This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
(A PAPER ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS)
TONI B.KRISPIN email@example.com VIGNESH KUMAR
VI SEM B.E. DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS FROM SNS COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CBE-641035
AND EFFICIENCY 5.1 RADIO AND MICROWAVE o 6.1 INDUCTION o 5.3 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION o 6. DISTANCE.3 WITRICITY 6.CONTENTS: 1. HISTORY OF WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER 4.ABSTRACT 2.2 RESONANT INDUCTION O 5.INTRODUCION 3. FAR FIELD o 6.SIZE. NEAR FIELD o 5.4 TESLA PATENTS .2 LASER o 6.
which proves that power can be transmitted using laser beams using the technique called “POWERBEAMING” where power is beamed at the receiver that can convert it to usual electrical energy. The technique to overcome this. but the drawback of this technique is that . is the method of transmitting power using RADIO WAVES AND MICROWAVES which has the capability to transmitted power in terms of kilometers. without interconnecting wires in an electrical grid. it is suitable only for shorter distance. is the technique called RESONANT INDUCTION COUPLING and ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION by which the electrical energy is transferred without wires using the principle called electromagnetic induction and tunneling effect.ABSTRACT: Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is the process by which electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load. . Recently improved technique is called laser power transmission. The transmission of electrical energy without wires that depends upon electrical conductivity was proposed by Tesla. Of this. Here in this paper we are going to see the different types of techniques to transfer the energy from one place to another without the usage wires or any other cords or power cables.
The most common and the most viable form of wireless power transfer is carried out using Inductive Power Transfer. Hertz’s "apparatus for generating electromagnetic waves" is generally acknowledged as the first radio transmitter. showing that communication signals can be sent without using wires. they file a US Patent describing a system for power transfer at 3 kHz 1894: Jagdish Chandra Bose ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance using electromagnetic waves. 1888: Heinrich Rudolf Hertz confirmed the existence of electromagnetic radiation. Though the physics of both are related. The other viable technologies for Wireless Power are based on Microwaves and Lasers. 1893: Nikola Tesla demonstrated the illumination of vacuum bulbs wirelessly (without any wires connected to the bulbs) at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago. 1894: Hutin & LeBlanc. hazardous. an important basic law of electromagnetism 1864: James Clerk Maxwell mathematically modeled the behavior of electromagnetic radiation. With wireless energy transfer. or impossible.INTRODUCTION: Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission (also known as the Tesla Effect) is the process that takes place in any system where electrical energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load. . without interconnecting wires in an electrical grid. this is distinct from wireless transmission for the purpose of transferring information (such as radio) through waves. where the percentage of the power that is received is only important if it becomes too low to successfully recover the signal. espouse long held view that inductive energy transfer should be possible. History of Wireless Energy Transfer • • • • • • • 1820: André-Marie Ampère describes Ampere’s law showing that electric current produces a magnetic field 1831: Michael Faraday describes Faraday’s law of induction. Wireless transmission is ideal in cases where instantaneous or continuous energy transfer is needed. but interconnecting wires are inconvenient. the efficiency is a more critical parameter and this creates important differences in these technologies.
Auckland Uniservices.pdf 1975: Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex did experiments in the tens of kilowatts. 1973: World first passive RFID demonstrated at Los-Alamos National Lab.com/pdf/AIM%20shrouds_of_time. the commercial company of The University of Auckland. develop an inverter using novel engineering materials and power electronics and conclude that inductive power transmission should be achievable. John Boys at The University of Auckland in New Zealand. 1971: Prof. 1900: Marconi failed to get a patent for Radio in the United States. 1964: William C. Brown demonstrated on CBS News with Walter Cronkite a microwave-powered model helicopter that received all the power needed for flight from a microwave beam. 1897: Guglielmo Marconi had transmitted Morse code signals over a distance of about 6 km. 1926: Shintaro Uda and Hidetsugu Yagi published their first paper on Uda's "tuned high-gain directional array" better known as the Yagi antenna. in New Zealand. Auckland UniServices Patents the technology. 1901: Guglielmo Marconi first transmitted and received signals across the Atlantic Ocean. A first prototype for a contact-less power supply is built. 1996: Auckland Uniservices develops an Electric Bus power system using Inductive Power Transfer to charge(30-60kW) opportunistically commencing implementation in New Zealand. John Boys team develops novel technology enabling multiple vehicles to run on the same inductive power loop and provide independent control of each vehicle. 1968: Peter Glaser proposes wirelessly transferring Solar energy captured in Space using "Powerbeaming" technology. http://www. 1961: William C. Louis World's Fair.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1895: Jagdish Chandra Bose transmitted signals over a distance of nearly a mile. Patents the Technology.1 horsepower (75 W) air-ship motor by energy transmitted through space at a distance of least 100 feet (30 m).transcore. 1988: A power electronics group led by Prof. Prof John Boys Team . engages Auckland Uniservices Ltd to develop the technology for car assembly plants and materials handling providing challenging technical requirements including multiplicity of vehicles 1990: Prof. a prize was offered for a successful attempt to drive a 0. 1989: Daifuku. 1897: Nikola Tesla filed his first patents dealing with Wardenclyffe tower. Brown publishes article that explores possibilities of Microwave Power Transmission. a Japanese company. Between 1969 and 1975 Brown was technical director of a JPL Raytheon program that beamed 30 kW over a distance of 1 mile at 84% efficiency. Don Otto develops a small trolley powered by Inductive Power Transfer at The University of Auckland. 1904: at the St.
