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CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
VOLUME I

Power Management Institute NOIDA

CONTENTS

S.No.

Description

Page Nos.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Introduction Power Station Instrumentation Interpretation of Instrument Readings Pressure Management and Measuring Instruments Level Measurement and Measuring Instruments Flow Management and Measuring Instruments Temperature Measurement and Measuring Instruments Pneumatic Instruments

1 2 18 25 41 69 89 104

1. Introduction
Control and instrumentation in any process industry, can be compared to the nerve system in the human being. The way the nerve system controlling the operation of various limbs of human being, C & I in the same way controlling and operating various motors, pumps, dampers, valves etc. and helping us to achieve our targets. Control and instrumentation, as the name indicates, is a branch in engineering which deals with various measurement, indication, transmission and control in different technical fields. The latest development made in the area of instrumentation are so wide that it has become humanly impossible to master over all the system individually. Even in instrumentation there are further sub groups now. The term instrument means “ A device or combination of devices used directly or indirectly to measure and display a variable.” Instrumentation is a measurement if various parameters with comparison to set standards. We have been using for ages different instruments suck as weights, yard stick, scales, measuring tapes, standard container for liquid measurement e.g. Litre, gallons etc. Each of these equipments is an instrument. Similarly, in industries and Process plants, Instrumentation makes use of various measuring components designed to suit the process and the purpose. As some of the big industries and process plants needs to control different process variable from a remote distance control room, the further measuring, transmitting indicating, Recording, abnormality alarm system and innovated. The process of innovation is marching ahead in fast rate. In the near future, we are certainly to enter in towards more and more sophistication n C&I stream.

© PMI, NTPC

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The different type of instruments normally in use are given below: Indicators Indicators are of two categories local and remote. Power Station Instrumentation TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS This discussion is only on the process instrumentations measuring the physical quantities such as temperature. © PMI. The multipoint dot recorders select the point one after the other in sequence where as the continuous recorders measure simultaneously all the points. The remote indicators are used for telemeter purposes and mounted in the centralized control room or control panel. Multipoint Recorders are again categorized as multipoint continuous or multipoint dot recorders. voltage etc.2. Local indicators are self contained and self operative and are mounted on the site. electronics. pneumatic or hydraulic system for their operation and accordingly they are named. level flow etc. The remote indicators depends on electricity. The indicators can be classified as analogue or digital on the basis of final display of the reading. Recorders can be of single point measuring a single parameter or multipoint measuring a number of parameters by single instrument. The other type of instruments are the electrical instruments measuring electrical quantities such as current. pressure. Recorders Recorders are necessary wherever the operating history is required for analyzing the trends and for any future case studies or efficiency purposes. The indicators both local and remote are sometimes provided with signaling contacts where ever required. NTPC 2 .

Such needs are met through multipoint indicators/recorders placed in the front panels. These informations are given by recorders mounted on back panels or local Panels. vacuum. are some examples. Main steam pressure. fuel oil flow quantity etc. are some such parameters. The second group of information are generally not vital under the normal operation of the plant. drum level. A general approach could be as below: Level Instruments Temperature instruments Pressure instruments Horizontal edgewise Horizontal edgewise Circular © PMI. But they become vital whenever some sections of the plant start malfunctioning. The last group of informations are not required by the operators but for the efficiency engineers. D. condenser level. furnace pressure etc. Coding may vary as per the practices of the organizations. NTPC 3 . the information are generally grouped in to the following three groups: Vital information which are required by operators at all times for the safe operation of the plant. placed on the front panels. Temperature and draft across the flue gas path bearing temperature of the motors of fans etc are some such examples. In order to have an easy and effective presentation. make up quantity. temperature. a shape coding of instrument face is being adopted in some advanced countries. These information are presented through single point indicator/recorder. This is an useful practice and may find place in other power stations also shortly.PRESENTATION OF INFORMATIONS Enormous amount of information measured and received from the various parts of the plants/process are to be presented to the operators giving appropriate importance to each one.M. CODING OF INSTRUMENTS In order to distinguish the parameters required from the other instantly.

Then the instrument engineers select the appropriate instruments influenced by following factors: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) Required accuracy of measurement Range of Measurement The form of final data display required Process media Cost Calibration and repair facilities required/ available Layout restriction Maintenance requirement/ availability © PMI.ARRANGEMENT OF INSTRUMENTS Another welcome feature of instrumentation in advanced countries is the ‘Master Panel’ arrangement. In this arrangement. After deciding the capacity of Thermal Power Station the designs of Boiler turbine and auxiliary equipments such as mills. temperature and other parameters based on the system design and layout conditions. fans. instruments measuring important parameters are provided in one panel. The instrument and system design engineers decide the location for the measurement of various parameters such as level. feed heaters etc. the parameter values for fficient and economic operation determined load are specified. pressure. deaerator. differential pressure. Based on the design of the main and the auxiliary equipments. All instruments in this panel will be of circular shape with normal rated values will be quickly realized by the operators. flow. are taken up. SELECTION OF INSTRUMENTS Instruments engineers are required to work in close association with the system design as well as the equipment design engineers in selecting instruments and sensing system. pumps. NTPC 4 .

NTPC 5 . tube metal etc. The following section deals with these instruments. S. Temperature measurement is to made in many medias such as water/stream. heat transfer etc. metal temperatures of bearing babbits. iii) Instrumentations should be sufficient to provide adequate information to the operators for: a) Cold start of the unit b) Warm/hot start of the unit c) Shut down both planned and emergency shut down.D. POWER STATION INSTRUMENTION The process conditions and the equipment conditions are to be assessed by the operators from the informations received from the various instruments. air fuel gases. The inter dependence and inter relation of these instrument readings play very significant role in the stability and the efficiency of the heat balance. fan is measured to 13000C to 14000C inside the furnace zone. generator winding and cores.H. hydrogen gas. © PMI. heat balance. The measurement ranges from ambient temperature where air inlet to F. oil (fuel oil and lubricating oil). turbine top and bottom. TEMPERATURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Accurate measurement of temperature is required to assess the material fatigue.CONCEPT OF INSTRUMENTATION IN THERMAL POWER STATION The concept of instrumentation are that: i) ii) Instruments should be independent for their working The total instrumentation should be independent to each other in assessing the process conditions. The instruments and range vary very widely as per the process media.

Platinum resistance thermometers are calibrated to have46 ohms or 100 ohms at 00 C. mercury in steel. type and diaphragm type gauges or liquid monometers either electronic or pneumatic coupled with a secondary instrument indicator/recorder. fuel oil.Filled system thermometry such as mercury in glass. The common type of thermocouples used in thermal power station are chromel-alumel or chromel-copel depending upon the temperature. Resistance thermometer or thermocouples are used as primary sensors in remote measurement of temperatures depending upon the range. The secondary instruments for thermocouple sensor are pyrometriv millivolt meters or electronic potentiometers. or indicator cum recorders with alarm/protection contracts and with remote transmission facilities. diaphragm etc. lubricating oil. voltage. Here again many medias exist such as steam/water. These instruments indicate temperature by measuring the nature of resistance which changes with the change in temperature. resistance. thermocouples are used as primary sensor. the secondary instruments used in conjunction are cross coil indicators or electronic bridges. PRESSURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS The pressure measurement in thermal power station ranges from 1 Kg/cm2 (nearly) at condenser to hydraulic test pressure of boiler. Resistance thermometer are of platinum and copper resistance type. air. These instruments are available with electrical contacts for setting up annunciation and protection system wherever required. vapour filled or gas filled are used for local indication. Many varieties of transmitters are in use. The selection of thermometer depends upon the range of the temperatures to be measured. Null balance method is used for the very accurate measurement of millivolts generated by thermocouples sensing the process temperatures. bellows. fuel gases. For local indication of pressure and differential pressure. Iron constantan is another thermocouple in use. bourdon tube. © PMI. due to the pressure causes an electrical property change such as current. The electronic bridges and potentiometers can be either indicators. In these transmitters the mechanical movement of sensing elements such as bourdon. NTPC 6 . Resistance thermometers are generally used up to 3000 C. Above 3000 C. hydrogen etc.

P. level measurement in open tanks such as DM storage Tank and Fuel Oil and Lub Oil tanks and in closed tanks such as dearator. FLOW MEASUREMENT Flow measurement of solids. flow through inferential means. In both these cases continuous level measurement is not possible. duct leakage. LEVEL MEASUREMENT Level measurement is generally carried out as differential pressure measurements. heaters are to be made. reluctance. water flow measurements are done fairly easily and accurately whereas steam flow measurement requires density correction under varying pressures. condenser hot well. The solid flow measurement is very difficult and only on a rough area is arrived at about the P. The air and flue gas flow measurements suffer accuracy and reliability due to variation in pressure. which is utilized as a measure of pressure in the secondary instruments. inductance etc. © PMI. Which may incorporate signaling contacts. However fairly reliable and accurate provisions are available to indicate the extreme level on either directions (low or high).P.capacitance. & H. A recent development in this area is the ‘Hydra step’. temperature. boiler drum and L. The measurement of the boiler drum poses many problem because of varying pressure and temperature and many computations and corrections are to be made in order to get correct levels. NTPC 7 . Though the liquid flow measurements are made very accurately. Gauge glasses and floats are used for local indication of levels and the transmitters used for measuring the differential pressure are used along with the secondary instruments for remote level measurements. the gas flow measurement cannot be so.F. The secondary instruments are either indicators or recorders. Though it is very costly it improves the accuracy and the reliability of this measurement. Other problem area is the solid level measurement where the coal bunker levels and dust collector hopper level are required. dust accumulation etc. The nucleonic level gauges or the capacitance and resistance type sensors serve in these areas very well. liquids and gases are required in Thermal Power Stations. In power stations.

Both these gas analyzers require elaborate sampling and sample conditioning system resulting in poor reliability and availability of these measurements. The ‘Analytical Instruments’ as the above instruments had been the neglected lot so far in the power stations. such as conductivity. The carbon monoxide percentage is measured by the ‘Absorption of Electromagnetic radiation’ principle. But now the authorities seems to think their importance for the process. ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS Apart from the above there are few quality measurements necessary in thermal power generation plants of high capacities. the differential pressure developed across such sensing devices is proportional to the square of the flow quantity. flow nozzle dall tube etc. carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide in the fuel gases. flow quantity etc. The volume percentage of oxygen in combustion gases are made utilizing the paramagnetic properties of oxygen. Differential pressures are created by placing suitable throttling devices in the flow path of the fluids in the pipes/ducts. pH. The water and steam purity is measured as the electrolytic conductivity by electronic bridge method in which one arm form the electrodes of conductivity cell dipped into the medium. The purity of the oxygen inside the generator housing is measured by utilizing the thermal conducting capacity of the hydrogen gas.In Power stations flow measurement are based on inferential principles. The throttling devices are suitably selected depending upon the media. and sodium instruments. These include feed water quality measuring instruments such as conductivity. © PMI. silica and pH analyzers. The combustion quality is accessed by the measurements of the percentage of oxygen. steam quality measuring instruments. Recent developments in these fields have brought out on line ‘in-situ’ instruments for these two parameters where the problem of sampling is dispensed with. from among office. venture. dissolved oxygen. NTPC 8 . The differential pressure is measured by the devices discussed in 9 with additional square root extraction facilities.

vibration (both shaft and bearing pedestal) differential expansion of shaft and cylinders. CVS after ESVS. over all some of the turbovisory measurements. indicator cum recorder in U. IVS and at turbine curtis wheel-indicators/indicator-cum recorders with alarm and protection facilities in control room. b) Steam temperature at turbine HP cylinder outlet. hot reheat and exhaust hood temperatures.TURBOVIBORY INSTRUMENTS The turbovisory instruments have become very important in modern day turbines where the materials have been stressed nearer to the yield points and the internal clearance have become the minimum. LIST OF INSTRUMENTS All these measurements discussed above and their correct interpretation enables the operators to check and watch the behavior of the process and the equipments corrective actions in time. Shaft eccentricity. super heater stages.C. Other temperature measurement in various zones of boiler indicator a) Flue gas temperature measurement in various zones of boiler indicator and indicator cum recorder in control room. These all measurements are interrelated and interdependent. steam legs before ESVS.B. NTPC 9 . c) Metal temperature of turbine casing and metal temperature of super heaters and reheaters-indicators. A typical list of important measurements carried out in Thermal Power Stations are given below: and take necessary Temperature a) Steam temperature at boiler outlet. with multipoint selection. © PMI.

C.C.b) c) d) Air temperature at inlet and outlet of air preheater. NTPC 10 . Turbine bearing oil drain temperature-indicator cum recorder in U. fans etc indicator cum recorder in U.B. and at local with alarm protection facilities.A. Feed water pressure before and after feed regulating stations-indicators in U.B. c) d) e) f) Feed water pressure after feed pumps-individual indicators for each pump. indicators one for each side in U.C. Generator winding and core temperature-indicator cum recorders in control room.C.B. indicator cum recorder. Drum pressure indicator cum recorders in U.B. Steam pressure after control valves indicators in local panel for Pressure of each valve. with alarm signaling facilities.B.C. h) i) Steam pressure at emergency stop valves and TVS.C. b) Deaerator pressure-indicator cum recorder in U. e) Temperature of auxiliary equipments bearing such as mill ID.B. Measurement is done at the outlet of superheater and before boiler stop valves. g) Steam pressure – 1 No. Super heater steam pressure at boiler outlet 2 Nos.C. © PMI.C. one of the lines before turbine stop valves in U.B.B with electrical contacts for interlocking facilities. Pressure a) Condensate pressure after condensate pumps and before the ejectors-indicator in U. FD and P.

B. Steam pressure in H. Measurement is made before and after the flow control valves. Presssure : Air Flue Gas a) b) c) Air pressure indicators in U. c) d) e) Ignitor oil pressure indicator in U.C. before and after air heater for secondary air. Indicators in U.B.B. Measurement is made before and after pressure regulating valves.P.P. NTPC 11 . Governing oil pressure-indicator in U. cylinders-indicators in local panel.C.j) k) l) Steam pressure at Curtis wheel indicator cum recorder in U.C.B.B.C. © PMI.B. Vacuum in condenser indicator cum recorder in U. with alarm facilities and separate vacuum relay for protection.B.B. m) n) Hot reheat pressure indicator in U. before and after air heater for primary air. with signaling contacts.C.C.C.C.C.B.C.C.B. Wind box pressure indicators in U. Measurement is made after oil coolers. Lubricating oil pressure-indicator in U. turbine exhaust indicator in U.B. for cold reheat steam.B. b) Light warm up oil pressure indicators in U. with signaling contacts. Pressure : Fuel And Lubricating Oil a) Heavy oil pressure indicators in U. Steam pressure at the exhaust of I. with signaling contacts. with alarm contacts.C. with signaling contacts.

C. one for each fan.B. Normally 3 types of measurement are Flow a) Condensate flow to dearator-indicator/recorder in U.C.P. are measured by the local direct gauge glasses.C. alarm and protection facilities. 1 and (ii) between the final L.B.B. and L.C. heater No. with integrator unit for totalizing in two locations (i) between air ejectors and L. e) f) g) Flue gas draft before and after economizer-indicators in U.B.M. Measurement is made averaging left and right side drafts.C.B.B. d) e) Dearator level-indicator in U. © PMI.C.C.P.B. fuel oil.C. c) Condensate level-indicator in condenser-indicator in U.P.d) Furnace draft-indicators and recorders in U.P heaters-indicators in U.B. heater and dearator. Draft after air heaters two indicators in U. one for each air heater. NTPC 12 . water.C. with alarm and protection facilities. ID fan suction – 2 Nos. The various storage tank level such as D. with alarm and protection facilities.B. with signaling contacts for alarm. lubricating oil etc. LEVEL MAESUREMENT a) Drum level indicators and indicators cum recorders (total 3 Nos from different tapping) in U. with adopted: i) Local gauge glass ii) Remote gauge glass and iii) Remote indirect measurement b) Drip level in H. indicators in U.

