¿K
cÖwµqvq wbg©jKiY Dcv‡q MwjZ wPwbi mv‡_ Wvqv‡Uv‡mwRqvg g„wËKv ev H RvZxq wbw®Œq
c`v_© †hvM Kiv nq| ivmvqwbK cÖwµqvq †dbv Drcv`bKvix K¬vwidvqvi ev Kve©‡bkb c×wZ e¨envi
Kiv nq|
34. What are the byproducts in the sugar industry?
†gvjv‡mm I Av‡Li †Qveov wPwbK‡ji `yB cÖKvi DcRvZ `ªe¨| GQvov Av‡Li im‡K K¬vwiwd‡Kk‡bi mgq
cÖvß myMvi †KKI DcRvZ `ªe¨ wn‡m‡e Mb¨ Kiv nq|
35. How many sugar industries are in Bangladesh?
eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`‡k 17 wU wPwb Kj Pvjy Av‡Q|
36. What are the sources of cellulose?
KvVB †mjy‡jv‡Ri cÖavb Drm| †mjy‡jvR mvaviYZ Dw™¢` Kjvi †Kvl cÖvPx‡ii wfZi wjMwb‡bi mv‡_
Ae¯’vb K‡i| wb‡gœ wewfbœ Dr†mi g‡a¨ †mjy‡jv‡Ri Dcw¯’wZi nvi †`Lv‡bv nj|
Drm †mjy‡jv‡Ri kZKiv nvi
Zyjv ------------- 98%
mvb ------------- 80%
wZwki Auvk ------ 80%
cvU ------------- 65%
avb I M‡gi Lo - 45%
Av‡Li †Qveov --- 40%
KvV ------------- 45-50%
Zzjv exR -------- 90-95%
37. What are constituents of cellulose?
38. What is pulp?
k³ ev big †h †Kvb ai‡bi KvV, Zzjv, cvU, euvk,Lo, Av‡Li †Qveov, cvU Lwo I wQbœe¯¿ cÖf„wZ
c`v_© mgyn‡K wewfbœ hvwš¿K Dcv‡q ev ivmvqwbK `ª‡e¨i mswgkª‡b wm× K‡i cÖwµqv Ki‡Yi
gva¨‡i †h †mjy‡jvR Zš‘ cvIqv hvq Zv‡K gÛ ev Pulp e‡j|
39. Classify different type of pulp.
gÛ ev Pulp `yB cªKvi| hvwš¿K gÛ (Mechanical pulp) I ivmvqwbK gÛ (Chemical pulp)| ivmvqwbK gÛ‡K
Avevi wZb fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| mvj‡dU gÛ, mvjdvBU gÛ I †mvWv gÛ|
40. What are the byproducts in the pulp and paper industries in Bangladesh?
41. How many pulp and paper industries in Bangladesh?
42. What is fermentation?
RwUj ˆRe ‡hŠM‡K GbRvBg bvgK bvB‡Uª‡Rb NwUZ GK cÖKvi wbRx©e AZ¨š— RwUj ˆRe †hŠ‡Mi
mvnv‡h¨ we‡qvwRZ K‡i mij †hŠ‡M cwiYZ Kivi cÖjvjx‡K dv‡g©‡›Ukb ev †PvjvBKiY ejv nq|
43. What is C.B.M? What is its Composition?
C. B. M. n‡jv Constant boiling mixture. 64.85˚C ZvcgvÎvq Gi Composition nj †ebwRb 74.1%, A¨vj‡Kvnj 18.5% I
cvwb 7.4%|
44. What is the enzyme action in fermentation?
45. How many products are produce in fermentation?
46. What is leather?
cïi kixi n‡Z Pvgov wQjv‡bvi ci KZ¸‡jv ivmvqwbK c`v_© Øviv cÖwµqvRvZ Kivi ci e¨envi Dc‡hvMx †h
Pvgov cvIqv hvq Zv‡KB cvKv Pvgov ev †j`vi e‡j|
47. What is curing?
‡h c×wZ‡Z KuvPv Pvgov‡K cPbkxjZv Ges ms‡KvPbkxjZvi nvZ n‡Z i¶v K‡i Avmj Pvgovi †Kvb
cwieZ©b bv K‡i BÛvw÷ª‡Z cvVv‡bvi Dc‡hvMx Kiv nq †m c×wZ‡K KuvPv Pvgovi wKDwis ejv nq|
48. What is leather tanning?
Leather tanning is the process of converting raw hides or skins into leather. Hides and skins have the ability to absorb
tannic acid and other chemical substances that prevent them from decaying, make them resistant to wetting, and keep them
supple and durable.
49. What is pre-tanning?
Pvgov‡K U¨vwbs Kivi c~‡e© U¨wbs-Gi Rb¨ Dc‡hvMx Ki‡Z nq| GRb¨ †hme c×wZ Aej¤^b Kiv nq
Zv‡K ejv nq wcÖ-U¨v‡bR c×wZ| wcÖ-U¨v‡bR c×wZ‡K Pvi fv‡M fvM Kiv nq| h_v-
1. mwKs c×wZ (Soaking process)
2. ckg `~ixKiY c×wZ (Unhairing operation)
3. †ewUs c×wZ (Bating process) Ges
4. wcKwjs (Pickling)|
50. How many leather industries in Bangladesh?
51. What is food preservation?
Lv`¨ `ªe¨‡K †cvKv gvKo I cPbkxjZvi nvZ n‡Z i¶v Kivi Rb¨ †h we‡kl c×wZ Aej¤^b Kiv nq Zv‡K Lv`¨
msi¶Y e‡j| g~jZt Lv`¨ `ªe¨‡K wewfbœ gvB‡µv-AM©vwbR‡gi nvZ n‡Z i¶v Kiv, Zv‡`i aŸsm Kiv, esk
e„w× †iva Kiv Ges Lv`¨ mvgMÖxi wbR¯^ we‡qvR‡b evav `vb K‡i Lv`¨‡K †fŠZ I ivmvqwbK c×wZi
mvnv‡h¨ cÖwµqvRvZ Kiv‡K Lv`¨ msi¶Y e‡j|
52. What do you understand by food spoilage?
hLb †Kvb Lv`¨ wewfbœ Kvi‡Y LvIqvi Abyc‡hvMx nq ev hv f¶b Ki‡j gvby‡li wewfbœ cÖKvi †ivM
m„wói KviY n‡Z cv‡i ZLb †mB Lv`¨‡K bó Lv`¨ e‡j Mb¨ Kiv nq|
53. What is food plant sanitation?
‡h KviLvbvq Lv`¨ `ªe¨ msi¶Y Kiv nq Zv‡K dzW cv›U e‡j| ZvB ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z I RxevYygy³ Dcv‡q Lv`¨
msi¶‡Yi Rb¨ †h mg¯— c×wZ Aej¤^b Kiv nq Zv‡K dzW cv›U m¨vwb‡Ukb e‡j|
54. Different methods of food preservation?
Lv`¨ msi¶‡Yi c×wZ ¸‡jv wbæiƒc|
1. K¨vwbs (Canning)
2. kxZjxKiY (Refrigaration)
3. wWnvB‡WªkY (Dehydration)
55. What is insectisite?
56. What is herpesites?
57. What is pestiside?
58. What is superphosphate?
59. What is TSP?
60. Raw materials and process of production of HCl, HNO3, H2SO4?
61. What is ceramics and product?