2008: Industrial designer Thanh Tran. Size. own more than 50% of market share 2005: Prof Boys' team at The University of Auckland. the wavelength and the Rayleigh Criterion or Diffraction limit.• • • • • • commission 1st commercial IPT Bus in the world at Whakarewarewa. Daifuku. Then the power levels are calculated by combining the above parameters together. used in standard RF (Radio Frequency) antenna design. a power system for use on trams and light-rail vehicles. a Licensee of Auckland Uniservices. That process is known as calculating a link budget. Marin Soljacic. developed at The University of Auckland and Patented by Auckland Uniservices Ltd. refines 3-phase IPT Highway and pick-up systems allowing transfer of power to moving vehicles in the lab 2007: A physics research group. The larger the transmitter antenna or laser aperture. John Boys group's 1988's experiments by wirelessly powering a light bulb with 75% efficiency. the above mathematics does not account for atmospheric absorption which is quite a severe damping effect on propagating energy in addition to causing severe Fading and loss of QoS. is now used by 90 per cent of the US$1 billion clean room industry for materials handling equipment in semiconductor. The Rayleigh Criterion dictates that any beam will spread (microwave or laser) and become weaker and diffuse over distance. John Boys by wireless powering of a 60W light bulb with 40% efficiency at a 2m (7ft) distance using two 60cmdiameter coils. and efficiency The size of the components is dictated by the distance from transmitter to receiver. distance. . Smaller antennae also suffer from excessive losses due to side lobes. 2004: Inductive Power Transfer. 2008: Bombardier offers new wireless transmission product PRIMOVE. in New Zealand. the tighter the beam and the less it will spread as a function of distance (and vice versa). at MIT confirm the earlier(1980's) work of Prof. at Brunel University made a wireless light bulb powered by a high efficiency 3W LED. and adding in the gains and losses due to the antenna characteristics and the transparency of the medium through which the radiation passes. LCD and plasma screen manufacture. However. led by Prof. 2008: Intel reproduces Prof. which also applies to lasers. In addition to the Rayleigh criterion Airy's diffraction limit is also frequently used to determine an approximate spot size at an arbitrary distance from the aperture.
specifically. Electromagnetic induction works on the principle of a primary coil generating a predominantly magnetic field and a secondary coil being within that field so a current is induced in the secondary. which in combination allow the coil to be tuned to the transmitter frequency thereby eliminating the wide energy wasting "wave problem" and allowing the energy used to focus in on a specific frequency increasing the range. This is where the resonance comes in and helps efficiency dramatically by "tunneling" the magnetic field to a receiver coil that resonates at the same frequency. Unlike the multiple-layer secondary of a non-resonant transformer.Ultimately. beamwidth is physically determined by diffraction due to the dish size in relation to the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation used to make the beam. the dependence of efficiency on transmission distance. While the early systems used a resonant receiver coil. or a few times the diameter of the device(s). Microwave power beaming can be more efficient than lasers. is the short range. The primary and secondary circuits of a transformer are not directly connected. This results in a relatively short range due to the amount of power required to produce an electromagnetic field. Resonant induction "Resonant inductive coupling" has key implications in solving the main problem associated with non-resonant inductive coupling and electromagnetic radiation. such receiving coils are single layer solenoids with closely spaced capacitor plates on each end. The receiver must be very close to the transmitter or induction unit in order to inductively couple with it. Over greater distances the non-resonant induction method is inefficient and wastes much of the transmitted energy. Induction The action of an electrical transformer is the simplest instance of wireless energy transfer. (An added benefit is the capability to step the primary voltage either up or down. later . and is less prone to atmospheric attenuation caused by dust or water vapor losing atmosphere to vaporize the water in contact. The transfer of energy takes place by electromagnetic coupling through a process known as mutual induction.) The battery charger of a mobile phone or the transformers in the street are examples of how this principle can be used. however. The main drawback to induction. Beginning in the early 1960s resonant inductive wireless energy transfer was used successfully in implantable medical devices including such devices as pacemakers and artificial hearts. Near field These are wireless transmission techniques over distances comparable to.
