A LEGAL ARSENAL FOR THE PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT

ANTONIO A. OPOSA, JR.

Published by CENTRAL BOOK SUPPLY, INC. 927 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City Philippines

Philippine Copyright, 2008

By

ANTONIO A. OPOSA, JR.

All Rights Reserved

___________________________________

Series No. ______________

ISBN NO. 978-971-691-621-8

Printed by CENTRAL BOOK SUPPLY, INC. 927 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City Philippines

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: TOUR OF THE LEGAL HORIZON
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GOVERNMENT AND LEGAL SYSTEM Overview of the System of Government ................................................................ Hierarchy of Legislation ........................................................................................ Environmental Authorities .................................................................................... RELEVANT PROVISIONS OF THE 1987 CONSTITUTION Preamble ................................................................................................................. National Territory .................................................................................................. Declaration of Principles and State Policies ........................................................ Right to Health (Article II, Section 15) ........................................................ Right to Health is Paramount Over Presumed Economic Benefits ........... (Eduardo F. Hernandez, et al. vs. National Power Corporation) Right to Balanced Ecology (Article II, Section 16) ...................................... Bill of Rights ........................................................................................................... Right to Due Process of Law (Section 1) ...................................................... Right to Privacy (Section 2) .......................................................................... Right of Access to Information ...................................................................... (Valmonte v. Belmonte) Firepower in the Legal Arsenal .................................................................... The Right to Information is Not Discretionary ........................................... (Legaspi v. Civil Service Commission) National Economy and Patrimony ....................................................................... Efficient Use of Resources (Section 1) .......................................................... State Ownership of Natural Resources (Section 2) ..................................... Lands of Public Domain and Classification (Section 3) .............................. Limits of Forest Lands (Section 4) ............................................................... Indigenous Cultural Communities (Section 5) ............................................ Social Function of Property (Section 6) ........................................................ 5 5 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 9 9 11 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 1 1 4

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Social Justice and Human Rights (Article XII)..................................................... Ecological Considerations in Agrarian Reform (Section 4) ......................... Preferential Use of Marine Resources for Subsistence Fishermen (Section 7) .............................................................................................. Health Care and Regulation (Section 11 &12) ............................................ Rights of Women (Section 14) ....................................................................... Role and Rights of People’s Organizations (Section 23 & 15) ..................... Local Autonomy....................................................................................................... GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS Philippine Environmental Policy (PD 1151) ........................................................ Philippine Environment Code (PD 1152) ............................................................. Environmental Impact Statement System (PD 1586) ......................................... Environmentally Critical Areas and Projects (PD 2146) ..................................... Polllution Control Law (PD 984) ........................................................................... Pollution is a Technical Issue ....................................................................... (Mead v. Argel) Cease and Desist Order May Be Issued Without Extensive Hearing ........ (Pollution Adjudication Board v. CA) Unjust Enrichment and the Internalization of Environmental Costs ....... Jurisdiction Over Pollution Case .................................................................. (Technology Developers, Inc. v. CA) Ripe for Judicial Clarification ....................................................................... Philippine Environment Partnership Program (DAO 2003-14) .......................... Toxic Substances and Hazardous Wastes (RA 6969) ........................................... ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION Department of Environment and Natural Resources (EO 192) .......................... CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT (RA 386) Relevance of the Civil Code .......................................................................... Human Relations ........................................................................................... Actionable Acts Contrary to Good Customs.................................................. (Magbanua v. IAC) Nuisance ................................................................................................................. Definition of Nuisance ................................................................................... Public and Private Nuisance ........................................................................

16 16 16 17 17 17 17

17 19 33 35 38 47 49 50 51 54 54 55

64

83 83 85 86 86 86

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Procedure for Abatement of Nuisance ......................................................... Excessive Dust is a Nuisance ....................................................................... (Ernesto R. Rodriguez, Jr., et al. v. IAC) Noise Pollution ............................................................................................... Damages ................................................................................................................. Kinds of Damages .......................................................................................... Actual of Compensatory Damages ............................................................... Other Kinds of Damages ............................................................................... Moral Damages is Awarded on a Case-to-Case Basis ................................. (Filinvest Credit Corporation v. IAC) Only a Wrongrul Act May be Awarded Moral Damages ............................. (R & B Surety & Insurance Co., Inc. v. IAC and Uson) Special Damages ............................................................................................ (Daywalt v. La Corporacion de los Padres Agustinos Recoletos) Quasi-delict ............................................................................................................. The Evidence Speaks for Itself ................................................................... (Africa v. Caltex)

86 88 89 89 90 90 93 96 96 96 97 100

Legal Easements .................................................................................................... 101 Flowing Waters .............................................................................................. 101 Right of Way .................................................................................................. 103 Light and View .............................................................................................. 104 Drainage and Falling Waters ....................................................................... 105 Plantings and Constructions ................................................................................. 105

CHAPTER II: LAND
PROTECTED AREAS National Integrated Protected Areas System Act (RA 7586) .............................. 111 The Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan (RA 7611) ................................ 122 Cave Management Act (RA 9072) ......................................................................... 131 Revised Forestry Code (PD 705) ............................................................................ 136 Timber License is Not a Right ...................................................................... 175 (Felipe Ysmael Jr. & Co. Inc. v. Deputy Executive Secretary) The Right of the Future Generations............................................................ 176 (Minors of the Philippines v. DENR, et al.) Illegal Possession of Lumber ......................................................................... 189 (Mustang Lumber v. CA)

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Replevin in Motor Vehicles Impounded by the DENR................................. 191 (Paat v. CA) Chainsaw Act of 2002 (RA 9175) ........................................................................... 194 PROTECTED SPECIES Conservation and Protection of Wildlife Resources (RA 9147) ........................... 198 Protection of the Philippine Eagle (RA 6147) ....................................................... 214 Protection of Wild Flowers (RA 3983) ................................................................... 215 Prospecting of Biological and Genetic Resources (EO 247) ................................. 218 Tree Planting (PD 953) .......................................................................................... 225 List of Endangered Species (DAO 2004-15) ......................................................... 228 CITES-LISTED SPECIES (APPENDIX I) ........................................................... 230 CITES-LISTED SPECIES (APPENDIX II) .......................................................... 232 AGRICULTURE Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization (RA 8435) ........................................... Philippine Policy on Transgenics(DA-AO No. 8, S. 2002) ................................... High – Valued Crops (RA 7900) ............................................................................ Fertilizers and Pesticides (PD 1144) ..................................................................... Coconut Cutting (RA 8048) .................................................................................... Animal Welfare (RA 8485) ..................................................................................... Regulating the Slaughter of Carabaos (EO 626) .................................................. Plant Quarantine (PD 1433) .................................................................................. LAND TENURE Property Registration Law (PD 1529) .................................................................. 306 Native Title to Land should be recognized by the Government .......................... 307 (Cariño v. Insular Government) Forest Land is Not Disposable ............................................................................... 308 (Republic of the Philippines v. Animas) (Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company v. Manuel Dumyung) Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (RA 6657) ........................................ 308 Cases on Land Reform ........................................................................................... 341 (Vinzons-Magana v. Estrella) (Luz Farms v. Secretary of Agrarian Reform) (Maddumba v. GSIS) (Association of Small Landowners v. Department of Agrarian Reform) Community Based Forest Management (EO 263) ............................................... 343 237 277 277 283 291 294 298 299

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Allocation/Tenure Instruments in Production Forest Lands .............................. 347 Permits Issued for the Utilization of Forest Resources in Production Forest Lands .............................................................................................................. 350 Agreements and Permits Involving Forest Resources in Private Lands ............ 351 MINERALS Small-Scale Mining Program (PD 1899) ............................................................... 352 People’s Small-Scale Mining (RA 7076) ................................................................ 354 Philippine Mining Act (RA 7942) .......................................................................... 362 Mining Agreements May be Changed .......................................................... 393 (Miners Association of the Philippines v. Factoran) The Financial and Technical Assistance Agreement (In Mining) Is Constitutional ................................................................................................ 395 (La Bugal-B’laan Tribal Association, Inc., v. Victor O. Ramos et. al.) ENERGY Department of Energy (RA 7638) .......................................................................... 410 Mini-Hydroelectric Power Developers (RA 7196) ................................................ 422 Non-Conventional Energy Resources (PD 1068) .................................................. 427 Biofuels Act (RA 9367) ........................................................................................... 432 Geothermal Resources (PD 1442) .......................................................................... 440 Geothermal Watersheds (EO 223) ........................................................................ 443 The Stillborn Nuclear Power Plant .............................................................. 445 (Nuclear Free Philippine Coalition v. NPC) Oil Deregulation (RA 8479) ................................................................................... 446 Legality of the Deregulation Policy .............................................................. 459 (Garcia v. Corona) Pilferage of Electricity (RA7832) ........................................................................... 460 Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001 (RA 9136) ...................................... 468 Implementing the Natural Gas Vehicle Program for Public Transport (EO 290) ................................................................................................................. 470 Energy Conservation Program (AO 126) .............................................................. 476

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CHAPTER III:

AIR

CLEAN AIR ACT (RA 8749) ............................................................................................ 481 Innovations of the Clean Air Act ........................................................................... 511 Incineration Ban? ................................................................................................... 512 MMDA v. JANCOM UNAUTHORIZED USE OF SIRENS (PD 96) ..................................................................... 513 ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (PD 78) .................................................................... 515 NOISE STANDARDS .......................................................................................................... 521

CHAPTER IV:
THE SEA

WATERS

Territorial Baselines of the Philippine Archipelago (RA 3046) ........................... 528 Exclusive Economic Zones (PD 1599) ................................................................... 533 Fisheries Code (RA 8550) ...................................................................................... 535 PROTECTED SPECIES Dolphins (FAO No. 185, 1992) ............................................................................... 583 Whale Sharks and Manta Rays (FAO No. 193, 1998) ......................................... 584 Sea Cows (DENR AO No. 55-91) ........................................................................... 586 Seashores and Beach Protection (BP Blg. 265) .................................................... 587 Accretion by the Action of Waves ................................................................. 588 (Heirs of Emiliano Navarro v. IAC, Heirs of Pascual) Accretion Land Belongs to the Littoral Owner ............................................ 590 (Santulan v. Executive Secretary) Jurisdiction Over Illegal Fishing .................................................................. 596 (De Guzman v. Escalona) Arrest Without Warrant ............................................................................... 597 (Republic v. Consino) Legal Pressure Points ............................................................................................ 598 Warrantless Search of a Fishing Vessel ...................................................... 598 (Hizon v. CA) Evidence of Blast-Fishing ............................................................................. 599 (People v. Vergara) Non-Interference by Another Court ............................................................. 600 (Roldan v. Arca)

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Fishery Privileges .......................................................................................... 601 (US v. Hernandez) MARINE PROTECTION ADMINISTRATION Marine Pollution (PD 979) ..................................................................................... 598 Creation of the Philippine Coast Guard (RA 5173) ............................................. 602 Coast Guard Law (PD 601) .................................................................................... 605 Prevention and Control of Marine Pollution (PD 603 as amended by PD 979) ................................................................................................................. 611 Maritime Group (RA 6975) .................................................................................... 615 Maritime Industry Authority (PD 474) ................................................................ 616 FRESH WATER Clean Water Act (RA 9275) ................................................................................... 638 Water Code (PD 1067) ............................................................................................ 663 Metro Manila Council, MMDA Resolution N. 3, S. 1996 ..................................... 683 Civil Code Provisions on Waters (RA 386) ........................................................... 685 The Spanish Law on Waters of 1866 .................................................................... 688 LAGUNA LAKE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (RA 4850) Additional Powers of LLDA (EO 927) ................................................................... 704 Primary Jurisdiction of the Laguna de Bay ......................................................... 709 (LLDA v. CA [1995]) The Ecosystem Approach in Lake Management .................................................. 711 (LLDA v. CA [1995]) Relevant Sections of the Pollution Control Law (PD 984) ................................... 713 Water Classification (DENR AO 34-90) ................................................................ 714 Effluent Regulations (Administrative Order No. 35, 1990) ................................ 724 Local Water Utilities (PD 198) .............................................................................. 737 Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (RA 6234) .............................. 762 WATERWAYS Structures in Navigable Waterways (RA 2056) ................................................... 773 Directing Persons to Renounce Possession of Riverbanks (PD 296) ................... 774 OTHER WATER LAWS Dumping of Wastes that Cause Rising of Riverbeds (CA 383) ............................ 776 National Water CrisisAct(RA 8041) ...................................................................... 777

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Rainwater Collection and Collection and Springs Protection (RA 6716) ........... 782 Irrigation (RA 6978) ............................................................................................... 784

CHAPTER V:

HUMAN HABITAT

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT, SANITATION, AND HYGIENE Solid Waste Management (RA 9003) .................................................................... 791 Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2001 Compliance Matrix ............... 836 A Sanitary Landfill Cannot Be Placed in a Watershed; Environmental Powers of Local Government ........................................................................ 838 (Province of Rizal, et al., Executive Secretary, et al.) Sanitation Code (PD 856) ...................................................................................... 840 LAND USE Environment Code Provisions on Land Use (PD 1152) ....................................... 883 Urban Housing (RA 7279) ..................................................................................... 885 Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (EO 648) ............................................ 903 Delegated Powers to the Local Government Units (EO 72) ................................ 910 Environment Related Provisions of the Building Code (PD 1096) ..................... 913 CULTURAL HERITAGE (CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS) Cultural Properties Preservation and Protection (RA 4846) .............................. 919 National Museum Law (RA 8492) ......................................................................... 924 Declaring Archaeological Reservations (PD 1109 & RA 4368) ........................... 934 National Commission for Culture and the Arts (RA 7356) ................................. 935 Declaring Certain Areas and Sites as National Sites and Shrines (PD 260) ........... 945 National Historical Commission (RA 4368) ......................................................... 946 Cultural Heritage & National Patrimony .................................................... 948 (Manila Prince Hotel v. Government Service Insurance System) Historical Landmark Belongs to Owner, Not the Lessee ........................... 949 (Army and Navy Club v. Court of Appeals, et al.) The Meaning of Cultural Properties ............................................................ 950 (JOYA, et al. v. PCGG, et al.) Public Character of Historical Landmark ................................................... 951 (Manosca v. Court of Appeals)

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CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON HIDDEN TREASURES (RA 386) Indigenous People’s Rights Law (IPRA) ............................................................. Constitutionality of IPRA Law ................................................................... (Cruz v. NCIP) 952 982

CHAPTER VI:
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS

LOCAL GOVERNANCE

Environment-Related Provisions of the Local Government Code (RA 7160) .... Legal Issues ................................................................................................. Shares of Local Government Units in the Proceeds of National Taxes ... Can a Local Government Declare Its Territorial Jurisdiction a NoMining Area?............................................................................................... Role of Local Governments in Environmental Protection (DAO No. 30-92) .. (Tano et al. v. Gov. Socrates, et al.)

987 993 998 1012 1012

Abatement of Public Nuisance by LGU ..................................................... 1024 (Tatel v. Municipality of Virac) Police Powers of the Metro Manila Commission ....................................... 1026 (Sangalang v. IAC) Metro Manila Development Authority (RA 7924) .............................................. 1027 The Present MMDA is Without Police Powers .......................................... 1034 (MMDA v. Bel-Air Village Association, Inc.) Need for a Strong Metropolitan Government ............................................ 1035

CHAPTER VII: THE ECONOMICS OF ECOLOGY
THE PHILIPPINE AGENDA 21 Medium Term Development Plan of the Philippines (2004-2010) .................... 1048 Environmental Investment Incentives ............................................................... 1050 BUILD-OPERATE-AND-TRANSFER (BOT) LAW Authorizing the Construction of Infrastructure Projects by the Private Sector (RA 6957) ................................................................................................... 1051 Implementing Rules of the BOT Law ................................................................. 1055 Small and Medium Enterprise (RA 6977) .......................................................... 1056 Philippine Economic Zone Authority (RA 7916) ................................................ 1058 ENVIRONMENTAL USER FEE SYSTEM IN THE LAGUNA LAKE REGION ...................... 1059 Rules and Regulations (Resolution No. 33) xi

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CHAPTER VIII:

INTERNATIONAL COMMITMENTS

Constitutional Provisions on International Law ............................................... 1073 International Environmental Principles ............................................................ 1074 INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL COMMITMENTS OF THE PHILIPPINES GENERAL AGREEMENTS UN General Assembly Resolution........................................................................ 1076 (http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/c_natres.htm) ................................. 1076 Stockholm Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment ................................................................................................ 1077 (http://www.unep.org/dpdl/Law/PDF/Stockholm_Declaration.pdf) .......... 1077 UN General Assembly Resolution on a World Charter on Nature ................... 1078 (http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/37/a37r007.htm) ............................ 1078 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development ....................... 1079 (http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-1annex1.htm) ..... 1079 Agenda 21 ............................................................................................................. 1079 (http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/documents/agenda21/english/agenda 21 chapter38.htm) ....................................................................................... 1081 THE ATMOSPHERE Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer ............................................. 1081 (http://www.unep.ch/ozone/vc-text.shtml) .................................................. 1081 Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer ...................................... 1081 (http://www.unep.org/ozone/Montreal-Protocol/Montreal-Protoco l2000.shtml) .................................................................................................. 1082 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change ............................................... 1083 (http://unfccc.int/not_assigned/b/items/1417.php) ...................................... 1084 Kyoto Protocol to Climate Change Convention .................................................. 1084 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) .................... 1085 (http://www.pops.int/).................................................................................. 1085 THE HYDROSPHERE The Hydrosphere Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes And Other Matter ...................................................... 1085 http://www.imo.org/Conventions/contents.asp?topic_id=258&doc_id=6 81#8) .............................................................................................................. 1086 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ............................................ 1086 (http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_over view_convention.htm) .................................................................................. 1090 xii

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THE BIOSPHERE Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation, and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests ..................................... 1090 (http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-3annex3.htm) .... 1091 Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage ... 1091 (http://whc.unesco.org/world_he.htm) ........................................................ 1092 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna .................................................................................................... 1092 (http://www.cites.org/) ................................................................................. 1093 Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals .......... 1094 (http://www.cms.int/documents/convtxt/cms_convtxt.htm) ...................... 1094 Convention on Biological Diversity ...................................................................... 1094 (http://www.biodiv.org/convention/default.shtml) ..................................... 1095 ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources .......................................................................................................... 1095 (http://www.aseansec.org/1490.htm) .......................................................... 1096 ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal .......................................................................... 1097 (http://untreaty.un.org/English/TreatyEvent2002/Basel_Conv_16.htm) ...... 1099 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere in Outer Space, and Under Water .............................................................................. 1099 (http://lawofwar.org/space_treaty_banning_nuclear_weapons.htm)......... 1099 IAEA Code of Practice on the International Trans-boundary Movement of Radioactive Waste .................................................................................... 1100 (http://www.iaea.or.at/http://www.globelaw.com/Nukes/iaeacod.htm) ........ 1100 Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage............................................. 1100 (http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Documents/Infcircs/1996/inf500.s html) .............................................................................................................. 1101 Protocol 1 Additional to the General Convention of August 12, 1949 and Relating to the Protection of the Victims of Armed Conflict ..................... 1102 (http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/93.htm) ........................................... 1102 FAO Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides ...................... 1102 (http://www.fao.org/) ..................................................................................... 1104 The Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization ............................ 1104 (http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/04-wto_e.htm) ....................... 1104 World Bank Operational Directive 4.00 Annex A: Environmental Assessment........................................................................................................ 1105 (http://www.worldbank.org/html/oprmanual/ods/400a.html) .................... 1106 xiii

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CHAPTER IX:

MISCELLANEOUS LAWS

RESTRAINING ORDERS AND PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION Prohibiting the Issuance of Restraining Orders and Preliminary Injunction .. 1109 In Government Projects (RA 8975).............................................................. 1109 In Natural Resources Projects (PD 605) ..................................................... 1111 HEALTH, FOOD AND DRUGS Food and Drugs Law (RA 3720) ........................................................................... 1113 Generic Drugs Law (RA 6675).............................................................................. 1134 Occupational Health and Safety (PD 442)........................................................... 1139 Traditional and Alternative Medicine (RA 8423)................................................ 1143 Anti-Smoking Law (RA 9211)............................................................................... 1153 An Act Prohibiting the Manufacture, Importation, Distribution and Sale of Laundry and Industrial Detergents Containing Hard Surfactants (RA 8970) ............................................................................................. 1168 CRIMINAL LIABILITIES Anti-Fencing Law (PD 1612) ................................................................................ 1171 Illegal Possession of Explosives (PD 1866, as amended by RA 8294)................ 1173 Inquest Procedures (DOJ Circular No. 61, 1993)................................................ 1178 Rights of Detained Persons (RA 7438)................................................................. 1184 Obstruction of Justice (PD 1829) ......................................................................... 1187 Witness Protection Program (RA 6981) ............................................................... 1190 GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act (RA 3019) ................................................ 1196 Criminal Liability of the Head of Office...................................................... 1202 (Magsuci v. Sandiganbayan) Guilt Not Based on Presumption ................................................................ 1204 (Arias v. Sandiganbayan). Proof of Actual Damage................................................................................ 1205 (Llorente v. Sandiganbayan) Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials (RA 6713) ............ 1207 Ombudsman Act (RA 6770) .................................................................................. 1216 SAMPLE LEGAL FORMS Letter-Complaint................................................................................................... 1232

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Complaint-Affidavit .............................................................................................. 1233 Notice to Sue for Violation of Solid Waste Management Act ............................. 1237 Affidavit-Complaint for Violation of Solid Waste Management Law ................ 1238 Complaint for the Violation of the Clean Air Act For Mobile Sources .............. 1240 Complaint for the Violation of the Clean Air Act For Stationary Sources ........ 1241 Application for Search Warrant ........................................................................... 1250 Searching Questions ............................................................................................. 1251 Search Warrant ..................................................................................................... 1253 RULES OF COURT Depositions Pending Action.................................................................................. 1255 Depositions Pending Appeal................................................................................. 1260 Interrogatories to Parties ..................................................................................... 1262 Admission by Adverse Party ................................................................................ 1262 Production or Inspection of Things ...................................................................... 1263 Physical and Mental Examination of Persons .................................................... 1263 Refusal to Comply with Modes of Discovery ....................................................... 1265 Libel ...................................................................................................................... 1266 Privileged Communication .......................................................................... 1269 (Alonzo v. CA) Truth as Defense ......................................................................................... 1271 (Vasquez v. CA, RTC Branch 40 and Pp) GUIDELINES IN ADMINISTRATIVE RULE-MAKING Procedural Requirements for the Issuance of Administrative Regulations...... 1274

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TOUR OF THE HORIZON
CHAPTER CONTENTS
GOVERNMENT AND LEGAL SYSTEM Overview of the System of Government, 1 Hierarchy of Legislation, 1 Environmental Authorities, 4 RELEVANT PROVISIONS OF THE 1987 CONSTITUTION

GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS Philippine Environmental Policy, 17 Philippine Environment Code, 19 Environmental Impact Statement System, 33 Environmentally Critical Areas and Projects, 35 Polllution Control Law, 38 (Mead v. Argel) (Pollution Adjudication Board v. CA) (Technology Developers, Inc. v. CA) Toxic Substances and Hazardous Wastes, 55 ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 64 CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT Human Relations, 83 (Magbanua v. IAC) Nuisance, 86 (Ernesto R. Rodriguez, Jr., et al. v. IAC) Damages, 89 Kinds of Damages, 90 (Filinvest Credit Corporation v. IAC) (R & B Surety & Insurance Co., Inc. v. IAC and Uson) (Daywalt v. La Corporacion de los Padres Agustinos Recoletos) Quasi-delict, 97 (Africa v. Caltex) Legal Easements, 101 Flowing Waters, 101 Right of Way, 103 Light and View, 104 Drainage and Falling Waters, 105 Plantings and Constructions, 105

Preamble, 5 National Territory, 5 Declaration of Principles and State Policies, 6 Bill of Rights, 8 Right to Due Process of Law, 8 Right to Privacy, 8 Right of Access to Information, 9 (Valmonte v. Belmonte) (Legaspi v. Civil Service Commission) National Economy and Patrimony, 13 Efficient Use of Resources, 13 State Ownership of Natural Resources, 14 Lands of Public Domain and Classification, 15 Limits of Forest Lands,15 Indigenous Cultural Communities, 15 Social Function of Property, 16 Social Justice and Human Rights, 16 Ecological Considerations in Agrarian Reform, 16 Preferential Use of Marine Resources for Subsistence Fishermen, 16 Health Care and Regulation, 17 Rights of Women, 17 Role and Rights of People’s Organizations, 17 Local Autonomy, 17

CHAPTER 1:

TOUR OF THE HORIZON

Government and Legal System Overview of the System of Government
The Philippines is a republic and is governed by a Constitution enacted in February 1987. The Executive Branch of government is led by a President, who also serves as the head of state. The President is elected by popular vote, without reelection, to a sixyear term of office. The President appoints a cabinet. The bicameral legislative branch consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate consists of twenty-four members, serving six-year terms while the House of Representatives consists of a maximum of 250 members, each serving a three-year term of office. The judicial branch is headed by the Supreme Court, which is composed of a chief justice and fourteen associate justices, all whom are appointed by the country’s President. Other judicial bodies include a court of appeals and, trial courts of the first instance distributed by regions, cities, and municipalities. Hierarchy of Legislation At the national level, there are a number of different legal instruments, each of which is briefly discussed here. Law A law passed by Congress is referred to as a Republic Act (R.A.). The presentation of a bill is initiated either by any, or by both of the legislative chambers (House or Sen1
"Nature is an endless combination and repetition of a very few laws.” — Ralph Waldo Emerson (A. Oposa)

TOUR OF THE HORIZON

ate) or by the executive. The legislative bill is then studied and heard by the committees concerned (e.g., Senate Committee on Environment) which conducts an “inquiry in aid of legislation” to hear out the concerns and views on the bill. Thereafter, the bill is approved by the entire body. When both chambers have approved the bill, the same is referred to a Bicameral Conference Committee to reconcile any conflicting provisions. After this stage, it is referred back to the respective chambers (House and Senate) for ratification. For finality, the bill is forwarded to the President for approval or veto. The bill becomes law after it is signed by the President and published. A two-thirds vote of Congress is needed to override a veto of the President. From 1988 to the present, law making in the Philippines has been by act of Congress. Presidential Decree During the period known as the “Martial Law Years,” (1972-1986), legislation was made by Presidential fiat of then President Ferdinand Marcos. Many of the environment, health, and safety laws were passed during this period. They continue to be valid unless otherwise amended or repealed by a subsequent law passed by an act of Congress. Examples of the Presidential Decrees are the Forestry Code of the Philippines (P.D. 705) or the Pollution Control Law (P.D. 984). To this date, they continue to be valid in the absence of a subsequent law. Executive Order

An Executive Order (E.O.) is a presidential act providing for rules of a general or permanent character in the implementation or execution of constitutional or statutory powers. Administrative Order

“Like water, be gentle and strong. Be gentle enough to follow the natural paths of the earth, and strong enough to rise up and reshape the world.”— Brenda Peterson (A. Oposa)

An administrative order is an act of the Cabinet/Department Secretary which relates to particular aspects of governmental operations pursuant to his/her duties as

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administrative head of government. For example, the implementing rules of the Clean Air Act or the Toxic and Hazardous Wastes Act are in the form of a Department Administrative Order (DAO). In the Coast Guard, the implementing rules are called Memorandum Circulars. These administrative orders/circulars have to be published in the Official Gazette or in newspapers for general circulation for it to be effective. Another requirement is that these be filed with the Office of the National Register in the University of the Philippines Law Center. Proclamation A proclamation is an act of the President fixing a date or declaring a status or condition of public moment or interest. An example of this is a proclamation declaring June as the Environment Month, or the proclamation of a working day as a holiday. Memorandum Order A memorandum order is a presidential act on matters of administrative detail which only concerns a particular office or an office of government. A memorandum order by the President directing the all-out enforcement of the laws on forestry is an example. Implementing Rule and Regulation (IRR) The term “implementing rules and regulations” (IRR) is a generic term referring to the detailed legal procedures and processes designed to implement the law. This is usually done by way of a Department Administrative Order (DAO) issued by the Department mandated to implement the law. Ordinance

“In nature there are neither rewards nor punishments—there are only consequences.” — Robert G. Ingersoll (George Tapan)

An ordinance is a local law passed by the local legislative body of the province, city, municipality, or barangay (village) and approved by the chief executive officer [provincial governor, city or municipal mayor, or barangay leader (also called barangay captain or Chairman) respectively. It must not be inconsistent with a national law. Thus, an ordinance cannot provide for penalties lower than what is provided by the national law.

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Environmental Authorities The principal agency tasked with the mandate for environmental protection is the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). It was created pursuant to Executive Order No. 192 (1987) which fused the functions of the Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR), the National Pollution Control Commission (NPCC), and the National Environmental Protection Council (NEPC). All references to these agencies in the texts of the laws contained in this book (e.g., Environment Code, Pollution Control Law) are deemed to refer to the DENR. Particularly, the DENR is responsible for: 1. The conservation, management, development, and proper use of the country’s environmental and natural resources, specifically forest and grazing lands, mineral resources, including those in reservation and watershed areas, and lands of the public domain; 2. The preservation of cultural and natural heritage through wildlife conservation and segregation of national parks and other protected areas; 3. The promulgation and enforcement of rules and regulations for the control of water, air, and land pollution; 4. The promulgation and enforcement of ambient and effluent standards for water and air quality including the allowable levels of other pollutants and radiation; 5. The promulgation of policies, rules, and regulations for the conservation of the country’s genetic resources, biological diversity, and endangered habitats.

Nature is the book of which God is the Author. — Harvey (G. Tapan)

The DENR is headed by the Cabinet Secretary, a position appointed by the President, and assisted by three undersecretaries. Below them are the bureaus of: Mines and Geosciences, Forest Management, Land Management, Environmental Management, 4

GOVERNMENT AND LEGAL SYSTEM

and Ecosystems Research. The line functions and regulatory powers of the DENR are performed by the regional offices distributed throughout the thirteen administrative regions of the country. The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) has its own version of the DENR. Attached to the DENR is the Natural Resources Development Corporation (NRDC), a government-owned corporation responsible for promoting natural resource development through investment/involvement in innovative technologies and ventures involving forest management. Other agencies attached to the DENR include the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA) and the Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA). The NAMRIA serves as the central mapping authority of the government. It also conducts research on remote-sensing technologies, satellite imagery, and similar technologies. The LLDA is a government-owned corporation which serves as the environmental regulatory authority for the Laguna Lake region. A line bureau within the DENR is the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), tasked with the principal responsibility of implementing the country’s environmental laws. It also serves as the secretariat of the Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB), which hears and decides pollution cases. RELEVANT PROVISIONS OF THE 1987 CONSTITUTION The following provisions in the 1987 Constitution directly or indirectly affect natural resources and environment. Preamble We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society and establish a government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution. National Territory Article I The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines.

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Declaration of Principles and State Policies Article II State Policies Right to Health SEC. 15. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people 1 and to instill health consciousness among them.

Right to Health is Paramount Over Presumed Economic Benefits Facts: In 1996, NAPOCOR began the construction of 29 decagon-shaped steel poles or towers to support overhead high tension cables in connection with its 230 Kilovolt Sucat-Araneta-Balintawak Power Transmission Project. Said transmission lines passes through Sergio Osmeña, Sr. Highway (South Superhighway), the perimeter of Fort Bonifacio and Dasmariñas Village proximate to Tamarind Road, where petitioners’ homes are. Petitioners got hold of published articles and studies linking the the incidence of a fecund of illnesses to exposure to electromagnetic fields. These illnesses range from cancer to leukemia. In 2000, petitioners sought the issuance of a preliminary injunction on the ground that the NAPOCOR Project impinged on their right to health as enshrined in Article II, Section 15 of the 1987 Constitution, which provides: Sec. 15. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill consciousness among them. The trial court temporarily restrained the respondent from energizing and transmitting high voltage electric current through the said project. NAPOCOR filed a Petition for Certiorari with the Court of Appeals. Alluding to Presidential Decree No. 1818 (1981), "Prohibiting Courts from Issuing Restraining Orders or Preliminary Injunctions in Cases Involving Infrastructure and Natural Resource Development Projects of, and Public Utilities Operated by, the Government,” particularly Sec. 1, NAPOCOR stalwartly sought the dismissal of the case on the ground of lack jurisdiction.

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The case of LLDA v. CA, 231 SCRA 292 (1994), states that “the right to health is a fundamental human right.”

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Presidential Decree No. 1818 provides: Section 1. No Court in the Philippines shall have jurisdiction to issue any restraining order, preliminary injunction or preliminary mandatory injunction in any case, dispute, or controversy involving an infrastructure project, or a mining, fishery, forest or other natural resource development project of the government, or any public utility operated by the government, including among other public utilities for transport of the goods or commodities, stevedoring and arrastre contracts, to prohibit any person or persons, entity or government official from proceeding with or continuing the execution or implementation of any such project, or the operation of such public utility or pursuing any lawful activity necessary for such execution, implementation or operation. In the meantime, the trial court ordered the issuance of a writ of preliminary injunction against NAPOCOR. It was of the view that Presidential Decree No. 1818 and jurisprudence proscribing injunctions against infrastructure projects do not find application in the case at bar because of the health risks involved. The Court of Appeals reversed the trial court’s order. Hence, this petition. Issue: Whether or not the trial court has jurisdiction to issue a TRO and a preliminary injunction even if the petitioners’ right to health is at stake? Held/Ratio: YES, the trial court has jurisdiction. The issue of petitioner’s right to health is a veritable question of law thus removing the case from the protective mantle of Presidential Decree No. 1818. Moreover, the issuance by the trial court of a preliminary injunction finds legal support in Section 3 of Rule 58 of the Rules of Court. For a writ of preliminary injunction to be issued, the Rules do not require that the act complained of be in violation of the rights of the applicant. Indeed, what the Rules require is that the act complained of be probably in violation of the rights of the applicant. In the case at bar, there is adequate evidence on record to justify the conclusion that the project of NAPOCOR probably imperils the health and safety of the petitioners so as to justify the issuance by the trial court of a writ of preliminary injunction. Petitioners adduced in evidence copies of studies linking the incidence of illnesses such as cancer and leukemia to exposure to electromagnetic fields. Despite the parties’ conflicting results of studies made on the issue, the possibility that the exposure to electromagnetic radiation causes cancer and other disorders is still, indeed, within the realm of scientific scale of probability. In sum, what Presidential Decree No. 1818 aims to avert is the untimely frustration of government infrastructure projects, particularly by provisional remedies, to the detriment of the greater good by disrupting the pursuit of essential government projects or frustrate the economic development effort of the nation. Presidential Decree No.