The following are the important automatic control loops in the thermal power station. Since a lot of process elements are involved and disturbances are very frequent. Measurement is made between final H.. NTPC 13 . and f) Fuel Flow The fuel oil flow to the unit is given by two indicators cum recorders in U.B. they are to be brought back to the balance condition. indicators cum recorders one foor each side of the boiler.C. heater and feed regulating valves. with integrator unit. Automatic Boiler Control i) ii) iii) iv) v) Steam pressure always called as Boiler Master Combustion control Furnace draft control Boiler feed regulation or drum level control Super heater/ reheater steam temperature control © PMI. AUTOMATIC CONTROL The importance of maintaining a balance in the process was discussed under section 1 whenever the process gets disturbed due to the deviation of process elements behavior. e) Air flow-2 Nos. c) Super heated steam flow – 2 Nos.C. d) Re-heater steam flow –2 Nos.B.C. Measurement is made at the inlet to rehaeater. Normally the coal flow is measured for the whole station by the belt conveyor weighers.b) Feed water flow indicator/recorder in U.P. U. the correction can be carried out efficiently and quickly only by the introduction of automatic control system eliminating any possible human error.C.B. one measuring the oil in the incoming line and the other in the return line. indicators cum recorders one for each FD fan in measurement is made at the discharge of th FD fans.B. indicators cum recorders one for each pipe with integrator unit in U.

P. For example in a milling system the coal feeder is interlock such a way that it will not start unless it’s succeeding system to crush and discharge the coal into the furnace such as exhauster / P. © PMI. For example in case a feeds pump which is running fails to meet the demand of the boiler. NTPC 14 . A system of automatic sequence control simplifying the operator’s duty has come into existence. Electrical interlock systems connect these individual equipments and operate then with required sequences. Feed pump speed control SEQUENCE CONTROL AND INTERLOCKING SYSTEM A power station is a combination of many individual equipments and systems and for better performance it relies upon the performance of these individual equipments. and H. As the unit size increases the number of interdependency of operations increases. automatically the reserve one is put in to service. FD fans. and therefore they are to operate in coordination with each other. These equipments are interdependent and interrelated with each other.A fan and mill are in operation.P. these equipments are interlocked in such a way that they are started / shut down in specific sequences in order to avoid damage to equipments and men. For example Boiler is a system comprising milling plant. the interlock system will put the reserve pump into service to meet the demand. ID fans. Also equipment is so interlocked that in case the failure of the running equipment to deliver the good. PA fans etc.F and oil fired boilers have common sequences. These schemes may very little with different manufacturers but generally all P.vi) vii) Auxiliary steam pressure control Mill group control Turbine Automatics i) ii) iii) Condenser hot well level regulation Drip level control in L. heaters.

A very low voltage level such as 110 V or 240 V AC/DC is used to close a breaker of the electrical motor of 3. Since data logging gives too many measurements at a time. which prints out the periodic conditions on predetermined time intervals. NTPC 15 . running alarm conditions etc. it become necessary to operate them from a centralized room.C is used for station batteries are provided as standby.6 KV voltage level.D. The periodic loggings of parameter by the operators are dispensed with after the introduction of data acquisition system. All the important measurements at one time are printed along a row. In V. it cannot be easily digested by the control staff. This gives the life picture of the happening inside the plant making the operation easy and effective.U) Visual display units go along with the data acquisition system. DATA ACQUISITION AND DATA LOGGING The conventional central control room is rather a cumbersome system. VISUAL DISPLAY UNIT (V. Data loggers thus reduce the use of graphical recorders. © PMI.REMOTE CONTROL AND OPERATION OF EQUIPMENTS As discussed earlier that power station comprises many types of equipment. flow paths with parameters.U pre selected schemes. The low voltage switches are usually provided on the operating desks in the control room. can be brought on colour television tubes on demand.3 or 6.D. Where D. Moreover as the capacity of plant increases its operating electrical supply potential. The data acquisition simplifies this job by collecting all the measurements transmitted from the process. Now data reduction systems are finding their use where only the process quantity deviated from normal value is shown. As a result the indirect way to remote operations came into practice. converting them into digital term and storing in the memory bank. Large number of instruments must be observed to know what is happening inside the plant. also increases which is very dangerous on safety point of view.

Automatic synchronizing is also effected by the gear if selected for the function. this run up period may be of the order of 5 to 10 minutes and comprise two zones. reserved or tripped. This scheme matches the frequency voltage and time phase of the generators out put to that of existing busbar and close the circuit breaker. the second half is a fast rate from 1000 to 3000 rpm (a range which includes critical speed). NTPC 16 . Under normal condition this gear will accelerate the turbine from having gear speed to full speed uninterrupted at a rate determined by the initial turbine temperature conditions. Therefore modern day machines of higher capacity or machines which are to be frequently started are to be provided with automatic run up. the first half is relatively slow rate upto 1000 rpm. The supervisory gear also will be in use during this function. Each start up will be different. synchronizing loading gears. The abnormal conditions are monitored by the turbo-visory instruments discussed earlier. SCANNING SYSTEMS In the complex process extending over a considerable area lot of massages are transmitted to and from the process. In cases of coded transmission less sensitive to such noise is found useful.AUTOMATIC TURBINE RUN UP Turbine start up is the most difficult operation. many parameters and procedures should be scrupulously adhered to where an error in human decision will result in heavier damage to the unit. Automatic loading gear enables the machine to be loaded automatically at the selected rate through the control of governor speed motor.R. The rate of loading various widely from 5% per minute during the initial block loading to 20% M. or in more severe conditions. Under hot start conditions.C. In the event of abnormal conditions this program of acceleration is temporarily held (except in the regions of critical speed). These transmission channels are quit expensive and there may be danger of loss of data owing to confusion of signals by extraneous electrical noises. Hence all the process signals in © PMI.

BURNER MANAGEMENT For higher capacity boiler. © PMI. The following functions are entrusted to such an automatic burner management system: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Furnace purge supervision Ignitor control Warm up oil control Pulverize control Secondary air damper control Flame scanner intelligence Boiler trip protection The above discussion gives some synopsis of the instrumentation in thermal power station. Explosion occurs within 1 to 2 secs of fuel accumulation. Therefore leaving the management of fuel firing to the operators will lead to explosion because human reflexes will be little slower. This system takes care that every increment of fuel input corresponds to the available ignition energy inside the furnace. fuel firing rate is also higher. NTPC 17 .analogue from scanned in sequence one at a time converted into digital form and transmitted to the central information system for display or control purposes. A complete automatic burner management system called furnace safeguard supervisory system ‘FSSS’ in short has been introduced to manage the present day boilers.

This type of metering is very common in power stations as nearly all the instruments for measuring and controlling the power flow are centrally mounted on a panel. Electrical instruments are now widely used for this purpose because they are convenient to install. Also those instruments are to be mounted in panels in centralized locations to avoid many personals watching the readings and interpreting on their own way. The method of placing the instruments at a distance from the measuring point is called telemetering. Here comes the aesthetic and ergonomics view of the installation. For example boiler is a system comprising milling © PMI. and therefore they are to operate in coordination with each other. INTERLOCKING SYSTEM A power station is a combination of many individual equipments and systems and for better performance is relies upon the performance of these individual equipments. However if the telemetering is required for a short distance. TELEMETERING For the centralized instrumentation remote indication facility is required and consequently telemetering was introduced. NTPC 18 . Electrical interlock systems connect these individual equipments and operate them with a required sequence. Also it is cheaper to transmit an electrical signal by a cable than a pipe lines in case of pneumatic. The equipments are interdependent and interrelated with each other. reliable and reasonably accurate. pneumatic system is used. Transmission lag is very negligible.3. Interpretation of Instrument Readings INTRODUCTION To give the operation engineers a correct picture of the happenings inside the plants enormous numbers of instruments are required to be installed. Also these instruments are to be arranged in such a way that they give plant behaviours in a systematic way and with minimum complexity.

ID fans.F and oil fired boilers have common sequences.3 or 6. FD fans. It becomes necessary for him to take necessary remedial action to correct the deviation. fails to meet the demand of the boiler. The low voltage switches are usually provided on the operating desks in the control room. the interlock system will put an idle/reserve pump into service to meet the demand. Also equipment is so interlocked that in case the failure of the running equipment to deliver the good.C is used for station batteries are provided as standby.6 KV voltage level. ANNUNCIATORS The operation Engineer’s attention should be drawn towards a parameter which deviates much from the desired value. For example in case a feeds pump which is running at time. For example in a milling system the coal feeder is interlock such a way that it will not start unless its succeeding system to crush and discharge the coal into the furnace such as exhauster and mill are in operation. visual or both means. © PMI. Whenever the system deviation occurs. REMOTE OPERATION OF EQUIPMENTS As discussed earlier that power station comprises many types of equipment. Circuit breakers are provided with protection relays. Moreover as the capacity of plant increases its operating electrical supply potential also increases which is very dangerous on safety point of view.plant. This is done by the annunciators installed in the control panels in front of him by audio. a relay gets energised by the signal received from the deviated system which sets up a flashing light. an audible alarm. PA fans etc. automatically the reserve one is put in to service. Where D. These are to be received by the operator till then they continue to be on. NTPC 19 . it become necessary to operate them from a centralised control room. These equipments are interlocked in such a way that they are started / shut down in specific sequences in order to avoid damage to equipments and men. As a result the indirect way of remote operations came into practice. A very low voltage level such as 110 V or 240 V AC/DC is used to close a breaker of the electrical motor of 3. These schemes may very little with different manufacturers but generally all P.

it may be found still in excess. Furnace Draught The balance between the induced and forced draught fans is produced by measuring and controlling the furnace suction. The interdependent and interrelations of these instrument readings play very significance roll in the stability and efficiency of the heat energy balance. Therefore the reading of the O2 may be a correct percentage according to the reading yet. It may be showing an optimum value yet the combustion must be incomplete due to the variation in noncarbon combustibles such as hydrogen. NTPC 20 . Each instrument has its own function to perform but the value of its measurement often depends on the accuracy of the other instruments associated with it. The variation in the quality of the fuel being burnt. The percentage of CO2 may not necessarily be an indication of efficient combustion. steam flow or electrical output. and O2 Measurement These instruments are valuable guides to know:1) 2) 3) The quantity of air supplied. sulpher and chlorine. CO2. Therefore in modern day practice the CO measurement is taken © PMI. But often this balance is disturbed due to fluctuations in temperature. CO. pressure.INTERRELATION OF INSTRUMENTS In order to have stable generating conditions the heat energy supplied through the fuel must balance the electrical energy output of generator plus the normal losses. This is achieved by properly adjusting the speed or the dampers of the fans. The performance of the automatic control if in circuit. Balance draught usually occurs when there is slight suction inside the combustion chamber. A large number and variety of instruments are required to measure and indicate the cause and amount of disturbance so that steps can be taken to keep the energy flow in balance. Disturbances in the draught can cause unstable combustion and this in turn will affect the readings on many of the other instruments associated with the boiler.

casing leakages. steam temperature. © PMI. Air is adjusted till we get some traces of ‘CO’ in the flue gases. Measurement of Air And Gas Flow Since boiler handles large volume of air/gas. it is difficult to measure the quantity correctly due to the variation in pressure. Steam temperature measurement itself is comparatively easy but its control is more complicated due to the time log and thermal inertia inherent in the system. In case of solid fuel such as P. O2 and power output. However the variations can be easily adjusted in the fuel flow system.F. Normally measurement of air flow is very easy as compared to gas flow because of accumulation dust. CO2. Temperature Accurate measurement of steam temperature is very important because of the high degree of superheat used and boilers are operated with critical temperature margins. dust ladens etc. The measurement of the air/gas is used as a means of establishing the correct fuel/air ratio. slag and varing temperature etc. exit gas temperature etc.as valuable information regarding the combustion. the measurement is not possible with conventional type of instruments. But the primary air temperature variation affects the stability of the combustion. Temperature. Air with varying temperature is to be sent to dry out that moisture. NTPC 21 . But a certain volume of fuel do not always have the same amount of heat units due to the variation in calorific value moisture and ash contents. Therefore their quantities are determined indirectly by measuring the quantities of primary air. air and gas flow as well as temperature pressure. Fuel Measurement It is easy to measure the liquid fuel by the conventional instruments in volume quantities. Variations in quality and quantity of fuel affected the steam. There will be wide variation in the moisture content of the coal flowing through the mill.

efficiently and smoothly. and temperature differentials give a fairly clear picture of the behaviours and clearances and also the eccentricity. All these parameters are interdependent and interrelated. Combustion efficiency is improved resulting in: i) ii) iii) iv) c) Fuel Economics Reduction in boiler fouling Less atmospheric pollution Less carbon in ash and grit Metal fatigue is reduced by maintaining stable metal temperatures. AUTOMATIC CONTROL Whenever the balance gets disturbed due to the deviation of process elements behaviour they are to be brought back to the balance condition. Automatic control system detects the changes signal and direct the regulator accordingly to correct the deviation. Eccentricity in turn give a picture of vibrational level. haw well he does this depends of the type of fuel and his own ability. vibration. For example when an operator has to fire the boiler by regulating the fuel to the burners and at the same time to adjust the position of dampers or the speed of the fans for the control of air supply. the correction can be carried out efficiently and quickly on by introducing automatic system for elimination any possible human error. But an automatic combustion control does this job.Turbovisory Measurements The turbovisory readings such as differential expansion eccentricity. Since lot of process elements are involved and disturbances are very frequent. © PMI. His mistakes in assessing the things in a correct proportion will aggravate the disturbance. Advantages Of Automatic Control System Are: a) b) The values of the process elements such as steam pressure. Thus automatic control was established to maintain the system balance. more quickly. temperature flow are kept close to the desired value. NTPC 22 .

duties will. Computer fed with correct programme. Control equipments are very expensive and require periodic maintenance. It becomes very difficult to watch these many instruments and supervise the operation of such a large number of equipments. Disadvantages a) b) c) d) The equipment has to be much reliable. The starting up operations of a large unit involves somewhere around 1000 separate steps including nearly 500 switching operations to bring on load. COMPUTERS With the increasing size of modern plant. Operator has more time to spend in regular operation and routine inspection. A computer relieves the operator from routine tasks leaving him free to concentrate on the overall inspection.d) e) f) The operator is relieved of continuous tedious operations. All those steps are to be carried out in short time and in correct sequence. Sometimes control action goes on the reverse direction due to the time lag in the measurement. However a computer can be programmed to make all the necessary adjustment as and when required. NTPC 23 . the distances between items of plant run of four to five hundred yards away from the centralized control rooms. The standard setting should have to be watched and adjusted to suit the varying characteristics of fuel etc. Also large number of equipments necessitate large number of instruments. The operator cannot always watch every instrument and at the same time make the necessary adjustments to suit the constantly varying conditions. These all activities become cumbersome and any mistake will lead to disastrous end. Increased safety both to men and equipment since human error is eliminated. performs these © PMI.