62. What is porcelain?

63. What is clay?


‡dj¯úvi wkjvi AvenvIqvRwbZ ¶q cÖvß `ªe¨‡K Kv`vgvwU ejv nq|
64. What is kiln?
Kv`vgvwUi `ªe¨vw`‡K fvwU‡Z †cvov‡bv nq| Bnv `yB cÖKvi| Aweivg I mweivg|
65. What is enamel?
Gbv‡gj nj KwVb I D¾¡j AveiY hv‡K evmbc‡Îi Dci jvwM‡q I‡`i J¾¡j¨ e„w× Kiv nq| †cviwmwjb ev KvP
m`„k Gbv‡gj nj GK ai‡bi wmivwgK wgkªb hvi g‡a¨ AwaK gvÎvq weMjK _v‡K|
66. Composition of glass?
67. Properties?
68. different types of cement?
69. Methods of production of cement?
70. testing of cement?
71. What is surface active material?
72. Classification of detergent?
73. What is bindner in paint and varnish?
74. Cause of paint failure?
75. Heat resistance and acid registance paint?
76. What are petrochemicals?
‡h me ivmvqwbK `ªe¨ A‡kvwaZ †c‡Uªvwjqv‡gi cvZb n‡Z Ges †c‡Uªvwjqv‡gi Lb‡bi mgq cÖvK…wZK
M¨vm †ei nq Zv‡`i‡K †c‡Uªv‡KwgK¨vjm ejv nq|
77. What is straight run gasoline?
‡c‡Uªvwjqv‡gi cÖv_wgK cvZb Øviv Ask Kjv‡gi Dci n‡Z cÖvß nvjKv ev AwaK DØvqx Zij Ask‡K †÷ªU
ivb M¨v‡mvwjb ejv nq|
78. What is octane number?
AvqZ‡bi kZKiv wn‡m‡e †h nv‡i AvB‡mv-AK‡Ub, bigvj †n‡Þ‡bi mv‡_ wgkv‡bv _v‡K Ges hv †Kvb
cix¶vaxb R¡vjvwb †Z‡ji bwKs ¸bv¸‡bi GKK cwigvb wbY©q Kiv nq, Zv‡KB AK‡Ub msL¨v ejv nq|
79. What is cetane number?
80. What is flash point?
81. What is antiknock compound?
82.
83. What is mineral water?
f~Mf©¯’ cvwb‡Z LwbR c`v_© `ªexf~Z _v‡K e‡j Zv‡K LwbR cvwb (mineral water) e‡j|
84. What is water conditioning?
‡h cÖbvjx Øviv A¯’vqx I ¯’vqx Li cvwb‡K m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c g„`y cvwb‡Z ev cvwbi LiZv m„wóKvix
ivmvqwbK `ª‡e¨i cwigvb‡K Kwg‡q cvwb‡K e¨envi Dc‡hvMx Kiv nq Zv‡K cvwb Dc‡hvMxKiY (water
conditioning) ejv nq|
1) What is cement?

Cement is a powder, which by hydraulic reaction (i.e. with water) forms a solid and cohesive mass.
2) Which are the most common types of cement available in the market?

The most common types of cement available in the market are:


Ordinary Portland cement (OPC): The standard, grey cement used for most purposes.
Rapid Hardening Portland cement: Chemically very similar, but ground finer. Sets as slowly as OPC, but its gains quick
strength more so after it sets.

Sulphate Resisting Portland cement (SRPC): Cement used for underground work, particularly with "aggressive" i.e.
sulphate containing groundwater.

High Alumina Cement (HAC): A special type of cement that develops rapid strength and possesses high chemical
resistance. It can also be utilised for refractory concretes, e.g. in steelworks, using the white version. A phenomenon
known as "inversion” occurs in HAC when it gets hot and wet it disintegrates.
3) What is Portland Cement?
Portland Cement is a blend of finely pulverized clinkers, manufactured by burning materials containing lime, alumina, iron
and silica in pre-determined proportion at very high temperatures. Normally, gypsum or its derivatives are added during
the grinding stages for set control.
4) What are the raw materials used in the manufacturers of Portland cement?

The two main raw materials employed during the manufacturer of Portland cement are calcareous materials like limestone,
chalk, shells or marl and argillaceous materials like clay and shale (rich in silica).
5) How is Portland Cement made?