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1818, however, was not meant to be a blanket prohibition so as to disregard the funda mental right to health, safety and well-being of a community guaranteed by the fundamental law of the land. In the present case, the far-reaching irreversible effects to human safety should be the primordial concerns over presumed economic benefits per se as alleged by the NAPOCOR. Eduardo F. Hernandez, et al. vs. National Power Corporation GR No. 145328, March 23, 2006 Right to a Balanced Ecology SEC. 16. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a bal2 anced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. Bill of Rights Article III Right to Due Process of Law SECTION 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. Right to Privacy SEC. 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may pro_______________________
2

Sunrise in Bantayan Island. (A. Oposa)

The case of Minors Oposa v. Factoran, 224 SCRA 792 (1993), states that the right to a balanced ecology is an enforceable legal right.

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GOVERNMENT AND LEGAL SYSTEM

duce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized. Right of Access to Information SEC. 7. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern shall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pertaining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government research data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law.

Firepower in the Legal Arsenal The constitutional right to information is a very powerful tool in the game and legal arsenal of environmental advocacy. For example, it can be used to legally compel the Government to release the relevant environmental data. Thus, it is our Constitutional right to demand that Government release, for example, data on the environmental performance of a certain company. Of course, it is also a legal duty of the polluting company to submit truthful and accurate data to the Government, in fact, in pain of perjury. All together, the stimulus of transparency makes for better environmental governance. Transparency is a most effective tool to deter environmental mischief. A company which knows, for example, that its pollution data can be made public will do its best to clean up. A logging or mining company which knows that its environmental records can be opened for public scrutiny, will also do its best to comply with the environmental standards. In the U.S. jurisdiction, they belatedly realized the power of the “Community Right to Know” provisions of their laws. In many societies, especially in Asia, social sanction has long been held as the highest form of punishment, more painful than ordinary legal sanction. In this part, it is quite quaintly called “the loss of face.”

Right of Access to Information The right to information on matters of public concern is applicable and enforceable against a government-owned corporation. Said corporation cannot invoke the right to privacy, a right available only to individuals. Facts: the GSIS: Valmonte, together with other members of the media, sought to compel

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74930 February 13. it was clearly the intent of the Constitutional Commission to include government-owned and controlled corporations in the scope of the right to information. Moreover. to allow them access to public records for the subject information. and c. Valmonte v. The GSIS cannot plead privacy because privacy may be raised only by the party concerned. Oposa) privacy is an inquiry to the feelings and sensibilities of the party and a corporation would have no such ground for relief. abstracts. in this case. whether carrying out its sovereign attributes or running some business. Issue: Can Valmonte. The constitutional right gives them “access to official records. No. The public nature of the loanable funds of the GSIS and the public office held by the alleged borrowers make the information sought a matter of public concern. the borrowers. and the like in their desire to acquire information on matters of public concern. to furnish them with the list of names of Batasan members belonging to UNIDO and PDP-Laban who were able to secure clean loans immediately before the February 7 election through the intercession of Imelda Marcos. A public agency like the GSIS cannot invoke said right. “since the entire basis of the right to (A. In reply. summaries. Cebu. to furnish them with certified true copies of the documents evidencing their respective loans. But this does not mean that GSIS must furnish the petitioners with the list of the names requested. Belmonte 170 SCRA 256. Petitioners have the right to access to the public documents. G. The right to privacy belongs to the individual and must be invoked by the individual. But considering the public office of the borrowers. R.” But the Constitution does not accord them the right to compel custodians of official records to prepare lists.” Government. GSIS asserts confidentiality of its relationship with those who obtain loans. b. discharges the same function of service to the people.TOUR OF THE HORIZON a. they still cannot plead privacy. et al.. A corporation has no right to privacy Isla Encantada. Bantayan Island. 1989 10 . compel GSIS to reveal the desired information? Held: Yes.

” Issue: Can the respondent exercise its discretion to refuse Mr. the New Charter expressly mandates the duty of the State and its agents to afford access to official records. Legaspi access to such information? Held: No. that it can be secured only during office hours. the people are regarded as the real party in interest and the realtor at whose instigation the proceedings are instituted need not show that he has any legal or special interest in the result. a public right. papers. . According to the Supreme Court. he filed a petition before the Supreme Court to compel the Commission to disclose the information he sought. Legaspi based his demand on Sec. . by its very nature. Government officials have no discretion whether or not to release the information. for example.Tuvera (136 SCRA 27). The right of the people to have information on matters of public interest is. Mr. government research data _______________________ Mandamus is a technical term used to refer to the legal action to compel a government office to perform an act required by law.GOVERNMENT AND LEGAL SYSTEM The Right to Information is Not Discretionary Information of public concern is a demandable right. it becomes apparent that when a mandamus proceeding involves the assertion of a public right. there lies a corresponding duty on the part of those who govern to respect and protect that right. “For every right of the people recognized as fundamental. He wanted to know if two persons who were appointed as sanitarians in the Health Department of the city were civil service eligible. Facts: Attorney Valentin L. Issue: Does Mr. Article III of the 1987 Constitution which describes a person’s constitutional right to information on matters of public concern. and in addition. 3 11 . When the Commission denied his request.” “In recognizing the people’s right to be informed . it being sufficient to show that he is a citizen and as such interested in the execution of the laws. However. and therefore. In Tañada v. 7. documents.” 3 “From the foregoing. Legaspi of Cebu City requested for information from the Civil Service Commission. this right admits of exceptions such as when the information requested is a matter of national security. part of the general ‘public’ which possesses the right. it was said that “when the question is one of public right and the object of the mandamus is to procure the enforcement of a public duty. Legaspi have the right to obtain the information he seeks? Held: Yes. the requirement of personal interest is satisfied by the mere fact that the petitioner is a citizen. the Commission asserted that it had the discretion on whether or not it should furnish a person with the information requested. such as. The Commission defended itself by saying that Mr. Legaspi had no right to ask the Court to compel the Commission to give him the information he seeks. Moreover. They can only prescribe the manner by which the right can be exercised.

. the regulations which the Register of Deeds may promulgate are confined to: ‘. and. such as those affecting national security. . . or access to. 1987 Constitution). Article II thereof. this time ‘subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law. 80 Phil. it is for the courts to decide on a case-to-case basis whether an information sought is of public interest or concern. to wit: Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law. b. . We (Supreme Court) recognized the authority of the Register of Deeds to regulate the manner in which persons desiring to do so may inspect.’ We were emphatic in our statement that the authority to regulate the manner of examining public records does not carry with it the power to prohibit.” Issue: Is there any limitation on the constitutional right to information? Held: Yes. It is not exempted by law from the operation of the constitutional guarantee. “It is the legitimate concern of citizens to ensure that government positions requiring civil service eligibility 12 .’ in Sec. A distinction has to be made between the discretion to refuse outright the disclosure of or access to a particular information and the authority to regulate the manner in which the access is to be afforded. the information the petitioner sought to access is clearly of public interest. 7. Two requisites must first be fulfilled in order for the right to be enforceable: a. In the Subido case. subject to such limitations as may be provided by law (Sec. Article III). “The decisive question on the propriety of the issuance of the writ of mandamus in this case is whether the information sought by the petitioner is within the ambit of the constitutional guarantee. .” However. The guarantee has been further enhanced . “this is not to lose sight of the reasonable regulations which may be imposed by said agencies in custody of public records on the manner in which the right to information may be exercised by the public. “It is clear from the foregoing pronouncements of this Court (in the cited case of Tañada and in Subido v. with the adoption of a policy of full public disclosure. examine.” “(T)he constitutional guarantee to information on matters of public concern is not absolute. information of public concern. the State adopts or implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest. that undue interference with the duties of the custodian of the books and documents and other employees may be prevented. . With regard to the first. 383) that government agencies are without discretion to refuse disclosure of.TOUR OF THE HORIZON used as basis for policy development. . that the right of other persons entitled to make inspection may be insured. or copy records relating to registered lands. 7. prescribing the manner and hours of examination to the end that damage to or loss of the records may be avoided. However. In this case. Article III. The information sought is of public concern or one that involves public interest.Ozaeta. Certain types of information may not be available for public scrutiny.” It is still “subject to limitations as may be provided by law” (Sec. 28.

72119 May 29. through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources. Civil Service Commission 150 SCRA 530. In the pursuit of these goals.” Here. all sectors of the economy and all re“Through primrose tufts. the petitioner’s right to know is upheld because there is no law prohibiting such information from being disclosed. and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. Legaspi v. and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all. And ‘tis my faith that optimum opportunity to develop. and similar collective organizations.GOVERNMENT AND LEGAL SYSTEM are occupied only by persons who are eligible. The gions of the country shall be given periwinkle trail’d its wreaths. every flower Enjoys the air it breathes. cooperatives. Tapan. and wealth. 13 .” — William Private enterprises. in that sweet bower. especially the underprivileged.” With regard to the second requisite. including corWordsworth (G. There is therefore no reason to withhold it from the petitioner. income. shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the people. 1987 National Economy and Patrimony Article XII Efficient Use of Resources SECTION 1. No. the State shall protect Filipino enterprises against unfair foreign competition and trade practices. R. However. G. The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities. “the information sought must not be among the species exempted by law from the operation of the constitutional guarantee. It is in fact the case that civil service examination results are released to the public. Natural Heritage) porations. The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform.

with priority to subsistence fisher“If there is magic on this planet. wildlife. With the exception of agricultural lands. or industrial uses other than the development of water power. or it may enter into co-production.” — Loran Eisely. and under such terms and conditions as may be provided by law. In such agreements. it is contained in men and fish workers in rivers. 2. the State shall promote the development and use of local scientific and technical resources. All lands of the public domain. The Immense Jourlakes. petroleum. and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the State. and reserve its use and enjoyment exclusively to Filipino citizens. Natural Heritage) The President may enter into agreements with foreign-owned corporations involving either technical or financial assistance for large-scale exploration. The State shall protect the nation’s marine wealth in its archipelagic waters. territorial sea. water. 1957 (G. or production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens or corporation or associations at least sixty percent of whose capital is owned by such citizens. and exclusive economic zone. Tapan. flora and fauna. within thirty days from its execution. ney. forests or timber. and other natural resources are owned by the State. by law. The Congress may. bays. all forces of potential energy. coal. all other natural resources shall not be alienated. as well as cooperative fish farming. Such agreements may be for a period not exceeding twentyfive years. fisheries. development. joint venture. renewable for not more than twenty-five years. water supply. and other mineral oils according to the general terms and conditions provided by law. fisheries. and utilization of minerals. The exploration. The State may directly undertake such activities. 14 . and other mineral oils.TOUR OF THE HORIZON State Ownership of Natural Resources SEC. beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant. The President shall notify the Congress of every contract entered into in accordance with this provision. minerals. development. In cases of water rights for irrigation. and lagoons. allow small-scale utilization of natural resources by Filipino citizens. based on real contributions to the economic growth and general welfare of the country. waters. petroleum.

Congress shall determine. Citizens of the Philippines may lease not more than five hundred hectares. forest or timber. and development. and not to exceed one thousand hectares in area.GOVERNMENT AND LEGAL SYSTEM Lands of Public Domain and Classification SEC. or grant. or acquire not more than twelve hectares thereof by purchase. except by law. determine by law the specific limits of forest lands and national parks. subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national development policies and programs. Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural. and subject to the requirements of agrarian reform. Indigenous Cultural Communities Before the forests can be protected. by law. measures to prohibit logging in endangered forest and watershed areas. such forest lands and national parks shall be conserved and may not be increased nor diminished. social. ecology. The Congress shall. The State. held. homestead. mineral lands. 5. 3. Thereafter. or leased and in the conditions therefore. Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further classified by law according to the uses to which they may be devoted. the size of lands of the public domain which may be acquired. 15 . Forest) SEC. and national parks. as soon as possible. renewable for not more than twenty-five years. for a period not exceeding twenty-five years. shall protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral lands to ensure their economic. developed. Taking into account the requirements of conservation. (Neal Oshima. Alienable lands of the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands. 4. for such period as it may determine. Private corporations or associations may not hold such alienable lands of the public domain except by lease. The Congress shall provide. marking clearly their boundaries on the ground. their boundaries must be clearly identified and marked on the ground with clear and visible boundary markers. and cultural well-being. Limits of Forest Lands and National Parks SEC.

or equity considerations. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen. taking into account ecological. adequate financial. Social Function of Property SEC. to was bad. including corporations. develop. developmental. and conserve such marine resources.” — A. subject to the duty of the State to promote distributive justice and to intervene when the common good so demands. and subject to the payment of just compensation. 7. 6. the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands.K. undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farm workers. In determining retention limits. Best receive a just share of the fruits (G. cooperatives. and marketing assistance. by law. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research. Preferential Use of Marine Resources for Subsistence Fishermen SEC. Social Justice and Human Rights Article XIII Ecological Considerations in Agrarian Reform SEC. to the preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources. shall have the right to own. Natural Heritage) thereof. The State shall. especially of local communities. it was the catching that the case of other farm workers. who are landless. subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may prescribe. The State shall also protect. the State shall respect the rights of small landowners. both inland and offshore. 4.TOUR OF THE HORIZON The Congress may provide for the applicability of customary laws governing property rights or relations in determining the ownership and extent of ancestral domain. To this end. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary landsharing. establish. and similar collective organizations. to own directly or collectively the lands they till or. The use of property bears a social function and all economic agents shall contribute to the common good. and operate economic enterprises. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence 16 . and other services. Tapan. Individuals and private groups. in “The fishing was good. production.

taking into account their maternal functions. People’s organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public interest and with identifiable leadership.PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY fishermen against foreign intrusion. 23. rapid natural resources utilization. The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods. Health Care and Regulation SEC. industrial expansion. Role and Rights of People’s Organizations SEC. Rights of Women SEC. at times. 12. SEC. The State shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system and undertake appropriate health manpower development and research. or sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the nation (Article II). conflicting demands of population growth. membership. urbanization. their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means. Local Autonomy Article X SEC. sick. disabled. 25. 15. There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged. women. Fish workers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. within the democratic framework. 11. elderly. The State shall encourage nongovernmental. responsive to the country’s health needs and problems. The State shall respect the role of the independent people’s organizations to enable the people to pursue and protect. and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation. The State shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers. 14. and increasing 17 . and structure. The State shall ensure the autonomy of local governments (Article II) General Environmental Laws Philippine Environmental Policy (Presidential Decree 1151) Whereas. health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions. and children. community-based. SEC. the individual and.

or endangering human life. healthful. (e) attain a rational and orderly balance between population and resource use. by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution. do hereby order and decree: SECTION 1. (b) to fulfill the social. in promoting the general welfare to the end that the nation may (a) recognize. John Perse as trustee and guardian of the en(G. and (f) improve the utilization of renewable and nonrenewable resources.” — St. and (c) to ensure the attainment of an environmental quality that is conducive to a life of dignity and well-being. Right to a Healthy Environment—In furtherance of these goals and policies. discharge. the government recognizes the right of the people to a healthful environment. I. and Whereas. Whereas. develop. health. and aesthetic environment. and improve conditions under which man and nature can thrive in productive and enjoyable harmony with each other. Ferdinand E. and safety or creating conditions adverse to agriculture. President of the Philippines. commerce. economic and other requirements of present and future generations of Filipinos. productive. Natural Heritage) vironment for succeeding generations. 3. and fulfill “Sing. sweetness to the last palpitation of the evening the responsibilities of each generation and the Breeze. (b) assure the people of a safe. there is now an urgent need to formulate an intensive. (d) preserve important historic and cultural aspects of the Philippine heritage. to use all practicable means. decent. it shall be the responsibility of the government. Therefore. Policy—It is hereby declared a continuing policy of the State (a) to create. Marcos. consistent with other essential considerations of national policy. pursuing SEC. such tunnel-vision concept is not conducive to the attainment of an ideal environmental situation where man and nature can thrive in harmony with one another. in cooperation with concerned private organizations and entities. SEC. It 18 .TOUR OF THE HORIZON technological advances have resulted in a piece-meal approach concept of environmental protection. 2. (c) encourage the widest exploitation of the environment without degrading it. Goal—In this policy. and industry. maintain. integrated program of environmental protection that will bring about a concerted effort towards the protection of the entire spectrum of the environment through a requirement of environmental impact assessments and statements: Now. Tapan.

submit to the National Environmental Protection 4 Council (NEPC). a determination that the short-term uses of the resources of the environment are consistent with the maintenance and enhancement of the long-term productivity of the same. SEC. 6. _______________________ All reference to the NEPC (or council) and the National Pollution Control Commission (NPCC) shall mean to refer to the DENR. including government-owned or controlled corporations. project. Before an environmental impact statement is issued by a lead agency. any adverse environmental effect which cannot be avoided should the proposal be implemented. Philippine Environment Code (Presidential Decree 1152) Whereas. 7. whenever a proposal involves the use of depletable or nonrenewable resources. and e. the environmental impact of the proposed action. Environmental Impact Statements—Pursuant to the above enunciated policies and goals. a finding must be made that such use and commitment are warranted. 4. amended. and regulations to carry out the provisions of Section 4 hereof on environmental impact assessments and statements. or special expertise on.PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT CODE shall be the duty and responsibility of each individual to contribute to the preservation and enhancement of the Philippine environment. Effectivity—This Decree shall take effect immediately. SEC. alternative to the proposed action. or undertaking. their respective guidelines. 4 19 . Repealing Clause—All acts. file. 422 shall. SEC. or modified accordingly. b. presidential decrees. executive orders. rules. project. and include in every action. SEC. 5. c. rules. the subject matter involved shall comment on the draft environmental impact statement made by the lead agency within thirty (30) days from receipt of the same. Done in the City of Manila this 6th day of June. or undertaking which significantly affects the quality of the environment a detailed statement on: a. within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Decree. d. as well as private corporations firms and entities shall prepare. and regulations or parts thereof which are inconsistent with the provisions of this Decree are hereby repealed. all agencies having jurisdiction over. 1977. Agency Guidelines—The different agencies charged with environmental protection as enumerated in Letter of Instruction No. the broad spectrum of environment has become a matter of vital concern to the government. all agencies and instrumentalities of the national government.

Oposa) Note: The provisions on air quality management have been revised by the Clean Air Act of 1999 (R. President of the Republic of the Philippines. 8749. No. 17 and 20. such a program can assume tangible and meaningful significance only by establishing specific environment management policies and prescribing environment quality standards in a Philippine Environment Code: Now.” — Henry David Thoreau (A. No. However.TOUR OF THE HORIZON Whereas. The provisions quoted hereunder. the national leadership has taken a step towards this direction by creating 5 the National Environmental Protection Council under Presidential Decree No. Title II—Water Quality Management Note: The provisions on Water Quality have been revised by the Clean Water Act (Republic Act ____. 192. A. Whereas. I. Please news article below. esp. _______________________ 5 Abolished by Sec. 1987. s. 1121. Please see Chapter 3). Whereas. Please see Chapter 4) . Short Title—This Decree shall be known and cited as the “Philippine Environment Code. 16. Ferdinand E. Sec. the case is still under litigation with the Government filing a Petiton for Review before the Supreme Court from the Decision of the Court of Appeals. Marcos. it is necessary that the creation of the Council be implemented with the launching of a comprehensive program of environmental protection and management. were creatively used to compel the various government agencies to clean up Manila Bay. Therefore. 20 .O. E. by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution. do hereby order and decree: SECTION 1.” Title I—Air Quality Management “We are surrounded by a rich and fertile mystery.

a. c. 15. b. against the Philippine government in January 1999. and responsibilities for surveillance and mitigation of pollution incidents. Cavite dated Sept. cracked the whip on the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage Systems. as concurred by Associate bordering them for residential. which has been downgraded into a classification. 2002. with appropriate government agencies. Philippine National Police— Maritime Group. the most beneficial uses The CA specifically tasked government agencies to come up with a “concerted plan of action to clean up and rehabilitate the Manila Bay and its waterways to restore it to Class SB of said bodies of water and lands classification (bathing standard) and to revitalize its marine life. establishment of water quality standards. 2005. 21 . in a resolution dated Sept. shall reclas_______________________ 6 a copy of the 13-page decision. 28. took the case to the CA in an effort to reverse the ruling. Judges Eugenio Labitoria and Jose Reyes Jr. rehabilitate. Guard.” the CA ruling said. classification of Philippine waters. Department of Agriculture. the Local Water Utilities Administration. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. surface act. 14. the National Pollution CA RULING COMPELS GOVT. in coordination with appropriate government agencies. SEC. direction. after losing at the lower court. the agencies are now compelled to save the country’s most important coastline following a landmark decision by the Court of Appeals (CA) to favor Manila Bay area residents. who filed following: a class suit against the national government in 1999. the National Pollution Control Commission. d. virtual body of water filled with fecal coliform. the existing quality of The appellate court. Purpose—It is the purpose of this Title to prescribe management guidelines aimed to protect and improve the quality of Philippine water resources through: a. shall classify Philippine waters. Department of Education and Department of and the Interior and Local Government. the size. upheld the earlier decision of Executive Judge agricultural. ‘ TO CLEAN UP MANILA BAY Control Commission shall take MANILA. Reclassification of Waters Based on Intended Beneficial Use—Where the public interest so requires.. among others. area covered. obtained and aesthetic purposes. which he described as a “grandslam” victory for environmental advocates like him who fear for the continuing depletion and deterioration of the country’s natural resources. volume. All references to NPCC now refer to the DENR. through lawyer Tony Oposa of the Philippine Bar Association (PBA). the CA said the consolidated appeal was “bereft of merit. protection and improvement of the quality of the Philippine water resources. and protect Manila Bay. recreational. Metropolitan Manila Development Authority. Philippine Coast rate of flow. They are merely directed to come up with consolidated and coordinated efforts. commercial. navigational. However. October 13. according to their best usage.” CA Second Division Associate Judge Eliezer de Los Santos.PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT CODE SEC. 16. depth. The Star.” “The decision of the lower court does not require defendants to do tasks outside of their usual functions. each performing its basic function in rehabilitating and cleaning up the waters of Manila Bay. the the body of water at the time of Philippine Ports Authority and 12 other national government offices for being remiss in their obligation to clean up. The order gives the 15 agencies and all concerned local government units six months to b. 13. In classifying said waters. Department of Budget and Management. Chapter I—Classification and Standards SEC. c. Also included in the suit were the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. indusLucenito Tagle of the Regional Trial Court of Imus. Classification of Philippine Waters—The National Pollution Control 6 in coordination Commission. gradient of stream. All 15 government agencies. favoring concerned residents in cities and municipalities surrounding Manila Bay in a class suit filed trial. 2005 (STAR) By Michael Punongbayan—Fifteen government into account.

utilization. and clean-up operations and expenses incurred in said operations shall be charged against the persons and/or entities responsible for such pollution. taking into consideration. Enforcement and Coordination—The production. the government agencies concerned shall undertake containment. and b. Chapter II—Protection and Improvement of Water Quality SEC. Said water quality surveillance network shall put to maximum use the capabilities of such government agencies. heavy metals. the following: a. water-borne sources. and distribution of hazardous. In the performance of the above functions. and other substances that may pollute any body of water of the Philippines resulting from normal operations of industries. 21. SEC. storage. the government agencies concerned shall take such measures as may be necessary to upgrade the quality of such water to meet the prescribed water quality standards. and the disposal.TOUR OF THE HORIZON sify a body of water based on the intended beneficial use and take such steps as may be necessary to upgrade the quality of said water. pesticides. Water Quality Standards— The National Pollution Control Commission shall prescribe quality and effluent standards consistent with the guidelines set by the National Environmental Protection Council and the classification of waters prescribed in the preceding sections. discharge. toxic. 17. SEC. Clean-up Operations—It shall be the responsibility of the polluter to contain. 19. remove. Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance—The various government agencies concerned with environmental protection shall establish to the greatest extent practicable a water quality surveillance and monitoring network with sufficient stations and sampling schedules to meet the needs of the country. the standard of water quality or purity may vary according to beneficial uses. the technology relating to water pollution control. and other substances such as radioactive materials. 18. Upgrading of Water Quality— Where the quality of water has deteriorated to a degree where its state will adversely affect its best usage. Other government agencies may adopt higher standards for a particular body of water. and oils. In case of his failure to do so. fertilizers. and clean up water pollution incidents at his own expense. and dumping of untreated wastewater. the government agencies concerned shall coordinate with the National Environmental Protection Council and furnish the latter with such information as may be necessary to enable it to attain its objectives under Presidential Decree No. removal. mine tailings. SEC. SEC. subject to the approval of the National Pollution Control Commission. 20. and other human activities as well as those resulting from accidental spills and discharges shall be regulated by appropriate government agencies pursuant to their respective charters and enabling legislations. among others. 22 . 1121.

PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT CODE

Each agency involved in such network shall report to the National Environmental Protection Council the results of these monitoring activities as the need arises. Note: All of the above provisions of water quality have been superseded by the Clean Water Act of 2004, RA 9275. Title III—Land Use Management SEC. 22. Purpose—The purposes of this Title are: a. to provide a rational, orderly, and efficient acquisition, utilization, and disposition of land and its resources in order to derive therefrom maximum benefits; and b. to encourage the prudent use and conservation of land resources in order to prevent an imbalance between the nation’s needs and such resources. SEC. 23. National Land Use Scheme—The Human Settlements Commission, in coordination with the appropriate agencies of the government, shall formulate and recommend to the National Environmental Protection Council a land use scheme consistent with the purpose of this Title. The land use scheme shall include among others, the following: a. a science-based and technology-oriented land inventory and classification system; b. a determination of present land uses, the extent to which they are utilized, underutilized, rendered idle, or abandoned; c. a comprehensive and accurate determination of the adaptability of the land for community development, agriculture, industry, commerce, and other fields of endeavor; d. a method of identification of areas where uncontrolled development could result in irreparable damage to important historic, cultural, or aesthetic values, or natural systems or processes of national significance; e. a method for exercising control by the appropriate government agencies over the use of land in areas of critical environmental concern and areas impacted by public facilities including, but not limited to, airports, highways, bridges, ports and wharves, buildings, and other infrastructure projects; f. a method to ensure the consideration of regional development and land use in local regulations; g. a policy for influencing the location of new communities and methods for assuring appropriate controls over the use of land around new communities; h. a system of controls and regulations pertaining to areas and development activities designed to ensure that any source of pollution will not be located where it would result in a violation of any applicable environmental pollution control regulations; and i. a recommended method for the periodic revisions and updating of the national land use scheme to meet changing conditions. 23

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SEC. 24. Location of Industries—In the location of industries, factories, plants, depots, and similar industrial establishments, the regulating or enforcing agencies of the government shall take into consideration the social, economic, geographic, and significant environmental impact of said establishments. Title IV—Natural Resources Management and Conservation SEC. 25. Purposes— The purposes of this Title are: a. to provide the basic policy on the management and conservation of the country’s natural resources to obtain the optimum benefits therefrom and to preserve the same for the future generations; and b. to provide general measures through which the aforesaid policy may be carried out effectively. Chapter I—Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Note: The policies on fisheries and aquatic resources are further reiterated and amplified by the Fisheries Code of 1998 (Rep. Act No. 8550. Please see Chapter 4 Sea). PolSEC. 26. Management icy—The national government, through the Department of Natural 7 Resources, shall establish a system of rational exploitation of fisheries and aquatic resources within the Philippine territory and shall encourage citizen participation therein to maintain and/or enhance the optimum and continuous productivity of the same. SEC. 27. Measures for National Exploitation—Measures for the national exploitation of fisheries and other aquatic resources may include, but shall not be limited to, the following: a. undertaking manpower and expertise development; b. acquiring the necessary facilities and equipment;
_______________________
7

“If you gave me several million years, there would be nothing that did not grow in beauty if it were surrounded by water.” — Jan Erik Vold, What All The World Knows, 1970

(Yvette Lee)

DNR is now the DENR.

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PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT CODE

c. regulating the marketing of threatened species of fish or other aquatic resources; d. reviewing all existing rules and regulations on the exploitation of fisheries and aquatic resources with a view of formulating guidelines for the systematic and effective enforcement thereof; and e. conserving the vanishing species of fish and aquatic resources such as turtles, sea snakes, crocodiles, corals, as well as maintaining the mangrove areas, marshes and inland waters, coral reef areas, and islands serving as sanctuaries for fish and other aquatic life. Chapter II—Wildlife Note: SECTIONS 28 and 29. The provisions of these sections are deemed modified by Rep. Act 9147, the new comprehensive law on the Conservation and Protection of Wildlife (Please see Chapter 3, Protected Species) Chapter III—Forestry and Soil Conservation SEC. 30. Management Policy for Forestry—The national government, through the Department of Natural Resources, shall undertake a system of rational exploitation of forest resources and shall encourage citizen participation therein to keep the country’s forest resources at maximum productivity at all times. SEC. 31. Measures for Rational Exploitation of Forest Resources—Measures for the rational exploitation of forest resources may include, but shall not be limited to, the following: a. regulating the marketing of threatened forest resources;
“The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself.” — Franklin D. Roosevelt (N. Oshima, Forest)

b. reviewing all existing rules and regulations on the exploitation of forest resources with a view of formulating guidelines for the systematic and efficient enforcement

thereof; 25

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c. conserving threatened species of flora as well as increasing their rate of propagation; the banning of destructive modes of exploitation, kaingin making or shifting cultivation, indiscriminate harvesting of minor forest products, the recycling methods of waste materials, and d. carrying out a continuing effect on reforestation, timber stand improvement, forest protection, land classification, forest occupancy management, agriculture, range management, agricultural/kaingin management, industrial tree plantation, parks and wildlife management, multiple use forest, timber management and forest research. SEC. 32. Use of Fertilizers and Pesticides—The use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture shall be regulated prescribing therefore a tolerance level in their use. Their use shall be monitored by appropriate government agencies to provide empirical data for effective regulation. SEC. 33. Management Policy on Soil Conservation—The national government, through the Department of Natural Resources and the Department of Agriculture, shall likewise undertake a soil conservation program Grass and sky are the two canvasses into which the including therein the identification rich details of the Earth are drawn. — Louise and protection of critical watershed Erdrich, Big Grass areas, encouragement of scientific far(G. Tapan, Natural Heritage) ming techniques, physical and biological means of soil conservation, and short-term and long-term researches and technology for effective soil conservation. Chapter IV—Flood Control and Natural Calamities SEC. 34. Measures in Flood Control Program—In addition to the pertinent provisions of existing laws, the following shall be included in a soil erosion, sediment, and flood control program: a. the control of soil erosion on the banks of rivers, the shores of lakes, and the seashores; 26

PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT CODE

b. the control of flow and flooding in and from rivers and lakes; c. the conservation of water which, for purposes of this Section shall mean forms of water, but shall not include captive water; d. the needs of fisheries and wildlife and all other recreational uses of natural water; e. measures to control the damming, diversion, taking, and use of natural water, so far as any such act may affect the quality and availability of natural water for other purposes; and f. measures to stimulate research in matters relating to natural water and soil conservation and the application of knowledge thereby acquired. SEC. 35. Measures to Mitigate Destructive Effects of Calamities—The national government, through the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration, shall promote intensified and concerted research efforts on weather modification, typhoon, earthquake, tsunami, storm surge, and other tropical natural phenomena in order to bring about any significant effect to mitigate or prevent their destructive effects. Chapter V—Energy Development Note: The following provisions are deemed modified and amplified by the creation of the Department of Energy, R. A. No. 7638 (1992). SEC. 36. Policy—Consistent with the environmental protection policies, the national government, through the Energy Development Board, shall undertake an energy 8 development program encouraging therein the utilization of invariant sources such as solar, wind, and tidal energy. SEC. 37. Measures for Energy Development—Measures for [an] energy development program may include, but shall not be limited to, the following: a. setting up of pilot plants utilizing invariant sources of energy; b. training of technical personnel for purposes of energy development; and c. conducting researches aimed at developing technology for energy development. SEC. 38. Safety Measures on Energy Development—Rules and regulations shall be promulgated to prevent or mitigate the adverse effects of energy development on the environment. For this purpose, all nuclear-powered plants exploring and utilizing geothermal energy, whether owned or controlled by private or government entities shall: a. observe internationally accepted standards of safety; and

_______________________
8

Also known as renewable sources of energy.

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b. provide safety devices to ensure the health and welfare of their personnel as well as the surrounding community. Chapter VI—Conservation and Utilization of Surface and Ground Waters SEC. 39. Management Policy—In addition to existing laws, the national government, through the National Water Resources Council in coordination with other appropriate government agencies, shall prescribe measures for the conservation and improvement of the quality of Philippine water resources and provide for the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution. Chapter VII—Mineral Resources Note: The provisions on mineral resources are deemed amplified by the Philippine Mining Act of 1995 (R. A. No. 7942). SEC. 40. Management Policy—The national government, through the Department of Natural Resources, shall undertake a system of gainful exploitation and rational and efficient utilization of mineral resources and shall encourage citizen participation in this endeavor. SEC. 41. Measures for Exploitation and Utilization of Mineral Resources— Measures for the gainful exploitation and rational and efficient utilization of such mineral resources may include, but shall not be limited to, the following: a. increasing research and development in mineral resources technology; b. training of additional technical manpower needed in geology, geophysics, mining engineering, and related fields; c. regulating the exploitation of identified mineral reserves; d. accelerating the exploration of undiscovered mineral deposits; and e. encouraging the establishment of processing plants for refined metals. Title V—Waste Note: Sections 42 to 49 on waste management are deemed modified by the Solid Waste Management Act (R.A. 9003). The responsibility of local governments for solid waste management is further amplified by the provisions of the Local Government Code of 1991 (Rep. Act No. 7160) and the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (R.A. 9003).