It is very difficult by the operation engineer to keep a constant watch on these temperature gradients. In many cases computers are exclusively used to run up a turbine. Theses transmission channels are quite expensive and there may be danger of loss of data owing to confusion of signals by extraneous electrical noise. © PMI. Since data logging gives too many measurements at a time. Large number of instruments must be observed to know what is happening inside the plant. it cannot be easily digested by the control staff. NTPC 24 . runs upto speed and synchronise the set. For a computer it is very easy job. Hence all the process signals in analogue form scanned in sequence one at a time converted into digital form and transmitted to the central information system for display control purposes. DATA LOGGING The conventional central control room is rather a cumbersome system. In such case some coded transmission. Data loggess thus reduce the use of graphical recorders. It allows the steam into the set at the appropriate temperature and accelerates the set after monitoring the internal clearances temperature differentials and other mechanical aspects. The evolution of computer can be compared to teaching animals to do tricks. converting them into digital form and printing them on the log sheets. Every trick has to be acquired by much study and experimentation on a slow progressive basis. All the important measurement at one times are printed along a row. In the computers facilities are available to check the efficiency of the plan then and there. The data logging simplifies this job by collecting all the measurements transmitted from the process. less sensitive to such noise is found useful. SCANNING SYSTEMS In a complex process extending over a considerable area. Now data-reduction systems are finding their use where only the process quantity deviated form normal value is shown. lot of messages are transmitted to and from the process.

Capsule bellows for measuring medium pressures. hydraulic pressures in some actuator systems. At site they are mainly used for test purposes. mercury and other liquids of known density for low pressure measurement. Diaphragm. 4. the manometers are mainly used in laboratories for calibration purposes and as such. in the low ranges 0-1000 mm with mercury as manometers liquid maximum being. oil. condenser vacuum to very high i. Manometers using water. Capsule bellows have taken its place for site use.e. i. gas etc. 3. NTPC 25 . Bourdon tube gauges for measuring medium and high pressures.4. PRESSURE MEASURING DEVICES The common pressure measuring devices are1. Transducers of different types for measuring pressures of all ranges for telemetering purposes.e. and each with varying degree of accuracy and reliability. the diaphragms. 2. Pressure Measurement and Measuring Instruments PRESSURE MEASURMENT Pressure measurements are one of the most common measurements taken and recorded in the Power Station ranging from very low. Manometer Elements The manometer are mostly used in laboratory for calibration purposes as these are the fundamental type of instruments. Of these above. © PMI. water. air. Between these two limits of say 30-40 millibar absolute to 300 bar are to be the measurements of different process media-steam.

then the measurement of the differential pressure is represented by the height of the liquid column in the smaller tube with negligible error. These manometers employ a secondary system of linkages / liverages for indication purposes. Such system is called the single limb manometer or cistern manometer since the larger area pipe is in the form of a metal cistern. 1 to 2 shows a system of manometers. If the area of one of the limb is made considerably greater then the other. then the manometer can be used for absolute pressure measurement. NTPC 26 . Manometers are available with adjustable inclination depending upon the range required. © PMI. Fig. Sometime coloured water is used to distinguish the column.864 Mercury having specific gravity 13. The manometer liquid normally used is water. Inclined tube manometer are the special development to give increased length of column for less differential pressure.If one end is sealed. The inclined tube carries the scale. The other liquids used are i) ii) iii) Transformer oil having specific gravity 0.56 Blended Paraffin liquid Industrial type high pressure ‘U’ tube manometer are available having metallic tubing.

NTPC 27 .© PMI.

phosphor bronze. nylon rubberized fabric etc. Capsule and Bellows The present days low pressure to medium pressure applications are met with diaphragms. Also the introduction of these elements as greatly helped in remote measurement and control of pressures even of very low range (0-4 mm wcL). These groups of sensors are used for the measurement of very low pressure upto 20-25 kg/cm2. stainless steel and beryllium copper. For these applications materials like colon leather. gold beater skin. the diaphragms are required to be extremely flexible.Diaphragm. NTPC 28 . nickel silver and beryllium copper etc. Material and Range of Measurement The various types of diaphragm and below elements are made of steel of special composition. For very low pressures. phosphor bronze. are used. © PMI. Bellows and multistack are made from 80-20 brass.

© PMI. But present days these are used almost for every range of pressure measurement. a long spiral (helical) or to a flat spiral by special machines one end of the tube is closed and sealed and the opposite end is left open and terminated to a block where the process pressure is applied. However their application is limited to measure “Gauge Pressures” only. The deflection is proportional to the pressure difference between inside and outside pressures since the outside pressure is atmospheric. If the pressure inside the tube is more than that existing outside.Bourdon Tube Gauges This is the oldest instrument introduced initially to the measure pressures from medium to high ranges. These gauges measure ‘Gauge pressure’ as shown in Figure 3. with the result that the free end deflects is an arc. NTPC 29 . the elliptical section changes its shape and it begins to straighten out. It consist of a metal tube approximately elliptical in cross section formed into a ‘C’ shape.

5 Kg/cm2 upto 0-6000 kg/cm2 upto 700 kg/cm2 low ranges upto 0-70 kg/cm2 © PMI.5 kg/cm2 to 6. Helical boundon ‘C’ Type boundon Flat spiral bourdon 0-0. The practical range for each type of listed below.000 kg/ cm2 and even higher ranges occasionally. NTPC 30 .Ranges of Pressure Burdon tube gauges are in use from the range 0-0.

berrylium copper etc.26/ 0. the dial reading gives gauge pressure.9 Chromium 16/18 Nickel 10/14 Molybdenum 2/3 Heat range None Precipitation hardened Quenched and tempered 03-350 Screwed 650-5500 K. Monel (Machined) Screwed Precipitation hardened 70-1350 Stainless Steel (machined) Welded Stress relieved 2-70 The simplicity and ruggedness of a Bourdon gauge makes it the most frequently used pressure gauge. for range errors the quadrant screw is adjusted. Chromoum 0.75 Iron 0. The reference pressure in a Bourdon gauge is atmospheric pressure. angularity error. for angularity error the linkage screw is adjusted. range error. steel. In case of error due to hysterisis the tube should be replaced if the error goes beyond the specified value.1. For zero error the pointer is adjusted.8 Cobalt 0.15/0.3 Carbon 0. Hence.I : BOURDON TUBE MATERIAL Material Percentage Phosphor Bronze (Drawn) Beryllium Copper (drawn) Alloy Steel (machined) Joints Treatment Soft Soldered Brazed Pressure kg/cm2 1-70 Composition Copper 95 Tin 5 Phosphorus Trace Beryllium 1. ERRORS IN BOURDON TUBE GAUGES Errors that may occur in Bourdon gauge are zero error.25 Nickel 66 Copper 29 Aluminium 2. NTPC 31 .8/1. TABLE .Materials Materials like phosphor bronze. Molybdenum 0. © PMI. The chart given in Table I give more details of bounden tube materials and their pressure ranges. and hysterisis.32. are used depending upon the pressure range and the media’s corrosiveness.

About 90% scale pressure is applied if necessary the range is adjusted by loosening the shoulder screw and moving the linkage along the slot in the quadrant (towards the pivot to increase the range. Step 1 and 2 are repeated until gauge is correct at both points. Divisions corresponding to about 10%. NTPC 32 . 6. the readings are tabulated. The same five points with pressure decreasing are checked and result tabulated. Result from 6 and 7 are used to check for hysteresis. 90% are chosen. 2. Half full scale pressure is applied to the gauge. 8. 30%. 70%. When zero and range are correct then angularity is adjusted if necessary. Gauge is tested at 5 points up and down before adjusting anything. away from pivot to decrease the range). 3. TESTING A BOURDON PRESSURE GAUGE 1. 4. © PMI. About 1% pressure is applied then zero is set by removing and replacing the pointer to read the pressure applied.Hystersis is the difference in the indicated value of the gauge for an applied pressure during the increasing cycle and during the decreasing cycle of pressure. angularity adjustment screw is loosened and adjustable linkage is slided until the angle formed by the quadrant and linkage is right angle. 50%. 5. 7. Approximately five points of the scale are checked with pressure increasing.

The principle of operation. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE GAUGE Fig. 5 is a differential pressure gauge with a dual bourdon system. Zero Error A zero error can be observed easily by quickly testing at the cardinal points. © PMI. Ina comparator the applied pressure is indicated in a standard weight placed on the instrument. Tube 1 forms port 1 and tube 2 forms port 2. Pointer should not foul the glass over any part of its travel. Applied Pressure kg/Cm2 UP Gauge Reading DOWN 10 9 9 30 29 29 50 49 49 70 69 69 90 89 89 CALIBRATION OF BOURDON TUBE GAUGES Pressure gauges in industrial process must be accurate so that any time the process pressure is known. Hydraulic calibrator is one such device which used in calibrating the pressure gauges. Result sheet is made the final condition of the gauge as a % of full scale.9. The hydraulic units dealt with in this chapter use oil for application of pressure. in this type of error the pointer is reset. 10. Gauge should be within 1% of full scale. This helps to achieve accurate control of the industrial process. The calibration is possible if one is sure what pressure is being applied to the gauge. In both the devices the pressure that is being applied is known. NTPC 33 . Gauge is assembled. The two tubes are connected to the single pointer. A zero error will have exactly the same amount of deviation at all points. The pressure gauges described till now required regular calibration. comarator and deadweight tester is given here. setting up and maintenance of two calibrators’ viz.

NTPC 34 . The movement of the pointer is opposite for the individual pressures and hence the gauge reads the differential pressure. During installation of this unit due consideration must be given to overloads. 6. The deformation of tube 1 causes the pointer to rotate anticlockwise via link cradle and quadrant. A typical application of this unit is the measure of differential across filters to indicate blockages or end of life of filter. A differential unit must always be accompanied by an equalizing unit shown in Fig No. The deformation of tube 2 causes the pointer to rotate clockwise via link and quadrant.Ports 1 and 2 are connected to the process whose differential pressure is to be measured. © PMI.

first valves A and B and closed. the lower part and the upper part lower part is connected to the pipe line. The reduction in velocity can be achieved by several methods. The pin piston assembly rises and falls with the pressure impulses and absorbs the effect of shock and surge. The body consist of two parts. Snubbers are used in pipe lines leading to the instrument. Owning to the rise and fall of the piston the snubber is self cleaning. instead of recording each individual surge or pulse.To remove the gauge. SNUBBER This is a protection device for pressure measuring instrument from violent pressure surges and pulsation. In general. B and C losed. To restart the unit is installed with valves A. NTPC 35 . The upper part of snubber is screwed to the lower part. To check zero on plant the same procedure is followed. these snubbers reduce the velocity of fluid to the instrument and thus prevent sudden extreme change in pressure from reaching the measuring element too rapidly. It contains a piston. After installation value C and B are opened. valve C is opened to equalized pressure in both the part P1 and P2. Then C is closed and A is opened. The gauge is removed now. Snubbers also known as deadners reduce the effect of pulsating pressure. but the gauge is now removed. They result in the instrument indicating or recording an average pressure. on one side and to the pressure instrument on the © PMI.

Sometimes a magnet is provided on the needle to enable quick closing of contact Thereby avoiding chances of sparking. The upper part has a stop for piston. It has a projection when it touches the projection on the setting indicator a contact is made.other. The glass is generally of acrylic. If the working pressure reaches the low set limit or the high set limit alarm contact is made. When the pressure reaches the set value then the gauge pointer touches the projection on the setting needle. The stop has a hole in the centre for the process fluid to pass to reach the instrument from the pipe line and vice versa. DIGITAL PRESSURE GAUGES Digital pressure gauges working with integral or remote pressure sensing transducers are now becoming more easily available and these are usually of a very high accuracy. The pointer is also connected to a wire. In a similar manner alarm controls can be made at two points one for a low pressure limit and the other for a higher pressure limit. The following pages describe two such devices and they have proved in practice to be very valuable calibration standards for the Eggbrough commercial instrumentation In particular the device is used for checking the transmitters which measure the condenser absolute pressure. This means of course that they can be used for calibration purposes or for efficiency monitoring. The pointer and setting needle behave like an open switch till the set limit is reached. The working of gauge in which the alarm contact is to be made when the pressure reaches a set higher limit is given here. This needle is set via a knob through the centre of the glass of the gauge. © PMI. NTPC 36 . The gauge can be connected to relay. The needle is connected to a wire. hooter or lamp for alarm or control. The needle has a projection where contact will be made. GAUGES WITH ALARM CONTACTS These types of gauges give alarm when the pressure reaches a set level. The gauge has a pressure setting needle.

The draught gauge is basically a diaphragm pressure gauge with an elongated scale. if the process medium is not allowed in the control room. The foregoing comments on pressure gauge installation is appropriate to draught gauges also. one tapping into the condenser steam space was used. © PMI. Calibration over the full range 0-100 mbar absolute is achieved by use of the condenser’s own vacuum when the T/A is on load and the use of a vacuum pump in series with the gauge tapping. The readings are all transmitted as (0-10 mA) standard signals. and since they are measuring relatively low pressures it is important that the pipe work is installed very carefully with the added provision of a blow down facility to clear the lines of dust. And all readings which originally disagreed because they tapped in to different points on the condenser now agree. NTPC 37 . For suction gauges it has been found that the drilling of a small hole in a draught gauge line near the tapping point can give an automatic cleaning of the lines without loss of reading or sensitivity. Manometers of reasonable accuracy and the correct range can be obtained from various manufacturers. DRAUGHT GAUGES Draught gauges are used extensively throughout the Power Station to measure air and gas pressures through the boiler and mills. Following test it was found necessary to use one from each LP T/A exhaust in to the condenser and average the pressure via a common manifold. It is important when calibrating a draught gauge in this way that the correct type of manometer is used.The system for measuring condenser vacuum has had to be investigated at great length initially. This system now gives a representative average absolute pressure in the condenser. Calibration of draught gauges is best achieved with a manometer.

PR FLOW LEVEL TEMP TRANSMITTER ELECTRIC/PNEUMATIC OUTPUT SIGNAL Thus the basic function of a transmitter is to proportionally modulate an electric / pneumatic signal in response to the process parameters. B.50 MA DC Transmitters are generally connected in a measurement loop according to one of the following methods: a. These transmitters sense the change in process variable within a certain range and produce an output current within a range. flow. 4 – 20 MA DC 0 . Four Wire Transmitters In this method four conductors are led to the transmitter. © PMI.7.TRANSMITTERS FOR PRESSURE AND DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE MEASURMENT A transmitter has a process signal such as pressure. The output range is standardised to bring uniformity in the construction of secondary instruments as well as to facilitate the test and calibration work. The prevent output signal ranges are: A. NTPC 38 . level or temperature as its input and an electric or pneumatic signal as its output. No. We shall confine our discussion to electronic transmitters.20 MA DC 10 . The other pair is used for signal transmission as shown in Fig. One pair is used to carry the power supply. C. which may be 220 VAC or 24 VDC.

the input resistance of the receiving instrument plays an important role. as higher input resistance will generally limit the loop current. Thus only two wires are needed for connecting one element to another. They are connected in series and the transmitter acts as a current regulator in the series circuit. The current in the series circuit changes with respect to change in process parameters as shown in Fig. Referring to Fig. There are three basic elements in this loop. Two Wire Transmitters This is presently the most widely used method for transmitter connections. For this purpose transmitter manufacturers generally provide a load drive capacity curve for the transmitter.8. This simplifies cabling and reduces erection and cable costs. NTPC 39 . Being a series circuit. namely a/c power supply.b. © PMI. transmitter and the receiving instrument. No.

span. It has inherently rugged construction and is of simple design. However it has a very large number of mechanical linkages and moving parts. The zero and span adjustments are also mechanical and as such achieving good calibration accuracy is not very easy. without effecting the output current of the transmitter. NTPC 40 . this curve gives the maximum value of input resistance that can be connected at the operating power supply voltage. They have virtually no moving parts and hence are very accurate and have a good repeatability. This inherently reduces its accuracy and makes it prone to errors due to hysterises. They are lightweight in construction and much smaller in size. The capacitance type and strain gauge type are definitely of superior design. deadband. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT TRANSMITTERS The force balance transmitter is one of the early designs of two wire transmitters and is still used widely. © PMI.9 we find that. damping are electronic therefore calibration becomes very easy. Also al the adjustments such as zero. It also make it very bulky and heavy.