The calcareous and argillaceous raw materials along with the other additives are mixed and finely ground. This is
intimately blended and fired in a rotary kiln at very high temperatures in the range of 1450 °-1500°C. The product formed
in the kiln is known as clinker. Theses clinkers are allowed to cool and then ground to fine powder along with small
percentage of gypsum (4-5%). This finely blended powder is known as Portland cement.
6) Can cement irritate my hands?

Some people are rather more sensitive to the free lime than others. It may cause some irritability if it comes in contact with
the eyes. As such no long- term health problems occur, but it is possible that cracked skin will leave you more prone to
dermatitis.
7) What is the difference between cement and concrete?

Cement is a finely ground powder composed mainly of limestone and silica that react with water to harden. Concrete is a
blend of cement powder, sand, gravel, water and sometimes chemicals, which are mixed together and placed in forms for
construction purposes.
8) Will concrete harden under water?

Portland cement is hydraulic cement. This means that it sets and hardens faster due to a chemical reaction with water. As a
result, it will also harden under water.
9) What does 28-day strength mean?

Concrete hardens and gains strength as it hydrates. The hydration process continues over a long period of time. It rate of
hydration is more at the beginning and slows down as time passes by. Hence, to measure the ultimate strength of concrete
would take several years. As this is practically impossible, specification-writing authorities selected a time period of 28
days. This is universally accepted and followed by one and all. At this 28-day period, substantial percentage of the
hydration takes place.
10) What caused hardening in Portland cement?

Portland Cement when mixed with sufficient quantity of water, the compounds present in cement react with water to form
a cementitious crystalline structure that adheres to the sand and aggregate. This helps in binding the mass together and
increases its strength till it becomes very hard.
11) What is setting of cement?

Whenever water is mixed with cement, a smooth paste is formed that remains plastic for a short time. During this period,
the paste can be disturbed and remixed without injury. As the reaction between water and cement continues, the plasticity
of the cement paste is lost. This early period in the hardening of cement is known as `Setting of Cement'.
12) What is the purpose of gypsum in cement?

The rate at which hardening of the cement develops must be controlled within limits to make the cement a useful product
in construction. Gypsum plays a very important role in controlling this effect. Small percentages of gypsum are added to
the clinkers at the grounding stage.
13) What is Heat of Hydration and its significance?

Hardening of cement is caused by some reactions described by the process of liberation of heat. This is referred to as Heat
of Hydration. In mass concreting jobs like dams where dissipation of heat is not possible, the temperature of concrete rises.
On subsequent cooling, cracks develop. Hence, it is very necessary to use cement with low heat of hydration in massive
structures.
14) What is a mortar?

Mortar is a mix of sand and cement (and possibly other additives) in proper proportions. It is used to build brickwork or
block work and can be applied as a screed or a render.
15) What is a screed and render?

Screed is a mortar applied to a floor and render is a mortar applied to a wall. A screed is a better-known term used for
batten nailed to the floor for the purposes of getting a flat application of mortar.
16) What other types of mortar?

Cement Mortar: Mortar made up with cement, sand and (not necessarily) lime and is used universally in new building
work.

Lime Mortar: Mortar made with lime and sand. This mortar is considered as aesthetically the nicest .It is lighter than the
brick.

Black Mortar: Made with cement, ash and (some) sand and is very dark in colour.
17) Why use a plasticiser?
The amount of water needed to achieve a specific workability will be reduced. Theoretically, this will make the mortar
stronger and this could increase the sand content.

Chemical Engineering
1. What is process?
Process is a task or series of task, which change the physical and chemical properties of any substance.
2. What is process variable?
The branch of chemical engineering in which temperature, pressure, composition and flow rate are described is called
process variable.
3. What are temperature measurement devices?
Mercury thermometer, Thermo-couple, Thermostats and Pyrometer (Radiation intensity measure).
4. What are the temperature scales?
Centigrade scale, Fahrenheit scale, Kelvin scale and Rankin scale.
5. What is gage pressure?
It is the additional pressure except atmospheric pressure. The difference between the actual pressures atmospheric is called
gage pressure.
Gage pressure=Total pressure–atmospheric pressure
6. What is unit?
For measuring any quantity, one parts of that quantity is assumed as an idle. The idle pasts of that quantity is called unit.
Example, the unit of length is centimeter, meter, feet etc. Units are three kinds such as,
i. Base unit, ii. Multiple units, iii. Derive unit.
There are three unit systems such as,
i. SI or MKS system, ii. American engineering system or FPS system and iii. CGS system.
7. What is dimension?
The sign, which is used to make relation between any natural quantity and its fundamental units, is called dimension. As
example, length is a natural quantity. Its fundamental units are cm, m, ft etc. To make relation between length and its
fundamental unit L is used as its sign. Different dimensional systems are,
i. Absolute system, ii. Gravitational system, iii. MELθT system, iv MFLθT system.
8. What is equilateral triangle graph?
An equilateral triangle is a triangle with all three sides of equal length. Equilateral triangular graph paper is often used to
record the composition of three component mixtures.
9. What is unit process?
In chemical manufacturing, a process that involves chemical conversion.
10. What is unit operation?
The basic physical operations of chemical engineering in a chemical process plant, that is, distillation, fluid transport, heat
and mass transfer, evaporation, extraction, drying, crystallization, filtration, mixing, size separation, crushing and grinding,
and conveying.
11. What is Reynolds number?
The most important dimensionless number in fluid dynamics. Reynolds number (Re) is the ratio of inertial forces to
viscous forces and is given by the formula:
Re = ρVD/μ
where ρ = density of the fluid, V = velocity, D = pipe diameter, and μ = fluid viscosity.
Reynolds number is used to determine whether a flow will be laminar or turbulent. If Re is high (>2100), inertial forces
dominate viscous forces and the flow is turbulent; if Re number is low (<1100), viscous forces dominate and the flow is
laminar.
12. What is the
13. What is schedule number?