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PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT CODE

Chapter III—Methods of Liquid Waste Disposal (Deemed Revised by the Clean Water Act, R.A. 9275) SEC. 50. Liquid Waste Disposal—Wastewater from manufacturing plants, industries, community or domestic sources shall be treated either physically, biologically, or chemically, prior to disposal in accordance with the rules and regulations promulgated by proper government authority. SEC. 51. Applicability of Section 8— The provisions of Section 8 hereof shall likewise apply to the dumping or disposal of liquid waste into the sea and other bodies of water. Title VI—Miscellaneous Provisions SEC. 52. Population-Environment Balance—In the assessment of development projects, the National Environmental Protection Council, hereinafter referred to in this Title as the “Council” shall take into consideration their effect on the population with a view to achieving a rational and orderly balance between man and his environment. SEC. 53. Environmental Education— The Department of Education and Culture shall integrate subjects on environmental education in its school curricula at all levels. It shall also endeavor to conduct special community education emphasizing the relationship of man and nature as well as envi-

“The emergence of intelligence, I am convinced, tends to unbalance the ecology. In other words, intelligence is the great polluter. It is not until a creature begins to manage its environment that nature is thrown into disorder.” — Clifford D. Simak (Cora Claudio)

ronmental sanitation and practices. The Council and other government agencies implementing environmental protection laws in coordination with public information agencies of the government shall undertake public information activities for the purpose of stimulating awareness and encouraging involvement in environmental protection. SEC. 54. Environmental Research—The Council shall undertake and/or promote continuing studies and research programs on environmental management and shall, from time to time, determine priority areas of environmental research. SEC. 55. Monitoring and Dissemination of Environmental Information of Foreign Origin—The Council shall keep itself informed of current environmental developments by obtaining information and literature from foreign sources through the Department of Foreign Affairs, government agencies, and other entities, both domestic and foreign. Such information and literature shall be given the widest dissemination possible. 29

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SEC. 56. Incentives—To operate the installation and the utilization of pollution control facilities, the following incentives are hereby granted: a. exemption to the extent of fifty percent (50%) of tariff duties and compensating tax for the importation of pollution control equipment, devices, spare parts and accessories for a period of five (5) years from the effectivity of this Decree subject to the conditions that will be imposed by the Council; b. a tax credit equivalent to fifty percent (50%) of the value of the compensating tax and tariff duties that would have been paid on the pollution control equipment, devices, spare parts, and accessories had these items been imported shall, within a period of seven (7) years from the effectivity of this Decree, be given to the person or firm who or which purchases them from a domestic manufacturer, and another tax credit equivalent to twenty-five percent (25%) thereof shall be given to the said manufacturer subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Council; and c. deductions equivalent to fifty percent (50%) of the expenses actually incurred on research projects undertaken to develop technologies for the manufacture of pollution control equipment which have been proven effective and commercially reproducible, from the “Though inland far we be, Our souls have sight taxable income of the person or firm of that immortal sea Which brought us actually undertaking such projects subhither.”— William Wordsworth, Intimations ject to the conditions that may be imof Immortality posed by the Council. (A. Oposa) The pollution control equipment, devices, spare parts, and accessories acquired under this Section shall not be sold, transferred, or disposed of within five (5) years from the date of acquisition without the prior approval of the Council, otherwise the importer or purchaser shall pay twice the amount of the tax exemption or tax credit granted. Incentives While the incentives mentioned above (Sec. 55) have lapsed and are no longer applicable, other incentives granted by the annual list of investment priority areas are still available (e.g., income tax holidays, tax credits, etc.) Please see Chapter 7 for an example of the listing of the incentives for environment - related industries and facilities.

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PHILIPPINE ENVIRONMENT CODE

SEC. 57. Financial Assistance/Grant—Financial assistance/grant for the study, design, and construction of environmental protection facilities especially for waste disposal in favor of cities, municipalities, small- and medium-scale industries may be granted on a case-to-case basis subject to such conditions as may be imposed by the Council. SEC. 58. Participation of Local Government Units and Private Individuals—It shall be the responsibility of local government units as well as private individuals to actively participate in the environmental management and protection programs of the government. SEC. 59. Preservation of Historic and Cultural Resources and Heritage—It shall be the duty of every person to help preserve the historic and cultural resources of the country such as sites, structures, artifacts, documents, objects, memorials and priceless trees. SEC. 60. Government Offices Performing Environmental Protection Functions— Government agencies vested by law to exercise environmental management power, shall continue to function as such within their respective jurisdictions. The Council may, however, in the exercise of its powers and functions under Presidential Decree No. 1121, inquire into any action or issue of environmental significance. SEC. 61. Public Hearings—The Council may, whenever it deems necessary, conduct public hearings on issues of environmental significance. SEC. 62. Definition of Terms—As used in this Code: a. Ambient air quality means the average atmospheric purity as distinguished from discharge measurements taken at the source of pollution. It is the general amount of pollution present in a broad area. b. Emission means the act of passing into the atmosphere an air contaminant, pollutant, gas stream, and unwanted sound from a known source. c. Water quality means the characteristics of water which define its use in terms of physical, chemical, and biological contents; hence the quality of water for domestic use is different from industrial use. d. Water quality surveillance means a close and continuous supervision of the water quality to detect developments, movements, or changes in the characteristics of the water. e. Water quality standard means a plan that is established by governmental authority as a program for water pollution prevention and abatement. Such a standard may include water use classification and the criteria to support the uses of the water. f. Effluent standards means restrictions established to limit levels of concentration of physical, chemical, and biological constituents which are discharged from point sources.

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g. Clean-up operations refers to activities conducted in removing the pollutants discharged or spilled in water to restore it to pre-spill condition. h. Accidental spills refers to spills of oil or other hazardous substances in water that result from accidents involving the carriers of such substance such as collisions and grounding. i. Areas of critical environmental concern are areas where uncontrolled development could result in irreparable damage to important historic, cultural, or aesthetic values or natural systems or processes of national significance. j. Hazardous substances means elements or compounds which when discharged in any quantity present imminent or substantial danger to public health and welfare. k. Areas impacted by public facilities refers to areas where the introduction of public facilities may tend to induce development and urbanization of more than local significance or impact. l. Environmental impact is the alteration, to any degree, of environmental conditions or the creation of a new set of environmental conditions, adverse or beneficial, to be induced or caused by a proposed project. m. Government agencies refers to national, local, and regional agencies and instrumentalities including governmentowned and controlled corporations.

“The sun, with all those planets revolving around it and dependent upon it, can still ripen a bunch of grapes as if it had nothing else in the universe to do.” — Galileo (A. Oposa)

Title VII—Final Provisions SEC. 63. Separability of Provisions—If any provision of this Code, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance, is declared unconstitutional, the remainder of the Code or the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances shall not be affected by such declaration. SEC. 64. Effectivity—This Code shall take effect upon its approval. Done in the City of Manila, this 6th day of June, 1977. 32

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT SYSTEM

Environmental Impact Statement System (Presidential Decree 1586)
9

Whereas, the pursuit of a comprehensive and integrated environment protection program necessitates the establishment and institutionalization of a system whereby the exigencies of socio-economic undertakings can be reconciled with the requirements of environmental quality; Whereas, the regulatory requirements of environmental impact statements and assessments instituted in pursuit of this national environmental protection program have to be worked into their full regulatory and procedural details in a manner consistent with the goals of the program. Now, Therefore, I, Ferdinand E. Marcos, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby order and declare: SECTION 1. Policy—It is hereby deThe land is a mother that never dies. clared the policy of the State to attain and --- Maori maintain a rational and orderly balance between socioeconomic growth and environmental protection. SEC. 2. Environmental Impact Statement System—There is hereby established an Environmental Impact Statement System founded and based on the environmental 10 impact statement required under Section 4 of Presidential Decree No. 1151, of all agencies and instrumentalities of the national government, including governmentowned or controlled corporations, as well as private corporations, firms, and entities, for every proposed project and undertaking which significantly affects the quality of the environment. SEC. 3. Determination of Lead Agency—The Minister of Human Settlements or his designated representative is hereby authorized to name the lead agencies referred 11 to in Section 4 of Presidential Decree No. 1151 which shall have jurisdiction to undertake the preparation of the necessary environmental impact statements on declared environmentally critical projects and areas. All Environmental Impact Statements shall be submitted to the National Environmental Protection Council for review and evaluation. SEC. 4. Presidential Proclamation of Environmentally Critical Areas and Projects—The President of the Philippines may, on his own initiative or upon recommendation of the National Environmental Protection Council, by proclamation declare certain
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This Law provides in more detail the policy on the assessment of the environmental impact of any proposed project as stated in Sec. 4 of the Environmental Policy Act (P.D. 1151). 10 Philippine Environmental Policy. 11 Environmental Impact Statements.

9

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projects, undertakings, or areas in the country as environmentally critical. No person, partnership, or corporation shall undertake or operate any such declared environmentally critical project or area without first securing an Environmental Compliance Certificate issued by the President or his duly authorized representative. For the proper management of said critical project or area, the President may by his proclamation reorganize such government offices, agencies, institutions, corporations, or instrumentalities including the realignment of government personnel, and their specific functions and responsibilities. For the same purpose as above, the Ministry of Human Settlements shall: a. prepare the proper land or water use pattern for said critical project(s) or area(s); b. establish ambient environmental quality standards; c. develop a program of environmental enhancement or protective measures against calamitous factors such as earthquake, floods, water erosion, and others, and d. perform such other functions as may be directed by the President from time to time. SEC. 5. Environmentally Non-critical Projects—All other projects, undertakings, and areas not declared by the President as environmentally critical shall be considered as non-critical and shall not be required to submit an environmental impact statement. The National Environmental Protection Council, through the Ministry of Human Settlements, may, however, require non-critical projects and undertakings to provide additional environmental safeguards as it may deem necessary. SEC. 6. Secretariat—The National Environmental Protection Council is hereby authorized to constitute the necessary secretariat which will administer the Environmental Impact Statement System and undertake the processing and evaluation of environmental impact statements. SEC. 7. Management and Financial Assistance—The Ministry of Human Settlements is hereby authorized to provide management and financial support to government offices and instrumentalities placed under its supervision pursuant to this Decree financed from its existing appropriation or from budgetary augmentation as the Minister of Human Settlements may deem necessary. SEC. 8. Rules and Regulations—The National Environmental Protection Council shall issue the necessary rules and regulations to implement this Decree. For this purpose, the National Pollution Control Commission may be availed of as one of its implementing arms, consistent with the powers and responsibilities of the National 12 Pollution Control Commission as provided in Presidential Decree No. 984. SEC. 9. Penalty for Violation—Any person, corporation or partnership found violating Section 4 of this Decree, or the terms and conditions in the issuance of the Envi_______________________
12

Pollution Control Law.

34

ENVIRONMENTALLY CRITICAL AREAS AND PROJECTS

ronmental Compliance Certificate, or of the standards, rules, and regulations issued by the National Environmental Protection Council pursuant to this Decree shall be punished by the suspension or cancellation of his/its certificate and/or a fine in an amount not to exceed Fifty Thousand Pesos (P50,000.00) for every violation thereof, at the discretion of the National Environmental Protection Council. Revolving SEC. 10. Environmental Fund—Proceeds from the penalties prescribed in the preceding Section 9 and other penalties imposed by the National Pollution Control Commission as authorized in Presidential Decree No. 984, shall be automatically appropriated into an Environment Revolving Fund hereby created as an exemption to Presidential Decree No. 711 and 13 Presidential Decree No. 1234. The fund shall be used exclusively for the operation of the National Environmental Protection Council and the National Pollution Control Commission in the implementation of this Decree. The rules and regulations for the utilization of this fund shall be formulated by the Ministry of Human Settlements and submitted to the President for approval.

“It is a wholesome and necessary thing for us to turn again to the earth and in the contemplation of her beauties to know of wonder and humility.”— Rachel Carson (Y. Lee)

Clause—The SEC. 11. Repealing Inter-Agency Advisory Council of the National Pollution Control Commission created under Section 4 of Presidential Decree 984 is hereby abolished and its powers and responsibilities are forthwith delegated and transferred to the control of the National Environmental Protection Council. All other laws, decrees, executive orders, rules, and regulations inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed, amended, or modified accordingly. SEC. 12. Effectivity Clause—This Decree shall take effect immediately. Done in the City of Manila, this 11th day of June, 1978. Environmentally Critical Areas and Projects (Presidential Decree 2146) Whereas, it is the national policy to attain and maintain a rational and orderly balance between socio-economic growth and environmental conservation and protection;
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Re: Fiduciary Funds of the national government. However, under the one-fund policy of the national government, all revenues derived from penalties are remitted to the black hole called the National Treasury.

13

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Whereas, there is an urgent need to bring about an intensive integrated program of environmental protection through a requirement of environmental impact assessments and statements; Whereas, the environmental impact statement system established under Presidential Decree No. 1586 calls for the proper management of environmentally critical areas; Whereas, the pursuit of a comprehensive and integrated environmental protection program necessitates the establishment and institutionalization of a system whereby the exigencies of socio-economic undertakings can be reconciled with the requirements of environmental protection and conservation; Whereas, the national leadership mandates the establishment of such a system to regulate and minimize the environmental impacts of projects and undertakings which may significantly affect the quality of the environment in Presidential Decree No. 1586; and Whereas, in the effective implementation of such a system, there arises the need to identify and declare certain projects determined to be environmentally critical. Now, Therefore, I, Ferdinand E. Marcos, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by law, hereby proclaim the following areas and types of projects as environmentally critical and within this scope of the Environmental Impact Statement System: A. Environmentally Critical Projects I. Heavy Industries a. Nonferrous metal industries b. Iron and steel mills c. Petroleum and petro-chemical industries including oil and gas d. Smelting plants II. Resource Extractive Industries a. Major mining and quarrying projects 1. Logging 2. 4. Major wood-processing projects Forest occupancy 3. Introduction of fauna (exotic animals) in public/ private forests 5. Extraction of mangrove products 6. Grazing c. Fishery Projects 1. Dikes and/or fishpond development projects b. Forestry projects

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III. Infrastructure Projects a. Major dams b. Major power plants (fossil-fueled, nuclear-fueled, hydroelectric, or geothermal) c. B. Major reclamation projects d. Major roads and bridges Environmentally Critical Areas 1. All areas declared by law as national parks, watershed reserves, wildlife preserves, and sanctuaries; 2. Areas set aside as aesthetic potential tourist spots; 3. Areas which constitute the habitat for any endangered or threatened species of indigenous Philippine wildlife (flora and fauna); 4. Areas of unique historic, archaeological, or scientific interests; 5. Areas which are traditionally occupied by cultural communities or tribes; 6. Areas frequently visited and/or hard hit by natural calamities (geologic hazards, floods, typhoons, volcanic activity, etc.) 7. Areas with critical slopes; 8. Areas classified as prime agricultural lands; 9. 10. Recharged areas of aquifers; Water bodies characterized by one or any combination of the following conditions: a. tapped for domestic purposes b. within the controlled and/or protected areas declared by appropriate authorities c. which support wildlife and fishery activities. 11. Mangrove areas characterized by one or any combination of the following conditions: a. with primary pristine and dense young growth; b. adjoining mouth or major river systems; c. near or adjacent to traditional productive fry or fishing grounds; d. which act as natural buffers against shore erosion, strong winds, and storm floods; and e. 12. on which people are dependent for their livelihood. Coral reefs characterized by one or any combinations of the following conditions: a. with 50% and above live coralline cover;

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b. spawning and nursery grounds for fish; and c. which acts as natural breakwater of coastlines. This proclamation shall take effect immediately. Done in the City of Manila, this 14th day of December, 1981. A HORSE DESIGNED BY GOVERNMENT The EIA system in the Philippines has undergone changes a number of times. The latest rules governing the EIA system is Department Administrative Order No. 2003– 03. There have been interesting developments in the area of the Multi-Partite Monitoring (MMT), the Environmental Guaranty Fund, and the implementation of the principle of ‘Social Acceptability.’ These developments only prove one thing about Governments and Laws: That a camel was a horse designed by Government. (No offense meant to the camel.) Pollution Control Law (Presidential Decree 984) Whereas, there is a need to modify the organizational structure of the National Pollution Control Commission to make it more effective and efficient in the discharge of its functions and responsive to the demands of the times occasioned by the accelerative phase of the country’s industrialization program; Whereas, there is an imperative need to strengthen this Commission to best protect the people from the growing menace of environmental pollution; and Whereas, it is urgently necessary to maintain the role of the Commission as the primary agency responsible for the prevention and control of environmental pollution;
“Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species -- man -- acquired significant power to alter the nature of his world.”— Rachel Carson (A. Oposa)

Now, Therefore, I, Ferdinand E. Marcos, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the

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Constitution, do hereby order and decree the revision of Republic Act No. 3931, to be known as the “National Pollution Control Decree of 1976,” to read as follows: SECTION 1. Statement of Policy—It is hereby declared a national policy to prevent, abate, and control pollution of water, air, and land for the more effective utilization of the resources of this country. SEC. 2. Definitions—As used in this Decree: a. Pollution means any alteration of the physical, chemical, and biological properties of any water, air, and/or land resources of the Philippines, or any discharge thereto of any liquid, gaseous, or solid wastes as will or is likely to create or to render such water, air, and land resources harmful, detrimental or injurious to public health, safety, or welfare or which will adversely affect their utilization for domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational, or other legitimate purposes. b. Sewage means the water-carried human or animal wastes from residences, buildings, industrial establishments, or other places, together with such water infiltration and surface water as may be present. The admixture or sewage and industrial wastes or other wastes as hereafter defined shall also be considered sewage. c. Industrial waste means any liquid, gaseous, or solid matter, or other waste substance or a combination thereof resulting from any process of industry, manufacturing trade, or business or from the development, processing, or recovery of any natural resources which may cause or tend to cause pollution, or contribute to the pollution of the water, air, and land resources of the Philippines. d. Other waste means garbage, refuse, wood residues, sand, lime cinders, ashes, offal, night-oil, tar, dye stuffs, acids, chemicals, and other substances not sewage or industrial waste which may cause or tend to cause pollution; or contribute to the pollution of the water, air, and land resources of the Philippines. e. Sewage system or sewerage system means pipe lines or conduits, pumping stations, force mains, constructed drainage ditches, and all other constructions, devices, and appurtenances used for collecting or conducting sewage, and industrial wastes or other wastes to a point of treatment, discharge, or ultimate disposal. f. Treatment works means any method, construction device, or appliance appurtenant thereto, installed for the purpose of treating, neutralizing, stabilizing, disinfecting, or disposing of sewage, industrial waste, or other wastes, or for the recovery of byproducts from such sewage, industrial waste, or other wastes. g. Sewage works means individually or collectively those constructions or devices used for collecting, pumping, treating, and disposing of sewage, industrial wastes or other waste, or for the recovery of by-products from such sewage, industrial waste, or other waste.

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h. Outlet means the terminus of a sewage works or point of emergence in the water, air, and land resources of the Philippines of any sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes. i. Commission means the National Pollution Control Commission. j. Person/Persons includes any being, natural or juridical, susceptible of rights and obligations or of being the subject of legal relations. SEC. 3. Creation of the National Pollution Control Commission; Members — There is hereby created and established a National Pollution Control Commission under the Office of the President. The Commission shall be headed by one full-time Commissioner and assisted by two full-time Deputy Commissioners, one of whom shall be responsible for standard-setting and monitoring and the other for enforcement. The commissioner shall be a man of proven executive ability. The deputy commissioner for standard-setting and monitoring shall preferably be a sanitary engineer, while the deputy commissioner for enforcement shall preferably be a lawyer. The Commissioner and the Deputy Commissioners must have technical expertise in the field of pollution control. The Commissioner and the Deputy Commissioners shall be appointed by the President of the Philippines. SEC. 4. Inter-Agency Advisory Council—There is created an Inter-Agency Advisory Council, attached to the Commission, which shall be composed of representatives designated by the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, Health, Industry, Justice, Labor, Local Government and Community Development, National Defense, Natural Resources, Public Works, and Transportation and Communications; the heads of the Laguna Lake Development Authority, National Economic and Development Authority, National Science Development Board, and Human Settlements Commission. The Commissioner shall head the Inter-Agency Advisory Council. Representatives from the private sector as may be affected may be invited to the deliberations of the Council. SEC. 5. Organization of the Commission—The Commission shall have a Water Pollution Control Division, an Air Pollution Control Division, a Research and Development Division, a Legal Division, an Administrative Division, and such other divisions or units as may be approved in the General Appropriations Act. Nothing herein contained shall be construed as to automatically terminate or abolish any existing position in the Commission nor shall it be construed as a prohibition against termination of any position.
_______________________
14

Secs. 3, 4, and 5, insofar as they relate to the creation, membership, and organization of the NPCC and the Inter-Agency Advisory Council, are deemed repealed by E.O. No. 192 creating the DENR.

14

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The Commission shall also establish such regional offices as may be necessary. The Commission shall provide such technical, scientific, and other services, including the necessary laboratory and other facilities as may be required to carry out the provisions of this Decree: Provided, That the Commission may secure such services as it may deem necessary from other agencies of the national government, and may make arrangements for the compensation of such services. The Commission may also employ and compensate, within appropriations available therefore, such consultants, experts, advisors, or assistants on a full or part-time basis as may be necessary, coming from government or private business entities, associations, or from local or foreign organizations, to carry out the provisions of this Decree and may prescribe their powers, duties, and responsibilities. The Commission may conduct scientific experiments, investigations, and research to discover economical and practical methods of preventing water, air, and land pollution. To this end, the Commission may cooperate with any public or private agency in the conduct of such experiments, investigations and research, and may accept sums of money, for and in behalf of the national government, given by any international, national, or other public or private agency for water, air, and land pollution control activities, surveys, or programs. SEC. 6. Powers and Functions —The Commission shall have the following powers and functions: a. Determine the location, magnitude, extent, severity, causes, effects, and other pertinent information regarding pollution of the water, air, and land resources of the country; take such measures, using available methods and technologies, as it shall deem best to prevent or abate such pollution; and conduct continuing researches and studies on the effective means for the control and abatement of pollution. b. Develop comprehensive multi-year and annual plans for the abatement of existing pollution and the prevention of new or imminent pollution, the implementation of which shall be consistent with the national development plan of the country. Such plans shall indicate priorities and programs during the year. c. Issue standards, rules, and regulations to govern the approval of plans and specifications for sewage works and industrial waste disposal systems and the issuance of permits in accordance with the provisions of this Decree; inspect the construction and maintenance of sewage works and industrial waste disposal system for compliance to plans. d. Adopt, prescribe, and promulgate rules and regulations governing the procedures of the Board with respect to hearings, plans, specifications, designs, and other data for sewage works and industrial waste disposal system, the filing of reports, the
_______________________
15

The powers and functions listed as d, e, f, and the adjudicatory powers have been absorbed by the DENR-PAB pursuant to Sec. 19, E.O. No. 192 (1987). Reference to the “Commission” is hereinafter meant to refer to the Pollution Adjudicatory Board.

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issuance of permits, and other rules and regulations for the proper implementation and enforcement of this Decree. e. Issue orders or decisions to compel compliance with the provisions of this Decree and its implementing rules and regulations only after proper notice and hearing. f. Make, alter, or modify orders requiring the discontinuance of pollution specifying the conditions and the time within which such discontinuance must be accomplished. g. Issue, renew, or deny permits, under such conditions as it may determine to be reasonable, for the prevention and abatement of pollution, for the discharge of sewage, industrial waste, or for the installation or operation of sewage works and industrial disposal system or parts thereof; Provided, however, That the Board, by rules and regulations, may require subdivisions, condominiums, hospitals, public buildings, and other similar human settlements to put up appropriate central sewerage systems and sewage treatment works, except that no permits shall be required of any new sewage works or changes to or extensions of existing works that discharge only domestic or sanitary wastes from a single residential building provided with septic tanks or their equivalent. The Commission may impose reasonable fees and charges for the issuance or renewal of all permits herein required. h. After due notice and hearing, the Commission may also revoke, suspend, or modify any permit issued under this Decree whenever the same is necessary to prevent or abate pollution. i. Set up effluent, stream, ambient, and emission standards and promulgate rules and regulations therefore; Provided, That local governments, development authorities, and other similar government instrumentalities or agencies may set up higher 16 standards subject to the written approval of the Commission. j. Serve as arbitrator for the determination of reparations or restitution of the damages and losses resulting from pollution. k. Deputize in writing or request assistance of appropriate government agencies or instrumentalities for the purpose of enforcing this Decree and its implementing rules and regulations and the orders and decisions of the Commission. l. Consult, participate, cooperate, and enter into agreement with other agencies of the government, and with affected political groups, political subdivisions, and enterprises in the furtherance of the purpose of this Decree. m. Collect and disseminate information relating to water, air, and land pollution and the prevention, abatement, and control thereof. n. Authorize its representative to enter at all reasonable times any property of the public dominion and private property devoted to industrial, manufacturing, process_______________________
16

Meaning “more stringent.”

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ing, or commercial use without doing damage, for the purpose of inspecting and investigating conditions relating to pollution or possible or imminent pollution. o. Prepare and submit sixty days after the close of each calendar year an annual report to the President and such periodic reports of activities as may be required from time to time. The annual report shall include the extent to which the objectives in the plans referred to under Section 6 (b) have been achieved. p. Exercise such powers and perform such other functions as may be necessary to carry out its duties and responsibilities under this Decree. SEC. 7. Public Hearing —
17

a. Public hearings shall be conducted by the commissioner, deputy commissioners or any senior official duly designated by the commissioner prior to issuance or promulgation of any order or decision by the commissioner requiring the discontinuance of discharge of sewage, industrial wastes, or other wastes into the water, air, or land resources of the Philippines as provided in this Decree; Provided, That whenever the Commission finds a prima facie evidence that the discharged sewage or wastes are of immediate threat to life, public health, safety, or welfare, or to animal or plant life, or exceeds the allowable standards set by the Commission, the commissioner may issue an ex parte order directing the discontinuance of the same or the temporary suspension or cessation of operation of the establishment or person generating such sewage or wastes without the necessity of a prior public hearing. The said ex “How strange that Nature does not knock, and yet does parte order shall be immediately not intrude!” — Emily Dickinson, letter to Mrs. J.S. executory and shall remain in Cooper, 1880 force until said establishment or (Y. Lee, Bugsuk Island) person prevents or abates the said pollution within the allowable standards, or modified or nullified by a competent court.
_______________________

This quasi-judicial power is now exercised by the Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB or Board) per E.O. 192. This reference to the Commission or its members shall deemed to refer to the Board or to the members thereof.

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All records of the proceedings of said hearings shall be filed with the Commission. All inquiries, hearings, investigations, and proceedings conducted by the Commission shall be governed by rules adopted by the Commission, and in the conduct thereof the Commission shall not be bound by technical rules of evidence; Provided, That the commissioners or any of the duly designated hearing officers may summarily punish for contempt, by a fine not exceeding Two Hundred Pesos (P200.00), any person committing such misconduct in the presence of any of the commissioners or any of the duly designated hearing officers, or so near to them as to seriously interrupt any hearing or session or any proceeding, or any person willfully fails or refuses, without just cause, to comply with a summon, “I believe that there is a subtle magnetism in Nature, subpoena, or subpoena duces tecum which, if we unconsciously yield to it, will direct us aright.” — Henry David Thoreau issued by the members of the Com(Y. Lee) mission or by the duly designated hearing officer or, being present at a hearing, session, or investigation, refuses to be sworn as a witness or to answer questions when lawfully required to do so. The sheriff or other police agencies of the place where the hearing or investigation is conducted, shall, upon request of the hearing officer, assist in the enforcement of the provisions of this paragraph. b. Appeal to Courts—Any decision of the Commission, in the absence of an appeal therefrom as herein provided, shall become final fifteen days after the date of notification, and judicial review thereof shall be permitted only after any party claiming to be aggrieved thereby has exhausted the remedies before the Board. The Board shall be deemed to be a party to any judicial action involving any decision. c. Court Review—The decision of the Commission upon any disputed matter may be reviewed both upon the law and the facts of the case by the Court of Appeals. For purposes of such review, the procedure concerning appeals from the Regional Trial 18 Court shall be followed. Appeal from a decision of the Commission must be perfected within fifteen days from notification of such decision; Provided, however, That any decision of the Commission involving only questions of law, shall be appealed to the Supreme Court. No appeal shall stay the execution of any order or decision of the Commis_______________________

P.D. No. 984 used the outdated term “Court of First Instance” (CFI). Per B.P. Blg. 129, it is now referred to as the Regional Trial Court (RTC), a court of general jurisdiction.

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sion unless the Chairman of the Commission himself or the Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court so orders. d. Execution of Decision—Any decision or order of the Commission, after the same has become final and executory, shall be enforced and executed in the same manner as decisions of the Regional Trial Court, and the Commission shall have the power to issue to the city or provincial sheriff or duly constituted authorities whom it may appoint, such writs of execution as may be necessary for the enforcement of such decision or order and any person who shall fail or refuse to comply with such decision, order, or writ, after being required to do so shall, upon application by the Commission, be punished by the proper court for contempt. SEC. 8. Prohibitions—No person shall throw, run, drain, or otherwise dispose into any of the water, air, and/or land resources of the Philippines, or cause, permit, suffer to be thrown, run, drain, allow to seep, or otherwise dispose thereto any organic or inorganic matter or any substance in gaseous or liquid form that shall cause pollution thereof. No person shall perform any of the following activities without first securing a permit from the Commission for the discharge of all industrial wastes and other wastes which could cause pollution: 1. the construction, installation, modification, or operation of any sewage works or any extension or addition thereto; 2. the increase in volume or strength of any wastes in excess of the permissive discharge specified under any existing permit; 3. the construction, installation or operation of any industrial or commercial establishments or any extension or modification thereof or addition thereto, the operation of which would cause an increase in the discharge of waste directly into the water, air, and/or land resources of the Philippines or would otherwise alter their physical, chemical or biological properties in any manner not already lawfully authorized. SEC. 9. Penalties— a. Any person found violating or failing to comply with any order, decision, or regulation of the Commission for the control or abatement of pollution shall pay a fine not exceeding Five Thousand Pesos per day for every day during which such violation or default continues; and the Commission is hereby authorized and empowered to impose the fine after due notice and hearing. The fines so imposed shall be paid to the government of the Philippines through the Commission, and failure to pay the fine in any case within the time specified in the abovementioned order or decision shall be sufficient ground for the Commission to order the closure or the stoppage in the operation of the establishment being operated and/or managed by said person or persons until payment of the fines shall have been made. The Commission shall have the power and authority to issue corresponding writs of execution directing the city or provincial sheriff or other peace officers whom it may appoint to enforce the fine or the order of closure or stoppage of operations. 45

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Payment of fines may also be enforced by appropriate action in a court of competent jurisdiction. The remedies provided in this subsection shall not be a bar to, nor shall affect any other remedies provided for in this Decree but shall not be cumulative and additional to such remedies. b. Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of Section 8 of this Decree or its implementing rules and regulations, or any order or decision of the Commission, shall be liable to a penalty of not to exceed One Thousand Pesos for each day during which the violation continues, or by imprisonment of from two years to six years, or by both fine and imprisonment, and in addition such person may be required or enjoined from continuing such violation as hereinafter provided. c. Any person who shall refuse, obstruct, or hamper the entry of the duly authorized representatives of the DENR into any property of the public domain or private property devoted to industrial manufacturing, processing or commercial use during reasonable hours for the purpose of inspecting or investigating the conditions therein relating to pollution or possible or imminent pollution, shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Two Hundred Pesos or imprisonment of not exceeding one month, or both. d. Any person who violates any of the provisions of, or fails to perform any duty imposed by this Decree or its implementing rules and regulations or any order or decision of the Commission promulgated pursuant to this Decree thereby causing the death of fish or other aquatic life, shall in addition to the penalty above prescribed, be liable to pay the government for damages for fish or aquatic life destroyed. e. In case the violator is a juridical person, the penalty shall be imposed on the managing head responsible for the violation. SEC. 10. Jurisdiction—The Commission shall have no jurisdiction over waterworks or sewage systems operated by the Metropolitan Waterworks Sewerage System, but the rules and regulations issued by the Commission for the protection and prevention of pollution under the authority herein granted shall supersede and prevail over any rules or regulations as may heretofore have been issued by other government agencies or instrumentalities on the same subject. In case of development projects involving specific human settlement sites or integrated regional or sub-regional projects, such as the Tondo Foreshore Development 19 Authority and the Laguna Lake Development Authority, the DENR shall consult with the authorities charged with the planning and execution of such projects to ensure that their pollution control standards comply with those of the DENR. Once minimum pollution standards are established and agreed upon, the development authorities concerned
_______________________

The Laguna Lake Development Authority is government-owned corporation with its owned special charter and was formerly under the administrative supervision of the Office of the President through the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA). Per E.O. No. 129 (1993), the LLDA is now an attached agency of the DENR.

19

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may, by mutual agreement and prior consultation with the DENR, undertake the pollu20 tion control activities themselves. SEC. 11. Appropriations—Such amount as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Decree, which in no case shall be less than Five Million Pesos, is hereby appropriated yearly for the operating expenses of the Commission out of any funds in the National Treasury. SEC. 12. Repealing Clause—Any provision of laws, presidential decrees, executive orders, rules, and regulations and/or parts thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Decree, are hereby repealed and/or modified accordingly. SEC. 13. Effectivity—This Decree shall take effect immediately. Done in the City of Manila, this 18th day of August, 1976. Pollution is a Technical Issue The determination of the existence of pollution is a technical matter that must first be resolved by competent authority. Without such determination, a criminal case for pollution cannot be filed. Facts: On March 11, 1975, petitioner Donald Mead and Isaac Arivas, president and general manager respectively of the Insular Oil Refinery Co. (INSOIL), were charged by the provincial fiscal of Rizal for a violation of Sections 9 and 10 of Republic Act No. 3931, entitled “An Act Creating a National Water and Air Pollution Control Commission.” Specifically, the complaint alleged that INSOIL polluted the environment by dumping its industrial and other hazardous wastes into the highway canal in the vicinity of its plant. Mr. Mead assails the jurisdiction of the court saying that the National Water and Air Pollution Commission has the exclusive authority to determine the existence of “pollution” before a criminal case can be filed for violation of said law and that the Commission has the exclusive authority to prosecute said violations. Thus, the not having finally ruled that there is a violation of Republic Act No. 3931 in this case, the provincial fiscal lacks the authority to prosecute him for violation of said law. The respondents on the other hand, maintain that the courts have concurrent jurisdiction with the Commission to prosecute violations of Republic Act No. 3931. Issue: Does the court have jurisdiction to try the case for pollution? 21 Held: No. Republic Act No. 3931 is a law prohibiting the pollution of waterways and/or the atmospheric air. As such, any prosecution for violation of said law re_______________________

The power of the LLDA to exercise pollution control activities and adopt its own procedures for notice, hearing, and closure of polluting establishments is believed to be derived from this provision of the Pollution Control Law. 21 R.A. 3931 has been revised by P.D. No. 984, the Pollution Control Law, which is the prevailing law on pollution.