4. NTPC 41 . Floats and liquid displacers Head pressure measurement Electrical / electronic Ultrasonic Nucleonic Direct viewing © PMI. The method to be considered can be classified as follows: 1. 5. There are three main reasons for making measurements of solid particles or liquid level. reliability. safety of personnel and plant is the most important. 6. Hence the vessel contents can be directly displayed in units of level (meters). If the dimensions of a vessel are known then the volume or mass of its contents can be determined by measuring the level. volumes (litters) or mass (Kilograms). of the three. 2. 3. LEVEL MEASURMENT – METHODS There are many methods of measuring level. maintenance cost and degree of expertise required by maintenance personnel.5. the selection of a particular system is largely determined by the practical consideration already mentioned together with capital cost (equipment and installation). Level Measurement and Measuring Instruments INTRODUCTION In the most power station applications level can be defined as ‘the height of a liquid or solid above a reference line’.

Rigid Arm Float With the further development of attaching the float to a pivoted arm. If the surface of the liquid under measurement is turbulent. The float material may be of hollow metal. Float and Counterweight Type This method consist simply of a large area float connected by a chain type or cable to a counterweight which passes in front of a scale and acts as an index. NTPC 42 . a guide will have to be set up to stop the float moving around in the tank and causing errors. The float should have the largest possible area in order to reduce the errors owing to friction and out of balance forces of the cable or chain. though its range is much smaller than that of the cableand-pulley type.Floats and Liquid Displacement The use of a float enables the level of liquid to be measured when direct viewing is impracticable. a plastic material. A rigid arm float has the advantage of being completely self contained and may be fitted to open or close tanks in virtually any position. With this arrangement the total force can therefore be regulated by changing the size of the float and also the length of the float arm as shown in Figure 10. Remote indication may be built in as in the other type. or molded rubber. the total energy available can be increased due to the moment of force of the buoyance factor acting on the float at a distance from pivot point. © PMI.

the motion being transmitted to the pointer by a worm drive or similar arrangement. there must be some seal between the gauge and the tank. start or stop a pump or open or shut a valve at a high or love level the magnetically operated switch or air pilot may be used. NTPC 43 . The float assembly carried © PMI. If the gauge is mounted below the liquid level. Some gauges use a magnetic method or pointer transmission.The float movement is limited to about 120o as a maximum. Float Operated Switches Where it is required to initiate an alarm.

or air pilot valve. a compressed air supply is led into the unit. and is suspended in the liquid in the vessel or in an adjacent small © PMI.with a permanent magnet which is opposed by a similar magnet which operates the switch. relies on Archimedes principle for its operation. According to this principle if an object is weighed in air and then in a liquid there is apparent loss of weight which is equal to weight of the displaced liquid. NTPC 44 . LIQUID DISPLACER SYSTEMS This gauge. In the level switch mechanism the contracts change over with snap action when the float passes the mid position. thus giving the mechanism a snap action. and when the float is in its highest position the air valve permits the passage of air to the diaphragm or piston-operated value causing the valve to close. A fall in liquids level causes the air valve to change over. The displacer is a long hollow cylinder loaded to remain partially submerged. This adjacent poles of the two magnets are of the same polarity so that they repel each other. shutting off the air supply and venting the air in the diaphragm valve to atmosphere permitting the valve to open. In the air pilot valve. embodying a displacer.

it can be seen this pressure can be measured and the gauge calibrated directly in head of liquid. The gauge can be pressure measuring device. bourdon tube. enlarged leg manometer etc. U tube. bellows. NTPC 45 . © PMI. 12. density of liquid and acceleration due to gravity and is totally independent of the cross-sectional area of the column as shown in Fig. The apparent weight of the displacer will decrease as the level of the liquid rises. If the density of the liquid remains constant then the height of liquid above a datum (tapping) point is directly proportional to the pressure measured at that datum point. The tapping point is always taken above the sediment level. for example. Head Pressure Measurement Systems These system use the principle that a column of liquid will exert pressure whose value depends only on the weight of liquid. The gauge will read directly the total depth of liquid in the tank.diameter chamber connected to the vessel. Thus a pressure measuring device can be used scaled in units of level. Measurement of Liquid Level In Open Vessels Since the static pressure at a chosen point of measurement (datum line) will very directly with the head of liquid above it.

Measurement of Liquid Level In Closed Vessels With closed vessels in most cases the vessel is closed because the system is to be pressurised. NTPC 46 . FIGURE NO 13 © PMI. 13. or to operate conditions other then atmospheric as per Fig.

© PMI. any additional condensation now overflowing back into the vessel. again causing the pressure factor which must be taken into account. so the reference limb is fed back into the top of the vessel. Closed Vessel With Condensable Vapour With closed vessels a further condition that may produce errors is when the pressure in the tank contains vapour and these vapours then to condense on top of metering fluid in reference limb. so that the level of liquid in it does not change much when the metering liquid moves in the manometer. NTPC 47 . thus forming a pressure head of relatively constant value. these are chambers with a considerably greater area than the meter chambering areas. The whole line will thus be filled with condensate.In these cases it is necessary to see that same the same conditions exist on the reference side of reference side of the indicator as inside the container. To offset this condition condensing chambers are used.

© PMI. NTPC 48 .

Of course it also must have no adverse effects on the manometer fluid or diaphragm material. When the density of the liquid is known the pressure will be proportional to the height of the liquid above the bottom of the tube. adversely affect. The sealing liquid must not mix with the vessel liquid. 15. An air pressure is applied to the tube and the air pressure is built up until bubbles just begin to escape from the bottom of the tube. NTPC 49 . due to its nature. © PMI. When bubbles from the pressure in the pipe P = gh. absorb corrosive elements from it.Liquid Seals When there is a danger that the liquid whose level is being measured will. the manometer fluid or transmitter diaphragm material then liquid seals should be used. Gas Purge System of Level Measurement Basically this method consists of a tube which is inserted into a liquid whose depth is to be measured. such as strong corrosives or at working temperatures unsuitable for diaphragm. Therefore if the pressure in the tube is measured by the pressure gauge or U-tube the scale can be calibrated in terms of depth of liquid on into any units required such as the volume or weight of the liquid in the tank. Bubbles will only form only when the pressure in the tube is negligibly higher than the pressure exerted on the bottom of the tube by the height of the liquid above the bottom of the tube as per Fig. the air trap system can be used. Air Trap System In some cases where measurement of level is required. be attacked by it.

no more liquid enters the trap. The air pressure set up can be measured by a suitable indicator or recorder which can be calibrated directly in terms of level. Changes of pressure within the bellows due to changing levels are communicated to the measuring bellows by copper tubing having a fine bore. As the level of liquid in the tank rises. Bellows Type In the above type of diaphragm box is replaced by a box containing a bellows of synthetic material. As the level increases the measuring bellows is compressed – this increases the pressure in the system and the detecting bellows detects the © PMI. The bellows are filled with air at a pressure slightly above atmospheric pressure. NTPC 50 . When the air pressure plus the head of the liquid in the trap is equal to the head of liquid above the trap no more liquid above the trap. the pressure on the air trap increases.The box is covered by a plate with a small hole just large enough to allow liquid to enter. liquid flows into the trap and compresses the gas in the trap.

calibrated directly in units of level. volume or weight. NTPC 51 . This increase in detected by suitable indicator which is calibrated in terms of liquid level. this compresses the air in the system which creates which creates an increase in pressure. Electrical/electronic Methods Of Level Measurement And Control Electrical methods for level measurement are very useful as generally where is the minimum limitation on transmission distances between transducer and display or control devices. its reading of depth will be in error due to the change in density of the tank contents with change in temperature.change in pressure and indicates it on a gauge. In common with other instruments. © PMI. Diaphragm Stack System As the level increases the diaphragm stack is compressed. Their speed of response is often better than pneumatic systems and they are very useful when measuring the levels of vessels containing the solids.

This method can be adapted for use in manometer level measurement system by locating the electrodes in the mercury of one of the limbs. resistance decrease. Conductivity’ Methods – Hydrastep System The hydrastep system is probably the most common system used for boiler drum level measurement. thus the overall resistance will decrease. It has three main advantages over traditional gauge type system: © PMI.Conductivity Methods-Levels Measurement The system consists of number of conductors of different lengths connected together by a series of resistors. so shorting out the resistors joining them. NTPC 52 . As the level increases more and more conductors are shorted together. Therefore current will be proportional to the level. If a constant voltage is applied across the terminals. See Fig. hence the current flowing in the circuit will increase. then as level increase. 18. If an ammeter is placed in series with the circuit. Since the current is proportional to level the ammeter can be calibrated directly in terms of level. then it will indicate the current flowing in the circuit.

which results in a density error of only one-sixth of the visual gauge. with only a small flow of condensate. however.a. as in the visual gauge the hydrastep vessel exhibits only about 8oC mean drop. The hydrastep vessel has a metallic cross-section some four times that the visual gauge. The hydrastep vessel uses a side-arm method of attachment to the drum. Smaller errors incurred due to change in liquid densities. In addition to providing a larger surface area for heat exchange purpose in the steam space. each of which is associated with a separate channel of the electronic indicating system. gives a very much reduced density error. usually of 25 – 50 mm (1-2 in). Instead of the mean water column temperature for a half-full gauge being about 90oC below saturation temperature. but this is not necessarily true. The reduced thermal resistance vertically permits a substantial quantity of heat required by the lower half of the vessel to be supplied from the steam space. and this layer acts as a partial thermal insulator. the large boar reduces the turbulence of high condensate flow and encourages the formation of a significant boundary layer on the inside of vessel well below the water/steam interface. and carries a number of separate electrodes spaced vertically at intervals. NTPC 53 . If the temperature of the liquid in the limbs varies then its density varies thus errors in level indication will occur. and a bore cross-section of about 10 times. The output supplied to a conventional analogue level controller can be easily checked for error using level indicating lamps. The design of the vessel. which is of course maintained at saturation temperature. the temperature gradient of the water column is large. pipework is diverted from the gauge. The conventional visual gauge body has a small cross – sectional area and a small bore. b. A by pass tube is often fitted so that condensate from the stemp. Digital outputs for computer or microprocessor control/logging can be readily provided. Density Errors In the sight gauge and head pressure manometer it has been assumed that the density of the liquid remains constant throughout. and because of the slow flow. the heat flow in to the gauge body occurs more or less equally from both the steam and the water. Because of the small cross section. © PMI. c.

at the interface for a continually falling water level (gradually increasing cell resistance) the corresponding channel of the detector follows the curve shown. © PMI. A series of measurements was made.e. little was known of the resistivities of water and steam at elevated temperatures as exhibited in a dynamic system with continuous condensate flow through a sidearm vessel from the boiler drum. the vertical arrangement of electrodes in the vessel. the corresponding logic circuit changes to indicate steam. each of which is connected to a separate detector vessel. A small amount of hysteresis is built in so that in the reverse direction the change back to water occurs at about +3. At the time that the use of a direct electrical measurement was first considered for the determination of drum level. (high resistance) or with water (low resistance). Each electrode. each of which is connected to a separate detector circuit.cm (and almost always greater then 108 i. As the output voltage reaches about +4. a differential of two orders of magnitude from cold to 360oC ).5 V DC. therefore. the water resistivty was always less then 10 6ohm. NTPC 54 . using the vessels designed for the field trial equipments. These measurements are presented and show that up to 360oC. forms a cell in which the resistance measured is a function of the contents of the cell. Except at the interface. to avoid excessive operation due to insignificance level fluctuations. enables the level to be determined at which the transition occurs between water and steam values. each cell is filled either with steam.Basic Principle of the Hydrastep System The principle upon which the Hydrastep is based is that of the differing electrical resistivities of water and steam. with its associated portion of the vessel. on boiler in the 110 and 183 bar groups. Accepting for the moment that this difference exists.cm and steam resistivity always greater then 5 x 107 ohm.5 VDC.

The anomaly shown at 140– 180oC concerned the related water and steam readings taken during a severe steam valve leak which resulted in steam entrainment in the vessel water column and water droplets in the steam space. Each electrode circuit © PMI.FIGURE NO 19 Other work shows that an adequate differential for Hydrastep exist between the resistivities of the water and the stream in a side arm–gauge at boiler pressures up to about 216. Tsat 372. To ensure absolute safety to personal the maximum voltage which appears at an electronic terminal is 10v rms. and its maximum short circuit current is 10 uA. The switching band for the Hydrastep electronic circuits also shows superimposed at approximately midway between the water and steam resistivities. 50 Hz.5 bar (3140 lb. f / in2.8oC). NTPC 55 .

THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS FIGURE NO. The potential on each electrode is applied to its own individual discriminator channel to control an output electromagnetic relay carrying six sets of changeover contacts. the maximum electrode current is only onefortieth of the 0. Two further sets of contacts on each relay are used in a logic matric to raise an alarm should a fault. The mechanical design of the electrode is such that its centre be ejected from the vessel in the event of the failure of the ceramic insulation. alarms and / or emergency tripping of the generator and its auxiliaries. that it gives an indication which is physical impossibility such as “water above steam” or “steam below water”. Occur such that any channel is ‘out-of-step’. At 10 uA. The three remaining contact sets are available for high or low level alarm purposes. NTPC 56 . 20 © PMI. i. One set of contacts is used for display purpose in the control room of either water or steam. for each channel or the electronics.55% human perception current at 50 Hz. as appropriate. or for additional logic configurations to provide validated control signals. and a guard is fitted to deflect any steam jet which may arise from a faulty electrode or seal. each display module being arraigned in the order corresponding to the disposition of the associated electrodes in the vessel.therefore meets the requirements for intrinsically safe apparatus with a margin of safety of five orders of magnitude in respect of current.e.

It is simple matter to include an automatic comparison between adjacent steps. The usual station annunciator operates when a connection is made between the alarm bus–bars. and the instrument can be repaired with the generator still on load. providing an interleaved system. NTPC 57 . Failure characteristics The appearance of the display under normal conditions is shown in the left hand column of the drawing. In no case of an electronic fault does the indication error exceed one step. A colour change principle is used for each display module to avoid the ambiguity possible between a true fault and a burnt out lamp where a simple on–off arrangement is used. wherever © PMI. The loss of one power supply will still allow even a single Hydrastep to operate within the terms of the Factory Inspectors’ Certificate of Approval.Further ‘fail–operative’ safe guards are provided by the connection of alternate channel of electrodes on any one vessel to electrically separate power supplies. on the premise that water cannot exist about steam in the vessel in sufficient quantity to cause such an indication (column 4 and 8). A power supply failure appears in either column 2 or 3. This comparison may be performed quit easily by means of additional contacts on the relays controlling the display lamps. and the failure of a signal channel as in the column 4 to 11. In the logic matrix.

the water/steam interface may be. Although electrically separate. the odd and even logic drive circuits are physically adjacent for ease of inter-connection and are mounted with the power supplies close to the display unit in the control room. Two-Gauge Hydrastep In the simplest multi-gauge instrument vessel A Carries the odd numbered electrodes and vessel B the even. If a fault should indicate water more then one channel above the interface . all channels above it should show steam with their contacts in the upper position and all below should show water. and so that either may be shut off independently. Other logic systems. as shown doted on channel 11 – the bars are shorted through 8 and 7. but in any case. Separate pipework for the two vessels is essential so that pressure variations caused by a fault on one vessel will not affect the performance of the other. The only exception to this condition occurs with a leak of such proportions that water cannot remain in the vessel.for example. so that the gauge still remains operative using the sound vessel. causing an alarm. and techniques other than relay circuitry could be used. when the whole of the electronic system may be identical to that already described for the single Hydrastep. which could be mounted directly into the control console. the inner ends of the waterside pipes must terminate at substantially the same point in the drum so that the same head of drum water is applied to both manometers. © PMI. Such a leak would normally have developed comparatively slowly from a minor leak which should already have been recognised. Since the water steam interface within the drum is not a plain surface under operating conditions. including station computer if spare capacity is available. It is worth noting that a leak or blockage on either the steam or the water side of a vessel or its pipe-work will result in a fractional pressure drop in the vessel concerned. NTPC 58 . A design of colour change module using sub-mioiature long-life filament lamps has enabled a small graphic display to be used. This prediction is not required for steam connection. the manometer will then rebalance the vessel showing a higher level than for the non-faulty one. the operation of a low level alarm with one half of the Hydrastep showing a level within normal tolerance will identify the fault. This means that the faulty half of a two-gauge Hydrastep arrangement may be identified and switched out.