their near fields (consisting of so-called 'evanescent waves') couple (evanescent wave coupling) and can allow the energy to tunnel/transfer from one object to the other within times much shorter than all loss times. mid-range efficient wireless energy-transfer is possible. Others operate at higher kilowatt power levels. since magnetic fields interact weakly with living organisms. Some of these wireless resonant inductive devices operate at low milliwatt power levels and are battery powered. the field can circumvent extraneous objects in the vicinity and thus this mid-range energy-transfer scheme does not require line-of-sight. The bus could be outfitted with a retractable receiving coil for greater coil clearance when moving. By utilizing in particular the magnetic field to achieve the coupling. An experimental electrified roadway test track built circa 1990 achieved 80% energy efficiency while recharging the battery of a prototype bus at a specially equipped bus stop. The gap between the transmit and receive coils was designed to be less than 10 cm when powered. by designing electromagnetic resonators that suffer minimal loss due to radiation and absorption and have a near field with mid-range extent (namely a few times the resonator size). and thus with the maximum possible energy-transfer efficiency. The reason is that. Today resonant inductive energy transfer is regularly used for providing electric power in many commercially available medical implantable devices. These medical devices are designed for high efficiency using low power electronics while efficiently accommodating some misalignment and dynamic twisting of the coils. this method can be safe. they demonstrate that. In a theoretical analysis. In November 2006. which were designed to be long. Marin Soljačić and other researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology applied the near field behaviour well known in electromagnetic theory to a wireless power transmission concept based on strongly-coupled resonators. Since the resonant wavelength is much larger than the resonators. . High power levels are required for rapid recharging and high energy transfer efficiency is required both for operational economy and to avoid negative environmental impact of the system. if two such resonant objects are brought in mid-range proximity. Current implantable medical and road electrification device designs achieve more than 75% transfer efficiency at an operating distance between the transmit and receive coils of less than 10 cm. In addition to buses the use of wireless transfer has been investigated for recharging electric automobiles in parking spots and garages as well. The separation between the coils in implantable applications is commonly less than 20 cm. Wireless electric energy transfer for experimentally powering electric automobiles and buses is a higher power application (>10kW) of resonant inductive energy transfer.systems  implemented resonant transmitter coils as well.
says that "the usual non-resonant magnetic induction would be almost 1 million times less efficient in this particular system". In their first paper. WiTricity employs near field inductive coupling through magnetic fields.309. the receiving devices must be no more than about a quarter wavelength from the transmitter (which is a few meters at the frequency used by the example system). including biological tissue. (U. often multiple kilometer ranges. The researchers suggest that the exposure levels will be below the threshold for FCC safety regulations. The main reason for . it is based on using 'strongly-coupled' resonances to achieve a high power-transmission efficiency. where the distance is much greater than the diameter of the device(s). Patent 1. Far field Means for long conductors of electricity forming part of an electric circuit and electrically connecting said ionized beam to an electric circuit. Due to operating in the electromagnetic near-field.WITRICITY: WiTricity is based on strong coupling between electromagnetic resonant objects to transfer energy wirelessly between them. Aristeidis Karalis. Unlike the far field wireless power transmission systems based on traveling EM waves. In particular.031 ) Far field methods achieve longer ranges. the group also simulated GHz dielectric resonators.S. Only recently have modern consumers obtained a high number of portable electronic devices which currently require batteries and plug-in chargers. referring to the team's experimental demonstration. which interact far more weakly with surrounding objects. Researchers attribute it to various reasons ranging from the limitations of well-known physical laws. The system consists of transmitters and receivers that contain magnetic loop antennas critically tuned to the same frequency. It is not known exactly why this technology had not been developed. and the radiated-power levels will also comply with the FCC radio interference regulations. to simply a lack of need.