20

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quires that the complainant prove that the accused committed the act which the law tries to prevent—that is, that he “polluted” the air or waterways through some means. “The term pollution as used in the law is not to be taken in its ordinary signification. In Sec. 2, paragraph (a), of Republic Act No. 3931, pollution is defined in these words: (a) Pollution means such alteration of the physical, chemical, and/or biological properties of any water and/or atmospheric air of the Philippines, or any such discharge of any liquid, gaseous, or solid substances into any of the waters and/or atmospheric air of the country as will or is likely to create or render such waters and/or atmospheric air harmful or detrimental or injurious to public health, safety or welfare, or to domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational, or other legitimate uses, or to livestock, wild animals, birds, fish, or other aquatic life. “Th(is) definition of the term pollution in itself connotes that the determination of its existence requires specialized knowledge of technical and scientific matters which are not ordinarily within the competence of fiscals (prosecutors) or of those sitting in a court of justice.” This is probably the reason why “the power to determine the existence of pollution is vested by the law in the Commission. Section 6 . . . gives the Commission the authority to ‘determine whether a pollution exists in any of the waters and/or atmospheric air of the Philippines’ while Section 8 contains explicit provisions as to the authority of the Commission to determine the existence of pollution and to take appropriate actions to abate or prevent the same.” This same section expressly provides that on matters not related to nuisance, “no court action shall be initiated until the Commission shall have finally ruled thereon.” “This provision leaves little room for doubt that a court action involving the determination of the existence of pollution may not be initiated until and unless the Commission has so determined the existence of what in the law is considered pollution.” “As may be seen from the law, the determination of the existence of pollution requires investigation, public hearings, and the collection of various information relating to water and atmospheric pollution.” Thus, there being no investigation or finding from the Commission regarding this matter, the provincial fiscal acted prematurely in instituting this action. Consequently, the respondent court cannot acquire jurisdiction. Case dismissed. Mead v. Argel 115 SCRA 256, G. R. No. L-41958, July 20, 1982

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“Grass is the forgiveness of Nature—her constant benediction... Forests decay, Harvests perish and Flowers vanish, but grass is immortal.” — John James Ingall (Mei Velas)

Cease and Desist Order May Be Issued Without Extensive Hearing The PAB has the legal authority to issue a cease and desist order ex parte without a hearing where the discharges exceed the allowable standards. Facts: Solar Textile Finishing Corp. (Solar, for brevity) was charged in the PAB with violating Section 8 of Presidential Decree No. 984, Section 103 of its Implementing Rules and Regulations and the 1982 Effluent Regulations. The case stemmed from PAB’s findings after several inspections that Solar’s textile plant in Malabon was discharging untreated wastewater directly into a canal leading to the Tullahan-Tenejeros River. On September 22, 1988, the PAB issued an ex parte cease and desist order (CDO) against Solar signed by Board Chairman and then DENR Secretary Fulgencio Factoran, Jr. On March 31, 1989, a writ of execution was issued. Solar filed a motion for reconsideration to stay the execution of the CDO. Acting on this motion, the PAB issued an order allowing Solar to operate temporarily pending another inspection and evaluation by the PAB and the DENR. However, on April 21, Solar went to the RTC Quezon City on a petition to enjoin the execution of the CDO. The RTC dismissed Solar’s petition saying that appeal was the proper remedy and that the Board’s subsequent order allowing Solar to operate temporarily has rendered the petition moot and academic. Solar appealed to the Court of Appeals which decided in its favor. Thus, this petition by the PAB to the Supreme Court to assail the correctness of the CA’s decision.

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It is enough for the Board to find that the wastes discharged exceed ‘the allowable standards. public health. 984) in Section 7 a. this is known as the principle of unjust enrichment.. or to animal or plant life. safety or welfare. public health.” “Industrial establishments are not constitutionally entitled to reduce their capital costs and operating expenses and to increase their profits by imposing upon the public threats and risks to safety. only the costs of capital.” “On the one hand.’ In respect of discharges of wastes as to which allowable standards have been set by the DENR. CA 195 SCRA 112. . G. safety or welfare or to animal or plant life. First of all. 1991 Unjust Enrichment and the Internalization of Environmental Costs The last quoted paragraph of this decision is quite interesting. it says what it says and almost speaks directly to irresponsible industrial establishments to “clean up their act” and not to unduly enrich themselves at the expense of the public.” or b. gives the PAB the necessary legal authority to issue an ex parte cease and desist order (a)whenever the wastes discharged by an establishment pose an “immediate threat to life. R. or to animal and plant life’ remains necessary. health and general welfare and comfort. The Pollution Control Law (Presidential Decree No. public health. Pollution Adjudication Board v. records show “that there was at least prima facie evidence before the Board that the effluents emanating from Solar’s plant exceeded the maximum allowable levels of physical and chemical substances set by the DENR and that accordingly there was adequate basis supporting the ex parte cease and desist order issued by the Board. materials. 93891. and very subtly. safety or welfare. this passage is actually an early example of the modern concept of cost internalization. it is not essential that the Board prove that an ‘immediate threat to life. No. the general standard of ‘an immediate threat to life. whenever such discharges or wastes exceed “the allowable standards . safety or welfare. 50 . In law. or to animal or plant life’ exists before an ex parte cease and desist order may be issued. the Board may act on ex parte basis when it finds at least prima facie proof that the wastewater or material involved presents an ‘immediate threat to life.” In this case. In the manufacturing process. Second.TOUR OF THE HORIZON Issue: Did PAB deny Solar its constitutional right to due process when it issued the closure order without a hearing or ex parte? Held: No.’ Since the applicable standards set by the DENR existing at any given time may well not cover every possible or imaginable kind of effluent or waste discharge. March 11. public health. and labor are factored into the cost of production. by disregarding the requirement of anti-pollution statutes and their implementing regulations.

the cost to the public of the industrial pollution. in the end. In economic parlance. are not included in the cost of goods manufactured. they are called cost externalities. Facts: Technology Developers Inc. The present laws do not specifically allow for the imposition of the environmental user fee system. Responding to the complaints. i. Jurisdiction Over Pollution Case Pollution cases are within the exclusive jurisdiction and competence of the DENR and therefore are beyond the power of the local mayor to resolve. i. costs external to the cost of production. Bulacan which became the subject of complaints from residents. mayor’s permit their revenge.. Cruz ordered the closure of the plant basing his decision on TDI’s apparent lack of build“The earth we abuse and the living things we kill. The complainants alleged that hazardous fumes or smoke from the plant’s chimney was polluting the environment and causing sickness among the locals. the language existing authorizing the collection of fees for the issuance of environmental permits to operate an industrial or commercial establishment. Maria.e. However. for in exploiting their presence we are diminand anti-pollution permit ishing our future.POLLUTION CONTROL LAW Environmental costs. the costs borne by the public as area of the pollution however. 51 .e. (TDI) is a domestic private corporation engaged in the business of manufacturing and exporting charcoal briquettes. If the law can compel industrial establishments to install pollution control equipment and/or establish environmental management systems. It has a plant located in the municipality of Sta.” — Marya Mannes (Tess Cayton) from the National Pollution Control Commission (now DENR-EMB).. the environmental cost would then perforce be “internalized” into the cost of the goods. ing permit. acting Mayor Pablo N.

the Supreme Court held that “concomitant to the need to promote investment and contribute to the growth of the economy is the equally essential imperative of protecting the health. he may deny the application for a permit to operate a business or otherwise close the same unless appropriate measures are taken to control and/or avoid injury to the health of the residents of the community from the emissions. In its resolution. the very lives of the people. which the trial court. Hence. However. it must be recognized that the mayor of a town has as much responsibility of protecting its inhabitants from pollution. The Court also found that certain signatures in the complaint/petition submitted to the mayor as the basis of the latter’s closure order were falsified.TOUR OF THE HORIZON TDI brought a petition before the RTC of Bulacan to prevent the mayor from carrying out his order. the RTC allowed the mayor to effect the closure. 1991 Resolution (Note: However. Among others. 1991. he was. in a Resolution dated July 31. the company submitted a building permit issued by the Building Official of the then Ministry of Public Works and a permit to operate issued by the DENR-EMB. 1991 declared that the Mayor’s closure order was done pursuant to the latter’s police power. by virtue of his police power. “(o)ur previous decision was anchored on factual allegations in the respondent mayor’s pleadings. the Court reversed itself 180 degrees apparently in the face of certain evidence submitted by TDI.” Moreover. TDI then went to the Court of Appeals which also dismissed the petition. It quoted the portion of the RTC decision which said: “While it is true that the matter of determining whether there is a pollution of the environment that requires control if not prohibition of the operation of a business is essentially addressed to then National Pollution Control Commission of the Department of Natural Resources. and this court assumed to be true. and is. regardless of the mayor’s justifications for issuing his arbitrary closure order.) “We are impelled to reconsider our decision for. The petitioner’s motion for reconsideration of our decision has knocked down those factual moorings of our decision. bereft of jurisdiction to issue 52 . from the deleterious effect of the pollution of the environment. January 21. July 31. upon motion for reconsideration. this petition before the Supreme Court. the Court said. 1991 Decision The initial decision of the Supreme Court dated January 21. Issue: Was the RTC correct in allowing the mayor to effect the closure of the allegedly polluting establishment? Held: No. nay. the Court of Appeals.

after due notice and hearing. whether additional devices for that purpose should be installed. whether the discharge of smoke from petitioner’s 16-meter smoke stack should be reduced or discontinued.R. not the operation of the business. the EMB. and technical men working with scientific equipment and laboratory facilities to measure the degree and extent of air pollution in the plant site and around it.” The acting mayor may not capriciously deny a permit to operate TDI’s otherwise legitimate business on the ground that its plant was causing excessive air pollution. Inc. presidential decrees. after a public hearing. 193 SCRA 147. 1991 53 . environmental experts. G. v. chemists. to determine whether the charcoal briquette plant was causing air pollution in excess of permissible limits. That investigation and determination can only be made by the EMB. was created by law for this purpose. water. in this case. 94759. 984 which provide that the rules and regulations issued by the EMB for the prevention of pollution ‘shall supersede and prevail over any rules or regulations as may heretofore have been issued by other government agencies or instrumentalities on the same subject. rules and regulations and/or parts thereof inconsistent with the provisions of this Decree are hereby repealed and/or modified accordingly. may determine whether excessive pollution exists.” “The complaint against the TDI for violation of anti-pollution laws should have been addressed to the EMB which alone is empowered to investigate and. A special agency. is affirmed in Sections 10 and 17 of Presidential Decree No. later renamed Environmental Management Bureau (or EMB) ‘as the primary agency responsible for the prevention and control of environmental pollution‘ in the country. It was never the law’s intention to place in the hands of just any layman. even the provision of the Civil Code on nuisance. 201 SCRA 11. that may be discontinued.” “Significantly. The primacy of its jurisdiction on matters of air. 984 are not conferred by law on town officials. C. the authority to determine if pollution exists.” Technology Developers. that it poses to the health of the people in the barangay where the plant is located. are deemed superseded by Presidential Decree No. 1976 the National Pollution Control Commission. and whether its business should be temporarily suspended or totally banned. insofar as the nuisance is caused by pollution of the air. but also brings in export dollars for the country’s dollarstarved economy.” “The applicable law is Presidential Decree No. physicians. 984 which is the special law on the subject of pollution. it is the discharge of industrial wastes.POLLUTION CONTROL LAW it. executive orders. or land resources.’ Evidently. and determine the danger. water. not only provides jobs. July 31. however high his motives may be. No.’ and ‘any provision of laws. and pollution. January 21. 1991. Only the EMB. 984 which created and established on August 18. and the power to toll the death knell of a multi-million peso industry which. assisted by its staff of sanitary engineers.” “The powers and functions of the EMB enumerated in Section 6 of Presidential Decree No.A. if any.

Pollution Prevention/Cleaner Do not go where the path may lead. Go instead where there is no path and then…leave a trail. it is believed that the Court would rule differently if a similar case is brought today. Pollution Control Law [PD 984. The case cited above and its implications on local governance are excellent subjects to explore in a path-breaking legal research paper. Environmental Code (PD 1152. (Ralph W. Objectives and Definition of Terms Pursuant to and in line with the policy of the State to promote the people’s right to a balanced and healthful ecology.TOUR OF THE HORIZON Ripe for Judicial Clarification This case is ripe for judicial clarification in light of the passage of the Local Government Code of 1991. the Court’s reference to the EMB as the proper body is slightly inaccurate. Incidentally. 192 (1987). (h)(6). Sec 6 (f)(g)]. Section 2 (h). Given a different set of facts and considering the eloquent call for vigilance by the Supreme Court in the closing lines in the case of Tano v. had a permit from the EMB and a building permit from the then Ministry of Public Works and that certain signatures which formed the basis of the residents’ complaint were falsified. Philippine Environment Partnership Program (DAO 2003-14) Article I Policy Statement. a quasi-judicial body of which the EMB is only the Secretariat. Sec. 57). Essays) (A. Socrates. Oposa) 54 . Note however that the resolution of the Motion for Reconsideration was based on certain facts: that TDI. Executive Order 192 (Sec 5. PD 1152 (Sec. The power to hear and decide on pollution cases is actually vested in the Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB) per Executive Order No. Emerson. after all. 58)] and the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan (19992004) Clean Air Act of 1999. and recognizing that Environmental Management System (EMS). the Philippine Agenda 21. Ecological Solid Waste Management Act (Article 1.

2.” SEC. 2. distribution. Objectives “All my life through. SECTION 1.2 To provide incentives and package of assistance to establishments particularly the small and medium enterprises to achieve pollution prevention/cleaner production process.” — Marie Curie (G. 2. Basic Policy It is the policy of the State to promote sustainable development by encouraging ‘the business and/ or industrial sector to engage in environmental improvement activities and advance self-regulation and mandatory compliance with environmental standards. and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk and/or injury to health or the environment. to prohibit the entry.3 To build or enhance the capability of establishments and/or their associations on self-regulation. this Order is hereby promulgated to encourage and support establishments to adopt self-regulation for improved environmental performance through the provision of regulatory assistance and other incentives under the Philippine Environment Partnership Program (PEPP).4 To strengthen the capability of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources—Environmental Management Bureau (DENR-EMB) and other Environmental Authorities in implementing the PEPP towards industry self-regulation. restrict. 2. or prohibit the importation. Tapan.TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTES Production (P2/CP) are significant programs to reduce pollution and promote sound environmental management. sale. Short Title—This Act shall be known as the “Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990. even in transit. Natural Heritage) 2. use. Declaration of Policy—It is the policy of the State to regulate. manufacture. Toxic Substances and Hazardous Wastes (Republic Act 6969) SECTION 1. of hazardous and nuclear 55 . processing. the new sights of Nature made me rejoice like a child. SEC. 2.1 To promote mandatory self-monitoring and compliance with environmental standards and to encourage voluntary self-regulation among establishments for improved environmental performance.

and to provide advancement and facilitate research and studies on toxic chemicals. storage.”— William Ralph Inge (Digital Vision) The phrase “as well as the keeping or storage and disposal of hazardous and nuclear waste” is the legal basis for the passage of regulations on the storage. SEC. _______________________ “Civilization is being poisoned by its own waste products. To prevent the entry. To inform and educate the populace regarding the hazards and risks attendant to the manufacture. manufactured. or used. including the entry. distribution. handling. storage. handling. distribution. ad disposal of hazardous wastes. and disposal of toxic chemicals and other substances and mixture. their existing and possible uses. and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk or injury to health or to the environment in accordance with national policies and international commitments. c. Scope—This Act shall cover the importation. as well as the keeping or storage and disposal of hazardous and nuclear wastes into the country for whatever purpose. transportation. even in tran22 sit. sale. b. sale. storage. 22 56 . processing. handling. manufacture. use. and disposal of all unregulated chemical substances and mixtures in the Philippines. 4. use. transportation. transportation. processing. SEC. manufacture. indicating. test data. processing. and d.TOUR OF THE HORIZON wastes and their disposal into the Philippine territorial limits for whatever purpose. and such other information as may be considered relevant to the protection of health and the environment. To monitor and regulate the importation. transportation. even in transit. To keep an inventory of chemicals that are presently being imported. among others. names of firms manufacturing or using them. Objectives—The objectives of this Act are: a. as well as the keeping or storage and disposal of hazardous and nuclear wastes into the country for whatever purpose. 3. distribution. use. handling.

Unreasonable risk means expected frequency of undesirable effects or adverse responses arising from a given exposure to a substance. d. and ii. or aesthetically objectionable properties such as offensive odors. 57 . Process means the preparation of a chemical substance or mixture after its manufacture for commercial distribution: i. inhalation. in whole or in part. e. As part of an article containing a chemical substance or mixture. 5. This shall include non-biodegradable mixtures. whether it is done in a factory or in the worker’s home. Importation means the entry of a product or substance into the Philippines (through the seaports or airports of entry) after having been properly cleared through or still remaining under customs control. or skin absorption. long-term environmental hazards. Manufacture means the mechanical or chemical transformation of substances into new products whether work is performed by power-driven machines or by hand. Hazardous substances are substances which present either: i. or ii. Chemical substance means any organic or inorganic substance of a particular molecular identity.TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTES SEC. and whether the products are sold at wholesale or retail. corrosivity or other skin or eye contact hazards or the risk of fire or explosion. the product or substance of which is intended for direct consumption. if none of the chemical substances comprising the combination is a new chemical substance and if the combination could have been manufactured for commercial purposes without a chemical reaction at the time the chemical substances comprising the combination were combined. carcinogenicity (which may in some cases result from acute exposure but with a long latent period). Chemical mixture means any combination of two or more chemical substances if the combination does not occur in nature and is not. short-term acute hazards. g. Any combination of such substances occurring in whole or in part as a result of chemical reaction or occurring in nature. including chronic toxicity upon repeated exposure. such as acute toxicity by ingestion. Any element or uncombined chemical. resistance to detoxification process such a biodegradation. the result of a chemical reaction. f. or for further processing. including: i. b. merchandising. Definition—As used in this Act: a. or ii. the potential to pollute underground or surface waters. warehousing. c. In the same form or physical state or in a different form or physical state from that which it was received by the person so preparing such substance or mixture.

and such other information as the Secretary may consider relevant to the protection of health and the environment. To conduct inspection of any establishment in which chemicals are manufactured. agricultural. and Responsibilities of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources—The Department of Environment and Natural Resources shall be the implementing agency tasked with the following functions. To enter into contracts and make grants for research. of hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal into the country. even in transit. h. Nuclear wastes are hazardous wastes made radioactive by exposure to the radiation incidental to the production or utilization of nuclear fuels but does not include nuclear fuel. stored. SEC. quality. and responsibilities: a. spent reaction media. To keep an updated inventory of chemicals that are presently being manufactured or used. side-products. To monitor and prevent the entry. industrial. i. 6. agricultural. To evaluate the characteristics of chemicals that have been tested to determine their toxicity and the extent of their effects on health and the environment. test data. or economic usage and are shipped.TOUR OF THE HORIZON h. commercial. Hazardous wastes shall also refer to by-products. and consumer discards of manufacture products. powers. f. To subpoena witnesses and documents and to require other information if necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act. Functions. Hazardous wastes are hereby defined as substances that are without any safe commercial. To confiscate or impound chemicals found not falling within said acts and cannot be enjoined except after the chemicals have been impounded. d. i. and monitoring of chemical substances and mixtures. transported. e. Powers. their existing and possible uses. process residues. g. or brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposal into or in transit through any part of the territory of the Philippines. or held before or after their commercial distribution and to make recommendations to the proper authorities concerned. medical. b. processed. 58 . To require chemical substances and mixtures which are presently being manufactured or processed to be tested if there is a reason to believe that they pose unreasonable risk or injury to health or the environment. or radioisotopes which have reached the final stage of fabrication so as to be usable for any scientific. c. among others. names of firms manufacturing or using them. To require chemical substances and mixtures that present unreasonable risk or injury to health or to the environment to be tested before they are manufactured or imported for the first time. development. contaminated plant or equipment or other substances from manufacturing operations. indicating. or industrial purpose.

and other resources as the need arises in the discharge of its functions. Inter-Agency Technical Advisory Council—There is hereby created an Inter-Agency Technical Advisory Council attached to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources which shall be composed of the following officials or their duly authorized representatives: Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources—Chairman Secretary of Health—Member Director of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute—Member Secretary of Trade and Industry—Member Secretary of Science and Technology—Member Secretary of National Defense—Member Secretary of Foreign Affairs—Member Secretary of Labor and Employment—Member Secretary of Finance—Member Secretary of Agriculture—Member Representative from a nongovernmental organization on health and safety— Member The representative from the nongovernmental organization shall be appointed by the President for a term of three (3) years. SEC. and wastes on health and environment. To conduct preliminary evaluation of the characteristics of chemical substances and mixtures to determine their toxicity and effects on health and the environment and make the necessary recommendations to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. To assist the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in the preparation and updating of the inventory of chemical substances and mixtures that fall within the coverage of this Act. and other instrumentalities of the government for assistance in the form of personnel. To exercise such powers and perform such other functions as may be necessary to carry out its duties and responsibilities under this Act. To assist the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in the formulation of the pertinent rules and regulations for the effective implementation of this Act. k. bureau. agency. state university or college. facilities. To call on any department. mixtures. b. 7. To disseminate information and conduct educational awareness campaigns on the effects of chemical substances. c. The Council shall have the following functions: a. office. and 59 .TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTES j. and l.

There are insufficient data and experience for determining or predicting the health and environmental effects of the chemical substance or mixture. the manufacturer. processing and disposal thereof. our natural resources. or importer has. from time to time. processed. require. processor. b. or importers shall shoulder the costs of testing the chemical substance or mixture that will be manufactured. or imported. The manufacturers. The testing of the chemical substance or mixture is necessary to develop such data. There is reason to believe that the chemical substance or mixture may present an unreasonable risk to health or the environment or there may be substantial human or environmental exposure thereto. processor. proposed categories of use. To perform such other functions as the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources may. its chemical identity and molecular structure. to destroy. Chemicals Subject to Testing—Testing shall be required in all cases where: a. SEC. and any test data related to health and environmental effects which the manufacturer. or imported. processed. 8. and c. “To waste. 9. will result in undermining in the days of our children the very prosperity which we ought by right to hand down to them amplified and developed. SEC. an estimate of the amount to be manufactured. processed. Pre-Manufacture and Pre-Importation Requirements—Before any new chemical substance or mixture can be manufactured.TOUR OF THE HORIZON d. processors. to skin and exhaust the land instead of using it so as to increase its usefulness. or importer shall submit the following information: the name of the chemical substance or mixture. or imported for the first time as determined by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.”— Marya Mannes (Digital Vision) 60 .

or distributor. distribution. however. or disposal.TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTES SEC. SEC. report or information or particular portions thereof confidential and may not be made public when such would divulge trade secrets. processor. Chemical Substances Exempt from Pre-Manufacture Notification—The manufacture of the following chemical substances or mixtures shall be exempt from premanufacture notification: a. or distributed in violation of this Act or implementing rules and regulations or orders. within ninety (90) days from the date of filing of the notice of manufacture. 13. 12. c. processing. for justifiable reasons. manufactured. 11. Those included in the categories of chemical substances and mixtures already listed in the inventory of existing chemicals. Action by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources or his Duly Authorized Representative—The Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources or his duly authorized representative shall. SEC. processor. use. may release information subject to claim of confidentiality to a medical research or scientific institution where the information is needed for the purpose of medical diagnosis or treatment of a person exposed to the chemical substance or mixture. b. or information concerning chemical substances and mixtures including safety data submitted. Knowingly use a chemical substance or mixture which is imported. or Notification—The public shall have access to records. processed. Prohibited Acts—The following acts and omissions shall be considered unlawful: a. reports. SEC. 61 . and d. extend the ninety-day pre-manufacture period within a reasonable time. processing. sale. Chemical substances and mixtures that exist temporarily and which have no human or environmental exposure such as those which exist as a result of chemical reaction in the manufacture or processing of a mixture of another chemical substance. Those to be produced in small quantities solely for experimental or research and developmental purposes. data on emission or discharge into the environment. The Secretary may. or would otherwise tend to affect adversely the competitive position of such manufacturer. 10. manufacture. or importation of a chemical substance or mixture. production or processes unique to such manufacturer. Chemical substances and mixtures that will not present an unreasonable risk to health and the environment. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources. decide whether or not to regulate or prohibit its importation. Public Access to Records. production or sales figures or methods. or distributor. Reports. and such documents shall be available for inspection or reproduction during normal business hours except that the Department of Environment and Natural Resources may consider a record.

If the offender is a foreigner. director. as required by this Act. even in transit. Every penalty imposed for the unlawful importation. the above penalty shall be imposed upon the managing partner.00). he or she shall in addition to the above penalties be deemed automatically dismissed from office and permanently disqualified from holding any elective or appointive position. Failure or refusal to comply with the pre-manufacture and pre. shall be imposed upon any person who shall violate Section 13 (d) of this Act. entry. or sea transportation or otherwise keeping in storage any amount of hazardous and nuclear wastes in any part of the Philippines. processed. or any juridical person. in addition to the above penalties. i. association. If it is a foreign firm. president. In the case of corporations or other associations. Failure or refusal to submit reports. be deemed automatically dismissed from office and permanently disqualified from holding any elective or appointive position.TOUR OF THE HORIZON b.00) to Four Thousand Pesos (P4. ii. president. or manager who shall consent to or shall knowingly tolerate such violation shall be directly liable and responsible for the act of the employee and shall be criminally liable as a co-principal. c. The penalty of imprisonment of twelve (12) years and one day to twenty (20) years. or chief executive in addition to an exemplary damage of at least Five Hundred Thousand Pesos (P500. in addition to the cancellation of its license to do business in the Philippines. or other information. c. iii. corporation. aid. iii. access to records. the partner. manufacture. stored. 14. b. Cause.importation requirements.000.00) shall be imposed upon any person who shall violate Section 13 (a) to (c) of this Act and shall not be covered by the Probation Law. processing.000. ii. and d. in the storage. he or she shall be deported and barred from any subsequent entry into the Philippines after serving his or her sentence. or distribution of chemical substances or mixtures into or within the Philippines shall carry with it the confiscation and forfeiture in favor of the 62 . air. or facilitate. notices. The penalty of imprisonment of six (6) months and one day to six (6) years and one day and a fine ranging from Six Hundred Pesos (P600. or bringing into Philippines territory. i. the director and all officers of such foreign firm shall be barred from entry into the Philippines. In case the offender is a government official or employee. In case the offender is a government official or employee. sale. he or she shall. directly or indirectly. importation. or otherwise held. including its maritime economic zones. or permit inspection of establishment where chemicals are manufactured. Criminal Offenses and Penalties— a. transport. he or she shall be deported and barred from any subsequent entry into the Philippines after serving his or her sentence. either by means of land. If the offender is a foreigner. In case any violation of this Act is committed by a partnership. SEC.

00) upon any person or entity found guilty thereof. Administrative Fine—In all cases of violations of this Act.00). 19. Repealing Clause—All laws. presidential decrees. tools or other improvements including vehicles. in coordination with the member agencies of the InterAgency Technical Advisory Council.000.TOXIC SUBSTANCES AND HAZARDOUS WASTES government of the proceeds of the unlawful act and instruments. 16. and rules and regulations which are inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. the remaining provisions thereof not affected thereby shall remain in full force and effect. executive orders. Separability Clause—If any provision of this Act is declared void or unconstitutional. shall prepare and publish the rules and regulations implementing this Act within six months from the date of its effectivity. The person or firm responsible or connected with the bringing or importation into the country of hazardous or nuclear wastes shall be under obligation to transport or send back said prohibited wastes. 63 . The administrative fines imposed and collected by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources shall accrue to a special fund to be administered by the Department exclusively for projects and research activities relative to toxic substances and mixtures. including violations of implementing rules and regulations which have been duly promulgated and published in accordance with Section 16 of this Act. including all facilities and appurtenances that may have been used in transporting to or in the storage in the Philippines of any significant amount of hazardous or nuclear wastes shall at the option of the government be forfeited in its favor. SEC. Appropriations—Such amount as may be necessary to implement the provisions of this Act is hereby annually appropriated and included in the budget of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. sea vessels. SEC. 20. d. Approved: October 26. but not more than Fifty Thousand Pesos (P50. 17. Promulgation of Rules and Regulations—The Department of Environment and Natural Resources. the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources is hereby authorized to impose a fine of not less than Ten Thousand Pesos (P10. 15. Chemical substances so confiscated and forfeited by the government at its option shall be turned over to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources for safekeeping and proper disposal. 18. and issuances. SEC. Any and all means of transportation. SEC.000. SEC. SEC. Effectivity—This Act shall take effect after fifteen (15) days following its publication in the Official Gazette or in any newspaper of general circulation. and aircrafts used in or with which the offense was committed. 1990.

I. by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution. _______________________ NOTE: In the period between the February 1986 “People Power” revolution (that installed Mrs. Now. the reorganization of the Department of Natural Resources can now be effected. development. management. 23 64 . Title —This Executive Order shall otherwise be known as the Reorganization Act of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. there is a need to protect and enhance the quality of the country’s environment. President Aquino exercised legislative powers by way of executive orders. under Article XIII. a policy having been reached on energy. Whereas. the President shall continue to exercise legislative powers until the First Congress is convened. Aquino. President of the Philippines. Whereas. Corazon C. and conservation of the country’s natural resources. environmental concerns and natural resources concerns should be given equal attention by the Department. Therefore. the environment will be effected by the use. this was transformed into a Department which included environmental protection in its very mandate.”— Ralph Waldo Emerson (G. to attain this objective.TOUR OF THE HORIZON ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION Department of Environment and Natural Resources 23 (Executive Order 192. was suspended. Whereas. of the 1987 Constitution. This was especially used in the reorganization of government offices. By Executive Order. 1987) Whereas. 131. dated January 30. Aquino as President of the Philippines) and the convening of Congress in late 1987. she creates a genius to do it. renewal. Corazon C. Executive Order No. one of which was the Ministry of Natural Resources. do hereby order: “When Nature has work to be done. Section 6. Tapan) SECTION 1. Whereas. 1987. Whereas.

SEC. mineral. Powers and Functions—To accomplish its mandate. including the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment. hereinafter referred to as Department. Reorganization —The Department of Environment. and conservation of our natural resources. Conserve specific terrestrial and marine areas representative of the Philippine natural and cultural heritage for present and future generations. Enhance the contribution of natural resources for achieving national economic and social development. SEC. 2. It is also the policy of the State to recognize and apply a true value system including social and environmental cost implications relative to the utilization. development. mineral resources. the Department shall be guided by the following objectives that will serve as basis for policy formulation: a. and lands of the public domain. whenever possible. regulation. not only for the present generation but for future generations as well. specifically forest and grazing lands. as well as the licensing and regulation of all natural resources as may be provided for by law in order to ensure equitable sharing of the benefits derived therefrom for the welfare of the present and future generations of Filipinos. Assure the availability and sustainability of the country’s natural resources through judicious use and systematic restoration or replacement. Mandate—The Department shall be the primary government agency responsible for the conservation. and other natural resources. c. including those in reservation and watershed areas. e. development. management. 65 . d. Increase the productivity of natural resources in order to meet the demands for forest. and conservation of the country’s forest. 3. management. and land resources of a growing population. mineral. Energy and Natural Resources is hereby reorganized structurally and functionally and renamed as the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. To accomplish its mandate. renewal. land. and conservation of the country’s natural resources and the control of pollution. and equitable access of the different segments of the population to the development and use of the country’s natural resources. development. the Department shall have the following powers and functions: a. b.ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION SEC. Advise the President on the enactment of laws relative to the development. SEC. Promote equitable access to natural resources by the different sectors of the population. in accordance with the provisions of this Executive Order. 5. use. and proper use of the country’s environment and natural resources. offshore areas. 4. Declaration of Policy—It is hereby declared the policy of the State to ensure the sustainable use.

surveys. and classification of land. and mineral resources using appropriate technology. c. or gathering of such revenues. that would benefit a greater number of Filipinos. conservation. and expansion of natural resource-based industries. plans and programs pertaining to the management. charges. development. Undertake geological surveys of the whole country including its territorial waters. Encouragement of greater people participation and private initiative in natural resource management. Exercise supervision and control over forest lands. 2. implement. and replenishment of the country’s natural resources. conservation. Preservation of cultural and natural heritage through wildlife conservation and segregation of national parks and other protected areas. Accelerate cadastral and emancipation patent surveys. Promote proper and mutual consultation with the private sector involving natural resources development. disposition. alienable and disposable lands.TOUR OF THE HORIZON b. 3. classification. and mineral resources and in the process of exercising such control. Equitable distribution of natural resources through the judicious administration. assessment. development. use. and 6. remote sensing. land use planning. development. Formulate. utilization. Maintenance of a wholesome natural environment by enforcing environmental protection laws. i. extraction. and mineral resources (including mineral reservation areas). Establish policies and implement programs for the: 1. and conservation. Promulgate rules and regulations necessary to: 1. forests. Promulgate rules and regulations in accordance with law governing the exploration. h. utilization. e. Accelerated inventory. and supervise the government‘s policies. use. rentals and any such form of levy and collect such revenues for the exploration. and such other commercial activities tending to cause the depletion and degradation of our natural resources. 66 . and public land titling. Promotion. development. use. and complementary technologies. regulation. fees. to be able to come up with a more accurate assessment of resource quality and quantity. Undertake exploration. and inventory of the country’s natural resources using ground surveys. g. and conservation of public lands. 5. f. d. the Department shall impose appropriate payments. development. 4. forest.

and titling of lands in consultation with appropriate agencies. where applicable. of all natural resources. protection. and utilization of natural resource products. and police our natural resources. support forest-based industries. permits. concessions. extraction. or laws of nature. and utilization of the country’s natural resources and shall continue to oversee. and permittees for the extraction. subclassification. to assist rural development. k. and guidelines on the issuance “Human judges can show mercy. Harness forest resources in a sustainable manner. and for all other causes which are in furtherance of the conservation of natural resources and supportive of the national interests: m. Assume responsibility for the assessment. Clarke (A. land. at the same time keeping adequate reserves for environmental stability. the effective and efficient classification and subclassification of lands of the public domain. and provide raw materials to meet increasing demands. exploration. Expedite mineral resources surveys. development. and regulation as provided for by law. and 3. development. exploration. to cancel or cause to cancel such privileges and arrangements upon failure. supervise. Promulgate rules. l. there is no appeal. orders. and the enforcement of natural resources laws. Regulate the development. conservation.”— Arthur C. leases. disposition. regulations. But against the of co-production. and such other privileges and arrangement concerning the development. and use of the country’s forest. rules. licensees. and regulations. licensing. Oposa) licenses. lessees. and encourage mineral marketing. 67 . production sharing agreements. noncompliance or violations of any regulations. the implementation of programs and measures with the end in view of promoting close collaboration between the government and the private sector. Exercise exclusive jurisdiction on the management and disposition of all lands of the public domain and shall continue to be the sole agency responsible for classification. exploration. promote the production of metallic and nonmetallic minerals. surveying.ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION 2. joint venture. the regulation and monitoring of service contractors. j. and mineral resources.