NTPC 59 . with the generator on load .g. A and B operating from both ends of the drum.Twin Hydrastep The standard twin Hydarstep gives additional security by the provision of identical Hydrastep units. to exchange a faulty electrode or valve packaging). © PMI. but under normal conditions the adjacent arrangements of the two electrically separate displays from the drum ends gives the operator valuable information concerning end–to-end level variations either cyclic or static. Not only does this extra redundancy permit the shut down of a complete end (e. which can occur under certain plant running conditions.

which gives an immediate alert to the operator should a gauge fault cause a reading error in excess of ±1 step (normally ±50 mm). It should be appreciated that on a typical 500MW unit at full load. and in particular in those installation which are required to provide an automatic emergency trip for the complete generator set. a loss of revenue could result from the need to use lower efficiency plant to meet demand during the period (i. where a Hydrastep installation is to be used for control purposes.e. NTPC 60 . On the other hand if a trip is not initiated at the required minimum level widespread damage could be caused to the boiler. © PMI. the penalty for an “unwanted action” occurring). furnace. This is basically an economic consideration: if a trip should be initiated while the situation could still be saved by the stand by plant. in that event a minimum water level is reached at either end of the drum. Further more. since there is no permissible deviation from the “wanter” trip level. each drum end must be separately protected and reliance can not be placed upon cross-validation between Hydrastep at opposite ends of the drum. Considerably higher security can be provided. even against double concident Hydrastep faults.e.Four–gauge Hydrastep (Twin Two–gauge) All Hydrastep System are self validating by the continuous comparison between adjacent channels and the “water–above–steam” logic matric alarm. Such characteristics can be achieved using a four vessel Hydrastep in which the water side pipe work for both vessels at either drum end terminate at substantially the same point (about 100 mm apart) within the drum. Because of the possible end–to-end level difference. turbine and generator (i. It is essential in this application that the security of the Hydrastep must be maintained and that the ±one step tolerance must be eliminated even in the presence of the gauge fault. because of the very close timing sequence for the start up of standby feeds pumps or the opening of alternative feed water valves. . the penalty for failure of a “wanted action”). approximately 14 seconds are available for shut down to be initiated after the minimum level is reached before internal pipe work is subjected to damaging conditions. it is necessary that a trip must not be initiated before the minimum level is reached..

This outer panel. therefore. channels 1 and 12 of both drum and indicators in the case of the standard Twin Hydrastep) can each be verified on one side only. Sufficient clear space around the unit must be left to allow access. the case of steady falling water level is considered in conjunction with a fault on channel 1 such that water is permanently indicated. Had a channel 0 existed below channel 1.The relay logic matrix is connected to give a ‘three-out-of–four’ system. The philosophy of continuous comparison between adjacent channels by the logic matrix ensures that the indication presented to the operator has been fully verified. that is three out of four gauges have to indicate a low level before a trip is initiated. since channels 0 and 13 do not exist. as the level continued to fall. Without channel 0. channel 1 cannot be fully verified and is not presented to the operator since it could be misleading. the fall in level had continued past this point. a “water above steam” condition would have appeared and the fault on channel 1 would have been recognised. however. the display unit uses a hinged door from construction. Hydrastep – Display Unit Instead of a sliding box as in the rest of equipment. If. To ensure that no misinterpretation can occur. may be opened by the Instrument Engineer to gain access to the remote test switches and telephone socket.e. when the indication from these channels can also be observed. channel 1 and 12 being covered by the hinged outer panel. The channels at either end of one vessel (i. for example. similarly channel 12 could be suspect without a channel 13 for verification. with a removable rear cover. © PMI. therefore. only channels 2 to 11 inclusive is displayed in normal operation. in fact. NTPC 61 . it would appear to the operator that some water still existed in the gauge although.

Because of the level differences between drum ends which can occur in normal operation. The air between the plates is called the dielectric. and the restriction in the previous paragraph must apply to both columns of the duel display. cross-validation may be incorporated at all the available corresponding levels between the two vessels at the same end of the drum and all indication including the extremes may be then presented to the operator. it is impractical in a Twin Hydrastep to cross validate any channel on one vessel and the corresponding channel on the other. © PMI. NTPC 62 . However. In its simplest form it consists of two plates of area. whether or not the automatic tripping facility is connected. When a voltage is applied across the plates on electrical charge is stored proportional to the applied voltage. in the special case of the four gauge system. separated by a distance. Capacitance Methods A capacitor is a device for storing electrical energy.

A variation of capacitance will occur when the depth of the medium in the vessel alters therefore the capacitance change will be proportional to level. Conducting Mediums When the medium is a good conductor of electricity then the system works as a variable area capacitance transducer. The medium in © PMI. the contents or a concentric cylinder around the electrode. By this method the level of liquids. The electrode is one ‘plate’ of the capacitor and is insulated with a material that is compatible with the medium. powders or granular solids may be measured. NTPC 63 .Capacitance level measurement involves the use of an electrode which extends the full length of the tank and form a capacitance between itself and earth where earth may be the vessel. depending on the type of electrode involved. the insulation forming the dielectric.

the area of the capacitor ‘plates’ varies. Ambient noises or their harmonics are ineffectual in this range. The dielectric is made up of. If level falls then area decreases and capacitance decreases. mainly nickel. Thus. depending on the direction of the current. are placed within a magnetic field. their lengths will very by an amount dependent on the strength of the magnetic field. iron and cobalt. owing to the mechanical properties of the tube it will tend to oscillate longitudinally as a half-wave resonator. Principle of Operation of the Sensors When certain materials. For level switching a range between about 36 and 40 kHZ is used. The fundamental generator is a nickel tube which carries the coil and bias magnet. as the level changes. As the liquid level varies then the overall capacitance will change due to change in dielectric. A rise in level ill increase capacitance and fall in level will decrease capacitance. liquid in the tank and the air or gas in the space above the liquid thus the electric constants will be different (normally those of liquids are much greater then gases). Above a certain frequency (20 kHz) it is known as ultra sound or ultrasonic sound.the vessel from the other ‘plate’ of the capacitor. ULTRASONIC METHODS Ultrasonic Ultrasonic beams are a form of energy transmitted by means of mechanical vibrations and carried through the transmitting converting one type of energy into mechanical vibrations which are received by a device which detects the ultrasonic beams converting them into a more readily usable form of energy. © PMI. Application of an alternating current causes the length of the tube to increase and decrease at the supply frequency. NTPC 64 . say. Non-Conducting Mediums When the medium is non-conducting the electrode is not insulated and the system works as a variable – dielectric capacitance transducer. The current through the coil either weakens or strengthens the field.

Similarly with the receiver. thereby generating an e. If the diameter of the bore of the sight glass is not small enough to introduce errors due to capillary action. Changing the length of the tube will cause a change in the magnetic strength of the bias magnet. They may be designed to provide on/off control at the fixed level in the vessel. as well as the invention of new methods. The sensors are temperature-sensitive. The system is unaffected by dirt. or to provide continuous indication of level over a given range. Very little maintenance is required. NUCLEONIC METHODS Nucleonic Since the advent of nuclear reactors and the ready availability of radioactive materials.m. DIRECT VEIWING Sight Glass The sight glass is a very useful as a simple arrangement whereby a section of the liquid is brought outside the vessel and displayed alongside a main scale. a sound wave impinging on the diaphragm will cause a relatively large amount of movement in the nickel tube. if within the band path’s frequency. the resonant frequency falls as the temperature rises but there is no effect if both sensors are at the same temperature. The special advantage of nuclear gauges is that they can operate entirely from outside the containing vessel. a radiation detector and electronic measuring circuits. the liquid will stand at the same level in the sight glass and the vessel.f within the coil. provided the top of the sight glass is © PMI. nuclear techniques have been employed for the extension of some of the more conventional methods of level measurement. moisture etc. virtually non if outside. NTPC 65 . vapour. Hence the same cant be used as either a transmitter or a receiver. The nucleonic type level instruments involve in radioactive source.

It can be used for open or closed vessels. Other sight glasses include a float market to improve readability especially if the meniscus at the liquid/gas interface is obscured by scum or scale. The range of sight glasses largely depends on the nature of the liquid. © PMI. Ranges of 0. but if the glass breaks the flow of steam and hot water forces the balls against valve seats so cutting off the escaping flow.2 to 2 metres are typical. Impurities in the liquid are one of the problems of sight glasses systems as the glasses becomes discolored and obscures the liquid meniscus. The tube material is generally pyrex or armoured glass. the static pressure and the temperature involved. the danger of anyone being injured by the contents of the vessel will be minimized. NTPC 66 . If the density of the liquid is constant then sight glasses are simple. accurate devices for level measurement they can be calibrated by comparison with a dipstick or the addition of a known volume of liquid.subjected to the same pressure as the top of the vessel. Reflex glass is sometimes used to improve readability. The system is analogous to a U-tube manometer where the vessel is one limb and the sight glass the other limb. The cut-off-device usually consists of two ball bearings which normally hang lose in the connecting pipes. Regular cleaning of the gauge glass is the common maintenance task. Sight glasses are usually installed with two isolating valves and a blow down valve for cleaning purposes. In high level installation such as boiler drum the gauge is usually fitted with an automatic cut-offso that if the sight glasses breaks. the division between the liquid and gas region being made very pronounced. Other problems are broken glass tubes or leaks and / or blockages at the connections.

25.v. The water gauge works on the principle that different substances have different refractive indexes i.V.T.C.e. say.t. boiler drum level measurement is that local indication only is provided. system allows level display to be remotely located in the Control Room as shown in Figure No.c. they bend light by different degrees. NTPC 67 .) Remote Display One of the obvious problems with a simple sight glass system for. © PMI.WATER GAUGE WITH CLOSED CIRCUIT Television (C. The use of a special type of side glass (water gauge) with an associated c.

The gauge is vertical tube of triangular wedge cross-section. Two faces of the three sides are made up of glass and mica divided up into small compartments. Illumination is projected through the gauge and the light is bent by the medium. The degree of bent depends on whether the medium is water or steam. Because of the prismatic arrangement either the ‘water’ windows or ‘steam’ windows are illuminated thus the level of water in the drum can be determined. A C.C.T.V. camera is mounted a few feet away from the gauge and is carefully aligned with the light path through it. The camera and lens system being fully protected against fuel dust and ash. The C.C.T.V. monitor is located in the Control Room. This system is more difficult to operate with high steam pressures (120 bars) because the refractive index of water closely approaches that of steam thus angular deflection of the light paths is very small making level indication difficult. At pressures of 166 bars it is almost impossible to accurately determine water level by direct level viewing means. The problem can be overcome by gauge rear illuminators using quartz iodine lamps and by using an optical magnifier to enlarge the small differential in the refractive index of the two mediums. The main problem with this system are that of faulty alignment, hostile environmental conditions which affect the reliability of the camera and high degree of technical expertise required for C.C.T.V. maintenance.

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6. Flow Measurement and Measuring Instruments
FLOW MEASUREMENT
Introduction
Fluid flow in industrial undertakings occur in two general forms: either as a flow in a pipe or conduit or, in the case of liquids only, as a flow in an open channel. In both cases, the rate of flow is of primary importance, and, in a large number of plants, the totalized flow over a specified period is required in addition. The rate of flow measuring instruments will be examined first.

Rate Of Flow Measuring Instruments:
This class may be broadly subdivided into: a. Differential pressure flowmeters i. ii. iii. iv. b. c. d. e. Orifice pattern Venturi and nozzle pattern Pitot tube pattern Dall tube pattern

Variable area flowmeters Displacement and interfrential flowmeters Electromagnetic flowmeters Ultrasonic flowmeters

© PMI, NTPC

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CONCENTRIC ORIFICE PLATES
A universally used method of making an abrupt change in the cross-sectional area of fluid stream flowing in a pipe is the concentric orifice plate. This involves a circulate metal plate with a central hole or orifice centric with the circumstance of the place. It is fixed between the pipe flanges and is located by the flange bolts. The orifice is then concentric with the internal bore of the pipe. It will be convenient before describing particulars to see what occurs when an orifice plate is inserted in a fluid stream in a pipe, and a liquid flow is considered. Fig. 26 illustrates the action in a simplified manner.

ILLUSTRATING THE VARIATION OF STATIC PRESSURE UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF THE ORIFICE FIGURE NO. 26 Suppose that tubes are inserted through the pipe wall at the position shown in the diagram, the pipe liquid will rise in these until the pressure due to the column of liquid in each tube is equal to the static pressure at that position. The column heights are then a measure of the pressure and from observing the different values we may trace the pattern of the pressure changes as we proceed along the pipe. At position 1 and 2 there is no pressure change worth specifying.

© PMI, NTPC

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which is known as the vena contracts. persisting in this direction for a distance after it leaves the orifice. indicated as 7 in the diagram. through inertia effects. Taking a typical value of 0. and the pressure has fallen. This would appear to be caused by the velocity changes being accompanied by considerable turbulence with resulting dissipation of energy involving a pressure loss. © PMI. just before the orifice. 27. one is that the downstream static pressure never recovers its upstream value. The stream or jet cross section decreases in area after leaving the orifice until it reaches a point. Where pressure loss is important this factor should be borne in mind. 27 & 28). At position 5 and 6 there are lower pressures then at the up stream position due to the change in the stream sectional area. Two facts emerge from the study of Fig. NTPC 71 . The following are the main tapping positions (shown diagrammatically in fig. we find a slight increase in pressure. The static pressure also reaches it minimum value at this position. The distance from the orifice varies with the ratio of orifice diameter to pipe diameter but an average value be about one half the pipe diameter. This is mainly due to the liquid being directed inwards as it approaches the orifice. The second point which emerges is that there appears to be a variety of positions at which to take pressure trappings or connections for obtaining the differential pressure.At 3 and 4. From the vena contracts. Since this is similar the velocity has increased. The stream is then constrained to flow through the smaller size of the orifice. the steam station expends until it reaches the pipe diameter at 8. and. from which it issues as a jet. the percentage loss works out a 65 percent of the differential pressure.6 for orifice to pipe diameter ratio. where it is a minimum and the velocity a maximum.

D And D/2 Taps (Radius Or Throat Taps) The upstream pressure tapping is taken at one pipe diameter D. Plate Taps In this variety connecting holes are actually bored in the orifice plate itself each hole communicating with one face. bringing the inside openings of the holes adjacent to the orifice positions. approximately the vena contracta position. D/2. downstream from the orifice face. Flange Taps These are situated 1 inch from the upstream and 1 inch from the downstream face of the orifice plate. and the downstream pressure tapping is taken at one half pipe diameter. NTPC 72 . Corner Taps Corner tapping are taken via holes cut obliquely through a flange or boss on pipe. upstream from the face of the orifice face. © PMI. with the tapping bored through the flanges.