The wall thickness of pipe is indicated by the schedule number, given by the approximate equation.
1000 p ′
Schedule number=
S
lb f
Where p ′ = internal working pressure,
inch 2
lb f
S= allowable stress, for alloy used.
inch 2
Ten schedule numbers, 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 are used, but with pipe less than 8 inch in diameter only
numbers 40, 80, 120 and 160 are common.
14. What are fittings?
Fitting is a parts of equipments. These may be used in different pipe line. the commonest material of which fittings are
made is grey cast iron and it is used for probably 90 to 95% of the fittings in ordinary chemical engineering practical
where vibration is varies and there is danger cast iron cracking, malleable iron may be used.
15. What is valve?
The devices used to control the flow rate of liquid through the pipeline, is called valves.
16. What is NPSH?
When the sum of the velocity head and pressure head at the suction side greater than the vapor pressure of the fluid then excess
amount is called NPSH (Net positive suction head)
NPSH=(velocity head+pressure head)-vapor pressure=+Ve
17. What is pump?
Pump is a one kind of devise and is installed in pipe line to provide the energy needed to draw liquid from a reservoir and
discharge a constant volumetric flow rate at the exit of the pipe line.
18. What is fan?
Gases moves under moderate pressures by means of some types of fan. These are effective for pressures from 2 or 3 in of
water, up to 0.5 psi. They may be classified into three types; the propeller type, the plate fan and the multiplied type. The
propeller type is represented by the familiar electric fan.
19. What is blower?
Any pump of the cyclonical or gear type can be used as a blower. When so much used them generally have only two or
three lobes on the rotating parts. These blowers are used for pressures of from 0.5 to 10 or 12 psi, but their maximum
efficiency is obtained below 5 lb. Their principal advantages are simplicity and large capacity.
20. What is pressure head?
p
, i.e. potential energy due to pressure per unit mass modified from of Bernoulli equation.
ρ
Pa g α aVa2 Pb g α bVb2
+ Za + + ηW p = + Zb + + hf
ρ gc 2g c ρ gc 2gc
Pa Pb P
Here is the pressure head at the suction side and is the pressure head at the discharge side. It is denoted as .
ρ ρ ρ
lb f ft 3 lb f − ft
Its unit is x =
ft 2 lbm lbm
21. What is velocity head?
2
V
, i.e. kinetic energy due to the velocity of fluid per unit mass.
2g c
Pa g α V2 P g α V2
+ Z a + a a + ηW p = b + Z b + b b + hf
ρ gc 2g c ρ gc 2gc
α aVa2 α bVb2
Here is the velocity head at the suction side and is the velocity head at the discharge side.
2gc 2gc
ft 2 Sec 2 lb f lb f − ft
Its unit is 2
x x =
Sec ft lbm lbm
22. What is potential head?
Pa g α V2 P g α V2
+ Z a + a a + ηW p = b + Z b + b b + hf
ρ gc 2gc ρ gc 2g c
g g
Here Z a is the potential head at the section side and Z b is the potential head at the discharge side.
gc gc
ftxft Sec − lb f lb f − ft
2