7. p. proper. shall be composed of: a. the accomplishment of its objectives. r. multisectoral. who 68 . which will be presented to the Cabinet for the President’s approval. The Department Proper shall consist of the following: a. Offices of Assistant Secretaries Special Concerns Office Pollution Adjudication Board d. 6. air. Structural Organization—The Department shall consist of the Department Proper. e.TOUR OF THE HORIZON n. and monitoring of the movement of timber and other forest products. Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources—The authority and responsibility for the exercise of the mandate of the Department. the staff bureaus. SEC. and the regional/provincial/community natural resources offices. Office of the Secretary b. tion. Mines and Geosciences Bureau Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau d. Promulgate policies. o. and the discharge of its powers and functions shall be vested in the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources. Implement measures for the regulation and supervision of the processing of forest products. s. and land pollu- The staff sectoral bureaus on the other hand. Promulgate ambient and effluent standards for water and air quality including the allowable levels of other pollutants and radiations. and the community offices. the staff offices. Public Affairs Office Promulgate rules and regulations for the control of water. Formulate an integrated. Environmental Management Bureau The field offices shall consist of all the department regional offices. and multidisciplinary National Conservation Strategy. SEC. Forest Management Bureau b. grading and inspection of lumber and other forest products. Exercise other powers and functions and perform such other acts as may be necessary. e. or incidental to the attainment of its mandates and objectives. f. q. rules. the provincial offices. and regulations for the conservation of the country’s genetic resources and biological diversity. Lands Management Bureau c. f. hereinafter referred to as Secretary. Offices of Undersecretaries c. and endangered habitats.

that such responsibility shall be with respect to the mandate and objectives of the Department. assign. b. services. and projects. Exercise supervision over all functions and activities of the Department. development. Advise the Secretary in the promulgation of Department orders. and other issuances necessary in carrying out the Department’s mandate. and officers and employees under his responsibility. d. d. 8. e. c. objectives. Advise the President on the promulgation of rules and regulations and other issuances relative to the conservation. Exercise authority on substantive and administrative matters related to the functions and activities of units under his responsibility as may be delegated by the Secretary. administrative orders and other issuances. Perform other functions as may be provided by law or assigned appropriately by the President. programs. with respect to his area of responsibility. 69 . Promulgate rules. further.ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION shall supervise the Department and shall be appointed by the President. provided. Delegate authority for the performance of any administrative or substantive function to subordinate officials of the Department. Coordinate the functions and activities of the units under his responsibility with those of other units under the responsibility of other Undersecretaries. the Secretary shall have the following functions: a. Office of the Secretary—The Office of the Secretary shall consist of the Secretary and his immediate staff. and provided. For such purposes. management. regulations. Establish policies and standards for the efficient and effective operations of the Department in accordance with the programs of the government. f. SEC. and/or reassign the respective functional areas of responsibility of the Undersecretary. an undersecretary shall have the following functions: a. f. and proper use of the country’s natural resources. b. that no Undersecretary shall be assigned primarily administrative responsibilities. SEC. Perform other functions as may be provided by law or assigned appropriately by the Secretary. Promulgate rules and regulations. that will efficiently and effectively govern the activities of units under his responsibility. The Secretary is hereby authorized to delineate. operating units. 9. plans. Exercise supervision over the offices. e. Within his functional area of responsibility. c. Undersecretary—The Secretary shall be assisted by five (5) Undersecretaries who shall be appointed by the President upon the recommendation of the Secretary. consistent with Department policies. policies.

and conservation of forest lands and watersheds. 11. 13. The Forest Management Bureau.TOUR OF THE HORIZON SEC. programs. 12. They shall oversee the day-to-day operations. in accordance with Section 24 (e) hereof except those line functions and powers which are transferred to the regional field office. Special Concerns Office—There is hereby created a Special Concerns Office under the Office of the Secretary. SEC. Recommend policies and/or programs for the effective protection. and other valuable non-timber forest resources ration- 70 . plans. and projects. Field Operations in Visayas g. improvement of water resource use and development. plans. The seven (7) Assistant Secretaries shall be responsible for the following: a. 10. and projects. The Public Affairs Offices of all bureaus are hereby abolished and their functions are transferred to the Public Affairs Office in accordance with Section 24 (b) hereof. development. SEC. to be headed by a Director and assisted by an Assistant Director. Policy and Planning Studies b. reforestation and rehabilitation of critically denuded/degraded forest reservations. Assistant Secretary—The Secretary and the Undersecretaries shall be assisted by seven (7) Assistant Secretaries. wilderness areas and other natural preserves. management. It shall be responsible for disseminating information on natural resources development policies. to be headed by a Director and assisted by an Assistant Director. in the formulation. and implementation of natural resources laws. occupancy. Public Affairs Office—There is hereby created a Public Affairs Office. administration. policies. ancestral lands. Field Operations in Luzon Field Operations in Mindanao Legal Affairs d. development of forest plantations including rattan. and respond to public queries related to the development and conservation of natural resources. e. programs. f. which shall be responsible for handling priority areas/subjects identified by the Secretary which necessitates special and immediate attention. Forest Management Bureau—There is hereby created a Forest Management Bureau which shall integrate and absorb the powers and functions of the Bureau of Forest Development (BFD) and the Wood Industry Development Authority (WIDA). and supervision of the constituents of the Department. bamboo. including grazing and mangrove areas. management. which shall serve as the public information arm of the Department. to be headed by a Director and assisted by an Assistant Director shall advise the Secretary on matters pertaining to forest development and conservation and shall have the following functions. Management Services SEC. under the Office of the Secretary. Foreign-Assisted and Special Projects c. but not limited to: a.

operating standards. or any other form of concessions or disposition and management of the lands of the public domain. Assist in the monitoring and evaluation of forestry and watershed development projects to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. f. Develop plans. national and international levels. programs. programs. sale. Lands Management Bureau—There is hereby created the Lands Management Bureau which shall absorb functions and powers of the Bureau of Lands except those line functions and powers which are transferred to the regional field office. The Lands Management Bureau to be headed by a Director and assisted by an Assistant Director shall advise the Secretary on matters pertaining to rational land classification management and disposition and shall have the following functions. c. and projects for more effective public lands management. management. but not limited to: a. as amended). e. identifying investment problems and opportunities. Assist in the monitoring and evaluation of land surveys. Advise the regional offices in the implementation of the above policies and/or programs. d. Recommend policies and programs for the efficient and effective administration. including supply and demand trends on the local. and administrative measures to promote the Bureau’s objectives and functions. c.ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION alization of the wood-based industries. such as reclaimed areas and other areas not needed for or are not being utilized for the purposes for which they have been established. and orders to enforce policies for the maximization of land use and development. e. and disposition of lands to ensure efficiency and effectiveness thereof. b. to ensure continued supply of forest goods and services. Issue standards. lease. Perform other functions as may be assigned by the Secretary and/or provided by law. f. regulations. d. 71 . Undertake studies on the economics of forestry and forest-based industries. classification. in various areas. guidelines. regulation of the utilization and exploitation of forest resources including wildlife. who shall have direct executive control of the survey. and disposition of alienable and disposable lands of the public domain and other lands outside the responsibilities of other government agencies. 141. Develop operating standards and procedures to enhance the Bureau’s objectives and functions. b. Advise the regional offices on the efficient and effective implementation of policies. Assist the Secretary as executive officer charged with carrying out the provisions of the Public Land Act (Commonwealth Act No. 14. management. SEC. surveys.

Recommend policies and regulations and oversee the development and exploitation of mineral resources of the sea within the country’s jurisdiction such as silica sand. to be headed by a Director and assisted by an Assistant Director shall advise the Secretary on matters pertaining to geology and mineral resources exploration. regulations. 72 . (A. Recommend policies. magnetite. and conservation and shall have the following functions. etc. and chromite sand.TOUR OF THE HORIZON g. but not limited to: Hammock on the seashore of the School of the Seas. Perform other functions as may be assigned by the Secretary and/or provided by law. Mines and Geosciences Bureau—There is hereby created the Mines and Geosciences Bureau which shall absorb the functions of the Bureau of Mines and Geosciences (BMGS). SEC. b. Mineral Reservations Development Board (MRDB) and the Gold Mining Industry Development Board (GMIDB) all of which are hereby merged in accordance with Section 24 hereof except those line functions and powers which are transferred to the regional field office. gold placer. and programs pertaining to mineral resources development and geology. Oposa) a. 15. The Mines and Geosciences Bureau. development.

f. g. chemical. The Environmental Management Bureau shall be headed by a Director and assisted by an Assistant Director who shall advise the Secretary on matters relating to environmental management. d. The National Environmental Protection Council (NEPC). and the Environmental Center of the Philippines (ECP) are hereby abolished and their powers and functions are hereby integrated into Section 24 (c) hereof. Formulate environmental quality standards such as the quality standards for water. programs. policies. the provision of geological. conservation. Advise the Secretary on the granting of mining rights and contracts over areas containing metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources. c. d. toxic and hazardous substances. Assist in the monitoring and evaluation of the Bureau’s programs and projects to ensure efficiency and effectiveness thereof. b. land. g. the conduct of marine geological and geophysical survey and natural exploration drilling programs. Recommend possible legislations. Advise the regional offices in the efficient and effective implementation of policies. SEC. and projects for the effective and efficient environmental management and pollution control. metallurgical. and radiations. Provide secretariat assistance to the Pollution Adjudication Board. Recommend rules and regulations for environmental impact assessments and provide technical assistance for their implementation and monitoring. and h. mineral resource assessment.ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION c. 73 . e. and pollution control. Environmental Management Bureau—There is hereby created an Environmental Management Bureau. subject to Section 19 hereof. created under Section 19 hereof. The Environmental Management Bureau shall have the following functions: a. the National Pollution Control Commission (NPCC). e. noise. Advise the Secretary on the legal aspects of environmental management and pollution control and assist in the conduct of public hearings in pollution cases. and rock mechanics laboratory services. mining and metallurgy. Formulate rules and regulations for the proper disposition of solid wastes. f. Develop and promulgate standards and operating procedures on mineral resources development and geology. Perform other functions as may be assigned by the Secretary and/or provided by law. air. and programs for environmental management and pollution control. 16. Supervise and control the development and packaging of nationally applicable technologies on geological survey. Advise the regional offices on the effective implementation of mineral development and conservation programs as well as geological surveys.

Provide assistance to the regional offices in the formulation and dissemination of information on environmental and pollution matters to the general public. SEC. as holistic and interdisciplinary fields of inquiry. forests.TOUR OF THE HORIZON h. Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center (formerly Parks and Wildlife Nature Center). Coordinate the inter-agency committees that may be created for the preparation of the State of the Philippine Environment Report and the National Conservation Strategy. Provide technical assistance in the implementation and monitoring of the aforementioned research programs. The Bureau shall coordinate all technological researches undertaken by the field offices. e. b. Assist the Secretary in determining a system of priorities for the allocation of resources to various technological research programs of the department. Presidential Committee on the Conservation of Tamaraw. j. 17. Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau—The Forest Research Institute (FORI) and the National Mangrove Committee are hereby abolished and integrated into the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau in accordance with Section 24 (e) hereof. lands. Provide scientific assistance to the regional offices in the conduct of environmental research programs. Assist the Secretary and the regional officers by providing technical assistance in the implementation of environmental and pollution laws. The Bureau shall have the following functions: a. 18. i. The Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau shall be headed by a Director and assisted by an Assistant Director. The Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau shall directly manage and administer the FORI Research Offices. Formulate and recommend an integrated research program relating to Philippine ecosystems and natural resources such as minerals. Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau—There is hereby created a Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau which shall absorb the Division of Parks and Wildlife and the Marine Parks Program of the Bureau of Forest Development as well as the Calauit Game Preserve and Wildlife Sanctuary. Assist the Secretary in the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation of the integrated research program. Generate technologies and provide scientific assistance in the research and development of technologies relevant to the sustainable uses of Philippine ecosystems and natural resources. d. and disseminate such findings for all possible users and clientele. assess and translate all recommendable findings. laboratories. k. SEC. shares in Kabuhayan Program and Agro Forestry State Projects of 74 . and forest experiment stations located at UP Los Banos and such other field laboratories as the Secretary may assign to its direct supervision. c.

Rizal. genetic resources. j. rules. guidelines. the Environment and Natural Resources Provincial Office in every province. all national parks. Laguna. and p) of Presidential Decree No. the Director of Environmental Management. and the community office in municipalities wherever deemed necessary. and regulations for the preservation of biological diversity. These powers and functions may be delegated to the regional officers of the Department in accordance with rules and regulations to be promulgated by the Board. Perform other functions as may be assigned by the Secretary and/or provided by law. Arayat National Park. Assist the Secretary in the monitoring and assessment of the management of the Integrated Protected Areas System and provide technical assistance to the regional offices in the implementation of programs for these areas. g. 25 Pollution Control Law. SEC. two (2) Undersecretaries as may be designated by the Secretary. 19. wildlife sanctuaries and game preserves previously managed and administered by the Ministry of Human Settlements including National Parks reservations situated in the provinces of Bulacan. Bureau of Mines _______________________ 24 The PAB is the successor body in the DENR which exercises the quasi-judicial functions of the former National Pollution Control Commission (NPCC). formerly with the Ministry of Tourism in accordance with Section 24 (c) hereof. The Board shall assume the powers and functions of the Commission/Commissioners of the NPCC with respect to the adjudication of pollution cases under Republic Act No. marine parks. The Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau shall be headed by a director and assisted by an assistant director. f. Prepare an up-to-date listing of endangered Philippine flora and fauna and recommend a program of conservation and propagation of the same. particu25 larly with respect to Section 6 (e. and endangered Philippine flora and fauna. Magat Forest Reservation and Mt. 24 75 . The Environmental Management Bureau shall serve as the Secretariat of the Board. Formulate and recommend policies. wildlife sanctuaries and refuge. k. 3931 and Presidential Decree No. Field Offices of the Department—The field offices of the Department are the Environment and Natural Resources Regional Offices in the thirteen (13) administrative regions of the country. The Bureau shall have the following functions: a. and Quezon formerly declared as Bagong Lipunan sites of said Ministry. and regulations for the establishment and management of an Integrated Protected Areas Systems such as national parks.ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION the KKK Processing Authority. 984. SEC. c. 984. guidelines. Pollution Adjudication Board (PAB) — There is hereby created a Pollution Adjudication Board under the Office of the Secretary. rules. and three (3) others to be designated by the Secretary as members. The regional offices of the Bureau of Forest Development. 20. The Board shall be composed of the Secretary as Chairman. e. b. and biospheric reserves. Formulate and recommend policies. d.

b. Recommend and. Environmental Management. lumber and other wood-processed products. rules and regulations of the Department to promote the sustainability and productivity of natural resources. Implement laws. i. grade and inspect minerals. e. SEC. 76 . d. c. and Ecosystems Research. policies. plans. h. Supervise the processing of natural resources products. offices. g. projects. and land management and disposition. and monitor the movement of these products. Conduct comprehensive inventory of natural resources in the region and formulate regional short and long-term development plans for the conservation. but not limited to: a. upon approval. Perform other functions as may be assigned by the Secretary and/or provided by law. social equity in natural resource utilization and environmental protection. utilization and replacement of natural resources. 21. Functions of Environment and Natural Resources Regional Office—The Environment and Natural Resources regional offices shall be located in the identified regional capitals and shall have the following functions. Mines and Geosciences. Provide efficient and effective delivery of services to the people. Land Management. minerals. Conduct field researches for appropriate technologies recommended for various projects. The regional executive directors and regional technical directors shall be career executive service officers. and in the formulation/implementation of natural resources programs and projects. f. A regional office shall be headed by a Regional Executive Director (with the rank of Regional Director) and shall be assisted by five (5) regional Technical Directors (with the rank of Assistant Regional Director) each for Forestry. Evolve respective regional budget in conformity with the priorities established by the regional development councils. and Bureau of Lands in each of the thirteen (13) administrative regions and the research centers of the Forest Research Institute are hereby integrated into the department-wide Regional Environment and Natural Resources Office of the Department. in accordance with Section 24 (e) hereof. implement programs and projects on forestry. programs.TOUR OF THE HORIZON and Geosciences. Coordinate with regional offices of other departments. agencies in the region and local government units in the enforcement of natural resource conservation laws and regulations.

Map of the Balabac (Southern Palawan) Protected Eco-Region. 22. The authority shall act as the central mapping agency which will serve the needs of the line services of the Department and other government offices with regard to information and researches. and shall expand its capability in the production and maintenance of maps. The provincial and community natural resource office shall be headed by a provincial natural resource officer and community natural resource officer. and side-looking airborne radar. and similar photogrammetry and cartography materials. National Cartography Authority (NCA). charts.ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION The natural resources provincial and community offices shall absorb. Heavily-shaded patch represents part of the 15% of their water area reserved as a fish sanctuary/strict protection zone. National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA)—There is hereby created the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority which shall integrate the functions and powers of the Natural Resources Management Center (NRMC). agriculture. water resources. 129 (1993). Bureau of Coast and Geodetic Survey (BCGS). integrate all techniques of producing maps from the ground surveys to various combinations _______________________ 26 The LLDA was made as an attached agency of the DENR by virtue of E. respectively. provide remote-sensing services and vital data on the environment. SEC. respectively. No.O. which are hereby abolished in accordance with Section 24 (b) hereof. airborne multi-spectral scanning systems. Attached Agencies and Corporations — The following agencies and corporations are attached to the 26 Department: a. and Land Classification Teams based at the then Bureau of Forest Development. and other information needed by other government agencies and the private sector. the functions of the district offices of the bureaus. in accordance with Section 24 (e) hereof. 77 . The Authority shall be responsible for conducting research on remote-sensing technologies such as satellite imagery analysis. which shall provide the Department and the government with map-making services.

provided. Natural Resources Development Corporation (NRDC)—The existing Natural Resources Development Corporation. sharing. Direct involvement in pioneering but potentially viable production. industrial forest plantations or logging operations. or computer. however. systems. and provide photogrammetry. and the integration of geographic and related information to facilitate access to and analysis of data and its transformation into useful information for resource policy formulation. and remote-sensing mapping services in order to accelerate the development of a comprehensive data bank and information systems on base maps and charts.TOUR OF THE HORIZON of remote sensing techniques in a cost-effective and acceptable manner. cartographic. access. etc. and dissemination of natural resource information in all regions and provinces of the country. that activities which compete with the private sector shall be avoided except in specific cases where the revenues of NRDC are earmarked for specific local development of social service. statistics. and strategies such as but not limited to stumpage sales system. It shall be the central depository and distribution facility for natural resources data in the form of maps. cartography. shall be reorganized under the direct supervision of the Secretary. and remote-sensing mapping activities. 78 .. and marketing ventures or projects using new/innovative technologies. planning. The NAMRIA shall be provided with policy directions by a five-member Board of Governors consisting of key officers with no less than the rank of undersecretaries as follows: Department of Environment and Natural Resources—Chairman Department of Agriculture—Member Department of Public Works and Highways—Member Department of National Defense—Member Department of Transportation and Communications—Member The operations and management of NAMRIA shall be vested in an Administrator who shall be assisted by three (3) Deputy Administrators. film. formulate and implement nationwide development programs on aerial photography. and management. b. use. text. establishment of a nationwide geodetic network of control points that serves as a common reference system for all surveys in the country and conduct hydrographic and coastal surveys to produce the hydrographic and nautical charts vital to sea and water travel as well as the exploitation of our marine resources. establish and implement technical standards and quality specifications on map production and its reproduction. It shall be responsible primarily for promoting natural resource development and conservation through: 1. stored on paper. rattan tissue culture. charts. The Administrator shall sit in the Board as its secretary. compatible media and shall operate information services and networks to facilitate transfer.

. 7638 (1992). The NRDC shall promote the enhancement of forest renewal rate through intensified industrial tree plantation promotion including the provision of incidental services such as extension of assistance on equity/capital. which is transferred to the appropriate energy governing body pursuant to the executive order pertaining to it. other assets. chosen in action. programs. facilities. SEC. c. The transfer of a government unit shall include the functions.A. Inc. _______________________ The NEA has since been detached from the DENR and transferred to the Department of Energy by virtue of R. Energy and Natural Resources by Executive Order 131 are hereby detached and/or transferred as follows: a. Detachment and Transfers—The following offices and corporation attached to the Department of Environment. continue to perform their respective duties and responsibilities and receive the corresponding salaries and benefits. Bureau of Energy Utilization. Those personnel from the transferred unit whose positions are not included in the Department’s new position structure and staffing pattern approved and prescribed by the Secretary or who are not reappointed shall be deemed separated from the service and shall be entitled to the benefits provided in the second paragraph of Section 25 hereof. smallscale mining. records. Financing natural resource development projects undertaken by the private sector such as establishing industrial tree plantations. b. credit line/facilities. marketing. if any. and c. unless otherwise provided elsewhere in this executive order: a. The National Electrification Administration (NEA)—The National Electrification Administration which is also attached to the Department shall be reorganized in order that it can effectively and efficiently act and operate as the principal implementing arm of the Department in matters of energy farming and aspects and components of energy policies. 27 79 . of the transferred unit as well as the personnel thereof. The plans and programs of NEA shall be carried out in conformity with policies defined 27 by appropriate energy authorities. the following transitory provisions shall be complied with. Bureau of Energy Development. who shall. Transitory Provisions—In accomplishing the acts of reorganization herein prescribed. funds. SEC. and plans which cannot be carried out by the private sector. and liabilities. agro-forestry. rights. 24.ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION 2. and retooling of the natural resource-based processing industries to improve their efficiency and competitiveness to discharge these functions effectively. which is administratively detached from the Department. as may be necessary. equipment. it is hereby authorized to generate funds through debt instruments from various sources. Manila Seedling Bank Foundation. No. appropriations. in a hold-over capacity. and management. 23. and innovative income generating strategies.

and regulations. The abolished unit’s remaining appropriations and funds. chosen in action. Its personnel shall. rules and regulations. records. In case of merger or consolidation of government units. rights. shall be deemed separated from the service and shall be entitled to the benefits provided in the second paragraph of the same Section 25. chosen in action. other assets and personnel as may be necessary to the proper discharge of the transferred functions. that may have been incurred in connection with the discharge of the transferred functions. In case of the abolition of the government unit which does not result in the transfer of its functions to another unit. c. rules. shall be treated in accordance with the Government Auditing Code and other pertinent laws. funds. rules. and other assets thereof shall be allocated to such appropriate entities as the Secretary shall determine or shall otherwise be disposed in accordance with the Government Auditing Code and other pertinent laws. whose position. The liabilities. if any. rights. Any transfer of functions which does not result in the abolition of the government unit that has exercised them shall include the appropriations. and regulations. continue to perform their duties and responsibilities and receive the corresponding salaries and benefits unless in the meantime they are separated from the service. shall revert to the General Fund and its remaining assets.TOUR OF THE HORIZON b. and regulations. continue to perform their duties and responsibilities and receive the corresponding salaries and benefits. d. shall be allocated to such appropriate units as the Secretary shall determine or shall otherwise be disposed in accordance with the Government Auditing Code and other pertinent laws. equipment. are not included in the Department’s new position structure and staffing pattern approved and prescribed by the Secretary under Section 25 hereof or who have not been reappointed. chosen in action. whose positions are not included in the Department’s new position structure and staffing pattern approved and prescribed by the Secretary under Section 25 hereof or who are not reappointed. Any personnel. shall likewise be treated in accordance with the Government Auditing Code and other pertinent laws. if any. The transfer of functions which results in the abolition of the government unit that exercised them shall include the appropriations. and personnel as may be necessary to the proper discharge of the transferred functions. equipment. facilities. records. rules. Its liabilities. rules. in a hold-over capacity. The liabilities of the abolished units shall be treated in accordance with the Government Auditing Code and other pertinent laws. while the personnel thereof. facilities. Its personnel whose positions are not included in the Department’s structure and staffing pattern approved and prescribed by the Secretary under Section 25 hereof or who are not reappointed. equipment. facilities. the new or surviving unit shall exercise the functions (subject to the reorganization herein prescribed and the 80 . assets. funds. and regulations. while the records. shall be deemed separated from the service and shall be entitled to the benefits provided in the second paragraph of the same Section 25. shall be deemed separated from the service and shall be entitled to the benefits provided in the second paragraph of the same Section 25. Such personnel shall. rights. e. if any. the appropriations and funds of the abolished entity shall revert to the General Fund. in a hold-over capacity. if any.

continue to perform their respective duties and responsibilities and receive the corresponding salaries and benefits unless in the meantime they are separated from government service. computed on the basis of the highest salary received. and personnel. the officers and employees of the Department shall. 81 . rights. facilities. facilities. they shall be paid the equivalent of one (1) month basic salary for every year of service in the government. Those separated from the service shall receive the retirement benefits to which they may be entitled under existing laws. The liabilities.ENVIRONMENTAL ADMINISTRATION laws. rules. whose positions are not included in the Department’s new position structure and staffing pattern approved and prescribed by the Secretary under Section 25 hereof or who have not been reappointed. chosen in action. the appropriations and funds intended to finance the discharge of such function shall revert to the General Fund while the records. New Structure and Pattern—Upon approval of this executive order. records. f. equipment. that may have been incurred in connection with the discharge of such function shall likewise be treated in accordance with the Government Auditing Code and other pertinent laws. or a fraction thereof. but in no case shall such payment exceed the equivalent of twelve (12) months salary. 25. In case of termination of a function which does not result in the abolition of the government unit which performed such function. Otherwise. in a hold-over capacity. as may be necessary. liabilities. shall be deemed separated from the service and shall be entitled to the benefits provided in the second paragraph of the same Section 25. Those incumbents whose positions are not included therein or who are not reappointed shall be deemed separated from the service. The new position structure and staffing pattern of the Department shall be approved and prescribed by the Secretary within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this executive order and the authorized positions created thereunder shall be filled with regular appointments by him or by the President as the case may be. chosen in action. of the units that compose the merged unit shall. if any. Any such personnel. equipment. if any. rules and regulations. The personnel who have performed such function. and regulations pertinent to the exercise of such functions) and shall acquire the appropriations. whose positions are not included in the Department’s new position structure and staffing pattern approved and prescribed by the Secretary under Section 25 hereof or who are not reappointed. rules. SEC. continue to perform their respective duties and responsibilities and receive the corresponding salaries and benefits unless in the meantime they are separated from the service. shall be deemed separated from the service and shall be entitled to the benefits provided in the second paragraph of the same Section 25 hereof. in a hold-over capacity. funds. rules. and regulations. rights. and other assets used in connection with the discharge of such function shall be allocated to the appropriate units as the Department shall determine or shall otherwise be disposed in accordance with the Government Auditing Code and other pertinent laws. and regulations. other assets.

30. such notice or consent requirement shall be complied with prior to the implementation of such reorganizational change. Tapan) 82 . are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. SEC. that no instruction book came with it. rules and regulations. Periodic Performance Evaluation—The Department of Environment and Natural Resources is hereby required to formulate and enforce a system of measuring and evaluating periodically and objectively the performance of the Department and submit the same annually to the President. Approved in the City of Manila. SEC. SEC. and other issuances as may be necessary to ensure the effective implementation of the provisions of this Executive Order. which are inconsistent with this Executive Order. 26. 29. Philippines. SEC. Against SEC. ordinances. fact regarding Spaceship Earth. rules and regulations. this 10th day of June. Separability—Any portion or provision of this executive order that may be declared unconstitutional shall not have the effect of nullifying other portions or provisions hereof as long as such remaining portions or provisions can still subsist and be given effect in their entirety. 28. Funding—Funds needed to carry out the provisions of this Executive Order shall be taken from funds avail“Now there is one outstandingly important able in the Department. 31.”— Buckminster Fuller (G. Effectivity —This Executive Order shall take effect immediately. Prohibition Structural Changes—No change in the reorganization herein prescribed shall be valid except upon prior approval of the President for the purpose of promoting efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of public services. Implementing Authority of the Secretary—The Secretary shall issue such orders. Notice or Consent Requirement—If any reorganizational change herein authorized is of such substance or materiality as to prejudice third persons with rights recognized by law or contract such that notice to or consent of creditors is required to be made or obtained pursuant to any agreement entered into with any of such creditors. Repealing Clause—All laws. and other issuances.TOUR OF THE HORIZON SEC. 1987. 33. and that is SEC. SEC. 32. 27. or parts thereof.

though they may 83 . However. 24. or any other means. or other relations. property. 23. 22. It is supplemental and complementary to the general environmental laws. Any person who willfully causes loss or injury to another in a manner that is contrary to morals. indigence. the latter shall be liable for indemnity if through the act or event he was benefited. a more general law exists. these laws are seen as primarily the concern of government. nuisance. the law that governs the civil relations between members of human society especially where private rights and interest are affected. Every person who through an act or performance by another. shall indemnify the latter for the same. Human Relations Art. Art. privacy. 26. The following similar acts. easements. 19. tender age. when one of the parties is at a disadvantage on account of his moral dependence. mental weakness. Art. act with justice. Every person who. In other words. or public policy shall compensate the latter for the damage. acquires or comes into possession of something at the expense of the latter without just or legal ground. the courts must be vigilant for his protection. 20. Art. damages. in the exercise of his rights and in the performance of his duties. contrary to law. Thoughtless extravagance in expenses for pleasure or display during a period of acute public want or emergency may be stopped by order of the courts at the instance of any government or private charitable institution. ignorance. Art. give everyone his due. Art. personality. 25. Every person shall respect the dignity. such as those referring to general human relations. Art. and easements. good customs. willfully or negligently causes damage to another. the Civil Code continues to be in full force and effect. Even when an act or event causing damage to another’s property was not due to the fault or negligence of the defendant. and peace of mind of his neighbors and other persons. A selection of some of these Civil Code provisions are here cited insofar as they are relevant to private Environmental Enforcement. and observe honesty and good faith. shall return the same to him.CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT Civil Code Provisions on Environment (Republic Act 386) Relevance of the Civil Code While the Environmental Laws listed above are more than sufficient to address the range of environmental issues. 21. In all contractual. or other handicap. they are generally public interest in character. Art. Every person must. Passed in 1949.

Any person suffering material or moral loss because a public servant or employee refuses or neglects. 84 . intimidation. or any other unjust.TOUR OF THE HORIZON not constitute a criminal offense. without just cause. physical defect. Art. Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from his friends. lowly station in life. shall produce a cause of action for damages. 2. commercial. 3. Prying into the privacy of another’s residence. Such action requires only a preponderance of evidence. deceit. Unfair competition in agricultural. Oposa) Art. 29. or other personal condition. Upon motion of the defendant. (A. 27. or industrial enterprises or in labor through the use of force. to perform his official duty may file an action for damages and other relief against the latter. Vexing or humiliating another on account of his religious beliefs. When the accused in a criminal prosecution is acquitted on the ground that his guilt has not been proved beyond reasonable doubt. prevention. a civil action for damages for the same act or omission may be instituted. 28. 4. or highhanded method shall give rise to a right of action by the person who thereby suffers damage. place of birth. machination. Art. oppressive. the court may require the plaintiff to file a bond to answer for damages in case the complaint should be found to be malicious. and other relief: 1. Meddling with or disturbing the private life or family relations of another. without prejudice to any disciplinary administrative action that may be taken. Front yard of the School of the Seas. Outlying posts on the right are the innovative boundary markers to delineate the marine protected area.

good customs. June 29. Art. or in any manner impedes or impairs any of the following rights and liberties of another person shall be liable to the latter for damages: 1. who directly or indirectly obstructs. They filed a case against the Perezes and prayed that they be declared as leasehold tenants and that the Perezes be ordered to pay moral and other kinds of damages and costs. In the absence of any declaration to that effect. 30. The Perezes violated the plaintiffs’ rights and caused prejudice to the latter by the unjustified diversion of the water. alleged that they were share-tenants of the Perezes.” It appears that the share-tenants were denied irrigation water for their farm lots in order to make them vacate their landholdings. and no criminal proceedings are instituted during the pendency of the civil case. 1985 85 .R. Freedom of religion. L-66870–72. or any private individual. violates. Magbanua v. to their great damage and prejudice. They claimed that the Perezes diverted the free flow of water from their farm lots. good customs. Actionable Acts Contrary to Good Customs Although an act may not be punishable by law. Nos. or public policy shall compensate the latter for the damage. it may be inferred from the text of the decision whether or not the acquittal is due to that ground. and public policy. and 2. together with five other persons. 31. Any public officer or employee. Article 2219 of the Civil Code permits the award of moral damages for acts mentioned in Article 21 of the same code and the latter stipulates that: “Any person who wilfully causes loss or injury to another in a manner that is contrary to morals. the court shall so declare.CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT If in a criminal case. Issue: Whether or not the share-tenants are entitled to moral damages? Held: Yes. Art. IAC G. Facts: Magbanua. Under the facts of the case the share-tenants are entitled to a measure of moral damages. defeats. they were told by the Perezes’ overseer to vacate their respective areas for they could not plant palay (rice) any longer due to lack of water. Freedom of speech. When the civil action is based on an obligation not arising from the act or omission complained of as a felony. When a separate civil action is brought to demand civil liability arising from a criminal offense. Later. Art. 32. such civil action may proceed independently of the criminal proceedings and regardless of the result of the latter. the judgement of acquittal is based upon reasonable doubt. which caused portions of their landholdings to dry up. a preponderance of evidence shall likewise be sufficient to prove the act complained of. it is nevertheless actionable for damages when it is contrary to morals.

or 2. 699. Art. The district health officer shall determine whether or not abatement. or disregards decency or morality. or 3. If a civil action is brought by reason of the maintenance of a public nuisance. omission. 695. Art. Injures or endangers the health or safety of others. without judicial proceedings. The remedies against a public nuisance are: 1. defies. A civil action. Abatement. danger. Public and Private Nuisance Art. or 2. Procedure for Abatement of Nuisance Art. or any body of water. condition of property. The district health officer shall take care that one or all of the remedies against a public nuisance are availed of. or damage upon individuals may be unequal. 698. is the best remedy against a public nuisance. Art. Lapse of time cannot legalize any nuisance. Art. Art. business. or 5. although the extent of the annoyance. 702. A public nuisance affects a community or neighborhood or any considerable number of persons. A prosecution under the Penal Code or any local ordinance. Annoys or offends the senses. 700. whether public or private. or 4. establishment. 694. 701. 696.TOUR OF THE HORIZON Nuisance Definition of a Nuisance Art. Nuisance is either public or private. A nuisance is any act. 86 . or anything else which: 1. Shocks. Art. The abatement of a nuisance does not preclude the right of any person injured to recover damages for its past existence. Obstructs or interferes with the free passage of any public highway or street. Every successive owner or possessor of property who fails or refuses to abate a nuisance in that property started by a former owner or possessor is liable therefore in the same manner as the one who created it. Hinders or impairs the use of property. such action shall be commenced by the city or municipal mayor. without judicial proceedings. A private nuisance is one that is not included in the foregoing definition. or 3. 697.

remedies Art. Any private person may abate a public nuisance which is especially injurious to him by removing. if it is especially injurious to himself. or if necessary. “There are two things which cannot be attacked in front: ignorance and narrow-mindedness. by destroying the thing which constitutes the nuisance. or 2. or if necessary. 705. or 2. A private person or a public official extra-judicially abating a nuisance shall be liable for damages: 1. They will not bear discussion. If he causes unnecessary injury. That such demand has been rejected.CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT Art. Art. But it is necessary: 1. it is indispensable that the procedure for extra-judicial abatement of a public nuisance by a private person be followed. 706. 3. If an alleged nuisance is later declared by the courts to be not a real nuisance.” — Lord Acton (A. 707. They can only be shaken by the simple development of the contrary qualities. without judicial proceedings. without committing breach of the peace. 704. 703. A private person may file an action on account of a public nuisance. Oposa) 87 . That the abatement be approved by the district health officer and executed with the assistance of the local police. A civil action. and 4. Any person injured by a private nuisance may abate it by removing. That the value of the destruction does not exceed three thousand pesos. by destroying the thing which constitutes the same. or doing unnecessary injury. 2. That demand be first made upon the owner or possessor of the property to abate the nuisance. Art. without committing a breach of the peace or doing unnecessary injury. The against a private nuisance are: 1. However. Art. Abatement.