Turbulent Flow In practically all cases of the flow in pipes for industrial purposes the flow is turbulent. we must now examine what modifications are necessary in practice. One advantages of this type is that drillings etc. of the particles have a transverse motion as well as longitudinal one and form little eddies or swirls giving rise to turbulence. or flanges. for fluid flow measurement under ideal conditions. bosses. These are very similar to the D and D / 2 taps. It consists of a metal ring holding the orifice plate. Having established the possibilities of a definite constructive device. a self contained orifice assembly may be inserted between pipe flanges. NTPC 73 . 28 shows diagrammatically a carrier ring assembly.5 pipe diameter upstream and 8 diameters downstream from upstream face of the orifice plate. are carried out at the manufacturers works and the errors due to site operations are eliminated. © PMI. Fig. Some. with tapping drilled through the ring to communicate with the upstream and downstream sides of the orifice. Pipe Taps These may be 2. if not all. Carrier Ring Where it is not desirable to drill or tap actual pipes. and the downstream tapping is determined from the curve relating the required dimension to the radio of orifice to pipe diameter. that is the particles of the fluid do not follow paths parallel to the direction of flow. Stream line or laminar flow formulae will not apply here without modification and a new set of equations must be derived.Vena Contracta Taps The upstream tapping is 1 pipe diameter from the upstream face.

A rough classification would be: Water metering Air metering Steam metering Sewage. fuel oils. stainless steel Gunmetal. monel. Let us consider devices with a gradual change in area.6 that of the orifice. it is necessary to turn to other method of producing differential pressures. gunmetal. The operation can be accompanied by a fairly high permanent pressure loss. Observe that the stream area contracts after leaving the orifice to the vena contracts position. causing a abrupt change in stream area to produce a differential pressure. monel. © PMI. Orifice materials Materials used for orifice plates include mild steel. monel. The first of these is the venture tube. phosphor bronze. depending on the application. Stainless steel Venture Tube We have seen the effect of inserting an orifice plate in a fluid stream. mild steel Stainless steel. bronze. and where pressure loss is important. The cross-sectional area there may only be about 0. stainless steel. the practical flow figures do not line up with theoretical ones.Discharged Coefficient Due to friction and velocity distribution. NTPC 74 . coal gas : : : : Gunmetal.

It is cheaper than a venturi tube. Square or rectangular shapes have been used for measuring large volumes of fluid flow. cast iron. The lining is made in three sections: inlet cone. This design is suitable for pressures up to 1400 lb/in2. Note that the design renders the tube useful for fluids containing suspended matter because of its gradual area changes. Another pattern has a maximum working pressure of 2000 lb / in =2. Nozzles The nozzles falls between the venturi tube and the orifice plate as a means of flow measurement. The non circular section lends itself to constructional materials other than metal. or Mechanite. the construction of the Venturi tube depends on the application. But the absence of a downstream expansion core brings the pressure loss in to the same region as that for an orifice plate. profiled as for a standard Venture. and concrete has even been used for one or two very large flows. and at high velocity flow it is use in place of an orifice plate may be necessary. the section would be of gun-metal. 30: © PMI. and the gun metal lining is inserted. giving a gradual change of sectional area and has the same order of discharge Coefficient. and pressure tappings are arranged for screw in or flanged connections depending upon the particular installation condition. throat. the design is used. For normal uses. See Figure. and with the adjacent section. The use of gun metal or stainless steel reduces the risk of corrosion. NTPC 75 . Its approximates to a venturi tube with the curved form of approach.Constructional Features To some extent. and outlet cone. The extreme end of the cast section are flanged to match with the pipe flanges. and smoothly machined liners of gunmetal or stainless steel inserted at the inlet and throat pressure tappings. For high pressure hot water flow as in boiler feed water in power station. The Venturi tube possesses a big advantage over the orifice is that its section need not be circular. To facilitated construction work a victualic joint is sometimes inserted in the downstream cone.

This tube is joined to the second connecting of the measuring instrument. the ratio of average velocity to velocity at the centre of © PMI.PITOT TUBE Let us study the effect of placing a blunt object in a fluid stream as an obstruction to the flow (Fig. An ideal distribution curve is shown in fig. has a series of holes bored into it so that its interior connects to the out side surface to be in contact with the static pressure. As the fluid approaches the object. sometime. as the static tube. The outer tube. For Reynolds numbers above 100 000. the velocity will decrease until it reaches zero at the point where it impinges on it. taking the differential pressure at certain specified positions. varying from zero at the pipe surface to a maximum at some point (not necessarily the centre) along the diameter. The pitiot tube can only measure velocity at one position in the cross-section of a pipe. Both designs consist basically of inner and outer tubes. a declaration should mean an increase in pressure. 31. From the previous. NTPC 76 . is not uniform. referred to. 31). It is very convenient to be able to measure the static pressure in the close neighborhood of the tube and standard Pitot tubes. This would follow from Bernouilli’s Theorem. taken across the section. The inner one leads from the impact hole to one construction of the differential measuring instrument. To find the mean velocity it is necessary to make a traverse of the pipe with the tube. Now a velocity of a fluid in a pipe.

Another theoretically possible means of determining the average velocity is to select a position where the velocity corresponds to the average value. by comparison. is obvious. therefore. It could be at a point where the velocity curve slope is fairly steep and any misplacement could lead to significant errors in velocity determination. Whereas this value would apply for ideal cases for as curve of the type in Fig.the pipe is frequently specified as 0. 31.25 of the radius in form the wall. Once having determined the ratio value. the curve is normally flatter and errors in location are not so serious. the actual curve may be different. © PMI.82 or 0.83. NTPC 77 . This has some practical drawbacks. the Pitot tube may be placed at the pipe centre and the instrument calibrated in terms of average velocity. At the centre of the pipe. The desirability of carrying out a traverse. The location may be near the wall of the pipe a very approximate value being 0.

the out let cone of the inner one terminating in the throat of the outer.Two other types of Pitiot tube deserve mention. The other type is the Pitot-Ventury. the former measuring the impact head and the latter the section head. One is the double.3d and 0.1d where d is the throat diameter. The differential pressure obtained is greater than with the standard types.75 © PMI. The mouth diameter Dm. 32. The inlet cone has an included angle between 40o and 50o. It is a combination of two concentric venturi tubes. in which there are two holes. the increase is between 35 per cent and 40 per cent depending on the position of the tube in the pipe. one facing upstream and the other downstream. but is not double the value. the out let cone between 12o and 17o. Actually. The throat length is between 0.5 to 0. tip pattern shown in Fig. DALL TUBE The principle features of the Dall Tube are indicated in Fig.31. The throat pressure of the inner tube and the impact pressure on an impact hole in the supporting tube give 7–10 times the differential produced with the normal types under the same conditions. NTPC 78 . the inlet pipe diameter D and throat diameter d are connected by the following relation Dm4 – d4 = K (D4 – d4 ) Where K = 0. It involves two truncated cones separated by a narrow throat.

The other connection is made at the throat where the relativity abrupt change in area results in a marked static pressure depression. 474 claims a pressure loss expressed as 5% or 6% of the differential pressure. In addition. resulting in a sharp step. “Armour Plate” glass protection windows encase the instrument.Observe the diameter of the inlet cone is less then that of the pipe. (The normal diameters range from 2 mm to 60 mm depending on the flow to be measured. Where danger may occur from flying glass resulting from a fractured of the tube. flanged or screwed. NTPC 79 . For accuracy.g. Clear borosilicate glass is used which is highly resistant to thermal shock and chemical action. At present this is about 500 lb/in2 and applies to the smaller diameter tubes. and the method of its manufacture enables tolerances of I/10 000 of an inch to be observed. For larger sizes the safe working pressure falls from this figure. The original patent specification No. GLASS TYPE The basic feature of this type of meter is the conical section glass tube. The use of glass introduces the question of a safe working pressure for the fluid being measured. the Dall tube has the advantage of being considerably shorter than the normal venturi. © PMI. The high or upstream connection is made just in front of the step. the inlet and outlet being sealed into connections as required. This creates an impact pressure which is additional to the static pressure existing at the step. the diameter of this must be maintained at very close limits. 689. e. This compares with a loss of between 2 and 3 times this value with a normal venturi tube.) The tube is normally clamped in a metal frame.

one at the lower end and the other at the upper end of the tube. 33). and is perfectly free.38 in) w. for small gas flows and 3. In one pattern. This type of meter has typically ranges from 250 to I 20 000 liters/min of gas flow and 20 to 7000 liters/min of liquid.g. the end of the rod acting as an indicator (Fig. may demand a guide.078 in) w. a compressed air supply may be connected to the top of the scale unit and the level of liquid depressed. Here. as the float disturbe the equilibrium of the liquid. NTPC 80 . a conical metal tube pattern is introduced.5 cm (1.2 cm (0. for liquid flows.5 cc to 225 liters/min of liquid. The latter is carried on a rod which moves between two guides. so that a clear view of the indicator is obtained. The guide rod passes through the upper part of the tube in to a compartment with a glass scale.The standard float shape is indicated in Fig. the metal body is of gun metal. but varies between about 0. When used with opaque liquids.g. The maximum fluid working pressure is 500 lb/in2. so that visual evidence that the float is moving freely is obtained. however. Viscosity immune floats. 32. and 0. METAL TUBE TYPES For larger flows than the glass type tubes can accommodate. cast iron or stainless steel with a stainless steel float. © PMI. The pressure drop will depend on the type of float being used and the nature of the fluid. The glass tube type measures from 2 cc/min up to 3000 liters/min of gas. Opaque liquids may also be metered by the high pressure version. the guide is a central rod around which the float is made to rotate.

34. If. now. An external magnet system directs a magnetic field of strength H across the section of the pipe so that it acts at right angles to the direction of motion of the disc. an e. and it can be seen without much difficulty that L in equation (I) is replaced by d.ELECTROMAGNATIC FLOWMETERS The principle of the electro magnetic flow meter may be understood better if we first consider a very thin disc of an electrically conducting liquid moving with a velocity V along a pipe of internal diameter d. there is an indefinite number of such moving disc continuous to one another. E=K H L V WHERE K = a constant ……… (I) Our disc liquid is a conductor obeying the general requirements of Faraday’s Law.) © PMI. the diameter of the disc. by Faraday’s Law of indication.m.f. when an electrical conductor of length L moves through a magnetic field of strength H at a velocity V in a direction at right angles both to the magnetic field and its length. Now. we have the equivalent of a conducting liquid stream flowing continuously through the pipe (see Fig. is generated of value. NTPC 81 .

E=CQ C being a general constant.... (II) Alternatively.. (IV) © PMI... since Q = V A where A is the area of the pipe.... ...... (III) . provided we can physically measure E. Thus.. a very simple means of determining the flow rate of liquids in pipes is available.. NTPC 82 ......The stream will satisfy the following equation E=KHVd In (II) d is constant and if H remains constant E=KV Where K = a general constant .

4. The normal design is not suitable for hazardous areas. sewage. is at all points proportional to the velocity of flow across the diameter. The measuring instrument can be arranged with a centre zero for measuring flow in either direction. Alternatively the electrode leads may be changed over to measure a reverse flow. 2. This results in a range ability of the order of 100/1.f. 6. 5. cement slurries.ADVANTAGES OF THE ELETRO-AGNETIC Flowmeter 1. since the e. 3. DISADVANTAGES OF THE ELCROMAGNETIC FLOWMETER 1. forming the meter. The only pressure loss is that due to the length of tube. Abrasion may be avoided by choosing a suitable lining material. © PMI.m. But a pressure loss would be present with the same length of ordinary pipe so that the introduction of the meter cannot be said to involve significant additional pressure losses. There is no obstruction to flow which renders the meter suitable for liquids containing suspended matter. 2. It is not affected by velocity profiles. Wood pulp and paper mill stocks. food pulp are but a few difficult fluids which may be metered. The design lends itself to the metering of corrosive liquids since parts on contact with the fluids may be made of corrosion-proof materials. Linear relation between flow rate and measuring signal as compared with the square law relation of differential pressure devices. It is not suitable for measuring gas or vapour flows. NTPC 83 .

Balls and K. t. 35 in which a fluid is flowing at a velocity V a transducer T1 transmits a beam of sound to receiving transducer T2 situated at a distance d downstream. whilst V for most industrial application would be a few metres/ sec equation (III) then reduce to Vd t = ………….. significant errors may be introduced. A meter has been constructed of 1/10 in. Consider Fig. a typical large diameter meter has been 42 in. is given by = ----------C+V ………. 4. C (C + V) C for most fluids is of the order of 1500 meters/sec. Liquids to be metered must be conductors of electricity. C2 …………. NTPC 84 . to = d/c Vd t = …………. 5. The readings are unaffected by increases in conductivity above the minimum value.3.. Brown. covering a range 500 to 50. ULTRASONIC FLOWMETER 1.000 gal/min.W.J. In contrast. (IV) …………. If concentric build up of deposit of much different conductivity to that of the liquid takes place. (III) ………… (II) The difference between t and to. Note that it is possible for non conductive deposits to insulate the electrodes.2 gal/min. Where the concentric deposit is of the same conductivity as the metered liquid the meter continuous to read correctly. diameter with a flow range 0. There is minimum value of conductivity which is related to the lengths of the cable leads to amplifiers and the size of the meter. t the time for sound to travel from T1 to T2 is d t with no flow. (I) © PMI. but decreases cause the meter to read flow. If C is the speed of sound through still fluid.002 to 0. Values will be found in the paper by B.

The time for the beam to travel from T1 to T2 is © PMI. To eliminate to. But it involves a knowledge of to. and C. 35 may be used. NTPC 85 . This suggest that t could provide a measurement of V. both being of the same frequency. are installed in the pipe. which varies with temperature and pressure. the differential arrangement shown in Fig. A beam of sound is transmitted from T1 to T2 downstream and from T3 to T4 upstream.1. not readily measurable. Two sets of transducers. 2. the distance between T1 and T2 and T3 and T4 being d. T1 and T2 and T3 and T4.

... the transmitting transducers are driven from a common source and the phase difference between the two received signals measured.. This can be eliminated if the methods of Fig... The phase difference Ø is given by 2 wvd Ø = ---------------C2 Where W = the angular frequency..... (X) The pulse repetition frequency is f1 and since f1 = I / t1 C+V f1 = ------------d .. ...... (VII) can be reduced to 2Vd t = ----------------------C2 3. In the latter case.... Observe that it all the methods considered.. (VI) If (V) is small compared with C.. (IX) 4. The time between pulses is d t1 = --------------C+V . (VIII) The measurement of t now involves some problems. (XI) © PMI.... (VII) .. (V) C+V Where C = the velocity of sound under the temperature and pressure conditions existing in the pipe....d t1 = --------------. 35 is adopted.... C the velocity of sound is present. The arrival of the pulse from T2 triggers another one from T1..... and from T3 to T4.... NTPC 86 .. d t2 = ------------C–V The difference between t1 and t2 is 2 Vd t1 = t2 = t = -------------------C2 – V2 ...... It may be solved by pulse techniques or a continuous wave beam may be used. A short pulse is emitted from transducer T1 and is received by T2...... .