Because of the Thinned array curse. the 1978 NASA Study of solar power satellites required a 1-km diameter transmitting antenna. For example.45 GHz. For earthbound applications a large area 10 km diameter receiving array allows large total power levels to be used while operating at the low power density suggested for human electromagnetic exposure safety. Yagi and Uda published their first paper on the tuned high-gain directional array now known as the Yagi antenna. These sizes can be somewhat decreased by using shorter wavelengths. Power transmission via radio waves can be made more directional. In February 1926. Japanese researcher Hidetsugu Yagi also investigated wireless energy transmission using a directional array antenna that he designed. Nikola Tesla also investigated radio transmission and reception. with shorter wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. Radio and microwave: The earliest work in the area of wireless transmission via radio waves was performed by Heinrich Rudolf Hertz in 1888. Power beaming by microwaves has the difficulty that for most space applications the required aperture sizes are very large. this beam antenna has been widely adopted throughout the broadcasting and wireless telecommunications industries due to its excellent performance characteristics. allowing longer distance power beaming. This is the power level found in many modern electric power plants.longer ranges is the fact that radiation in the far-field can be made to match the shape of the receiving area (using high Directivity antennas or well collimated Laser Beam) thereby delivering almost all emitted power at long ranges. . it is not possible to make a narrower beam by combining the beams of several smaller satellites. typically in the microwave range. for a microwave beam at 2. While it did not prove to be particularly useful for power transmission. A rectenna may be used to convert the microwave energy back into electricity. A later Guglielmo Marconi worked with a modified form of Hertz's transmitter. and a 10 km diameter receiving rectenna. although short wavelengths may have difficulties with atmospheric absorption and beam blockage by rain or water droplets. A human safe power density of 1 mW/cm2 distributed across a 10 km diameter area corresponds to 750 megawatts total power level. Rectenna conversion efficiencies exceeding 95% have been realized. Power beaming using microwaves has been proposed for the transmission of energy from orbiting solar power satellites to Earth and the beaming of power to spacecraft leaving orbit has been considered.
Atmospheric absorption causes losses. 3. 1. Conversion back into electricity is moderately inefficient. There are also a few unique advantages of Laser based energy transfer that outweigh the disadvantages. such as with a laser. These methods achieve distances on the order of a kilometer. In the case of electromagnetic radiation closer to visible region of spectrum (10s of microns (um) to 10s of nm). Its drawbacks are: Conversion to light. (Note that conversion efficiency is rather higher with monochromatic light than with insolation of solar panels). 4. is moderately inefficient (although quantum cascade lasers improve this) 2. collimated monochromatic wavefront propagation allows narrow beam cross-section area for energy confinement over large ranges. This mechanism is generally known as "PowerBeaming" because the Power is Beamed at a receiver that can convert it to usable electrical energy. a lightweight model plane makes the first flight of an aircraft powered by a laser beam inside a building at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. 1.High power Wireless Power Transmission (using microwaves) is well proven. power can be transmitted by converting electricity into a laser beam that is then pointed at a solar cell receiver. this method requires a direct line of sight with the target. Experiments in the tens of kilowatts have been performed at Goldstone in California in 1975 and more recently (1997) at Grand Bassin on Reunion Island. with photovoltaic cells achieving 40%-50% efficiency. As with microwave beaming. Laser With a laser beam centered on its panel of photovoltaic cells. .
e. 4. control of Wireless Energy Access.2. Wireless energy transfer system using laser for consumer space has to satisfy Laser safety requirements standardized under IEC 60825. The continuously increasing demand for safe and frequent space missions has resulted in serious thoughts on a futuristic Space elevator that would be powered by Lasers. compact size of solid state lasers-photovoltaics semiconductor diodes allows ease of integration into products with small form factors. NASA's Space elevator need wireless power to be beamed to it. The Laser "PowerBeaming" technology has been mostly explored in military weapons and aerospace applications and is now being developed for commercial and consumer electronics Low-Power applications. This concept allows a periodic recharging using Laser beam and an unlimited time in air. 3. Propagation of a laser beam (on how Laser beam propagation is much less affected by diffraction limits) Coherence and the range limitation problem (on how spatial and spectral coherence characteristics of Lasers allows better distance-to-power capabilities) Airy disk (on how most fundamentally wavelength dictates the size of a disk with distance) Applications of laser diodes (on how the laser sources are utilized in various industries and their sizes are reducing for better integration) Geoffrey Landis is one of the pioneers of Solar Power Satellite and Laser-based transfer of energy especially for Space and Lunar missions. These allow laser-based Wireless Energy Transfer concept to compete with conventional energy transfer methods. . 3. instead of omnidirectional transfer where there can be no authentication before transferring energy. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has demonstrated flight of a lightweight unmanned model plane powered by a laser beam. for it to climb a tether. 4. wi-fi and cell phones. To develop an understanding of the trade-offs of Laser "a special type of light wave" based system: 1. ability to operate with zero radio-frequency interference to existing communication devices i. 2.