He said that cement dust produces cardio-pulmonary complications.R. and the land tremendously diminished in value. testified that he had treated several patients who traced their sickness to the pollution caused by the Daytona cementbatching plant. He reported many cases of bronchial asthma in both children and adults who lived in the vicinity of the cement-batching plant. 1987 88 .” Ernesto R. together with his neighbors. 74816. v. the IAC reversed and set aside the decision of the lower court.. Raul I.TOUR OF THE HORIZON Excessive Dust is a Nuisance Facts: Ernesto Rodriguez Jr. “The cement dust coming from the batching plant of the (Daytona) corporation is injurious to the health of the plaintiffs and other residents in the area. the vibration. the court declared it in default and authorized the plaintiffs to present evidence ex parte. He said that his property has been overrun by effluent from the Daytona cement-batching plant. Issue: Should the cement-batching plant be closed on the ground that it is a public nuisance? Held: Yes. The noise. The continuous flow of cement dust into her property affected her deep well. The sediment settled on the lots and all forms of vegetation had died as a result. many of them dying in the process. Ernesto Rodriguez Jr. Its operation therefore violates certain rights of the plaintiffs and causes them damage.. March 17. and the people living in the neighborhood of the batching plant are the most susceptible to these diseases. Zenaida Rodriguez testified that two-thirds of her lot had been damaged by the cement dust emanating from the Daytona cement-batching plant. del Rosario. The court granted execution pending appeal because the continued operation of the cement-batching plant of Daytona posed a “great menace to the neighborhood. both in point of health and property.” The court rendered judgment against Daytona. their source of drinking water. When Daytona failed to answer. the smoke. and the odor generated by the day and night operation of the plant must indeed be causing them serious discomfort and untold miseries. declaring the operation of the cement-batching plant as a nuisance and ordering its permanent closure. No.” On appeal. Even her previous pedigreed poodles had been afflicted by all sorts of illnesses. IAC G. a neighboring physician. “Dr. et al. Rodriguez. It is thus a nuisance and its abatement justified. testified that he has three parcels of residential lots adjacent to the Daytona compound. Jr. and most of their fruit-bearing and ornamental trees dried up. filed an action for abatement of a public nuisance with damages against Daytona Construction and Development Corporation.

Note also the statement in the case of TDI vs. At a very high cost. it can. supra. As such. The standards for noise pollution are as follows. injury. The provisions of this Title shall be respectively applicable to all obligations mentioned in Article 1157. Under Sec. While one would need a noise meter to ‘scientifically’ prove the ‘noise pollution’. and must. be abated by the local government unit—the Barangay and/or the Municipal Government under the general principles of nuisance. The existence of noise pollution is determined by a sound meter. The rules under this Title are without prejudice to special provisions on damages formulated elsewhere in this Code. 2195. Act 7160). the Fiesta Committee rents a sound system whose speakers are as tall as houses. the sound system blares out heart thumping music. and the like. or illness is regulated by special laws.” Modern man seems to equate noise with progress and economic development. Rules governing damages laid down in other laws shall be observed insofar as they are not in conflict with this Code.CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT Note: This case appears to have been decided before the passage of the law creating the DENR and the PAB. 44 that a nuisance caused by the pollution of land. 2196. the Barangay Chairman’s failure to enforce it is an act of gross negligence. NOISE POLLUTION “Do not break the silence unless you can improve it. The key in this game is to hold the local officials liable for failure to implement the law. 389 (9) of the Local Government Code. loud music. Filipinos are interesting characters—they like to blare out their music and let the whole world listen to their music. Because of the din that one hears everyday from motor vehicles. In some places. human psychology becomes upset and imbalanced. The law on nuisance being a fundament part of Environmental Law. all night. CA. and seem to equate noise with gaiety. it is believed that this is a nuisance in that it is offensive to the sense of sound. reducing one’s quality of life. air and water is within the jurisdiction of the PAB. The noise quality standards are stated below. the Punong Barangay (Village Chief) is duty-bound to enforce laws and regulations relating to pollution control and protection of the environment. p. 89 . during their fiestas. Rep. Art. if you can call it that. machinery. Damages Art. Compensation for workmen and other employees in case of death.

5. 2197. one is entitled to an adequate compensation only for such pecuniary loss suffered by him as he has duly proved.E. Except as provided by law or by stipulation. 2201. The principles of the general law on damages are hereby adopted insofar as they are not inconsistent with this Code. Liquidated. Cummings (M. the damages for which the obligor who acted in good faith is liable shall be those that are the natural and probable conse- 90 .TOUR OF THE HORIZON Kinds of Damages Art. Actual or compensatory. Exemplary or corrective. 2198. 2199. Actual or Compensatory Damages Art. but also that of the profits which the obligee failed to obtain. 3. Indemnification for damages shall comprehend not only the value of the loss suffered. Temperate or moderate. Art. or 6. In contracts and quasi-contracts. Art. Nominal. Such compensation is referred to as actual or compensatory damages. It’s always our self we find in the sea. Damages may be: 1. Velas) Art. Moral. 2. 4. “For whatever we lose (like a you or a me).” — E. 2200.

The defendant shall be liable for the loss of the earning capacity of the deceased. Art. had no earning capacity at the time of his death. Art. the damages to be adjudicated may be respectively increased or lessened according to the aggravating or mitigating circumstances. the defendant shall be liable for all damages which are the natural and probable consequences of the act or omission complained of. the obligor shall be responsible for all damages which may be reasonably attributed to the non-performance of the obligation. In case of fraud. If the plaintiff’s property has been insured. 3. 2. For loss or impairment of earning capacity in cases of temporary or permanent personal injury. the recipient who is not an heir called to the decedent’s inheritance by the law of testate or intestate succession. In crimes. If the deceased was obliged to give support according to the provisions of Article 291. 2205. Art. In addition: 1. 2202. Art. may demand support from the person causing the death. The party suffering loss or injury must exercise the diligence of a good father of a family to minimize the damages resulting from the act or omission in question. It is not necessary that such damages have been foreseen or could have reasonably been foreseen by the defendant. and he has received indemnity from the insurance company for the injury or loss arising out of the wrong or breach of contract complained of. 2203.CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT quences of the breach of the obligation. the exact duration to be fixed by the court. and which the parties have foreseen or could have reasonably foreseen at the time the obligation was constituted. malice. even though there may have been mitigating circumstances. the 91 . the insurance company shall be subrogated to the rights of the insured against the wrongdoer or the person who has violated the contract. Art. For injury to the plaintiff’s business standing or commercial credit. In crimes and quasi-delicts. Art. for a period not exceeding five years. 2204. legitimate and illegitimate descendants and ascendants of the deceased may demand moral damages for mental anguish by reason of the death of the deceased. and the indemnity shall be paid to the heirs of the latter. 2207. bad faith. If the amount paid by the insurance company does not fully cover the injury or loss. 2. The amount of damages for death caused by a crime or quasi-delict shall be at least three thousand pesos. 2206. The spouse. Damages may be recovered: 1. unless the deceased on account of permanent physical disability not caused by the defendant. such indemnity shall in every case be assessed and awarded by the court. or wanton attitude.

92 . In the absence of stipulation. the indemnity for damages. Art. the legal interest. 9. 11. 2213. be adjudicated in the discretion of the court. 2209. In criminal cases of malicious prosecution against the plaintiff. 2212. Where the defendant acted in gross and evident bad faith in refusing to satisfy the plaintiff’s plainly valid. laborers. 10. although the obligation may be silent upon this point. in a proper case. In actions for the recovery of wages of household helpers. 5. interest as a part of the damages may. shall be the payment of the interest agreed upon. Art. Interest due shall earn legal interest from the time it is judicially demanded. 7. except: 1. In crimes and quasi-delicts. 2208. Art. 3. Art. and skilled workers. and demandable claim. 8. 2210. Art. If the obligation consists in the payment of a sum of money. the attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation must be reasonable. Interest may. In actions for legal support. there being no stipulation to the contrary. which is six percent per annum. In any other case where the court deems it just and equitable that attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation should be recovered. When at least double judicial costs are awarded. the contributory negligence of the plaintiff shall reduce the damages that he may recover. 6. except when the demand can be established with reasonable certainty. When exemplary damages are awarded. In quasi-delicts.TOUR OF THE HORIZON aggrieved party shall be entitled to recover the deficiency from the person causing the loss or injury. in the discretion of the court. In actions for indemnity under workmen’s compensation and employer’s liability laws. other than judicial costs. In case of a clearly unfounded civil action or proceeding against the plaintiff. 2211. 2. just. Interest cannot be recovered upon unliquidated claims or damages. and in the absence of stipulation. and the debtor incurs in delay. In all cases. attorney’s fees and expenses of litigation. Art. In a separate civil action to recover civil liability arising from a crime. cannot be recovered. 2214. be allowed upon damages awarded for breach of contract. When the defendant’s act or omission has compelled the plaintiff to litigate with third persons or to incur expenses to protect his interest. 4. Art.

Other Kinds of Damages Art. 2. That the plaintiff himself has contravened the terms of the contract. “All sensible people are selfish. ages— Moral Dam- damages Art. 2215. and quasi-delicts. 4. 2. In contracts. 2216. That the loss would have resulted in any event. 3. No proof of pecuniary loss is necessary in order that moral. Quasi-delicts causing physical injuries. is left to the discretion of the court. SECTION 1. or other lascivious acts. In cases where exemplary damages are to be awarded. Though incapable of pecuniary computation. the defendant has done his best to lessen the plaintiff’s loss or injury. social humiliation. Art.CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT Art. 3. serious anxiety. 2217. That since the filing of the action. may be considered.” — Ralph Waldo Emerson (T. besmirched reputation. real or personal. and nature is tugging at every contract to make the terms of it fair. the sentimental value of property. mental anguish. moral shock. Art. quasi-contracts. abduction. wounded feelings. moral damages may be recovered if they are the proximate result of the defendant’s wrongful act for omission. liquidated. The assessment of such damages. 2219. 2218. according to the circumstances of each case. That the plaintiff has derived some benefit as a result of the contract. and similar injury. Moral include physical suffering. 5. Moral damages may be recovered in the following and analogous cases: 1. that the defendant acted upon the advice of counsel. temperate. Seduction. Cayton) 93 . nominal. In the adjudication of moral damages. the court may equitably mitigate the damages under circumstances other than the case referred to in the preceding article. rape. fright. except liquidated ones. A criminal offense resulting in physical injuries. as in the following instances: 1. or exemplary damages may be adjudicated.

The spouse. Temperate or Moderate Damages— Art. Art. Malicious prosecution. Libel. which has been violated or invaded by the defendant. 32. Temperate damages must be reasonable under the circumstances. 7. may be recovered when the court finds that some pecuniary loss has been suffered but its amount cannot. descendants. 27. The court may award nominal damages in every obligation arising from any source enumerated in Article 1157. 6. 9 of this article. 94 . SEC. 2. 28. Wilful injury to property may be a legal ground for awarding moral damages if the court should find that. as between the parties to the suit. 4. in the order named. 9. Art. 8. be provided with certainty. or in every case where any property right has been invaded. 5. abducted. SEC. or abused. Temperate or moderate damages. Adultery or concubinage. 2222. 2221. ascendants. 10. Nominal Damages— Art. Nominal damages are adjudicated in order that a right of the plaintiff. raped. The parents of the female seduced. Liquidated damages are those agreed upon by the parties to a contract. Art. slander. or any other form of defamation. Art. 30. 2226. may also recover moral damages. from the nature of the case. Acts and actions referred to in Articles 21. The same rule applies to breaches of contract where the defendant acted fraudulently or in bad faith. 26. Liquidated Damages— Art. 3. 2225. or their respective heirs and assigns. Illegal or arbitrary detention or arrest. may be vindicated or recognized. 29. 3 of this article. under the circumstances. SEC. 34.TOUR OF THE HORIZON 4. referred to in No. 2223. to be paid in case of breach thereof. The adjudication of nominal damages shall preclude further contest upon the right involved and all accessory questions. Illegal search. 2224. Acts mentioned in Article 309. which are more than nominal but less than compensatory damages. 2220. and 35. such damages are justly due. and brothers and sisters may bring the action mentioned in No. and not for the purpose of indemnifying the plaintiff for any loss suffered by him.

Exemplary or Corrective Damages— Art. 2227. exemplary damages as a part of the civil liability may be imposed when the crime was committed with one or more aggravating circumstances. exemplary damages may be granted if the defendant acted with gross negligence. liquidated. Such damages are separate and distinct from fines and shall be paid to the offended party. and not the stipulation. or compensatory damages 95 . 2233. Art. Exemplary damages cannot be recovered as a matter of right. fraudulent. the plaintiff must show that he is entitled to moral. SEC. in addition to the moral. 2232. whether intended as an indemnity or a penalty. Oposa) Art.CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT Art. In quasi-delicts. reckless. shall be equitably reduced if they are iniquitous or unconscionable. In contracts and quasi-contracts. Art. Art. 2230. the court may award exemplary damages if the defendant acted in a wanton. or malevolent manner. the law shall determine the measure of damages. or compensatory damages. While the amount of the exemplary damages need not be proved. Art. Exemplary or corrective damages are imposed. Balabac. 2234. Palawan. 2231. Liquidated damages. In criminal offenses. Bugsuk Island. Crocodile Swamp at Sunset. 2228. oppressive. for the public good. (A. temperate. temperate. Art. the court will decide whether or not they should be adjudicated. When the breach of the contract committed by the defendant is not the one contemplated by the parties in agreeing upon the liquidated damages. 5. by way of example or correction. 2229.

Other damages. they are awarded only to enable the injured party to obtain means. or amusements that will serve to alleviate the moral suffering he has undergone. In case liquidated damages have been agreed upon.” R & B Surety & Insurance Co. A stipulation whereby exemplary damages are renounced in advance shall be null and void. the ordinary. nevertheless. No. in a sense. 1984 Special Damages “The damages recoverable upon breach of contract are. moral damages cannot be awarded. 64515. necessary damage resulting from the breach.” “Moral damages are emphatically not intended to enrich a complainant at the expense of a defendant. No. and. IAC 166 SCRA 15. temperate.TOUR OF THE HORIZON before the court may consider the question of whether or not exemplary damages should be awarded. although no proof of loss is necessary in order that such liquidated damages may be recovered. for the law could not have meant to impose a penalty on the right to litigate. Moral Damages is Awarded on a Case-to-Case Basis “There is no hard and fast rule in the determination of what would be a fair amount of moral damages.” Filinvest Credit Corporation v.R. or compensatory damages were it not for the stipulation for liquidated damages.R. prejudice. since each case must be governed by its own peculiar circumstances. 2235. 65935. G. June 22. Art. IAC and Uson 129 SCRA 736. natural.. Inc. This proposition must be un- 96 . before the court may consider the question of granting exemplary in addition to the liquidated damages. primarily. or corruption on the part of the trial court. are recoverable where it appears that the particular conditions which made such damages a probable consequence of the breach were known to the delinquent party at the time the contract was made. Be that as it may and in amplification of this generalization. v. we set the criterion that “in the case of moral damages. by reason of the defendant’s culpable action. diversion. the yardstick should be that the ‘amount awarded should not be palpably and scandalously excessive’ so as to indicate that it was the result of passion. The adverse result of an action does not per se make the action wrongful and subject the actor to the payment of damages. known as special damages. September 30. G. 1988 Only a Wrongful Act May be Awarded Moral Damages “In the absence of a wrongful act or omission or of fraud or bad faith. the plaintiff must show that he would be entitled to moral.

the immediate and proximate cause of the injury being the defendant’s lack of due care. The conduct may be in the form of an act of commission. he cannot recover damages. The obligation imposed by Article 2176 is demandable not only for one’s own acts or omissions. February 4. but the courts shall mitigate the damages to be awarded. if the damages are in the legal sense remote or speculative. there being fault or negligence. When the plaintiff’s own negligence was the immediate and proximate cause of his injury. 97 .” Daywalt v. La Corporacion de los Padres Agustinos Recoletos G. But if his negligence was only contributory. similar to Delict – crime A quasi-delict is like a crime in the sense that there is wrongful conduct on the part of the person who committed the act which resulted in damage or injury. 13505. 2179. No. knowledge of the special conditions which render such damages possible will not make them recoverable.R. but also for those of persons for whom one is responsible. Art. 1919 Quasi-Delict: Quasi . Whoever by act or omission causes damage to another. “Whatever may be the character of the liability.like. 2177. The provisions of Articles 1172 to 1174 are also applicable to a quasi- Art. 2180. Special damages of this character cannot be recovered unless made the subject of special stipulation. delict. Art.CIVIL CODE PROVISIONS ON ENVIRONMENT derstood with the qualification that. Art. if there is no pre-existing contractual relation between the parties. Responsibility for fault or negligence under the preceding article is entirely separate and distinct from the civil liability arising from negligence under the Penal Code. 2176. But the plaintiff cannot recover damages twice for the same act or omission of the defendant. if any. Such fault or negligence. is called a quasi-delict and is governed by the provisions of this chapter. 2178. which a stranger to a contract may incur by advising or assisting one of the parties to evade performance. or an act of negligent omission. Quasi-Delict Art. the plaintiff may recover damages. an active deed. he cannot become more extensively liable in damages for the nonperformance of the contract than the party in whose behalf he inter meddles. is obliged to pay for the damage done.

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The father and, in case of his death or incapacity, the mother, are responsible for the damages caused by the minor children who live in their company. Guardians are liable for damages caused by the minors or incapacitated persons who are under their authority and live in their company. The owners and managers of an establishment or enterprise are likewise responsible for damages caused by their employees in the service of the branches in which the latter are employed or on the occasion of their functions. Employers shall be liable for the damages caused by their employees and household helpers acting within the scope of their assigned tasks, even though the former are not engaged in any business or industry. The State is responsible in like manner when it acts through a special agent; but not when the damage has been caused by the official to whom the task done properly pertains, in which case what is provided in Article 2176 shall be applicable. Lastly, teachers or heads of establishments of arts and trades shall be liable for damages caused by their pupils and students or apprentices, so long as they remain in their custody. The responsibility treated of in this article shall cease when the persons herein mentioned prove that they observed all the diligence of a good father of a family to prevent damage. Art. 2181. Whoever pays for the damage caused by his dependents or employees may recover from the latter what he has paid or delivered in satisfaction of the claim. Art. 2182. If the minor or insane person causing damage has no parents or guardian, the minor or insane person shall be answerable with his own property in an action against him where a guardian ad litem shall be appointed. Art. 2183. The possessor of an animal or whoever may make use of the same is responsible for the damage which it may cause, although it may escape or be lost. This responsibility shall cease only in case the damage should come from force majeure or from the fault of the person who has suffered damage.
“Dear water, dear water, playful in your streams.”— (W.H. Auden) (G. Tapan)

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Art. 2184. In motor vehicle mishaps, the owner is solidarily liable with his driver, if the former, who was in the vehicle, could have, by the use of the due diligence, prevented the misfortune. It is disputably presumed that a driver was negligent, if he had been found guilty of reckless driving or violating traffic regulations at least twice within the next preceding two months. If the owner was not in the motor vehicle, the provisions of Article 2180 are applicable. Art. 2185. Unless there is proof to the contrary, it is presumed that a person driving a motor vehicle has been negligent if at the time of the mishap, he was violating any traffic regulation. Art. 2186. Every owner of a motor vehicle shall file with the proper government office a bond executed by a government-controlled corporation or office, to answer for damages to third persons. The amount of the bond and other terms shall be fixed by the competent public official. Art. 2187. Manufacturers and processors of foodstuffs, drinks, toilet articles, and similar goods shall be liable for death or injuries caused by any noxious or harmful substances used, although no contractual relation exists between them and the consumers. Art. 2188. There is prima facie presumption of negligence on the part of the defendant if the death or injury results from his possession of dangerous weapons or substances, such as firearms and poison, except when the possession or use thereof is indispensable in his occupation or business. Art. 2189. Provinces, cities, and municipalities shall be liable for damages for the death of, or injuries suffered by, any person by reason of the defective condition of roads, streets, bridges, public buildings, and other public works under their control or supervision. Art. 2190. The proprietor of a building or structure is responsible for the damages resulting from its total or partial collapse, if it should be due to the lack of necessary repairs. Art. 2191. Proprietors shall also be responsible for damages caused: 1. By the explosion of machinery which has not been taken care of with due diligence, and the inflammation of explosive substances which have not been kept in a safe and adequate place; 2. By excessive smoke, which may be harmful to persons or property; 3. By the falling of trees situated at or near highways or lanes, if not caused by force majeure; 4. By emanations from tubes, canals, sewers, or deposits of infectious matter, constructed without precautions suitable to the place. Art. 2192. If damage referred to in the two preceding articles should be the result of any defect in the construction mentioned in Article 1723, the third person suffer99

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ing damages may proceed only against the engineer or architect or contractor in accordance with said article, within the period therein fixed. Art. 2193. The head of a family that lives in a building or a part thereof, is responsible for damages caused by things thrown or falling from the same. Art. 2194. The responsibility of two or more persons who are liable for quasidelict is solidary.

“When I go into the garden with a spade, and dig a bed, I feel such an exhilaration and health that I discover that I have been defrauding myself all this time in letting others do for me what I should have done with my own hands.” — Ralph Waldo Emerson (G. Tapan, Mt. Isarog)

The Evidence Speaks for Itself The doctrine res ipsa loquitur (the thing speaks for itself) creates presumption of negligence. The thing which caused the injury must first be shown to be under the management of the person or his servants. If in the ordinary course of things, the accident would not happen when those who have its management use proper care, it affords reasonable evidence, in the absence of explanation by such person or his servants, that the accident arose from want of care. Africa v. Caltex G.R. No.12986, March 31, 1966

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Legal Easements Art. 634. Easements imposed by law have for their object either public use or the interest of private persons. Art. 635. All matters concerning easements established for public or communal use shall be governed by the special laws and regulations relating thereto, and, in the absence thereof, by the provisions of this Title. Art. 636. Easements established by law in the interest of private persons or for private use shall be governed by the provisions of this Title, without prejudice to the provisions of general or local laws and ordinances for the general welfare. These easements may be modified by agreement of the interested parties, whenever the law does not prohibit it or no injury is suffered by a third person. Flowing Waters Art. 637. Lower estates are obliged to receive the waters which naturally and without the intervention of man descend from the higher estates, as well as the stones or earth which they carry with them. The owner of the lower estate cannot construct works which will impede this easement; neither can the owner of the higher estate make works which will increase the burden. Art. 638. The banks of rivers and streams, even in case they are of private ownership, are subject throughout their entire length and within a zone of three meters along their margins, to the easement of public use in the general interest of navigation, floatage, fishing and salvage. Estates adjoining the banks of navigable or floatable rivers are, furthermore, subject to the easement of towpath for the exclusive service of river navigation and floatage. If it be necessary for such purpose to occupy lands of private ownership, the proper indemnity shall first be paid. Note: The distances of the easement margins provided under the Civil Code are deemed modified by Sec. 51 of the Water Code (P.D. 1067). It is now 3 meters for urban, 20 meters for agricultural, and 40 meters for forest lands. Art. 639. Whenever for the diversion or taking of water from a river or brook, or for the use of any other continuous or discontinuous stream, it should be necessary to build a dam, and the person who is to construct it is not the owner of the banks, or lands which must support it, he may establish the easement of abutment of a dam, after payment of the proper indemnity.

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Art. 640. Compulsory easements for drawing water or for watering animals can be imposed only for reasons of public use in favor of a town or village, after payment of the proper indemnity. Art. 641. Easements for drawing water and for watering animals carry with them the obligation of the owners of the servient estates to allow passage to persons and animals to the place where such easements are to be used, and the indemnity shall include this service. Art. 642. Any person who may wish to use upon his own estate any water of which he can dispose shall have the right to make it flow through the intervening estates, with the obligation to indemnify their owners, as well as the owners of the lower estates upon which the waters may filter or descend. Art. 643. One desiring to make use of the right granted in the preceding article is obliged: 1. To prove that he can dispose of the water and that it is sufficient for the use for which it is intended; 2. To show that the proposed right of way is the most convenient and the least onerous to third persons; 3. To indemnify the owner of the servient estate in the manner determined by the laws and regulations.

“What would the world be, once bereft of wet and wildness? Let them be left, O let them be left, wildness and wet; Long live the weeds and the wilderness yet.”— Gerard Manley Hopkins (Y. Lee, Pagsanjan Rapids)

Art. 644. The easement of aqueduct for private interest cannot be imposed on buildings, courtyards, annexes, or outhouses, or on orchards or gardens already existing. Art. 645. The easement of aqueduct does not prevent the owner of the servient estate from closing or fencing it or from building over the aqueduct in such manner as not to cause the latter any damage, or render necessary repairs and cleanings impossible.

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Art. 646. For legal purposes, the easement of aqueduct shall be considered as continuous and apparent, even though the flow of the water may not be continuous, or its use depends upon the needs of the dominant estate, or upon a schedule of alternate days or hours. Art. 647. One who for the purposes of irrigating or improving his estate, has to construct a stop lock or sluice gate in the bed of the stream from which the water is to be taken, may demand that the owners of the banks permit its construction, after payment of damages, including those caused by the new easement to such owners and to the other irrigators. Art. 648. The establishment, extent, form, and conditions of the servitudes of waters, to which this Section refers, shall be governed by the special laws relating thereto insofar as no provision therefore is made in this Code. Right of Way Art. 649. The owner, or any person who by virtue of a real right may cultivate or use any immovable, which is surrounded by other immovables pertaining to other persons and without adequate outlet to a public highway, is entitled to demand a right of way through the neighboring estates, after payment of the proper indemnity. Should this easement be established in such a manner that its use may be continuous for all the needs of the dominant estate, establishing a permanent passage, the indemnity shall consist of the value of the land occupied and the amount of the damage caused to the servient estate. In case the right of way is limited to the necessary passage or the cultivation of the estate surrounded by others and for the gathering of its crops through the servient estate without a permanent way, the indemnity shall consist in the payment of the damage caused by such encumbrance. This easement is not compulsory if the isolation of the immovable is due to the proprietor’s own acts. Art. 650. The easement of right of way shall be established at the point least prejudicial to the servient estate, and, insofar as consistent with this rule, where the distance from the dominant estate to a public highway may be the shortest. Art. 651. The width of the easement of right of way shall be that which is sufficient for the needs of the dominant estate, and may accordingly be changed from time to time. Art. 652. Whenever a piece of land acquired by sale, exchange, or partition is surrounded by other estates of the vendor, exchanger, or co-owner, he shall be obliged to grant a right of way without indemnity. In case of a simple donation, the donor shall be indemnified by the donee for the establishment of the right of way.

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Light and View Art. 667. No part-owner may, without the consent of the others, open through the party wall any window or aperture of any kind. Art. 668. The period of prescription for the acquisition of an easement of light and view shall be counted: 1. From the time of the opening of the window, if it is through a party wall; or 2. From the time of the formal prohibition upon the proprietor of the adjoining land or tenement, if the window is through a wall on the dominant estate. Art. 669. When the distances in Article 670 are not observed, the owner of a wall which is not a party wall, adjoining a tenement or piece of land belonging to another, can make in it openings to admit light at the height of the ceiling joists or immediately under the ceiling, and of the size of thirty centimeters square, and, in every case, with an iron grating imbedded in the wall and with a wire screen. Nevertheless, the owner of the tenement or property adjoining the wall in which the openings are made can close them should he acquire part-ownership thereof, if there be no stipulation to the contrary. He can also obstruct them by constructing a building on his land or by raising a wall thereon contiguous to that having such openings, unless an easement of light has been acquired. Art. 670. No windows, apertures, balconies, or other similar projections which afford a direct view upon or towards an adjoining land or tenement can be made, without leaving a distance of two meters between the wall in which they are made and such contiguous property. Neither can side or oblique, views upon or towards such conterminous property be had, unless there be a distance of sixty centimeters. The non observance of these distances does not give rise to prescription. Art. 671. The distances referred to in the preceding article shall be measured in cases of direct views from the outer line of the wall when the openings do not project, from the outer line of the latter when they do, and in cases of oblique views from the dividing line between the two properties. Art. 672. The provisions of Article 670 are not applicable to buildings separated by a public way or alley, which is not less than three meters wide, subject to special regulations and local ordinances. Art. 673. Whenever by any title a right has been acquired to have direct views, balconies, or belvederes overlooking an adjoining property, the owner of the servient estate cannot build thereon at less than a distance of three meters to be measured in the manner provided in Article 671. Any stipulation permitting distances less than those prescribed in Article 670 is void.

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Drainage and Falling Waters Art. 674. The owner of a building shall be obliged to construct its roof or covering in such manner that the rain water shall fall on his own land or on a street or public place, and not on the land of his neighbor, even though the adjacent land may belong to two or more persons, one of whom is the owner of the roof. Even if it should fall on his own land, the owner shall be obliged to collect the water in such a way as not to cause damage to the adjacent land or tenement. Art. 675. The owner of a tenement or a piece of land, subject to the easement of receiving water falling from roofs, may build in such manner as to receive the water upon his own roof or give it another outlet in accordance with local ordinances or customs, and in such a way as not to cause any nuisance or damage whatever to the dominant estate. Art. 676. Whenever the yard or court of a house is surrounded by other houses, and it is not possible to give an outlet through the house itself to the rain water collected thereon, the establishment of an easement of drainage can be demanded, giving an outlet to the water at the point of the contiguous lands or tenements where its egress may be easiest, and establishing a conduit for the drainage in such manner as to cause the least damage to the servient estate, after payment of the proper indemnity. Plantings and Constructions

“I am comforted by life’s stability, by earth’s unchangeableness. What has seemed new and frightening assumes its place in the unfolding of knowledge. It is good to know our universe. What is new is only new to us.” — Pearl S. Buck (G. Tapan)

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Art. 677. No construction can be built or plantings made near fortified places or fortresses without compliance with the conditions required in special laws, ordinances, and regulations relating thereto. Art. 678. No persons shall build any aqueduct, well, sewer, furnace, forge, chimney, stable, depository of corrosive substance, machinery, or factory which by reason of its nature or products is dangerous or noxious, without observing the distances prescribed by the regulations and customs of the place, and without making the necessary protective works subject in regard to the manner thereof to the conditions prescribed by such regulations. These prohibitions cannot be altered or renounced by stipulation on the part of the adjoining proprietors.

“With all beings and all things we shall be as relatives.” — Sioux Indian (A. Oposa, Isla Encantada, Visayan Sea)

In the absence of regulations, such precaution shall be taken as may be considered necessary, in order to avoid any damage to the neighboring lands or tenements. Art. 679. No trees shall be planted near a tenement or piece of land belonging to another except at the distance authorized by the ordinances or customs of the place, and in the absence thereof, at a distance of at least two meters from the dividing line of the estates if tall trees are planted and at a distance of at least fifty centimeters if shrubs or small trees are planted.

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Every landowner shall have the right to demand that trees hereafter planted at a shorter distance from his land or tenement be uprooted. The provisions of this Article also apply to trees which have grown spontaneously. Art. 680. If the branches of any trees should extend over a neighboring estate, tenement, garden, or yard, the owner of the latter shall have the right to demand that they be cut off insofar as they may spread over his property, and, if it be the roots of a neighboring tree which should penetrate into the land of another, the latter may cut them off himself within his property. Art. 681. said land. Fruits naturally falling upon adjacent land belong to the owner of

On Beaches and Tree Planting 1. Nuisance The beach is illegally appropriated and occupied by informal settlers who use the seashore as their toilet. Despite the clear mandate of the Water Code on easements, and the mandate of the Local Government Code, the local government unit concerned is hesitant to remove these squatters because of the ‘political’ implications of this action. (Squatters mean votes come election time.) A private citizen can use the provisions on public nuisance to gain the necessary legal personality to initiate a public interest case to enforce the law on easements. 2. Land Pollution Other than the clean-up provision of the Environment Code (Presidential Decree No. 1152) which relates to water pollution, there is no specific provision requiring the clean-up of land contaminated by pollution (usually by hazardous wastes). For this purpose, the law on the abatement of a nuisance by the successive owner or possessor of a property may be creatively used to require whoever is in possession of said land to undertake the clean-up. The person sued (the “last-touch” possessor) can then file a third-party complaint against all previous owners and possessors. (N. B. This subject matter on the clean-up of contaminated land is ripe for legislation.)

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3. Tree Planting with Easement of Two Meters Oftentimes in the enthusiasm for “tree planting” especially in urban areas, one tends to disregard the easement required by law. If planted too close to the boundary of the adjoining property, the roots may penetrate the soil of said property and may cause structural damage to any structure standing thereon. On roadsides, sidewalks, parking lots and other concretely-paved over ground, planted trees themselves must have an easement of soil of at least one meter on each side. While no law provides for this, common sense dictates that it must have enough land and soil to absorb rain and moisture and for its roots to grow.