(XII) f1 – f 2 = f = 2 V / d Equation (XIII) is independent of C... 2... It can be shown that a beam of sound can be deflected in the downstream direction in the traversing a pipe from one to the other. Measurements of Ø above 2 n are not desirable..(XIII) A further techniques used has been a differential arrangement across the pipe. . In the phase difference method the phase difference is given by Ø = 2 WVd / C . already we have two conflicting factors.A similar pulse is transmitted from T3 to T4 and calling the repetition frequency here f2. .... care must be taken to avoid coupling between neighboring circuits carrying frequencies relatively close to one another.... 5... © PMI. C-V f2 = -------------d . This is a function of the velocity of sound in the liquid. (XIV) Which of the methods outlines is most suitable for industrial applications? There are several factors to consider. 1.... but Ø should be as large as possible below this limit. from the point of view of interpretation.. There is yet a third effect: that of the beam width... But the higher frequency the greater the attenuation since it is a function of the square of the frequency... The deflection x is approximately given by x=Vd/C ... NTPC 87 . the radiating area of the transducer and the operating frequency... There may have to be a compromise between all the factors involved. Thus. (XV) Ø is proportional to the operating frequency W and is suggests that W should be as high as possible... In the frequency difference method.

3. e. may not be sufficient for accurate measurement. The beam deflection method suffers from the fact that the deflection is proportional to flow rate and at low flow rates.The frequency difference f is dependent on the flow rate V and may be of extremely low value. 10 c/s or 20 c/s unless the flow rate is relatively high.g. NTPC 88 . © PMI.

i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) The accuracy required The range of temperature The corrosive action of the process media on the sensing element The catalytic phenomena of the sensing element on measuring media. © PMI. Therefore there exist some observable properties of the substance which change with its energy content. The layout conditions and restrictions Facilities available for the calibration of the instrument THEORY OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT Temperature rise in a substance is due to the resultant increase in modular activity of the substance on application of heat which increases the internal energy of the material. Temperature Measurement and Measuring Instruments Several methods are available to measure the temperature. testing bodies either in the form of solids liquids or gases expand almost proportional to the rise of temperature and this principle is utilized in various thermometers. Appropriate method is to be selected for any particular measurement. The temperature measurement is based on this very fact. The selection of the type of measurements is based on the following consideration. THERMAL EXPANSION OF TESTING BODIES On application of heat.7. NTPC 89 . and it is called the testing body while the system itself is called the hot body. The changes may be observed in the substance which itself or in a subsidiary system in thermodynamic equilibrium with it.

One end of the coil is fixed on to the bulb to be used as a test body and the other and free to move carrying the pointer over a scale calibrated in degrees. Two or more layers of metallic alloys having different co-efficients of thermal expansions are coiled in the form of (a) spiral (b) helical or (c) multiple helical depending upon the range temperature. A simple bimetallic strip composed of a layer of brass (high expanding material) and a layer of invar (low expanding material) will deflect when subjected to a change of temperature and if the strip is coiled its angular motion will be given by CTL/t where C=length of strip in CMS and t=thickness in CMs Fig .36 shows the typical bimetallic gauge. NTPC 90 .EXPANSION OF SOLIDS The expansion of solids is utilized by means of bimetallic strip to measure temperatures. © PMI.

36 EXPANSION OF LIQUIDS Changes in volume of a liquid by the application of heat enclosed in a test body is utilised to measure the quantity of temperature. metaxylene for medium range temperature. The liquids normally used are. FIGURE NO. mercury and hydro-carbons such as ethylalcohol.SPIRAL (a) SINGLE HELIX (b) PRINCIPAL TYPES OF ELEMENTS USED IN BIMETAL THERMOMETERS (A) FLAT SPIRAL (B) SINGLE HELIX (C) MULTIPLE HELIX. © PMI. NTPC 91 . for low temperature. tetrahydro naphthalene (tetralene) for higher temperature.

then on any change in ambient temperature. The chamber contains a core of Invar having negligible co-efficient of expansion. the volume of the angular space. bulb). The entire system is filled completely with the liquid at 0o C at high pressure of the order of 1000 PSI. COMPENSATING LINK This method used two metals with different co-efficients of expansions. The liquid filled system. This bourdon is made to act on the instrument points in an opposite sense to that of the main bourdon. The wall of the chamber is made of the steel material. DOUBLE CAPILLARY The second method used a second capillary of the same diameter as the first one filled with the same liquid under the same condition.The test bodies (bulb) are either glass or of steel material. © PMI. means of connecting these two and a device for measuring and indicating. bellow of diaphragm). a short solid stem is also used.e. When the temperature rises. consists of an element sensitive to temperature change (i. the volume of the liquid increases thereby tending to enlarge the enclosure. NTPC 92 . The liquids filled in a bulb from which a capillary is drawn which ends in a bourden or bellow or a diaphragm. The space between the core and the wall is filled with the system liquid. As a result a mechanical motion is achieved which is transmitted to the dial indication by lever arrangement or rack and pinion arrangement. due to the expansion of the outer wall is sufficient to accommodate any variation in volume of the liquid in the capillary and so prevent it exerting an effect on the bourdon tube. There is also a possibility that the metal enclosed (bulb & capillary) also may increase in volume due to thermal expension which will add to the error of the system. To remove this error. This second capillary and is sealed off without the bulb and run along the first capillary and connected to a second bourdon. Instead of capillary connection. If the size of the chamber and volume of the Invar material are carefully proportioned. Instead in the capillary as a link-chamber. a compensation means is provided. an element sensitive to volume change (bourden.

EXPANSION OF VAPOUR This works on the basic principle that all enclosed liquids at a given temperature will create a definite vapour pressure if the liquid is only partially filled. Rest of the system is the same as the liquid filled system and here the bourdon becomes sensitive to pressure changes. The bulb is evacuated and filled by the gas at a required pressure and then the system is sealed. EXPANSION OF GASES Here the changes in pressure of the gases filled in test bodies (bulbs) of constant volume on changes of temperature is utilised as means of measurement of the temperature. Therefore the pressure of the gas is proportional to the temperature. II. NTPC 93 . Therefore for higher range smaller bulb volume is required. response time and accuracy are comparable with other methods. of temperature measurements. The gas used normally is nitrogen.Since both capillaries and bourdon tubes are subjected to the same conditions it can be seen that the ambient temperature effect in the main system is counteracted by that of the second system. This leads to varying bulb sizes for various ranges. Bulb Design All manufacturers keep the change of bourdon volume for all ranges in their production a constant for commercial reasons. The system works on the gas law PV= RT. Sensitity. Simple and self contained system. This vapour pressure will increase with temperature and this property is utilized in measurement. III. © PMI. The advantages of the filled system are: I. No auxiliary power needed for the operation of these instruments.

The system has the following shortcoming too : I. II. Limited up to certain temperature say upto 500o C. Bulb size is too large to be accommodated in similar space for example to measure the bearing temperature winding temperature etc. III. IV. In case of failure the entire system are to be changed. Remote indication and other telemetering are impracticable.

THERMO ELECTRICITY
Thermocouples
Thermocouple consists of two wires of suitable materials which are joined together at the end by twisting together and then joining the tipe by brazing or welding. The wires selected should have the following characteristics. i. They must physically withstand the temperature for which they are selected, rapid changes in temperature and the effect of corrosive atmospheres. ii. iii. Their composition should not change at this temperature range. They should posses reasonably liner temperature e.m.f relation ships throughout the range. iv. They should develop an e.m.f per degree change of temperature that is detectable with standard measuring equipment. v. They should not change its characteristics by physical fatigue caused by some materials. Very few combination of wires are developed so far satisfying the above conditions. They are:

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a.

Iron-Constant Type J range up to 760 o C Composition of constantan (equivalent to that of copel) Cu. 56-57% Ni 43-44% constantan has got bright appearance and non-magnetic.

b.

Chromel Alumel Type K range upto 1260 o C composition: Chromel : Ni; 89% Cr. 9.8% Fe 1% Cobalt 0.2% Dull appearance, non-magnetic Alumel : Ni 94.5% Al 2% s 1.0%., Mn 2.5% Glossy surface and slightly magnetic.

c.

Copper Constantan Type T range - 180 o C to +370 o C

d.

Chromel Copel Type E range 0-870 o C

e.

Platanium –R Hodium – Platinum Range 0-1480 o C with 10% Rhodium type S and with 13% Rhodium type R.

Selection of Thermocouple Wire Size And Length
Though there is no general rule for the selection of wire size but, it is suggested to select a smaller gauge wire where sensitivity is desired and heavier size wire is preferred for longer life and higher temperature applications. The length also should be sufficient to minimize the effect of condition. Insufficient insertion causes low readings. Though there is no rule for length a conventional method is devised that the length should be 4 times outer dia or protecting tube.

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Protecting Tube
Maximum accuracy and sensitivity are obtained if we use bare THERMOCOUPLE wires. But the possibilities of corrosive action and mechanical injuries call for a protecting tube thermocouple both metallic and ceramic tubes are used.

Extension Wire
Since it becomes extremely costly to take the thermocouple wires up to the measuring instrument located at far of places some substitute wires are used to connect the thermocouples to the instruments. These wires posses the same characteristics as that of thermocouple wires but up to a lesser temperature. These wires are termed as compensating leads. Also ordinary copper wires are used as extension wires after compensating the e.f.m. at the thermocouple terminals, the difference in temperature of the terminals and the cold junction using a bridge circuit utilizing the law of intermediate temperatures. Cold junction compensation circuit is a wheat stone bridge consisting of three arms with constant resistance of mangan due to the temperature changes and the fourth arm with copper wire wound resistance which is sensitive to temperature. This bridge is supplied with 4 volt D.C and is balanced at the temperature of reference junction (say at 27oC) when the temperature change unbalance occurs due to change in resistance copper wire across diagonal which adds or substracts the thermocouple e.m.f. accordingly. Other method of providing cold junction compensation are by means of constant temperature oven or ice box in which the reference junctions are kept inside a constant temperature oven.

Resistance Thermometers
The material selected for resistance thermometers should have the following properties: i) ii) iii) iv) Stable temperature-resistance relationship. The specific resistance should be within the limit for easy construction. Little change in the resistance due to non- temperature methods such as strains etc. Change in resistance w.r.t temperature should be large.

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v) Commercially available with consistent quality.0066 ohm/ohm (oC) Copper Resistance Thermometers It has got a linear characteristics.38 micro-cm. specific resistance of copper is very less of the order of 1. It’s usage is restricted to jobs that cannot be properly handled by the other two types of thermometers. Temperature co-efficient 53 ohm. NTPC 97 . Platinum Resistance Through costly platinum is more suitable than either copper or nickel.38 microohm-cm Temperature co-efficient 0.00385 ohm/ohm oC © PMI. They are Nickle. Three resistance thermometers are available having above properties. Copper and Platinum. Specific resistance 9. NICKEL RESISTANCE THERMOMETERS Its characteristics are not linen throughout the range but is frequently used to its specific resistance and less cost specific resistance 6. Temperature Co-efficient ..56 micro ohm-cm.

Copper or Nickel element wound on an ebonite plate or on mental mendral. Deflection galvanometer type. Cross coil indicators (CI) called ratiometer. b. Measuring Circuits The change in resistance of the temperature sensitive resistance element can be measured by: i. Null balance method. ii.Construction Details The different types of wires are employed in different way depending upon the ranges and the measuring media normally wire size 0. Ratiometer The ratiometer consists of two crossed moving coiled placed in the field of permanency magnet at an angle of 20oC approximately and connected detector of a wheat stone bridge with the resistance thermometer constructing its own arm. NTPC 98 . The sheath is provided with a head and cover where the block is kept. i. The current flowing through the crossed coils create deflecting and restoring moments. Wheat stone bridge a. © PMI. ii. The change in resistance of thermometer with temperature causes change in current through the crossed coil producing deflecting moment to the pointers in such a way that the deflection is a function of ratio of the two currents and measures the temperature on the scale. iv.07 mm dia is used. The sensing elements wound as above are provided with porcelain beads. and inserted inside a protecting sheath and the terminals brought to the porcelain blocks.05 top 0. Coiled wires mounted on ceramic mendrals and casted in ceramic. Platinum wire element wound on mica strip and protected by the mica strip. iii. The coiled element wound on a mica cross.

To lead in and out the currents through the coils and to bring the pointer to zero in off conditions – two hair springs are connected. At balance the pointer coupled to the servomotor indicate the temperature value. Null Balance Method: In the null balance instruments. NTPC 99 . See Fig. is fed to a phase sensitive amplifier and after amplification feeds to the control winding of the servomotor which operates and adjust the slider to balance the bridge. See Fig. Wheat Stonebridge a. 40 © PMI. the unbalance voltage across the bridge which is proportional to the change in resistance. 39.

b. In order to eliminate the error. © PMI. Since the lead wire will be of copper which has high temperature co-efficient. Compensation for Lead Wire Resistance Since the resistance element is generally far away from the secondary instrument. NTPC 100 . it will cause an appreciable error in the readings. the resistance of the lead wire also will be included alongwith the element resistance to the arm. Deflection Galvanometer Types Here the unbalance is directly fed to galvanometer whose deflection is proportional to the change of temperature and calibrated in terms of temperature. 3 wire or 4 wire systems are employed which include the lead wire resistance in the opposite arms and thus cancels the effects.

This thermopile generates an e. This e. It is very difficult to maintain the reference junction temperature constant since it is in the instruments which has many heat dissipation. Radiation Pyrometer The radiation from the target a portion of the object whose temperature is being measured is focussed by lens arrangement on thermopile (a number of small thermocouples connected in series).100oC to +450oC. Also compensation cannot be practically provided perfectly.000. and high sensitivity have become more versatile tool for temperature measurement. stability. But in resistance thermometer the measurement of temperature is absolute measurement.f fed to a millivolmeter or poteniometer which indicates the temperature. The radiation pyrometer is ideally suited for – © PMI. iron etc.Advantage of Resistance Thermometers Over Thermocouples i. Optical Pyrometer The radiant energy is measured by photometric comparison of the relative brightness of the object of unknown temperature with a source of standard brightness such as the tungsten filament of an electric lamp. ii. Thermocouples requires that the reverence junctions temperature should be maintained constant or a suitable compensation is to be applied.m.000 from . It is very difficult to applied. thermistors due to their thermoresistive characteristics. Resistance thermometer have greater sensitivity because the change of resistance per o C is much larger hence is more easily measured than the microscopic change of voltage per oC in thermocouples Disadvantages Thermistors are semi conductor material having resistance values which vary by a ratio of 10. Their temperature co-efficient varies from 1 to 5 per oC the semi-conducting materials of which the thermistors made are metal oxides and their mixtures like oxides of cobalt copper. NTPC 101 .m. and no reference is required.f proportional to them amount of energy falling upon.

Where furnace atmosphere is detrimental to thermocouples and cause erratic measurement and short life. This property is utilised to measure the temperature. Vapourisation Method Vapourisation temperature of different volatile liquid are different. Where for other reasons. temperature beyond the practical beyond the practical range for thermocouple measurement. takes placed at a fixed temperature and this property thus gives a method to measure the temperature. CHANGE OF STATE OF TESTING BODIES For pure chemical element or compounds change of state viz from solid to liquid to gaseous etc. © PMI. Fusion Method Fusion of different metals takes place at different temperature. Pyrometric comes are made for different temperature and ar placed inside the furnace which will indicate the temperature when the rated fusion temperature is attained.i) ii) iii) When very high temperature are involved. it is impractical to contact the material whose temperature is to be measured. NTPC 102 .

Butane. Ether.TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT Thermal Expansion of Test Bodies Expansion of Expansion Expansion of Expansi solids of liquids gases on of vapour Biometalic Thermometer s .Nickle to -70 oC 150 oC 500 oC to 6000 oC 0-300 oC to 0-300 oC © PMI. o o -39 C + 600 -85 C to280 -85 oC to +340 o o o C C C Change of electric Resistance Resistance Thermometer s Platinum -182 oC 630 oC Thermistors Radiation Pyrometers Intensity of Total Radiation Optical Pyrometer Fusible Theromoters -40 oC -1300 oC Lence Type 500 oC 2000 oC Pyrometric Cones 600 oC 2000 oC Photocell Pyrometer 150-2000 oC Other Types Colour Change Indicator 100 oC 800 oC Copper to 200 oC 150 oC . NTPC 103 .65 oC to 540 o C Mercucy Hydrocarbo filled n filled Thermometer Ntrogen filled 130 oC to 670 o C Thermal Electricity Thermo couple Type-I Type-K Type-S Type-R Iron Chromel Platinum P1 87% Rho 13% Constanat Alumel 1480 Rohdium 10% Platinum an 1260 oC 1480 oC o 760 C Type-E Chromel Copel 870oC Methyle chloride. Hexane. Toluene etc.