Its unit is x =
Sec 2 lbm − ft lbm
23. What is friction head?
Pa g α V2 P g α V2
+ Z a + a a + ηW p = b + Z b + b b + hf
ρ gc 2gc ρ gc 2g c
Here hf is the friction head.
lb f − ft
Its unit is
lbm
24. What is fluid head?
Summation of the three heads pressure head, velocity head and potential head is the fluid head.
Pa g α V2 P g α V2
+ Z a + a a + ηW p = b + Z b + b b + hf
ρ gc 2g c ρ gc 2gc
Pa g α V2 Pb g α V2
Here + Za + a a is fluid head at the suction side and + Zb + b b is fluid head at the
ρ gc 2gc ρ gc 2g c
discharge side.
lb f − ft
Its unit is
lb m
25. What do you mean by conveying?
In industrial sector some solid materials like liquid are transferred from one place to another for next operation or
preservation by mechanical process. This method is called conveying. The machine that is used for conveying materials is
called conveyor.
26. What is ideal reactor?
hw` wewµqv PjvKvjxb †Kvb wewµqv h‡š¿I Af¨š—‡i †Kvb Dcv`v‡bi NbgvÎv ev mshyw³ mylg _v‡K
Zvn‡j H wewµqv hš¿wU‡K Av`k© wewµqv hš¿ e‡j|
27. What is space time?
Space time nj GKwU wbw`©ó k‡Z© GKK wewµqv h‡š¿ wd‡Wi AvqZb cwigv‡ci Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq mgq|
Gi GKK mgq|
28. What is space velocity?
GKwU wbw`©ó k‡Z© GKwU wewµqv h‡š¿ wd‡Wi AvqZb, hv GKK mg‡q cwiPvwjZ nq Zv‡K space
velocity e‡j| Gi GKK (mgq)-1|
29. What is gas hourly space velocity?
‡Kvb wewµqv h‡š¿I cÖwZ GKK AvqZ‡bi g¨a¨w`‡q cÖwZ GKK mg‡q †h cwigvb M¨vm cÖevwnZ nq
Zv‡K M¨vm AvIqvijx e¨eavb MwZ‡eM e‡j|
30. What is turn over number?
‡Kvb mwµq Kbvi cÖwZ cv‡k¦© cÖwZ †m‡K‡Û hZwU my²Kbv G‡m msN‡l© wjß nq Zv‡K turn over
number e‡j| A_ev cÖwZ GKK mg‡q cÖwZ GKK †¶Îdj Øviv cwi‡kvwlZ wewµqK Abyi msL¨v‡K turn over
number e‡j|
31. What is turn over frequency?
GKK mg‡q †h cwigvb cÖfveK wewµqvq AskMÖnb K‡i Zv‡K turn over frequency e‡j|
32. What is RTD or EAD or E-curve?
wewµqv h‡š¿I wfZi w`‡q cÖevnxi †gŠj¸wj wewfbœ c‡_ wewfbœ mgq a‡i cvÎ ev vessel AwZµg K‡i|
cvÎ AwZµgKvix cÖevnxj cÖev‡ni Rb¨ GB mg¯— mg‡qi e›Ub‡K E-Kvf© ev cÖevnxi RTD ev EAD e‡j|
33. What is F-curve?
hvi mv‡_ cÖv_wgK fv‡e †Kv_vI †Kvb †Uªmvi Dcw¯’Z _v‡K bv, Z‡e cv‡Î cÖ‡ewkZ cÖevnxi cÖev‡ni
Dci Co NbgvÎvi †Uªmv‡ii GK †÷c BbcyU ms‡KZ ¯’vcb Kiv nq| AZtci cvÎ n‡Z evB‡i cÖevwnZ cÖevnxi
†Uªmv‡ii mgq Mbbv Kiv nq| Zv‡KB F-curve e‡j| G‡K C/Co wn‡m‡e cwigvc Kiv nq|
34. What is C-curve or tracer input curve?
hvi mv‡_ cÖv_wgK fv‡e †Kv_vI †Kvb †Uªmvi Dcw¯’Z _v‡K bv wKš‘ cÖevnx hLb cv‡Î cÖ‡ek K‡i ZLb
Dnv‡Z †Uªmv‡ii GKwU Zvr¶wbK ms‡KZ ¯’vcb Kiv nq| GB cÖKv‡ii BbcyU‡K cÖvqB δ dvskb ev