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LAND
CHAPTER CONTENTS
PROTECTED AREAS National Integrated Protected Areas System Act, 111 The Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan, 122 Cave Management Act, 131 Revised Forestry Code, 136 (Felipe v. Deputy) (Minors v. DENR) (Mustang Lumber v. CA) (Paat v. CA) Chainsaw Act of 2002, 194 PROTECTED SPECIES Conservation and Protection of Wildlife Resources, 198 Protection of the Philippine Eagle, 214 Protection of Wild Flowers, 215 Prospecting of Biological and Genetic Resources, 218 Tree Planting, 225 List of Endangered Species, 228 AGRICULTURE Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization (RA 8435) Philippine Policy on Transgenics, 237, 277 High – Valued Crops, 277 Fertilizers and Pesticides, 283 Coconut Cutting, 291 Animal Welfare, 294 Regulating the Slaughter of Carabaos, 298 Plant Quarantine, 299 LAND TENURE Property Registration Law, 306 (Cariño v. Insular Government) (Republic v. Animas) (Lepanto v. Dumyung) Cases on Land Reform, 341 (Vinzons-Magana v. Estrella) (Luz Farms v. Secretary of Agrarian Reform) (Maddumba v. GSIS) (Association of Small Landowners v. DAR) Community Based Forest Management, 343 Allocation/Tenure Instruments in Production Forest Lands, 347 Permits Issued for the Utilization of Forest Resources in Production Forest Lands, 350 Agreements and Permits Involving Forest Resources in Private Lands, 351 MINERALS Small-Scale Mining Program, 352 People’s Small-Scale Mining, 354 Philippine Mining Act, 362 (Miners v. Factoran) (La Bugal-B’laan Tribal v. Ramos et. al.) ENERGY Department of Energy, 410 Mini-Hydroelectric Power Developers, 422 Non-Conventional Energy Resources, 427 Biofuels Act, 432 Geothermal Resources, 440 Geothermal Watersheds, 443 The Stillborn Nuclear Power Plant, 445 (Nuclear Free Philippine Coalition v. NPC) Oil Deregulation, 446 Legality of the Deregulation Policy, 459 (Garcia v. Corona) Pilferage of Electricity, 460 Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, 468 Implementing the Natural Gas Vehicle Program for Public Transport, 470 Energy Conservation Program), 476

CHAPTER II: LAND Protected Areas National Integrated Protected Areas System Act (Republic Act 7586)
SECTION 1. Title.—This act shall be known and referred to as the “National Integrated Protected Areas System Act of 1992.” SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy—Cognizant of the profound impact of man’s activities on all components of the natural environment particularly the effect of increasing population, resource exploitation and industrial advancement and recognizing the critical importance of protecting and maintaining the natural biological and physical of diversities of the environment notably on areas with biologically unique features to sustain human life and development, as well as plant and animal life, it is hereby declared the policy of the State to secure for the Filipino people of present and future generations the perpetual existence of all native plants and animals through the establishment of a comprehensive system of integrated protected areas within the classification of national park as provided for in the Constitution. It is hereby recognized that these areas, although distinct in features, possess common ecological values that may incorporated into a holistic plan representative of our natural heritage; that effective administration of these areas is possible only through coopera“Nature knows no pause in progress and develoption among national government, ment, and attaches her curse on all inaction.”— local government and concerned Johann Wolfgang von Goethe private organizations; that the use (N. Oshima, Forest) and enjoyment of these protected areas must be consistent with the principles of biological diversity and sustainable development.

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To this end, there is hereby established a National Integrated Areas System (NIPAS), which shall encompass outstandingly remarkable areas and biologically important public loans that are habitats of rare and endangered species of plants and animals, biogeographic zones and related ecosystems, whether terrestrial, wetlands or marine, all of which shall be designated as “protected areas”. SEC. 3. tablished: Categories—The following categories of protected areas are hereby es-

a. Strict nature reserve; b. Natural park; c. Natural monument; d. Wildlife sanctuary; e. Protected landscapes and seascapes; f. Resource reserve; g. Natural biotic areas; and h. Other categories established by law, convention or international agreements which the Philippines Government is a signatory. SEC. 4. Definition of terms —For purposes of this Act the following terms shall be defined as follows:

Let us beware of saying there are laws in nature.

There are only necessities: There is no one to coma. “NIPAS” is the classificamand, no one to obey, no one to transgress. When tion and administration of all desigyou realize there are no goals or objectives, then nated protected areas to maintain you realize, too, that, there is no chance: for only essential ecological processes and in a world of objectives does the word chance have life-support systems, to preserve geany meaning. — Friedrich Nietzsche netic diversity, to ensure sustainable (G. Tapan) use of resources found therein, and to maintain their natural conditions to the greatest extent possible;

b. “Protected area” refers to identified portions of land and water set aside by reasons of their unique physical and biological significance, managed to enhance biological diversity and protected against destructive human exploitation; c. “Buffer zones” are identified areas outside the boundaries of an immediately adjacent to designated protected areas pursuant to Section 8 that need special development control in order to avoid or minimize harm to the protected area;

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d. “Indigenous cultural community” refers to a group of people sharing common bonds of language, customs traditions, and other distinctive cultural traits, and who have , since time to immemorial, occupied, possessed and utilized a territory; e. “National park” refers to a forest reservation essentially of natural wilderness character which has been withdrawn from settlement, occupancy or any form of exploitation except in conformity with approved management plan and set aside as such exclusively to conserve the area or preserve the scenery, the natural and historical objects, wild animals and plants therein to provide enjoyment of these features in such areas; f. “Natural monument” is a relatively small area focused on protection of small features to protect or preserve nationally significant natural features on account of their special interest or unique characteristics; g. “Natural biotic area” is an area set aside to allow the way of life societies living in harmony with the environment to adopt to modern technology at their pace; h. “Natural park” is relatively large area not materially altered by human activity where extractive resource use are not allowed and maintained to protect outstanding natural and scenic areas of national or international significance for scientific, education and recreational use; i. “Protected landscapes/seascapes” are areas of national significance which are characterized by the harmonious interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and tourism within the normal lifestyle and economic activity of these areas; j. “Resource reserve” is an extensive and relatively isolated and uninhabited normally with difficult access designated as such to protect natural resources of the area for future use and prevent or contain development activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment of objectives which are based upon appropriate knowledge and planning; k. “Strict nature reserve” is an area possessing some outstanding ecosystem, features and/or species of flora and fauna of national scientific importance maintained to protect nature and maintain processes in an undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representatives examples of the natural environment available for scientific study, environmental monitoring, education, and for the maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state; l. “Tenured migrant communities” are communities within protected areas which have actually and continuously occupied such areas for five (5) years before the designation of the same as protected areas in accordance with this Act and are solely dependent therein for subsistence; and m. “Wildlife sanctuary” comprises an area which assures the natural conditions necessary to protect nationally significant species, groups of species, biotic communities or physical features of the environment where these may require specific human manipulation for their perpetuation.

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SEC. 5. Established and Extent of the System—The establishment and operationalization of the System shall involve the following: a. Areas or islands in the Philippines proclaimed, designated or set aside, pursuant to a law, presidential decree, presidential proclamation or executive order as national park, game refuge, bird and wildlife sanctuary, wilderness area, strict nature reserve, fish sanctuary, natural and historical landmark, protected and managed landscape/seascape as well as identified virgin forests before the effectivity of this Act are hereby designated as initial components of the System. The initial components of the System shall be governed by existing laws, rules and regulations, not inconsistent with this Act; b. Within one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act, the DENR shall submit to the Senate and the House of Representatives a map and legal description or natural boundaries of each protected area initially compromising the System. Such maps and legal descriptions shall, by virtue of this Act, constitute the official documentary representation of the entire System, subject to such changes as Congress deems necessary; c. All DENR records pertaining to said protected areas, including maps and legal descriptions or natural boundaries, copies of rules and regulations governing them, copies of public notices of, and reports submitted to Congress regarding pending additions, eliminations, or modifications shall be made available to the public. These legal documents pertaining to protected areas shall also available to the public in the respective DENR Regional Offices, Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Offices (PENROs) and Community Environment and Natural Resources Offices (CENROs) where the NIPAS areas are located; d. Within three (3) years from the effectivity of this Act, the DENR shall study and review each area tentatively composing the System as to its suitability or nonsuitability for preservation as protected area and inclusion in the System according to the categories established in Section 3 hereof and report its findings to the President as soon as each study is completed. The study must include in each area: 1) 2) 3) A forest occupants survey; An ethnographic study; A protected area resource profile;

4) Land use plans done in coordination with the respective Regional Development Councils; and 5) Such other background studies as will be sufficient bases for selection. The DENR shall: 1) Notify the public of the proposed action through publication in a newspaper of general circulation, and such other means as the System deems necessary in the area or areas in the vicinity of the affected land thirty (30) days prior to the public hearing;

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2) Conduct public hearings at the locations nearest to the area affected; 3) At least thirty (30) days prior to the date of hearing, advice all local government units (LGUs) in the affected areas, national agencies concerned, peoples organizations and non-government organizations and invite such officials to submit their views on the proposed action at the hearing not later than thirty (30) days the following the date of the hearing; and 4) Give due consideration to the recommendations at the public hearing; and provide sufficient explanation for his recommendations contrary to the general sentiments expressed in the public hearing; e. Upon receipt of the recommendations of the DENR, the President shall issue a president proclamation designating the recommended areas as protected areas and providing for measures for their protection until such time when Congress shall have enacted a law finally declaring such recommended areas as part of the integrated area systems; and f. Thereafter, the President shall send to the Senate and the House of Representatives his recommendations with respect to the designations as protected areas or reclassification of each area on which review has been completed, together with maps and legal descriptions of boundaries. The President, in his recommendation, may propose the alteration of existing boundaries of any or all proclaimed protected areas, addition of any contiguous area of public land of predominant physical and biological value. Nothing contained herein shall limit the President to propose, as part of his recommendation to Congress, additional areas which have been not designated, pro“Nature…makes nothing in vain.” — Aristotle claimed or set aside by law, presi(Y. Lee) dential decree or executive order as protected area/s. SEC. 6. Additional Areas to be Integrated to the System—Notwithstanding the establishment of the initial component of the System, the Secretary shall propose the inclusion in the System of additional areas with outstanding physical features, anthropological significance and biological diversity in accordance with the provisions of Section 5 (d). 115

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SEC. 7. Disestablishment as Protected Area—When in the opinion of the DENR a certain protected area should be withdrawn or disestablished, or its boundaries modified as warranted by a study and sanctioned by the majority of the members of the respective boards for the protected area as herein established in Section 11, it shall, in turn, advise Congress. Disestablishment of a protected area under the System or modification of its boundary shall take effect pursuant to an act of Congress. Thereafter, however, That after disestablishment by Congress, the Secretary may recommend the transfer of such established area of other government agencies to serve their priority programs of national interest. SEC. 8. Buffer Zones—For each protected area, there shall be established peripheral buffer zones when necessary, in the same manner from activities that will directly harm it. Such buffer zones shall be included in the individual protected area management plan that shall be prepared for each protected area. The DENR shall exercise its authority over protected areas as provided in this Act on such area designated as buffer zones. SEC. 9. Management Plans—There shall be a general management planning strategy to serve as guide in formulating individual plans for each protected area. The management planning strategy shall, at the minimum, promote the adoption and implementation of innovative management techniques including, if necessary, the concept of zoning, buffer zone management for multiple use and protection, habitat conservation and rehabilitation, diversity management, community organizing, socioeconomic and scientific researchers, site-specific policy development, pest management, and fire control. The management planning strategy shall also provide guidelines for the protection of indigenous cultural communities, other tenured migrant communities and sites and for close coordination between and among local agencies of the Government as well as the private sector. Each component area of the System shall be planned and administered to further protect and enhance the permanent preservation of its natural conditions. a management manual shall be formulated and developed which must contain the following: an individual management plan prepared by three (3) experts, basic background information, field inventory of the resources within the area, an assessment of assets and limitations, regional interrelationships, particular objectives for the managing the area, appropriate division of the area into management zones, a review of the boundaries of the area, and a design of the management programs. SEC. 10. Administration and Management of the System—The National Integrated Protected Areas System is hereby placed under the control and administration of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. For this purpose, there is hereby created a division in the regional offices of the Department to be called the Protected Areas and Wildlife Division in regions where protected areas have been established, which shall be under the supervision of a Regional Technical Director, and shall include subordinate officers, clerks and employees as may be proposed by the Secretary, duly approved by the Department of Budget and Management, and appropriated for by 116

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Congress. The Service thus established shall manage protected areas and promote the permanent preservation, to the greatest extent possible of their natural conditions. To carry out the mandate of this Act, the Secretary of the DENR is empowered to perform any and all of the following acts: a. To conduct studies in various characteristics features and conditions of the different protected areas, using commonalities in their characteristics, classify and define them into categories and prescribe permissible or prohibited human activities in each category in the System; b. To adopt and enforce a land-use scheme and zoning plan in adjoining areas for the preservation and control of activities that may be threaten the ecological balance in the protected areas; c. To cause the preparation of and exercise the power to review all plans and proposals for the management of protected areas; d. To promulgate rules and regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act; e. To deputize field officers and delegate any of his powers under this Act and other laws to expedite its implementation and enforcement; f. To fix and prescribe rea“The hills and the sea and the earth dance. The sonable NIPAS fees to be collected world of man dance in laughter and tears.”— Kabir from government agencies or any (N. Oshima) person, firm or corporation deriving benefits from the protected areas; g. To extract administrative fees and fines as authorized in Section 21 for violations of guidelines, rules and regulations of this Act as would endanger the viability of protected areas; h. To enter into contracts and/or agreements with private entities or public agencies as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act; i. To accept in the name of the Philippine Government and in behalf of NIPAS funds, gifts or bequests of money for immediate disbursements or other property in the interest of the NIPAS, its activities, or its services; j. To call on any agency or instrumentality of the Government as well as academic institutions, non-government organizations and the private sector as may be necessary to accomplish the objectives and activities of the System; 117

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k. To submit an annual report to the President of the Philippines and to Congress on the status of protected areas in the country; l. To establish a uniform matter for the System, including an appropriate and distinctive symbol for each category in the System, in consultation with appropriate government agencies and public and private organizations; m. To determine the specification of the class, type and style of buildings and other structures to be constructed in protected areas and the materials to be used; n. Control the construction, operation and maintenance of roads, trails, water works, sewerage fire protection and sanitation systems and other public utilities with the protected areas; o. Control occupancy of suitable portions of the protected areas and resettle outside of said area forest occupants therein, with the extraction of the members of the indigenous communities area; and p. To perform such other functions as may be directed by the President of the Philippines, and to do such acts as may be necessary or incidental to the accomplishment of the purpose and objectives of the System. SEC. 11. Protected Area Management Board—A Protected Area Management Board for each of the established protected area shall be created and shall be composed of the following: the Regional Executive Director under whose jurisdiction the protected area is located ; one (1) representative from the autonomous regional government, if applicable; the Provincial Development Officer; one (1) representative from the municipal government; one (1) representative from each barangay covering the protected area; one (1) representative from each tribal community, if applicable; and at least three (3) representatives from non-government organizations / local community organizations, and if necessary, one (1) representative from other departments or national government agencies involved in protected area management. The Board shall, by majority vote, decide the allocations for budget, approve proposals for funding, decide matters relating to planning, peripheral protection and general administration of the area in accordance with the general management strategy. The members of the Board shall serve for a term of five (5) years without compensation, except for actual and necessary traveling and subsistence expenses incurred in the performance of their duties. They shall be appointed by the Secretary of the DENR as follows: a. A member who shall be appointed to represent each local government down to barangay level whose territory or portion in included in the protected area. Each appointee shall be the person designated by the head of such LGU, except for the Provincial Development Officer who shall serve ex officio; b. A member from non-government organizations who shall be endorsed by heads of organizations which are preferably based in the area or which have established and recognized interest in protected areas;

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c. The RED/s in the region/s where such protected area lies shall sit as ex officio member of the Board and shall serve as adviser/s in matters related to the technical aspect of management of the area; and d. The RED shall act as chairman of the Board. When there are two (2) or more than REDs in the Board, the secretary shall designate one (1) of them to be the Chairman. Vacancies shall be filed in the same manner as the original appointment. SEC. 12. Environmental Impact Assessment—Proposals for activities which are outside the scope of the management plan for protected areas shall be subject to an environmental impact assessment as required by law before they are adopted, and the results thereof shall be taken into consideration in the decision-making process. No actual implementation of such activities shall be allowed without the required Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC) under the Philippine Impact Assessment (EIA) system. In instances where such activities are allowed to be undertaken, the proponent shall plan and carry them out in such manners as will minimize any adverse effects and take preventive and remedial action when appropriate. The proponent shall be liable for any damage due to lack of caution or indiscretion. SEC. 13. Ancestral lands and Rights Over Them—Ancestral lands and customary rights and interest arising shall be accorded due recognition. The DENR shall prescribe rules and regulations to govern ancestral lands within protected areas: Provided, however, That all rules and regulations, whether adversely affecting said communities or not, shall be subjected to notice and hearing to be participated in by members of concerned indigenous community. SEC. 14. Survey for Energy Resources—Consistent with the policies declared in Section 2 hereof, protected areas, except strict nature reserves and natural parks, may be subjected to exploration only for the purpose of gathering information on energy resources and only if such activity is carried out with the least damage to surrounding areas. Surveys shall be conducted only in accordance with a program approved by the DENR, and the result of such surveys shall be made available to the public and submitted to the President for recommendation to Congress. Any exploitation and utilization of energy resources found within NIPAS areas shall be allowed only through a law passed by Congress. SEC. 15. Areas Under the Management of Other Departments and Government Instrumentalities—Should there be protected areas, or portions thereof, under the jurisdiction of government instrumentalities other than the DENR, such jurisdiction shall, prior to the passage of this Act, remain in the said department or government instrumentality: Provided, That the department or government instrumentality exercising administrative jurisdiction over said protected area or a portion thereof shall coordinate with the DENR in the preparation of its management plans, upon the effectivity of this Act. SEC. 16. Integrated Protected Areas Fund—There is hereby established a trust fund to be known as Integrated Protected Areas (IPAS) Fund for purposes of financing

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projects of the System. The IPAS may be solicit and receive donations, endowments, and grants in the form of contributions, and such endowments shall be exempted from income or gift taxes and all other taxes, charges of fees imposed by the Government or any political subdivision or instrumentality thereof. All incomes generated from the operation of the System or management of wild flora and fauna shall accrue to the Fund and may be utilized directly by the DENR for the above purpose. These incomes shall be derived from: a. Taxes from the permitted sale and export of flora and fauna and other resources from protected areas; b. Proceeds from lease of multiple- use areas; c. Contributions from industries and facilities directly benefiting from the protected area; and d. Such other fees and incomes derived from the operation of the protected area. Disbursements from the Fund shall be made solely for the protection, maintenance, administration, and management of the System, and duly approved projects endorsed by the PAMBs, in the amounts authorized by the DENR. SEC. 17. Annual Report to Congress—At the opening of each session of Congress, on the status of the System, regulation in force and other pertinent information, together with recommendations. SEC. 18. Field Officers—All officials, technical personnel and forest guards employed in the integrated protected area service or all persons deputized by the DENR, upon recommendation to the Management Board shall be considered as field and make arrests in accordance with the rules on criminal procedure for the violation of laws and regulations relating to protected areas. Persons arrested shall be brought to the nearest police precinct for investigation. Nothing herein mentioned shall be construed as preventing regular law enforcers and police officers from arresting any person in the act of violating said laws and regulations in protected areas. SEC. 19. Special Prosecutors—The Department of Justice shall designate special prosecutors to prosecute violation of laws, rules and regulations in protected areas. SEC. 20. Prohibited Acts—Except as may be allowed by the nature of their categories and pursuant to rules and regulations governing the same, the following acts are prohibited within protected areas: a. Hunting, destroying, disturbing, or mere possession of any plants or animals or products derived therefrom without a permit from the Management Board; b. Use of any motorized equipment without as permit from the Management Board;

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c. Mutilating, defacing or destroying objects of natural beauty, or objects of interest to cultural communities ( of scenic value ); d. Damaging and leaving roads and trails in a dam condition; e. Squatting, mineral locating, or otherwise occupying any land; f. Constructing and maintaining any kind of structure, fence or enclosures, conducting any business exposed or unsanitary conditions refuse or debris, or depositing in ground or in bodies of water; and g. Altering, removing, destroying or defacing boundary mark or signs.

“Those who dwell, as scientists or laymen, among the beauties and mysteries of the earth are never alone or weary of life.” — Rachel Carson (T. Cayton)

SEC. 21. Penalties—Whoever violates this Act or any rules and regulations issued by the Department pursuant to this Act or whoever is found guilty by a competent court of justice of any of the offenses in the preceding section shall be fined in the amount of not less than Five thousand pesos ( P5,000 ) not more than Five hundred thousand pesos ( P500,000 ), exclusive of the value of the thing damaged or imprisonment for not less than one (1) year but not more than six (6) years, or both, as determined by the court; Provided, That, if the area requires rehabilitation or restoration as determined by the court, the offender shall also be required to restore or compensate for the restoration to the damage: Provided, further, That the court shall order the eviction of the offender from the land and the forfeiture in the favor of the Government of all minerals, timber or any species collected or removed including all equipment, devices and firearms used in connection therewith, and any construction or improvement made

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thereon by the offender. If the offender is an association or corporation, the president or manager shall be directly responsible for the act of his employees and laborers: Provided, finally, That the DENR may impose administrative fines and penalties consistent with this Act. SEC. 22. Separability Clause—If any part of section of this Act is declared unconstitutional, such declaration shall not affect the other parts of sections of this Act. SEC. 23. Repealing Clause—All laws, presidential decrees, executive orders, rules and regulations inconsistent with any provisions of this Act shall be deemed repealed or modified accordingly. SEC. 24. Effectivity Clause—This Act shall take effect fifteen (15 ) days after its complete publication in two ( 2 ) newspaper of general circulation. Approved: June 01, 1992.

Freedom of the wilderness means many things to different people. To really enjoy it, we must recognize our responsibility as human beings. Freedom gives us no license to change a heritage that belongs to the ages. — Sigurd Olson

The Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan (Republic Act 7611) Chapter I General Provisions SECTION 1. Title—This Act shall be known as the “Strategic Environmental Plan (SEP) for Palawan Act.” SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy—It is hereby declared the policy of the State to protect, develop and conserve its natural resources. Towards this end, it shall assist and support the implementation of plans, programs and projects formulated to preserve and enhance the environment, and at the same time pursue the socioeconomic development goals of the country.

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It shall support and promote the sustainable development goals for the provinces through proper conservation, utilization and development of natural resources to provide optimum yields on a continuing basis. With specific reference to forest resources, the State shall pursue and implement forest conservation and protection through the imposition of a total commercial logging ban as hereinafter provided. It shall also adopt the necessary measures leading to the creation of an institutional machinery including, among others, fiscal and financial programs to ensure the effective and efficient implementation of environmental plans, programs and projects. It shall also promote and encourage the involvement of all sectors of society and maximize people participation in natural resource management, conservation and protection.

“And shall not loveliness be loved forever?”—Euripedes (A. Oposa)

of SEC. 3. Definition Terms—As used in this Act, the following terms are defined as follows:

1. Palawan refers to the Philippine province composed of islands and islets located 7º47’ and 12º22’ north latitude and 117º00’ and 119º51’ east longitude, generally bounded by the South China Sea to the northwest and by the Sulu Sea to the east; 2. Sustainable development means the improvement in the quality of life of the present and future generations through the complementation of development and environmental protection activities; 3. Natural resources refers to life-support systems such as the sea, coral reefs, soil, lakes, rivers, streams, and forests as well as useful products found therein such as minerals, wildlife, trees and other plants, including the aesthetic attributes of scenic sites that are not man-made; 4. Tribal land areas refers to the areas comprising both land and sea that are traditionally occupied by the cultural minorities; 5. Environmentally critical areas refers to terrestrial, aquatic and marine areas that need special protection and conservation measures as they are ecologically fragile; 6. Participatory processes means the involvement of all the key sectors of development, from the grassroots to the policy-making bodies of the national government, in

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providing the values and ideas from which strategic development and environmental protection action can come about; 7. Conservation refers to the wise use of natural resources that assures regeneration and replenishment for continuous benefit; 8. Ecology refers to the sustaining interrelationships interactions of organisms with other and with their physical roundings; lifeand each sur-

9. Commercial logging refers to the cutting, felling or destruction of trees from old growth and residual forests for the purpose of selling or otherwise disposing of the cut or felled logs for profit; 10. SEP refers to the Strategic Environmental Plan discussed in Section 4 of this Act; 11. ECAN refers to the Environmentally Critical Areas Network as provided in Section 7 of this Act; “He that plants trees loves others besides himand self.”— Thomas Fuller 12. EMES refers to the Envi(A. Oposa) ronmental Monitoring and Evaluation System provided in Section 13 of this Act. Chapter II Strategic Environmental Plan: Adoption, Philosophy and Legal Effects SEC. 4. Strategic Environmental Plan (SEP)—A comprehensive framework for the sustainable development of Palawan compatible with protecting and enhancing the natural resources and endangered environment of the province is hereby adopted. Such framework shall be known as the Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan, hereinafter referred to as SEP, and shall serve to guide the local government of Palawan and the government agencies concerned in the formulation and implementation of plans, programs and projects affecting said province. SEC. 5. Strategic Environmental Plan Philosophy—The SEP shall have, as its general philosophy, the sustainable development of Palawan, which is the improvement in the quality of life of its people in the present and future generations through the use 124

SEC. All local governments in Palawan and the concerned national and regional government agencies operating therein shall coordinate and align their projects and the corresponding budgets with the projects. 6. should be fully committed to support sustainable development activities by fostering equity in access to resources and the benefits derived from them. 7. 6. 4. small islands. mangroves. through participatory processes. hereinafter referred to as ECAN. 2. seagrass beds and the surrounding sea. and 125 . 5. Provision of areas for environmental and ecological research. and projects affecting the environment and natural resources of Palawan. Forest conservation and protection through the imposition of a total commercial logging ban in all areas of maximum protection and in such other restricted use zones as the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development as hereinafter created may provide. 3. and shall serve as the main strategy of the SEP. Maintenance of maximum sustainable yield. Ecological viability — The physical and biological cycles that maintain the productivity of natural ecosystems must always be kept intact. and 3.THE STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN FOR PALAWAN of complementary activities of development and conservation that protect life-support ecosystems and rehabilitate exploited areas to allow upcoming generations to sustain development growth. agricultural areas. including its tribal lands. programs and policies of the SEP. settlement areas. mines. Environmentally Critical Areas Network (ECAN)—The SEP shall establish a graded system of protection and development control over the whole of Palawan. Protection of watersheds. Protection of tribal people and the preservation of their culture. Preservation of biological diversity. forests. programs. It shall have the following features: 1. SEC. Legal Effects—The SEP shall serve as the framework to guide the government agencies concerned in the formulation and implementation of plans. Protection of rare and endangered species and their habitat. Integrated approach — This allows for a holistic view of problems and issues obtaining in the environment as well as opportunities for coordination and sharing that will eventually provide the resources and political will to actually implement and sustain SEP activities. The ECAN shall ensure the following: 1. education and training. 7. It shall therefore be incorporated in the regional development plan of Region IV as part of said plan. coral reefs. This shall be known as the Environmentally Critical Areas Network. as administered and implemented by an administrative machinery hereinafter created. 2. Social acceptability — The people themselves.

2. Exceptions. It may be further subdivided into smaller management components. however. Buffer zone—This area permits regulated use and may be further subdivided into three (3) sub-zones: a. SEC. Controlled forest extraction. This is characterized by active fisheries and tourism activities. Limited and non-consumptive activities may be allowed in this area.000) meters elevation. These management components. grazing and pastures. Control and management shall be strictly integrated with the other supporting programs of the SEP and other similar programs of the government. Coastal/marine area—This area includes the whole coastline up to the open sea. in turn. Traditional use area—Edges of intact forests where traditional land use is already stabilized or is being stabilized. residual forest and edges of intact forest. Tribal ancestral lands—These are the areas traditionally occupied by the cultural communities. areas above one thousand (1. 3. Area of maximum protection or core zone—This zone shall be fully and strictly protected and maintained free of human disruption. 9. Provision of areas for tourist and recreation. Multiple/Manipulative use area—This is the area where the landscape has been modified for different forms of land use such as intensive timber extraction.LAND 8. Included here are all types of natural forest which include first growth forest. b. and c. Management and control shall be carried out with the other supporting programs of the SEP. 126 . and 3. and endangered habitats and habitats of endangered and rare species. 2. peaks of mountains or other areas with very steep gradients. Controlled use area—Encircles and provides the outer barrier to the core and restricted use areas. may be granted to traditional uses of tribal communities of these areas for minimal and soft impact gathering of forest species for ceremonial and medicinal purposes. SEC. shall each be further subdivided into the following zones: 1. Terrestrial Component: Management Scheme and Zonation—The terrestrial component may be further subdivided into smaller management components for a more efficient supervision. like the collecting of minor forest products. 8. Terrestrial—The terrestrial component shall consist of the mountainous as well as ecologically important low hills and lowland areas of the whole province. Restricted use area—Generally surrounds the core zone and provides a protective barrier. agriculture and infrastructure development. and strictly controlled logging and mining may be allowed. Main Components—The areas covered by the ECAN shall be classified into three (3) main components: 1.

Wilderness is an area where the Earth and its community of life are untouched by * man. Core zone—This area shall be designated free from any human activity. recreation. 1. and mangrove ecosystem reserves. and patterns of resource use. selected coral reefs. traditionally occupied by cultural minorities. seagrass. — Wilderness Act of the United States of America. Tribal Ancestral Lands—These areas. This includes sanctuaries for rare and endangered species. comprise both land and sea areas.THE STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN FOR PALAWAN SEC. 10. Section 1131 (c) (M. where man himself is a visitor and does not remain. These shall be treated in the same graded system of control and prohibition as in the others above-mentioned except for stronger emphasis in cultural considerations. critical nature. education and research are allowed. therefore. shall define a special kind of zonation to fulfill the material and cultural needs of the tribes using consultative processes and cultural mapping of the ancestral lands. Coastal/Marine Zone—A different and simplified scheme of management and zonation shall be applied to this component due to its geographical characteristics. The SEP. 11. 127 . Velas) SEC. Equitable access to the resource and management responsibility by the local community shall be the underlying management philosophy of this component. this zone also serves as the buffer zone where fishery. mariculture. rehabilitation of small islands and mangrove ecosystem. 2. Multiple use zone—Aside from being the development area.

SEC. 16. assess the implementation of the SEP. implementation and policy direction of the Strategic Environmental Plan shall be exer- 128 . community organizing shall be enhanced to reinforce non-formal approaches. Simultaneously. timber and mines. be used to plan out a comprehensive public information drive. and settlement areas. complementing regular environment/science courses in the school. Management of Resources Outside of the Ecologically Critical Areas — The SEP shall provide for the management of resources outside of the ECAN and shall include coastal resources. business sector representatives. at the same time. Training programs for the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). It shall also provide for tourism planning. sector representatives and the staff of line agencies’ development communication or public information section and. resources of the catchment areas. Environmental Research—The SEP shall provide for a system of research so that additional information for accurate planning as well as data to solve new problems in the implementation of the SEP shall be supplied. Palawan Council for Sustainable Development—The governance. Environmental Monitoring and Evaluation System (EMES) —In order to monitor achievement of its goals. resource assessments and research into processes. the SEP shall establish an Environmental Monitoring and Evaluation System (EMES) which shall ensure a systematic and reliable means of data generation for the various concerns of the SEP. identify adverse environmental trends and crisis areas. the SEP’s researches shall not be confined to the physical and biological features of the environment. 12. recommend solutions. As such. and suggest measures to make the SEP more responsible to the changing needs. 13. development in the lowlands. monitoring. Chapter IV Support Mechanisms SEC. achieved through surveys. This may establish linkages between the NGO’s. 15. community leaders. but shall also extend to policies and socioeconomic questions. 14.LAND Chapter III Management of Resources Outside of the Ecologically Critical Areas SEC. and community leaders shall be organized. Chapter V Administrative Machinery for the Implementation of the SEP SEC. It shall measure changes in environmental status. Environmental Education and Extension—The SEP shall design an environmental information and education designed to gradually wean the people away from destructive practices and shall recommend practical ways as an alternative. SEC.

gifts. programs and projects are aligned with the plans. except those which by provisions of law cannot be delegated. the Governor of Palawan. 5. from among its members. negotiate for. Establish policies and guidelines for employment on the basis of merit. Coordinate with the local governments to ensure that the latter’s plans. SEC. the President of the Provincial Chapter of the Liga ng mga Barangay. 17. 19. the Mayor of Puerto Princesa City. 6. which shall be under the Office of the President. Compensation—The members of the Council shall be entitled to per diems and allowances in accordance with existing laws in the performance of their duties and in carrying out the business of the Council. Delegate any or all of its powers and functions to its support staff. grants. office. a Chairman and a ViceChairman. Powers and Functions—In order to successfully implement the provisions of this Act. the Undersecretary of Environment and Natural Resources. Quorum—A majority of the members of the Council shall constitute a quorum for the conduct of business. and other fundings from domestic and foreign sources to carry out the activities and purposes of the SEP. agency or instrumentality of the government. the President of the Mayor’s League of Palawan. the Undersecretary for Special Concerns of the Department of Agriculture. programs and policies of the SEP. loans.THE STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN FOR PALAWAN cised by the herein created Palawan Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD). 18. 4. 7. the Council is hereby vested with the following powers and functions: 1. 3. Arrange. Provided. and on private entities and organizations for cooperation and assistance in the performance of its functions. Call on any department. and accept donations. and such other members from the public or private sectors as the majority of the Council may deem necessary. It shall be composed of the Members of the House of Representatives representing the Province of Palawan. 2. hereinafter referred to as the Council. as hereinafter provided. SEC. the Executive Director of the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff as provided in Section 20 of this Act. bureau. That the per diems collected do not exceed the equivalent of per diems for four (4) meetings in a month. Formulate plans and policies as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act. The Council shall elect. technical competence and moral character and prescribe a compensation and staffing pattern. 129 . Recommend to the Congress of the Philippines such matters that may require legislation in support of the objectives of the SEP. The per diems shall be in the amount of Five Hundred Pesos (P500) for every meeting. SEC. the Deputy Director General of the National Economic and Development Authority.