In most cases this conversion is achieved with the use of a transducer known as flapper/nozzle. have already overtaken pneumatic systems and are now used for most applications previously considered to be the duty of their pneumatic counterpart. exhaust faster than it can pass through the restrictor. This will result in gauge reading zero.5 bar. where transmission lags are small due to the size of the loop. Electrical instrument systems. accepted when the prevailing conditions make electrical systems unacceptable. NTPC 104 . Pneumatic instruments also find service in the smaller one off control system. Air is supplied at a pressure of 1.8. 41. however. FLAPPER/NOZZLE Pneumatic instruments relay on the accurate conversion of mechanical movement to a proportional pneumatic signal. in fact. © PMI. /see Fig. with fast response times and ease of installation. The slow response and costly installation problems of a pneumatic system are. Due to the fact that the nozzle orifice is three times larger than that the restrictor orifice air can. Pneumatic Instrument INTRODUCTION Pneumatic instrument systems were the main method of controlling and monitoring industrial plant.

NTPC 105 . It follows that movement of the measuring element changes the flapper relative to the nozzle and will. change the air output pressure in a similar manner to that shown in the graph (Fig. the pressure will build up to the supply pressure and be indicated on the gauge. In actual practice the flapper would be connected through some form of linkage to the measuring element and it would be the movement of the measuring element that moved the flapper. © PMI. 41). therefore.If the flapper is now positioned so as to seal off the nozzle.

6 bar is again obtained. This technique is used extensively in pneumatic proportional control. and the air supply suddenly increased. If the measuring element is in the position where the out put pressure should be 0. POSITION BALANCE – PRINCIPLE The flapper now flat and can be moved by the feedback bellows are well as the measuring element. The feedback can be used to oppose the measuring element force (force balance) or it can be used to change the position of the flapper relative to the nozzle (position balance). but the increase in pressure would expands the bellows. for instance any change in supply pressure would affect the output pressure and also since the amount of flapper movement is so small even the slightest amount of wear on pivots or linkages would render the system useless. Assume the measuring element moves the flapper towards the nozzle. As shown Fig. The upper end of the flapper will. This increases the amount of measuring element movement needed to give the complete range of output pressure and gives a proportional relationship between measuring element movement and the corresponding output pressure. the output pressure would tend to increase. The difficulties may be overcome by the use of negative feedback bellows. be moved away from the nozzle and the effective movement of the flapper about the nozzle is reduced. 42 © PMI. While in principle the single flapper/nozzle is an effective transducer it does have some serious drawbacks. No. Small changes in supply pressure will not effect the output. therefore. the actual movement/pressure change ratio will depend upon nozzle and restrictor sizes but is usually about 0. Provided the flapper nozzle output is restricted to the straight line portion of the graph we can say that output will be proportionately to measuring element movement.6 bar for example.The flapper movement required to change the output from maximum to minimum is very small. the output pressure will increase and the feedback bellows will expand.02 mm. NTPC 106 . pushing the flapper away from the nozzle until 0.

as in the position balance. to move the flapper. NTPC 107 . The force created by the feedback bellows is used to oppose the force of the measuring element. this would result in an increased output. See Fig. The increase in output would also cause the feedback bellows to expand until the force created by it balances the force of the measuring element.FORCE BALANCE PRINCIPLE The force balance principle also uses negative feedback but not. 43 © PMI. No. Consider a change in the measured variable that causes the flapper to move closer to nozzle. when at such time there will be no further increase in pressure and hence no further increase in output.

until equilibrium is again established.When the movement of the measuring element cause the flapper to move away from the nozzle the drop in pressure cause the feedback bellows to reduce the force in opposition to the measuring element force. NTPC 108 . all the air supply must come from it and the inflation and deflation of the various volumes (receiving elements and pipe works) may © PMI. this is intended to reduce any lag or sensitivity which the introduction of the feedback bellows may produce. If the nozzle alone carries out the transmitting operation. RELAY VALVES OR AMPLIFIERS (BOOSTER RELAYS) All flapper and nozzle systems are usually operated together with a relay valve. and it is also necessary where a large volume of air is involved in connecting pipework to the secondary element.

e. b. again creating a loss of sensitivity. getting to the receiver. continuous bleed type non-bleed type Continuous Bleed Repay (Reverse Acting) The nozzle pressure enters the diaphragm chamber and adjusts the position of the valve in relation to the valve seats of the valve chamber. therefore. A relay valve is. causing delay in the signal. 44 © PMI. In general use there are two basic forms of relays.take some time. See Fig. The air continuously escapes via the vent and the rate of leakage determines the back pressure in the output chamber and thus the output pressure will increase as the nozzle pressure decreases. therefore. used to improve the response factor and it is also a pneumatic amplifier of volume as well as sometimes a pressure amplifier i. the variation in output pressure and quantity of air may be greater but proportional to flapper and nozzle movement. NTPC 109 . a.

If the nozzle pressure increases the force on the diaphragm moves the double seat valve to the left.Continuous Bleed Replay (Direct Acting) The nozzle pressure enters the diaphragm chamber and adjusts the position of the double seat valve in relation to the valve seats of the valve chamber. This results in the output pressure increasing proportionately. with both the reverse and direct acting continuous bleed relay. © PMI. A drop in nozzle pressure would cause the double seat valve to move to the right.5 cubic feet/minute and can be overcome by the use of a non-bleed type relay. this seals off the supply and causes a drop in the output. excess pressure vents through the vent hole. See Fig. follows that any increase in nozzle pressure results in an increased output. Typically this will be about 0. Non-Bleed Relay The noozle pressure is applied to the exterior of the large outer bellows. NTPC 110 . output pressure is maintained by venting excess air to atmosphere there is a continuous consumption of air. It therefore. 45 Since.

The control line pressure is exerted on the interior of the small bellows ‘B’ and when the forces due to the two are equal, a balanced condition exists. The relay flapper ‘C’ the covers both the exhaust nozzle ‘D’ and the supply nozzle ‘E’.See Fig. 46.

If the primary nozzle pressure increases the larger bellows are deflected downwards carrying with it the smaller inner bellows. Exhaust nozzle ‘D’ forces the flapper ‘C’ away from month of the supply port ‘E’, but remains closed itself. Air is admitted to the control line and the interior of ‘B’. The force supplied to ‘B’ increases and the bellows assembly is now moved upwards until ‘C’ is back to its original position and the support ‘E’ is closed. With a decrease of primary pressure the outer bellows move upward taking below ‘B’ upwards. The exhaust nozzle now comes into operation because of its mouth is uncovered in the action of moving away from ‘C’ relay flapper. Air bleeds away from the interior of bellows ‘B’ and also the control line via port ‘F’. Pressure is reduced and the bellow assembly begins to move downwards until nozzle ‘D’ meets the relay flapper ‘C’ and the exhaust passage is closed. With this type of relay it should be noted that a dead spot may occur if a spring type of relay flapper ‘C’ is used to provide a positive closing force on the two ports ‘D’ and ‘E’. Any increase in primary nozzles pressure must overcome this spring pressure and so tend to reduce the response time of the relay. In practice this is reduced to minimum by using an outer bellows of an area as large as possible.

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ELECTRICAL/PNEUMATIC CONVERSION
Because of the modern trend towards electronic control and display equipment it is frequently necessary to convert pneumatic signals to a proportional electrical signal or to convert an electrical signal to a proportional pneumatic signal. This is achieved by the use of a pneumatic/electrical converter as shown in fig. 47.

Electro pneumatic converts are also used where transmission signals cover great distances or to improve response times of existing pneumatic equipment.

THE FIELDEN E/P CONVERTER
This Fielden E/P converter is a force balance device without feedback. Because of the lack of feedback the setting up of the nozzle is critical. The device is supplied with air at 1.5 bar and has restrictor and nozzle size ratios similar to be a conventional flapper nozzle system i.e. 3:1.

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The beam is pivoted at one end whilst the other end is attached to a permanent magnet, the plug of the primary valve is also connected to the bream. Zero adjustment is achieved by varying the spring tension and positioning the primary valve plug relative to its seat (nozzle). Current is applied to the coil and a magnetic field is set up, (the strength of which depends upon the valve of current) the permanent magnet is forced down which brings the primary valve closer to its seat, pressure builds up and forces the diaphragm down which seals off the exhaust valve and opens the secondary valve, resulting in an increase in output pressure. If the value of current falls the permanent magnet will rise relieving the pressure on top of the diaphragm which closes the secondary valve in. Excess pressure is vented through the exhaust, resulting in a drop in pressure. Oil damping is provided on the magnet to give smooth operation. See fig., 48.

DIAPHRAGM AIR MOTORS
It consists of a motor unit which contains a flexible diaphragm. The diaphragm virtually seals the chamber into two parts, the upper sections receiving the pneumatic signals from the controller via the air input. The input signals deflect the diaphragm which is fixed to the thrust plate. The spindle attached to the thrust Plate extends downwards into the body of the valve. The deflection is opposed by the range spring whose, rating determines the extent of travel of the spindle for a given pressure range and effective diaphragm area. Since the spindle is connected to the valve plugs we have the means of automatically adjusting the orifice area in response to

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A theoretical type of cylinder positioning. 50. See Fig. NTPC 114 . in practice it is seldom done without using some form of feedback.action from the controller and thereby altering the flow of the medium through the valve. without feedback as shown in Fig. © PMI. 49 PNEUMATIC CYLINDER MOTORS Although position control of pneumatic cylinders is possible.

© PMI. The quality of control will be impaired if any force. THE VALVE POSITIONER The primary function of a valve positioner is to ensure that the control valve plug position is always directly proportional to the value of the controller output pressure. A control valve must be capable of responding smoothly and rapidly to small changes in the controller output signal. The air operated pressure regulator will accept inputs between 0. The system can be either a position or force balance system but in practice force balance systems are more common. It follows. therefore. This is usually achieved by incorporating a feed back lever that acts in opposition to the movement to the input bellows.The output pressure of the regulator is fixed at say 3 bar. Positioners can be incorporated into diaphragm. The range of output would be dependent upon piston specification and condition and would. regardless of glad friction. 51. or cylinder type actuators. that by varying the pressure on top of the piston we can effectively position the piston rod anywhere within its length of travel. that due to friction of working parts. This can be overcome by emplying mechanical feedback in the form of a positioner. oppose the movement of the spindle and the valve plug. for example. NTPC 115 . therefore. 1 bar input resulting in 3 bar output. actuator hysteresis. off-balance of forces on the valve plug etc. be set up in situ.2 and 1 bar. See fig.

mechanical feedback then restores the equilibrium. unbalancing the spool of the pilot valve. the pilot valve spool is attached to the bellows via a connecting link. 52 and 53. Thus the force applied to move the valve spindle is sufficient to overcome the effect of all forces. Air is then admitted to the top of the piston and it begins to move down. no matter what the origin. This output pressure continuous to increase until the valve spindle moves. Assume that the system is in equilibrium and then the controller output increases slightly. Positioners incorporate into pneumatic cylinders generally operated on a pilot valve principle of which two are shown in Fig. © PMI. which tend to oppose the spindle movement. KENT MARK IV The controller output acts upon the bellows. NTPC 116 . The system is the back in equilibrium. In doing so it takes the cam with it. Assuming an increase in the controller output the bellows will expand. An equalizing valve is included to enable manual positioning of the piston.The controller output signal does not directly actuate the valve stem but is fed to a bellows unit. as the cam moves down the bell crank level turns about its pivot and through the spring opposes the movement of the bellows and restores the spool of the pilot valve to its original position. Without the positioner the slight change in controller output signal may have been too small to initiate any corrective action/ The matching of input signal range to valve travel range is achieved by changing the ratio of bellows/nozzle distance to feedback arm/nozzle distance. The flapper is moved towards the nozzle and the relay output pressure beings to increase.

therefore. Assuming an increase in the controller output the bellows will expand and push the pilot beam up against the restraining force of the spring. this results in the positioner drive arm turning the cam which puts more tension on the spring and so restores the pilot beam to its original position. begins to move down. This unbalances the pilot valve and causes ait to be admitted to the top of the piston. NTPC 117 . © PMI. The piston.BAILEY CONTROL DRIVE The controller output acts on the bellows the spool of the pilot valve is attached to the pilot beam at one end whilst the other end is anchored and pivoted.

Since the pneumatic cylinder is by far the simplest form actuator it shall be used as the basis for the following notes. diaphragm valves. In pneumatic sequenced control compressed air can provide power through either linear motion or rotary motion i. in this case a spring. the return or in stroke (-) is achieved by mechanical means. Once the pressure has been removed.With this type air is used to make the unit out stroke or extend (+). pneumatic cylinders or air motors. The actual even is usually the carrying out of some physical work utilising the movement of an actuator. NTPC 118 . TYPES OF CYLINDER The simplest type is the single acting cylinder (Figure 54). although the principle can be applied to any actuator.e.PNEUMATIC SEQUENCE CONTROL Sequence control is essentially the carrying out of a series events in a logical progressive manner. The cylinder can be air to extend © PMI.

if air is applied to P1 (with P2 open to exhaust) the piston will outstroke (+). In order that damage may not be cased by sudden contract between the fast moving piston and the cylinder end housing. B and C which operate in the sequence A+. some form of buffer or cushioning can be used. In the double acting cylinder.(application of a signal will push the piston out) or air to retract (application of a signal will push the piston in). there may be three cylinders A. and if air is applied to P2 (with P1 open to exhaust) the piston will in-stroke (-). piston speeds can be in the order of 450 mm/sec. The symbols + and – are often used as a shorthand notation to indicate movement of the cylinder. and impact forces at the ends of the stroke can be great. PNEUMATIC CYLINDER CUSHIONING On high pressure systems. C+. © PMI. B+. this is achieved as shown in fig. C-. B-. particularly when describing the sequence of operation of a circuit. This does not limit the piston travel but allows gradual declaration in the last 25 mm or so of travel. 55. A-. For example. NTPC 119 .

However. The two most common types of valve used in sequence control are three port and five port types. therefore. for sequence control applications facility must be made to exhaust any unwanted signal. only escape through the needle valve at a much slower rate thereby causing the piston to slow down for the premium period of travel. 56 SEQUENCE CONTROL VALVES An ordinary on off valve has one inlet and outlet. This results in the cushioning effecting shown in Fig. NTPC 120 . air can. © PMI. When the cushioning boss enters the cushioning seal.As the cylinder outstrokes under the action of applied pressure air is displaced from the other side of the piston to atmosphere through the main part and needle valve. the main port is blocked off.

Compressed air can now be routed through the valve whilst the same time a signal can be exhausted through it. © PMI. The force can be removed and the outlet will remain connected to the air supply. The direction of force will determine the routing of supply and exhaust. the only difference being the use of a three lobe spool. The application of a second force will return the spool to its original condition.THREE PORT RELAYS The basic three port valve consists of a two lobe spool running in a surface ground cylinder. NTPC 121 . compressed air can be switched to the outlet by the application of a force to the spool. FIVE PORT RELAYS The basic construction of the five port relay is the same as the three port relay. main air will then be isolated and the device connected to the outlet will exhaust from part 3.

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