Bbcvjm e‡j Ges GB ¯^vfvweK cÖwµqv‡K C-curve ev tracer input curve e‡j|
35. What is tracer input mechanism?
Reactor Gi g‡a¨ wK NU‡Q Zv wKQy wKQy wel‡qi mvnv‡h¨ mn‡R Abyaveb Kiv hvq; †Uªmvi BbcyU
Zv‡`i g‡a¨ GKwU| G‡¶‡Î wewµqv h‡š¿ c~‡e© †_‡KB wKQy cÖevnx _v‡K Ges evwni n‡Z Dnvi Af¨š—
‡i Ab¨ GKwU cÖevnx cÖ‡ek Kiv‡bv nq Ges wKQy mgq ci ci Dnv cÖevnx wewµqv hš¿ n‡Z wbM©Z
nq ZLb Dnv‡K we‡klb Kiv nq| d‡j reactor Gi Af¨š—‡i vessel Gi cÖevnxi AvPib m¤ú‡K© Rvbv hvq|
evwni n‡Z †h cÖevnx cÖ‡ek Kiv‡bv nq Zv‡K response e‡j| ms‡¶‡c stimulus Ges response †K GK‡Î tracer
input technique e‡j|
36. What is micro fluid?
‡h mg¯— Zi‡ji †¶‡Î Zi‡ji ¯^-¯^ Aby GK ¯’vb n‡Z Ab¨ ¯’v‡b ¯’vbvš—wiZ n‡Z cv‡I Ges Giv G‡K Ac‡ii
mv‡_ fvjfv‡e wgwkªZ nq Zv‡`i‡K m~² Zij e‡j| GKwU m~² Zi‡ji †¶‡Î †Kvb wew”Qbœ Kib nq bv|
37. What is macro fluid?
‡h mg¯— Zi‡ji †¶‡Î †QvU †QvU we›`y AvK…wZi Zij Kbv j¶¨ Kiv hvq, hv 102 n‡Z 1018 wU Aby avib K‡i
Zv‡`i‡K ¯’~j Zij e‡j| GKwU ¯’~j Zi‡ji †¶‡Î my¯úó wew”Qbœ KiY j¶¨ Kiv hvq|
38. What is residence time of a reactant in a flow reactor?
‡Kvb wewµqK †Kvb GKwU wewµqv Kvi‡Ki Af¨š—‡i hZ¶b ch©š— Ae¯’vb K‡i, D³ mgq‡K H wewµq‡Ki
†iwm‡WÝ mgq e‡j|
39. What is adsorption?
‡Kvb KwVb ev Zij c`v‡_©i c„ôZ‡j Ab¨ †Kvb c`v_© Rgv nIqvi NUbv‡K cwi‡kvlb e‡j| GB cÖwµqvwU
GKwU c„ôZj NUbv| c„ôZ‡ji †¶Îdj e„w× †c‡j cwi‡kvlb e„w× cvq|
40. What is contacting pattern for two flowing fluids?
‡h fv‡e Pvjbv Ki‡j `ywU `kv ev †dR ci¯úi msN‡l© Av‡m Zv‡K `yB `kvi Rb¨ contacting pattern e‡j|
41. What is proportional controller?
GKwU cÖwµqvi Pj‡Ki †iKwW©s Ges wbqš¿b Ki‡Z †h wkíRvZ wbqš¿K e¨envi Kiv nq Zv‡K proportional
controller ev mgvbycvwZK wbqš¿K ev †iKW©vi ejv nq|
42. Write down different pressure measurement device?
wewfbœ pressure measurement device Gi bvg wb¤§iƒc|
Bellows, Bourdon tubes, Capacitive pressure transducer, Inductive pressure transducer, Strain gage attached pressure tube.
43. What are similarity criteria?
Similarity criteria mgyn wb¤§i“c-
R¨vwgwZK mgvbyZv, hvwš¿K mgvbyZv, Zvcxq mgvbyZv I ivmvqwbK mgvbyZv‡K avivevwnK fv‡e
we‡ePbv Kiv nq|
Dc‡iv³ PviwU mgvbyZvi †h †Kvb GKwU‡K ev` w`‡q Ab¨wU‡K we‡ePbv Kiv hvq bv|
44. What is optimum design?
‡Kvb GKwU cÖ‡R± ev KviLvbv‡K wKfv‡e wWRvBb Ki‡j H KviLvbv ev cÖ‡R± n‡Z m‡e©v”P Drcv`
cvIqv hv‡e Zv‡K AcwUgvg wWRvBb e‡j|
45. What is optimum economic design?
‡Kvb GKwU KviLvbv ev cÖ‡R±‡K Aí Li‡P wWRvBb Ki‡j hw` Dnv n‡Z †ewk cwigvb jvf Kiv hvq Z‡e
Zv‡K AcwUgvg A_©‰bwZK wWRvBb e‡j|
46. What is break even point?