Electrical conduction The Tesla effect. Wireless transmission of power and energy demonstration during his high frequency and potential lecture of 1891. . Through longitudinal waves. A "world system" for "the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon electrical conductivity was proposed by Tesla. an operator uses the Tesla effect in the wireless transfer of energy to a receiving device.
lakes and oceans. a high-power ultraviolet beam might be used to form a vertical ionized channel in the air directly above the transmitterreceiver stations. In a practical wireless energy transmission system using this principle. when a high voltage is applied across a neon tube the gas becomes ionized and a current passes between the two internal electrodes. specifically the earth.Tesla coil transformer wound in the form of a flat spiral. Electrical energy can also be transmitted by means of electrical currents made to flow through naturally existing conductors. Patent 645.S.576 . and through the atmosphere — a natural medium that can be made conducting if the breakdown voltage is exceeded and the gas becomes ionized. A "world system" for "the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon the electrical conductivity was proposed by Nikola Tesla as early as . the electro laser electroshock weapon and has been proposed for disabling vehicles. This is the transmitter form as described in U. For example. The same concept is used in virtual lightning rods.
a number of researchers have experimented with Tesla's basic wireless energy transmission system design and made physical observations that are inconsistent with some basic tenets of mainstream science. For this purpose I suspend a sheet of metal a distance from the ceiling on insulating cords and connect it to one terminal of the induction coil.. the effect has been appropriated by some in the fringe scientific community as an effect which purportedly causes man-made earthquakes from electromagnetic standing waves. the movement of energy through space and matter. the] ideal way of lighting a hall or room would [. rapidly alternating electrostatic field. an operator uses the Tesla effect in the wireless transfer of energy to a receiving device. Tesla stated. I have been able to produce such a condition by creating in the room a powerful. Instead of depending on induction at a distance to light the tube [.. In the process.] each sheet being connected with one of the terminals of the coil. The Tesla effect uses high frequency alternating current potential differences transmitted between two plates or nodes. The Tesla world wireless system would combine electrical power transmission along with broadcasting and wireless telecommunications. Currently. it remains always luminous. related to Tesla's tele geo dynamics mechanical earth-resonance concepts. and their size being carefully determined. A number of modern writers have "reinterpreted" and expanded upon Tesla's original writings.. and that it is lighted. The Tesla effect is a type of high field gradient between electrode plates for wireless energy transfer. An exhausted tube may then be carried in the hand anywhere between the sheets or placed anywhere.1904.. even a certain distance beyond them. Or else I suspend two sheets as [. The electrostatic forces through natural media across a conductor situated in the changing magnetic flux can transfer power to the conducting receiving device (such as Tesla's wireless bulbs).. no matter where it is put and without being electrically connected to anything. The Tesla effect is the application of a type of electrical conduction (that is. allowing for the elimination of many existing high-tension power transmission lines and facilitate the interconnection of electrical generation plants on a global scale. Through longitudinal waves.. a close reading of Tesla's patents suggests that he may have misinterpreted the 25-70 km nodal structures associated with lightning that he observed during his 1899 Colorado Springs experiments in terms of circum globally propagating standing waves instead of as the well known local interference between direct and reflected . On the other hand. they have sometimes invoked behavior and phenomena that are inconsistent with experimental observation. the other terminal being preferably connected to the ground. However. not just the production of voltage across a conductor).] be to produce such a condition in it that an illuminating device could be moved and put anywhere.
645.576 System of Transmission of Electrical Energy and U.649.787.S. Tesla patents Nikola Tesla had multiple patents disclosing long distance power transmission. described new and useful combinations of transformer coils. The transmitting coil or conductor arranged and excited to cause currents or oscillation to propagate in the medium of conduction through the natural medium from one point to another remote point there from and a receiver coil or conductor of the transmitted signals. Tesla. Many of the properties of the real earth-ionosphere cavity that have subsequently been mapped in great detail were unknown to Tesla. and a consideration of the earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation parameters as they are known today shows that Tesla's concept of a global wireless power grid is not practically realizable. in U. U. Patent 0. .621 Apparatus for Transmission of Electrical Energy.  The production of currents at very high potential could be attained in these coils. Patent 0.412 Art of Transmitting Electrical Energy through the Natural Mediums describes a combined system for wireless telecommunications and electrical power distribution achieved through the use of earth-resonance principles.waves between the ground and the ionosphere (not known to exist at the time).S.S. Patent 0.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.