47. What is optimum operation design?


48. What do you mean by depreciation?
49. What is salvage value?
50. What is book value?
51. What is replacement value?
52. What is junk value?
53. What is market value?
54. What is profit?
55. What is revenue?
56. What is production cost?
57. What is cast of capital?
58. What is average cost?
59. What is marginal cost?
60. What is cash flow?
61. What do you mean by capital investment?
62.
Fuel Technology
Pharmaceutical Chemistry
1. What is drug?
Compounds, which exert various physiological effects of therapeutic value, are collectively known as drug. In other words,
drugs are chemical compounds, which are only responsible for producing pharmacological action, and it has no biological
side effect.
2. What is antibiotic?
Antibiotics are chemical substance, which are made by metabolism from nonpathogenic microorganism and kill various
types of pathogenic microorganism (The cause of diseases in human body). These types of chemical substances are called
antibiotic. Such as penicillin is produced from penicillium notatum by metabolism and kills kleibsicllo pneumonial germ
(responsibly for pneumonia) so penicillin is an antibiotic.
3. What is penicillin?
Penicillin is the mixture of the natural compounds having the molecular formula C9H11N2O4SR and differs only in the
nature of R.
It is obtained from the culture of Penicillium natatum and Penicillium chrysogenum. Penicillin has a relatively
antimicrobial and narrow spectrum activity.
4. What is vitamin?
Any of various fat-soluble or water-soluble organic substances essential in minute amounts for normal growth and activity
of the body and obtained naturally from plant and animal foods.
5. What is enzyme?
Enzymes are biological catalyst, which bring about chemical reaction in living cells and catalyze the biochemical reaction
and may be consist of protein in combination with non-protein fragment or may be wholly protein in nature. For example-
POD, GOD, urease etc.
6. What is protein?
Proteins are organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and folded into a globular form. The
amino acids in a polymer are joined together by the peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent
amino acid residues.
7. What is the difference between protein and enzyme?
Proteins are the expressed form of genes. They are three dimensional structures composed of building blocks called amino
acids.
Enzymes however, are functional proteins. Which means, they carry out a specific function by interacting with other
molecules, compounds and even other proteins.
Enzymes are biochemical catalysts - the speed up the rate of a biochemical reaction. They do this by reducing the free
energy change required to bring about the formation of the products.
Enzymes are specific to the biochemical species with which they interact. Only a particular substrate can interact with an
enzyme to form a product.
What is the difference between an amino acid a polypeptide and a protein?
An amino acid are the monomers, the building blocks upon which the protein is based upon. Two amino acids constitute a
dipeptide, while three or more create a polypeptide. The union of two or more polypeptides (quaternary structure) results
in a protein.
What is the difference between a protein and a peptide?
A peptide is any two or more amino acids that are put together by peptide bond. A protein is a functional, polypeptide
chain composed of at least around fifty amino acids put together.
8. What is lectin?
Lectins are sugar-binding proteins or glycoproteins that are highly specific for their sugar moieties. They play a role in
biological recognition phenomena involving cells and proteins. For example, some viruses use lectins to attach themselves
to the cells of the host organism during infection.
9. What is sulfa drug?
Sulphadrugs are the chemical compounds, which contain amino (-NH2) group in paraposition in benzene ring and other
respective sulphanilamide (-SO2NHR) group, which exert various physiological effect of therapeutic value.
They inhibit the growth of microorganism within the host of interfere their life processes to check and prevent diseases.
For example sulphanilamide is a sulphadrug.
10. What are alkaloids?
The term alkaloid means alkali-like. The compounds of plant origin having one or more basic nitrogen atoms in
heterocyclic ring systems, which induce pronounced physiological activity in animals and man. Alkaloids are very
poisonous but are used medicinally in very small quantities. For example- Morphine, quinine, coniine etc.
11. What is apoenzyme?
The enzyme without the co-factor is called apoenzyme or when enzyme does not possess the co-factor, the remaining
conjugated proteins are called the apoenzyme. These types of enzymes are inactive.
12. What is holoenzyme?
Inactive apoenzyme are active by the cofactor, this active enzyme is called holoenzyme. In a word catalytically active
enzyme with its cofactor is called holoenzyme. e.g.
Apoenzyme +Cofactor 
→Holoenzyme
13. What is coenzyme?
These are the enzymes that required some non-protein compounds known as co-factor in order to perform their catalytic
activity.
14. What is Michaelis - Menten constant (Km)?
The substrate concentration, which will get the half of the maximum velocity, is called Michaelis - Menten constant.
15. What is chemotherapy?
The word ‘chemo’ means chemical and ‘therapy’ means treatment. The term chemotherapy is used to mean the treatment
of diseases due to bacterial invasion by chemical compounds, which destroy the microorganisms without affecting to any
material extent the tissues of the host.
Many compounds e.g. formaldehyde, phenol, iodine etc are also active in destroying bacteria.
16. What are chemotherapeutic agents?
Chemotherapeutic agents are those chemical substances which are used in the treatment if the diseases due to bacterial
invasion. These substances destroy microorganism without affecting to any material extent the tissues of the host. Many
compounds e.g. formaldehyde, phenol, iodine etc are also active in destroying bacteria. These compounds however are
applied externally of therapeutic agents but are known as disinfectants.
There are two kinds of chemotherapeutic agents. Bacto-cytic and Bacto static.
17. What is bacto-cytic?
The process in which the chemical substance vanished and kills the bacteria totally is called bactocytic or antibide.
18. What is bacto static?
The process in which the chemical substance does not destroy the bacteria but control their food and multiplication or
growth is called bacto static.
19. What is microorganism?
Any microscopic form of life; a form of life too small to be seen by the naked eye; particularly applied to bacteria,
protozoa, yeasts, and similar organisms, esp. such are supposed to cause infectious diseases.
20. What is gram +ve microorganism?
When an organism will not change the color of dye (calcian blue 0.5% solutions in ethanol) these types of organism is
called gram +ve microorganism. Example- kleibsiella pneumonia.
21. What is gram -ve microorganism?
When an organism will change the color of dye (calcian blue 0.5% solutions in ethanol) these types of organism is called
gram -ve microorganism. Example- streptomyces griseus.
22. What is broad spectrum antibiotic?
The antibiotic which kills both gram positive and gram-negative organism is called broad-spectrum antibiotic or the B.S.A
are value in the treatment of gram +ve as well as gram –ve bacterial infections. For example- Chloramphenicol,
Chlortetracycline, Oxyfetracycline, and Tetracycline.
23. What is narrow spectrum antibiotic?
The antibiotic which kills only gram +ve or only gram –ve organism is called narrow spectrum antibiotic. Such as
penicillin kills only gram +ve organism and streptomycin kills only gram –ve organism.
24. What is broken penicillin?
With the exception of cephalosporin-N, the penicillins are monocarboxylic acid. They form salts with alkali or bases.
When excess alkali is added the salt of penicillin is break down forming an aldehyde and acid. These aldehyde and acids
are collectively known as broken penicillin.
25. What is oral penicillin?
Oral penicillins are the chemically synthesized products which are not hydrolyzed when taken by mouth and also remain
unchanged in the alkaline medium of intestine and stable in presence of acid or base in oral formulations. Example:
Penicillin-V, Oracyn-K etc.
26. What are hormones?
Hormones are biological active organic compounds secreted from ductless or endocrine gland that pass into the blood and
stimulate organs to action. They are controlling agents essential for normal health and growth.
27. What is protein hormone?
There are some pancreatic hormones which are protein in nature; these kinds of hormones are known as protein hormone.
For example- insulin.
28. What is glycoside?
Glycosides are molecules in which a sugar is bound to a non-carbohydrate moiety, usually a small organic molecule.
29. What is cardiac glycoside?
Any of several glycosides obtained chiefly from plant sources such as the foxglove, used medicinally to increase the force
of contraction of heart muscle and to regulate heartbeats.
30. What is sterilization?
Sterilization is process of eliminating or killing all the microbes in a food by heating, irradiating, etc. It is also the method
by which all contaminations are completely destroyed.
31. What is pyrogen text?

32. What is isomerism?

33. What is conformation?

34. What is configuration?


35. What is digitoxin?

36. What is degoxine?

37. What is tablet?

38. What is sapogetories?

39. What is drug stability?

40. What is pharmaceutical compebility?

41. What is caping?

42. What is molding?

43. What do you mean by disintegrating test?

44. What is lipid?

45. What do you mean by DNA, RNA?

46. What do you mean dye and color?


Polymer Science
Instrumental Analysis
Metallurgy
1. What is stainless steel?
2. What is annealing?
3. What is tempering?
4. What is alloy?

Mateiral Science
Environmental Chemistry
1. What is global worming?
2. What are the green house gasses?
Corrosion

5. What is corrosion?
Corrosion is degradative reactions of materials (mainly metals and alloys) with their environment, where electronic
oxidation and reduction occurs simultaneously. The oxidation reaction is called anodic and reduction is called cathodic
reaction.
Fe → Fe2+ +2e Anodic reaction
2H+ + 2e → H2 Cathodic reaction
6. What is electrochemical reaction?
Electrochemical reaction may be represented by the combination of partial reactions of oxidation and reduction. In case of
electrochemical reaction electron is released from one place and consumes another place.
Example: Corrosion of Zn is an electrochemical reaction.
Zn → Zn2+ +2e
2H+ + 2e → H2
7. What is errosion?
Errosion is destruction of metal by physical causes like mechanical wear or abrasion.
8. What is localized corrosion?
If certain areas of the metal surface corrode at higher rates then others due to heterogeneities of the metal, in the
environment or in the geometry of the structure as a whole, then this attack is called localized attack i.e. localize corrosion
where the attack is concentrated on a very small area. The attacked area of the metal surface act as anode and the entire
structure act as cathode. It causes equipment to fail because of perforation with a small percent weight loss of the enteric
structure. It causes loss in economy.
9. Discuss the classification of corrosion with suitable example.
Corrosion may be classified in many ways. The perfect classification is-
1. Wet corrosion and
2. Dry corrosion.
1. Wet corrosion: The corrosion which is occurred due to in presence of aqueous solution of an electrolyte in contact
with metal is called wet corrosion. The aqueous solution of an electrolyte may be acidic basic or salt.
Wet corrosion are subdivided as follows-
a. Corrosion by sea water: This type of corrosion is occurred by the attack of various types of salt in sea water,
wide variations in temperature salinity and marine organism. Example- The various parts of ship are corroded by the attack
of sea water.
Protection: By using metal coating, alloy and paints.
b. Corrosion by soil: This type of corrosion is occurred by the chemical attack of various materials in the soil,
dissolve salt, acidity, moisture, alkalinity etc. Example- Gas pipe line is corroded by the attack of soil.
Protection: Organic or inorganic and metallic coating cathodic protection.
c. Corrosion by micro-organism: This type of corrosion is occurred by the metallic activity of micro-organism.
Example- The corrosion of water pipe line.
Protection: By using carefully selected asphalt, bituminous, enamel and concrete coating.
d. Corrosion by high temperature: This type of corrosion is mainly occurred by steams in contact with various
alloy steels. Example- Boiler corrosion.
Protection: Treatment of boiler water, use of high corrosion resistance alloy.
e. Corrosion by lubricants: This type of corrosion is occurred due to in presence of impurities in lubricants.
Example- The corrosion of Cu-Pb and Cd-base bearing metals.
Protection: By the use of inhibitor.
2. Dry corrosion: The corrosion which is occurred due to chemical reaction between metal and gas or liquid in the
absence of electrolytes at high temperature. Example- Corrosion of steel by furnace gas.
10. What is corrosion cell?
Corrosion cell is nothing but a place where anodic and cathodic reactions are occurred. There are three main types of
corrosion cells that take part in corrosion reactions. Dissimilar electrode cells, Concentration cells and Differential
temperature cells.
11. What is immunity region?
This region in where corrosion is thermodynamically impossible in a particular environment is called immunity region.
12. What is passive region?
Region in where metal is thermodynamically unstable in a particular environment but corrosion is prevented by
modification of the surface due to the formation of oxide layer is called passive region.
13. What is stress-corrosion cracking?
Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) refers to cracking caused by the simultaneous presence of tensile stress and a specific
corrosive medium.
The two classic cases of stress-corrosion cracking are ‘season cracking’ of brass and the ‘caustic embitterment’ of steel.
The important variable affecting stress-corrosion cracking are temperature, solution composition, metal composition, stress
and metal structure.
14. How can you minimize stress-corrosion cracking?
Stress-corrosion cracking may be reduced or minimized or prevented by application of one or more of the following
methods:
a. Lowering the stress below the threshold value if one exists. This may be done by annealing in the case of residual
stresses, thickening the section or reducing the load.
b. Eliminating the critical environmental species by degasification, demineralization or distillation.
c. Changing the alloy is one possible recourse if neither the environment nor stress can be changed.
d. Applying cathodic protection to the structure with an external power supply or consumable anodes.
e. Adding inhibitors to the system if feasible.
f. Coatings are sometimes used.
g. Shot-peening produces residual compressive stresses in the surface of the metal.
15. What is crevice corrosion?
Intensive localized corrosion frequently occurs within crevices and other shielded areas on metal surfaces exposed to
corrosives. This type of attack is usually associated with small volumes of stagnant solution cause by holes, gasket
surfaces, lap joints, surface deposits and crevices under bolt and rivet heads. As a result this form of corrosion is called
crevice corrosion or deposit corrosion or gasket corrosion.
16. How can you minimize crevice corrosion?
Crevice corrosion can be minimize by-
a. Using welded butt joints instead of riveted or bolted joints in new equipment. Sound weds and complete
penetrations are necessary to avoid porosity and crevices on the inside.
b. Closing crevices in existing lap joints by continuous welding, caulking or soldering.
c. Designing vessels for complete drainage; avoid sharp corners and stagnant areas. Complete draining facilitates
washing and cleaning and tends to prevent solids from setting on the bottom of the vessel.
d. Inspecting equipment and removing deposits frequently.
e. Removing solids in suspension early in the process or plant flow sheet, it possible.
f. Removing wet packing materials during long shutdowns.
g. Providing uniform environments, if possible, as in the case of backfilling a pipeline trench.
h. Using ‘solid’ nonabsorbent gaskets, such as Teflon, wherever possible.
i. Welding instant of rolling in tubes in tube sheets.
17. Why crevice corrosion occurs only in joint but not on the surface of metal?
Crevice corrosion is usually associated with small volumes of stagnant solution caused by holes, gasket surfaces, lap
joints, surface deposits and crevices under bolt and rivet head. Contact between metal and nonmetallic surfaces can cause
crevices corrosion as in the case of a gasket, wood, plastics, rubber, glass, concrete, asbestos, was and fabrics are examples
of materials that can cause this type of corrosion.
When a deposit (salt or other substance) is formed in the joint (between metal and nonmetallic surface) the deposit
acts as a cathode while the metal acts as anode then the crevice corrosion is occurred by oxidation-reduction reaction.
Examples of deposits that may produce crevice corrosion are sand, durt, corrosion product and other solids. The
deposit acts as a shield and creates a stagnant condition there under.
But a plain surface of a metal cannot create the stagnant condition of any solution. So any deposit is not formed on
the surface. As a result crevice corrosion is not formed on the surface of metal. Crevice corrosion is not occurred in joint or
crevices but not on the surface of metal.
18. What is stray current corrosion?
19. What are the sources of stray current corrosion?
20. How can you minimize stray current corrosion?
21. What is pitting corrosion?
22. How can you minimize pitting corrosion?
23. What is biological corrosion?
24. How can you prevent micro-organism corrosion?
25. What is intergranular corrosion?
26. How can you minimize intergranular corrosion?
27. What is weld decay?
28. What is KLA?
29. What is galvanic corrosion?
30. How can you minimize galvanic corrosion?
31. What is activation polarization?
32. What is electron less nickel plating?
33. What do you mean by enameling?
34. What is back field?
35. What is corrosion testing?
36. What is passivity?
37. Did non-metal corrode?
38. What is the mechanism of corrosion?
39. What is localized corrosion?
40. What is pitting corrosion?
41. What is quenching?
42. What is crystal?
43. What is miller indices?
44. What is solid solution?
45. What are composite materials?
46. What is glass wool?
47. What is plastic material?
48. What is refractory?
49. What are refractory metals?
50. What is superalloy?
51. What are superrefractories?
52. What is electrical double layer?
53. What is polarization?
54. Does corrosion occur in a metal without water?
55. What is leaching?
56. What is cyanization?
57. What do you mean by solvent extraction?
58. What is extraction ratio?
59. What is extractant?
60. What is extraction?
61. What is diluent?
62. What is modifier?
63. What is striping?
64. What is antagonism?
65. What is synergism?
66. What is distribuend?
67. What is separation factor?
68. What is pH1/2?
69.

Textile Chemistry