The incumbent director of the PIADPO shall be the Executive Director of the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff and shall lead all its operation. orders. powers. equipment. protection. personnel. 10. Separability Clause—If any of the provisions of this Act shall be declared unconstitutional. It shall be independent of any other department or agency of the Government other than the herein provided Council. Thereafter. Thereafter. are hereby transferred to the Palawan Council 1 for Sustainable Development Staff. management. 16. the other provisions of this Act shall remain valid. Chapter VI Appropriations and Final Provisions SEC. hereinafter referred to as PIADPO. funds. property. Adopt. appropriations. decrees. and organize such services as may be required by the Council in the exercise of its functions. Perform related functions which shall promote the development. implement programs. and other assets of the PIADPO. is hereby converted to the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff which shall serve as the regular professional support staff of the Council and shall provide the machinery to coordinate the policy and functions. Conversion of Palawan Integrated Area Development Project Office (PIADPO) to the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff—The Palawan Integrated Area Development Project Office. _______________________ 1 See also Sec. All the applicable powers. Enforce the provisions of this Act and other existing laws. 21. functions. SEC. 130 . 22. He shall also be ex officio member of the Council. Perform such other powers and functions as may be necessary in carrying out its functions. as well as all its obligations and liabilities. amend and rescind such rules and regulations and impose penalties therefore for the effective implementation of the SEP and the other provisions of this Act. 9. and utilization of the natural resources of Palawan. Appropriations—The amount necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act shall be charged to the current fiscal year appropriations of the PIADPO. records. and 11. 23. SEC.LAND 8. rules and regulations or parts thereof contrary to or inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. such sums as may be necessary shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. Repealing Clause—All laws. and the provisions of this Act. the Executive Director shall be appointed by the members of the Council. 20. staff. conservation. SEC. rules and regulations similar to or complementary with this Act. complement.

(A. Definition of Terms. recreational. Tami-aw. Cave Management Act (Republic Act 9072) SECTION 1. the following terms shall be defined as follows: a. Towards this end. Approved: June 19. Oposa) SEC. SEC. “Cave” means any naturally occurring void. Declaration of Policy. 2.” Sto. is naturally formed or man-made. Niño Cave. the State shall strengthen cooperation and exchange of information between governmental authorities and people who utilize caves and cave resources for scientific. recess or system of interconnected passages beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge and which is large enough to permit an individual to enter. located either in private or public land. Effectivity Clause—This Act shall take effect upon its approval. whether or not the entrance. protect and manage caves and cave resources as part of the country’s natural wealth. educational. 3. — It is hereby declared the policy of the State to conserve. 1992. — For purposes of this Act.CAVE MANAGEMENT ACT SEC. cavity. 24. tourism and other purposes. Somewhere in the Visayan Sea. Title—This Act shall be known as the “National Caves and Cave Resources Management and Protection Act. It shall include any 131 .

petromorphs and rock pendants in solution caves and similar features unique to volcanic caves. “Significant cave” refers to a cave which contains materials or possesses features that have archaeological. Formulate. SEC. scallops.LAND natural pit. d. 4. “Speleogem” means relief features on the walls. minerals. protection and conservation of caves and cave resources. Disseminate information and conduct educational campaign on the need to conserve. concretion. flowstone. e. drapery. “Cave resources” includes any material or substance occurring naturally in caves. aqueduct or other man-made excavation. c. 7611 or the Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan Act. concerned LGUs. f. cave flower. including but not limited to anastomoses. “Secretary” means the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). rimstone or formation of clay or mud. stalagmite. but not any vug. b. develop and implement a national program for the management. the National Museum. meander niches. Powers and Functions of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)—In the implementation of this Act. Implementing Agency—The DENR shall be the lead agency tasked to implement the provisions of this Act in coordination with the Department of Tourism (DOT). mine tunnel. 5. except that in the Province of Palawan. the DENR shall exercise the following powers and functions: a. speleogems and speleothems. such as animal life. sinkhole or other feature which is an extension of the entrance. further. cultural. sediments. b. with regard to specific caves taking into consideration bio-diversity as well as the aesthetic and archaeological value of the cave: Provided. the scientific community and the academe. helictite. ceilings and floor of any cave or lava tube which are part of the surrounding bedrock. historical or scientific value as determined by the DENR in coordination with the scientific community and the academe. the National Historical Institute and concerned local government unit (LGUs) for specific caves. That any permit issued 132 . plant life. the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development shall be the lead implementing agency pursuant to Republic Act No. including but not limited to any stalactite. cultural artifacts or products of human activities. The term also includes cave resources therein. c. including paleontological and archaeological deposits. That the permittee shall be required to post a bond to ensure compliance with the provisions of any permit: Provided. “Speleothem” means any natural mineral formation or deposit occurring in a cave or lava tube. Issue permits for the collection and removal of guano and other cave resources which shall be determined in coordination with the DOT. the National Museum. protect and manage our caves and cave resources. ecological. SEC.

disturbing. the National Historical Institute. 7. state university or college and other instrumentalities of the government for assistance as the need arises in the discharge of its functions. Information Concerning the Nature and Location of Significant Caves— Information concerning the nature and specific location of a potentially significant cave shall not be made available to the public within one (1) year after its discovery by the DENR. f. b. historical and scientific value. removing or harming the speleogem or speleothem of any cave or altering the free movement of any animal or plant life into or out of any cave. Knowingly destroying. unless a written request is made and the Secretary determines that disclosure of such information will further the purpose of this Act and will not create a substantial risk of harm. Tap the cooperation of people’s and nongovernmental organizations as active partners in the conservation and protection of our caves and cave resources. Prohibited Acts—The following shall be considered prohibited acts: a. altering. That the Secretary cannot issue permits for the removal of stalactites and stalagmites. confidentiality of such information and to ensure the protection of the cave from destruction by vandalism and unauthorized use.CAVE MANAGEMENT ACT under this Section shall be revoked by the Secretary when the permittee violates any provision of this Act or fails to comply with any other condition upon which the permit was issued: Provided. SEC. 7586 or the National Integrated Protected Areas System Act of 1992. a description of the geographic site for which the information is sought. the following: a. e. finally. during which time the DENR. That caves located within a protested area shall be subject to the provisions of Republic Act No. The written request shall contain. the National Museum. among others. development and management of cave or caves located in their respective territorial jurisdiction. agency. 133 . Exercise other powers and perform other functions as may be necessary to implement the provisions of this Act. defacing. Enter into a memorandum of agreement with any local government unit (LGU) for the preservation. concerned LGUs. the scientific community and the academe. and when it is established that the removal of the resources will adversely affect the value of a significant cave: Provided. and c. shall assess its archaeological. ecological. bureau. in coordination with the DOT. marring. cultural. an explanation of the purpose for which the information is sought. 6. theft or destruction on such cave. Call on any local government unit. and g. d. SEC. furthermore. an assurance or undertaking satisfactory to the Secretary that adequate measures are to be taken to protect the d.

SEC. somewhere where they can be million pesos (P1.000. nature and God. SEC. at the discretion of the that God wishes to see people happy. bartering or exchanging or offering for sale without authority any cave resource. finally. That the person furnishing the capital to accomplish the acts punishable herein shall be punished by imprisonment from six (6) years and one (1) day to eight (8) years or by a fine ranging from Five hundred thousand The best remedy for those who are afraid.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos (P500. collecting. That if the offender is a government employee. lonely or pesos (P500. 10.00) or both. alone with the heavens. at the discretion of the Court: Provided. in favor of the government of the cave resources gathered. possessed or sold including the conveyances and equipment used in violation of Section 7 hereof. procuring. and c. 9. possessing.LAND b. amidst the simple Court: Provided. Callao Cave) or restoration as determined by the Court.00) to One unhappy is to go utside.00) or quiet.000. collected. Counselling. consuming. further. Tapan.000. Fees—Any money collected by the DENR as permit fees for collection and removal of cave resources. removed. he or she shall likewise be removed from office. Gathering. SEC.000. or compensate for the damage: Provided. Penalties—Any person found guilty of any of the offenses enumerated under Section 7 hereof shall be punished by imprisonment from two (2) years to six (6) years or a fine ranging from Twenty thousand pesos (P20. soliciting or employing any other person to violate any provision of this Section. whenever practicable.—Anne Frank the area requires rehabilitation (G. 134 . Administrative Confiscation and Conveyance—The Secretary shall order the confiscation.000. That if beauty of nature. selling. Because only then does one feel that all is as it should be and both. 8. as a result of the forfeiture of a bond or other security by a permittee who does not comply with the requirements of such permit issued under this Act or by way of fines for violations of this Act shall be remitted to the National Treasury. the offender shall also be required to restore the same.

135 . Separability Clause—If any provision of this Act is subsequently declared unconstitutional. 12. Implementing Rules and Regulations—The DENR shall.CAVE MANAGEMENT ACT SEC. the remaining provisions shall remain in full force and effect. Treasure hunting in caves shall be governed by the provisions of this Act. 1726-A is hereby modified. decrees. within six (6) months from the effectivity of this Act. SEC. or parts thereof. Approved: April 8. 15. Except Presidential Decree No. all other laws. SEC. 13. Appropriations—The amount necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act shall be included in the General Appropriations Act of the year following its enactment into law and thereafter. issue rules and regulations necessary to implement the provisions hereof. 4846. 11. Effectivity—This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days following its publication in two (2) national newspapers of general circulation. SEC. 2001. Repealing Clause—Presidential Decree No. which are inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or amended accordingly. orders and regulations. 412 and Republic Act No. SEC. 14.

2. projects. Policies—The State hereby adopts the following policies: a. Ferdinand E. and the management. Oshima) SECTION 1. the present laws and regulations governing forest lands are not responsive enough to support reoriented government programs. and the public welfare. the advancement of science and technology. Whereas. 389 to read as follows: “If a man walks in the woods for love of them half of each day. and development of forest lands. Now. I. it is necessary to reassess the multiple uses of forest lands and resources before allowing any utilization thereof to optimize the benefits that can be derived therefrom. Title—This decree shall be known as the “Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines. protection. Whereas. utilization. he is in danger of being regarded as a loafer. President of the Philippines. to achieve the above purpose.LAND Revised Forestry Code (Presidential Decree 705) Whereas. management. do hereby revise Presidential Decree No. it is also imperative to place emphasis not only on the utilization thereof but more so on the protection. Marcos. 136 . shearing off those woods and making the earth bald before her time. and utilization of the lands of the public domain to maximize their productivity to meet the demands of our increasing population is urgently needed. by virtue of the powers in me vested by the Constitution. But if he spends his days as a speculator.” — Henry David Thoreau (N. rehabilitation. Therefore. The multiple uses of forest lands shall be oriented to the development and progress requirements of the country. Whereas. he is deemed an industrious and enterprising citizen. rehabilitation and development of forest lands.” SEC. and efforts on the proper classification and delimitation of the lands of the public domain. in order to ensure the continuity of their productive condition. proper classification.

Act No. h. 4 National Parks are now more extensively treated in the National Integrated Protected Areas Systems (NIPAS). National park refers to a forest land reservation essentially of primitive or wilderness character which has been withdrawn from settlement or occupancy and set aside as such exclusively to preserve the scenery. Land classification and survey shall be systematized and hastened. the permanent forest or forest reserves. 1. in view of the suitability of its topography and vegetation. Grazing land refers to that portion of the public domain which has been set aside. d. and forest reservations. and d. g. i. the natural and historic objects and the wild animals or plants therein. for the raising of livestock. guidelines and procedure. _______________________ 4 As amended by Sec. e. Game refuge or bird sanctuary refers to a forest land designated for the protection of game animals. Permanent forest or forest reserves refers to those lands of the public domain which have been the subject of the present system of classification and declared as not needed for forest purposes. Forest land includes the public forest. No. Public forest is the mass of lands of the public domain which has not been subject to the present system of classification for the determination of which lands are needed for forest purposes and which are not. The establishment of wood-processing plants shall be encouraged and rationalized. P. c. Now the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources. 2 Definition — a. f. 1559. development and rehabilitation of forest lands shall be emphasized so as to ensure their continuity in productive condition. Forest reservations refer to forest lands which have been reserved by the President of the Philippines for any specific purpose or purposes. 3. Alienable or disposable lands refers to those lands of the public domain which have been the subject of the present system of classification and declared as not needed for forest purposes. SEC.REVISED FORESTRY CODE b.D. Rep. birds and fish and closed to hunting and fishing in order that the excess population may flow and restock surrounding areas. 11 June 1978. Mineral lands refers to those lands of the public domain which have been clas3 sified as such by the Secretary of Natural Resources in accordance with prescribed and approved criteria. The protection. c. 7586 (1992). b. and to provide enjoyment of these features in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future generations. 3 2 137 .

Pine forest is a forest type predominantly of pine trees. historical. oil. irrigation works or domestic water facilities needing immediate protection or rehabilitation. pulpwood. Forest product means timber. k. white lauan. rattan. q. and mayapis of the Philippine mahogany group. r. water skiing and related healthful activities. bagtikan. almon. sports fishing. “A man does not plant a tree for himself. 138 . bark. beeswax. p. Kaingin refers to a portion of the forest land which is subjected to shifting and/or permanent slash-and-burn cultivation. Dipterocarp forest is a forest dominated by trees of the dipterocarp species. Seashore park refers to any public shore area delimited for outdoor recreation. Oshima) o. recreational and geologic resources in forest lands. apitong and the yakals. Marine park refers to any public offshore area delimited as habitat of rare and unique species of marine flora and fauna. resin. Watershed is a land area drained by a stream or fixed body of water and its tributaries having a common outlet for surface runoff. the associated water. nipa. scenic. he plants it for posterity. or other forest growth such as grass. Critical watershed is a drainage area of a river system supporting existing and proposed hydroelectric power. shrub. m. wood. l. n.” — Alexander Smith (N. such as red lauan. firewood. game. and flowering plant. s. honey. fish. tanguile. Mangrove is a term applied to the type of forest occurring on tidal flat along the sea coast. Watershed reservation is a forest land reservation established to protect or improve the conditions of the water yield thereof or reduce sedimentation.LAND j. tiaong. extending along stream where the water is brackish. tree top. gum.

any forest land of the public domain in order to undertake any authorized activity therein. 139 . License agreement is a privilege granted by the State to a person to utilize forest resources within any forest land with the right of possession and occupation thereof to the exclusion of others. device. grass. Selective logging is the systematic removal of the mature. protect and rehabilitate the same in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth in said agreement. v. to the exclusion of others. ee. z. Lease is a privilege granted by the State to a person to occupy and possess. but with the corresponding obligation to develop. aa. except the government. in consideration of specified rental. Sustained-yield management implies continuous or periodic production of forest products in a working unit for the purpose of achieving at the earliest practicable time an approximate balance between growth and harvest or use. machine or combination of machines used for the conversion of logs and other forest raw materials into lumber. This is generally applied to the commercial timber resources and is also applicable to the water. w. without any right of occupation and possession over the same. u. Seed tree system is a silvicultural system characterized by partial clearcutting leaving seed-trees to regenerate the area. water and wildlife. Agro-forestry is a sustainable management for land which increases overall production. grass and timber of forest lands. over-mature and defective trees in such manner as to leave adequate number and volume of healthy residual trees of the desired species necessary to assure a future crop of timber. wildlife. Tree farm refers to any small forest land or tract of land purposely planted to tree crops. Multiple-use is the harmonized utilization of the land. and other renewable resources of the forest. or conduct any activity involving the utilization of any forest resources. y. bb. Industrial tree plantation refers to any forest land extensively planted to tree crops primarily to supply raw material requirements of existing or proposed wood processing plants and related industries. blockboard. Healthy residual refers to a sound or slightly injured tree of the commercial species left after logging. soil. or establish and operate a wood-processing plant. veneer. dd. License is a privilege granted by the State to a person to utilize forest resources within any forest land. plywood. wildlife.REVISED FORESTRY CODE t. combines agriculture crops. and forest cover for the protection and conservation of soil. paper or other finished wood products. paper board. and applies management practices which are compatible with the cultural patterns of the local population. x. tree crops and forest plants and/or animals simultaneously or sequentially. Processing plant is any mechanical setup. water. pulp. fiberboard. cc. recreation value.

Permit is short-term privilege or authority granted by the State to a person to utilize any limited forest resources or undertake a limited activity within any forest land without any right of occupation and possession therein. and old clearings. the Bureau of Forest Development (BFD) has been renamed “Forest Management Bureau (FMB) and with the functional shift from a line to a staff bureau. systems and procedures to attain stability. that is authorized to be cut yearly from a forest. are hereby 5 merged into a single agency to be known as the Bureau of Forest Development. Silviculture is the establishment. the Reforestation Administration. and in the case of national minority to rights of possession existing at the time a license is granted under this Code. Person includes natural as well as juridical person. implement or enforce the provisions of this Code. and the Parks and Wildlife Office. mm. gg. but exclude productive forest inclusive of logged-over areas. reproduction and care of forest trees. jj. records.LAND ff. efficiency and profitability of operation. hh. property and such personnel as may be necessary. Rationalization is the organization of a business or industry using management principles. equipment. the Bureau of Forestry. including applicable appropriations. 4. the Southern Cebu Reforestation Development Project. Chapter I Organization and Jurisdiction of the Bureau SEC. which possession may include places of abode and worship. burial grounds. kk. nn. Annual allowable cut is the volume of materials. Private right means or refers to titled rights of ownership under existing laws. 192 (1987). Forest ecosystem refers to the living and non-living components of a forest and their interaction. ll. as well as their implementing regulations. hereinafter referred to as the Bureau. other related laws. _______________________ With the reorganization of the DENR by Executive Order No. development. whether of wood or other forest products. 5 140 . Enforcement and implementation of the line functions are now delegated to the Regional Offices of the DENR. Creation of. ii. Forest officer means any official or employee of the Bureau who has been appointed or delegated by law or by competent authority to execute. Cutting cycle is the number of years between two major harvests in the same working unit and/or region. and Merger of All Forestry Agencies into the Bureau of Forest Development—For the purpose of implementing the provisions of this Code. commercial forests and established plantations of forest trees and trees of economic values.

the regulation and supervision of the operation of licensees. game and wildlife laws. 1987. Present occupants may be appointed in accordance with a staffing pattern or plan of organization to be prepared _______________________ 7 This section has been rendered generally irrelevant with the reorganization of the DENR/FMB by E. and a registered forester.’ hereinafter referred to as the Department Head. development. SEC. the implementation of multiple use and sustained yield management in forest lands. The Bureau shall regulate the establishment and operation of sawmills. SEC. veneer and plywood mills and other wood processing plants and conduct studies of domestic and world markets of forest products. 8. Director and Assistant Director and Their Qualifications — The Bureau shall be headed by a Director. reforestation. and all forest reservations including watershed reservations presently administered by other government agencies or instrumentalities. by the Department Head whose decision shall be final and executory after the lapse of thirty (30) days from receipt by the aggrieved party of said decision. 19. management. marine parks. the implementation of measures and programs to prevent kaingin and managed occupancy of forest and grazing lands. the effective. shall promulgate the rules and regulations necessary to implement effectively the provisions of this Code. No. a holder of at least a Bachelor’s Degree in Forestry or its equivalent.REVISED FORESTRY CODE SEC. SEC. 192. in collaboration with other bureaus. at least 30 years of age. motu proprio or upon appeal of any person aggrieved thereby. development and preservation of national parks. and permittees for the taking or use of forest products therefrom or the occupancy or use thereof. s. 5.O. unless appealed to the President in accordance with the Executive Order No. It shall be responsible for the protection. Review — All actions and decisions of the Director are subject to review. and the enforcement of forestry. 6. upon the recommendation of the Director of Forest Development. The decision of the Department Head may not be reviewed by the courts except through a special civil action for certiorari or prohibition. 9. and regulations. Jurisdiction of Bureau—The Bureau shall have jurisdiction and authority over all forest land. rules. and reforestation of forest lands. SEC. efficient and economic classification of lands of the public domain. series of 1966. SEC. parks. Rules and Regulations — The Department Head. 7. Creation of Functional Divisions and Regional and District Offices — All positions in the merged agencies are considered vacant. grazing lands. lessees. Supervision and Control —The Bureau shall be directly under the control and supervision of the Secretary of the Department of Natural Resources. regeneration. 10. game refuges and wildlife. The Director and Assistant Directors shall be appointed by the President. No person shall be appointed Director or Assistant Director of the Bureau unless he is a natural born citizen of the Philippines. 7 141 . the protection. who shall be assisted by one or more Assistant Directors.

Timber Management Plans. Forest Surveys. Budget. in which case the position may be filled by any other qualified applicant. Forest Economics. For the efficient and effective implementation of the program of the Bureau. Planting Stock Production. Information. Accounting. Management Analysi Data and Information. Land Classification. General Services. Cooperative Planting. Any appointee who fails to report for duty in accordance with the approved plan within thirty (30) days upon receipt of notification shall be deemed to have declined the appointment. Land Uses. Range and Wildlife Division Security and Intelligence Division Forest Development Training Center 142 . Forest Protection. the following divisions and sections are hereby created. Performance Evaluation.LAND by the Director and approved by the Department Head. Timber Inventory and Photo-Interpretation. Technical Training Non-Technical Training Administrative Division Legal Division Reforestation and Afforestation Division Timber Management Division Utilization Division Forest Protection and Infrastructure Management Parks. to wit: Divisions Planning and Evaluation Division Sections Program Planning. Timber Operations. Recreation Management. and Mapping. Range Management. Silviculture. Forest Occupancy Watershed Management Infrastructure Parks Management. Data. Wildlife Management. Utilization. Plantation Management. Personnel.

The Bureau shall also set aside adequate funds to enable personnel to obtain specialized education and training in local or foreign colleges or institutions. There shall be established in the College of Forestry. policies. 143 . or to an existing vacant position with a higher salary. fire prevention and other factors. To help defray the cost of operating said Center. the salary corresponding to the position temporarily held by him.D. The system shall measure accomplishment in quantity and quality of performance as related to the funded program of work assigned to each organizational unit. in accordance with the extent of forest area. to evaluate the performance of its employees. SEC. Performance Evaluation—The Bureau shall devise a system. to be approved by the Department Head. it is authorized to receive assistance from the wood industry and other sources. established work loads. That the boundaries of such districts shall follow. 11. In each region. There shall be created at least eleven (11) regional offices. 1. There shall be included a system of periodic inspection of district offices by the regional offices and the regional and district offices by the Central Office in both functional fields and in the overall assessment of how each administrative unit has implemented the laws. a Forestry Development Center which shall conduct basic policy researches in forestry and develop or help develop an effective machinery for forestry policy formulation and implementation. upon recommendation of the Director. 8 _______________________ 8 As amended by Sec. Manpower and Policy Development—The Bureau shall establish and SEC. the provisions of any law to the contrary notwithstanding: Provided. shall receive. there shall be as many forest districts as may be necessary. sections or units as may be deemed necessary and to appoint the personnel thereto: Provided. operate an in-service training center for the purpose of upgrading and training its personnel and new employees. need for forest protection. civil service awards and transfer or disciplinary action. The evaluation system shall provide the information necessary for annual progress reports and determination of employee training. 1559. programs. reorganize or create such other divisions. section or unit. That an employee appointed or designated as officer-in-charge of a newly created division. natural boundaries of watersheds under the river-basin concept of management. from the date of such appointment or designation until he is replaced or reverted to his original position. regulations. 11 June 1978. No. in coordination with the Department of Natural Resources and the wood industry. whenever possible.REVISED FORESTRY CODE The Department Head may. and practices relevant to such unit. 12. P. University of the Philippines at Los Baños.

. No. and into such other classes as now or may hereafter be provided by law. timber or forest.while cares will drop off like autumn leaves. determine. That mangrove and Nature’s peace will flow into you as sunshine flows into other swamps not needed for trees. and grazing lands. Existing Pasture Leases in Forest Lands.LAND Chapter II Classification and Survey SEC. P. The winds will blow their own freshness into you. 1.—Forest lands which are not SEC. and methods for the proper and accurate classification and survey of all lands of the public domain into agricultural. Those still to be classified under the present system shall continue to remain as part of the public forest. 144 . residential.D. and be placed under the administrative jurisdiction and management of. mineral.. He shall declare those classified and determined not to be needed for forest purposes as alienable and disposable lands. guidelines. the department head shall simplify through inter-bureau action the present system of determining which of the unclassified lands of the public domain are needed for forest purposes and declare them as permanent forest to form part of the forest reserves. the administrative jurisdiction and management of which shall be transferred to the Bureau of Lands: “Climb the mountains and get their good tidings. the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Oshima) released to. rules and regulations. reservations and which are the subject of pasture leases shall be classified as grazing _______________________ 9 9 As amended by Sec. 13. 1559.”— shore protection and suitable for John Muir fishpond purposes shall be (N. devise. 11 June 1978. industrial or commercial. 14. and prescribe the criteria. System of Land Classification—The department head shall study. Provided. In the meantime. resettlement.

to form part of the forest reserves. cancel defective titles. or which protect a spring for communal use. be classified as alienable and disposable land. Isolated patches of forest of at least five (5) hectares with rocky terrain. Most of the time we are simply not patient enough. further. or eject occupants thereof. adversely and publicly for a period of not less than thirty (30) years as of the effectivity of this Code. Areas less than 250 hectares which are far from. and disposition of grazing lands shall remain under the Bureau. 2. Topography. therefore. 16.REVISED FORESTRY CODE lands and areas covered by pasture permits shall remain forest lands until otherwise classified under the criteria. SEC. Oshima) well-established community. Areas Needed for Forest Purpose. That the administration. 15. nor any forest land fifty percent (50%) in slope or over. even if they are below eighteen percent (18%) in slope. as grazing land. That said story. steps shall be taken to expropriate.—No land of the public domain eighteen percent (18%) in slope or over shall be classified as alienable and disposable.—The following lands. that land fied for a free patent under the speaks. continuously. reject public land application. 145 .” — Linda Hogan lands. to wit: 1. any certified alienable and disposable land. guidelines and methods of classification to be prescribed by the department head: Provided. shall be kept in a vegetative condition sufficient to prevent erosion and adverse effects on the lowlands and streams: Provided. where the occupant is quali“There is a way that nature speaks. unless they are already covered by existing titles or approved public land application. to pay attention to the Public Land Act: Provided. quiet enough. or are not contiguous with. Lands eighteen percent (18%) in slope or over which have already been declared as alienable and disposable shall be reverted to the classification of forestlands by the department head. that when public interest so requires. are needed for forest purposes. SEC. management. and may not. or actually occupied openly. which are not yet part of a (N.

for preservation as critical watersheds.LAND 3. P. including the marine life found therein. 1. such as national parks. or concrete monuments at intervals of not more than five hundred (500) meters in accordance with established procedures and standards. Areas needed for other purposes. Twenty-meter strips of land along the edge of the normal high waterline of rivers and streams with channels of at least five (5) meters wide. or approved to be established. 11 June 1978. to have said title cancelled or amended. ecological and recreational values. reference shall be made to the Philippine Coast and Geodetic Survey Topo map. and strips of land at least twenty (20) meters wide facing lakes. Reservations in Forest Lands and Offshore Areas. 7.processing plant. Ridge tops and plateaus regardless of size found within. No. 1559. if public interest so requires. or for any other purpose. 18. 6. game refuges and wildlife sanctuaries. wood.—The President of the Philippines may establish within any lands of the public domain. with infrastructure or roads. _______________________ 10 10 As amended by Sec. SEC. forest station sites. 17. forest lands where headwaters emanate. national parks. Strips of mangrove or swamplands at least twenty (20) meters wide. offshore areas needed for the preservation and protection of educational. 5. Establishment of Boundaries of Forest Lands. 8. or any other visible and practicable signs to ensure protection of the forest. tween permanent forests and alienable or disposable lands shall be clearly marked and maintained on the ground. 10. game refuge. or surrounded wholly or partly by. lakes. Areas which have already been reforested. Provided. forest reserve and forest reservation for the national park system. steps shall be taken. bird sanctuaries. historical. and other bodies of water. national historic sites. scientific. along shorelines facing oceans. 4. and others of public interest. Appropriately located road rights-of-way. 9. That in case an area falling under any of the foregoing categories shall have been titled in favor of any person. In all cases of boundary conflicts. national historical sites. and Areas previously proclaimed by the President as forest reserves. Areas within forest concessions which are timbered or have good residual stocking to support an existing. When public interest requires. shall be established as marine parks.D. 146 . or the titled area expropriated.—All boundaries beSEC. national shrines. The department head may reserve and establish any portion of the public forest or forest reserve as site or experimental forest for use of the Forest Research Institute. and modify boundaries of existing ones.

exploitation. or establish. As amended by Sec. No. License Agreement. permit. order the summary suspension of any such contract. concession. Only the utilization. environmental protection. bird sanctuaries. ize. or any activity therein. 1559. concession. or any other form of privilege granted herein: Provided. 19.REVISED FORESTRY CODE Chapter III Utilization and Management Multiple Use. SEC. License. 1. the President may amend. or rescind any contract. soil. No. 21. No. That upon the recommendation of the appropriate government agency. lease or privilege granted under this decree for violation of any of the conditions therein such as those pertaining but not limited to reforestation. further. 11 June 1978. grass and recreation or aesthetic value of forest lands and grazing lands shall be evaluated and weighted before allowing their utilization. the proper silvicultural and harvesting system that will promote optimum sustained yield shall be practiced. P. and game refuges. 22. the President may. occupation or possession thereof. modify. lease or permit: Provided. land. possess or conduct any activity within any forest and grazing land. 1559. shall be allowed. or the conduct of any activity therein. install. 11 June 1978. That when the national interest so requires. 1. 13 As amended by Sec. pending the conduct of appropriate hearing. Lease. P. Sustained Yield. export limitation or such conditions as are prescribed by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources in daily issued regulations. without impairment or with the least injury to its other resources. 1. P. All forest reservations may be open to development or uses not inconsistent with the principal objectives of the reservation. exploitation. production forests within forest lands. permit. SEC. to wit: _______________________ 11 12 As amended by Sec. water. 20. license. involving one or more of its resources. Provided. That critical watersheds. national parks and established experimental forests shall not be subject to commercial logging or grazing operations. which will produce the optimum benefits to the development and progress of the country and the public welfare.—All measures shall be taken to achieve an approximate balance between growth and harvest or use of forest products in forest lands. replace.—No person may utilSEC. license. 11 June 1978.D. exploit. occupation or possession of any forest lands and grazing lands. unless he had been authorized to do so under a license agreement. 147 . A. or Permit. 13 12 11 Timber Silvicultural and Harvesting System—In any logging operation in SEC. occupy. 1559.D.D. wildlife.—The numerous beneficial uses of the timber. pollution. license. marine and seashore parks shall not be subject to hunting or fishing and other activities of commercial nature. add and operate any wood or forest products processing plant.

That no authorized person shall cut. further. or any statistically sound timber estimate. 1. For pine mangrove forest. made not earlier than five (5) years prior to the issuance of a license agreement or license allowing such utilization. Required Inventory Prior to Timber Utilization in Forest Lands—No harvest of timber in any forest land shall be allowed unless it has been the subject of at least a five percent (5%) timber inventory. until a one hundred percent (100%) timber inventory thereon has been achieved. lease or permit. on every leaf. selective logging with enrichment or supplemental planting when necessary.D. 24. Provided. 14 Annual Allowable Cut—The annual allowable cut or harvest of any SEC. and seed trees and reproduction in pine area. any silvicultural and harvesting system that may be found suitable as a result of research may be adopted: Provided. tory—The Bureau shall conduct caterpillar. particular forest land under a license agreement. or other products of logging unless he plants three times of the same variety for every tree cut or destroyed by such logging or removal of logs. and at the root of everything SEC. was a professional specialist in the shape of grub. harvest or gather any timber. 11 June 1978. whether covered by any license agreement. For dipterocarp forest. license. whose business it was to a program of progressive invendevour that particular part. “On every stem. lease or permit. upon recommendation of the Director. volume and kind of healthy residual trees which may be left undisturbed and undamaged for future harvest and forest cover indipterocarp area. or other expert. pulpwood. 1559. aphis. agreement. Cutting Cycle—The Bureau shall apply scientific cutting cycle and rotation in all forest lands. lease or permit shall be de_______________________ 14 As amended by Sec. the seed tree system with planting when necessary.. Any violation of this provision shall be sufficient ground for the immediate cancellation of the license. giving particular consideration to the age. 26.”—Oliver Wendell Holmes tories of the harvestable timber (Digital Vision) and young trees in all forest lands. SEC. 148 . SEC. 25. P. No. Timber Inventhat grew. 23. b. or not.LAND a. license. That subject to the approval of the Department Head..

the Department Head shall review all existing annual allowable cut and thereupon shall prescribe the level of annual allowable cut for the common dipterocarp timber.—The duration of the privilege to harvest timber in any particular forest land under a license agreement or license shall be fixed and determined in accordance with the annual allowable cut therein. firewood. Duration of License Agreement or License to Harvest Timber in Forest Lands. and other forest products unless he has been authorized under Section 20 hereof to do so and the particular annual allowable cut thereof has been granted. existing annual allowable cut that not sufficiently supports wood or forest products processing expansion program or new processing plant or that will support duly approved processing projects may be allowed to continue without change: Provided. No person shall cut. pulpwood. pulpwood. seed trees and reproduction found therein. That no additional or adjustment in annual allowable cut shall be made until after such a review has been made. and gather any particular timber. harvest. firewood and other forest products using as bases the factors as well as the updated aerial photographs and field inventories of such forest land: Provided. the volume and kind of harvestable timber or.REVISED FORESTRY CODE termined on the basis of the size of the area. In the public interest and in accordance with Section 21 hereof. 27. That pending the completion of such review and appropriate amendment of the annual allowable cut in existing license agreement. license. forest products and healthy residuals. Oshima) 149 . further.” — Elbert Hubbard (N. and the established cutting cycle and rotation thereof. softwood and hardwood timber cutting of which is not prohibited. lease or permit. SEC. the established “The supernatural is the natural not yet understood.

reforestation and management thereof under the multiple use and sustained yield concepts. SEC.LAND cutting cycle thereof. expansion and integration of existing wood or forest products processing plants. and for the processing locally of the timber resources therefrom. 28. in collaboration with other government agencies and the wood industry associations and other private entities in the country. 150 . Forest concessions which have been the subject of consolidations shall be reviewed and re-evaluated for the effective implementation of protection. The privilege shall automatically terminate. 11 June 1978. and the requirements of processing plants existing or to be installed in the region. 1559.—The Department Head. the past performance of the applicant and his capacity not only to utilize but. not exceeding twenty-five (25) years. Rationalization of the Wood or Forest Products Industry. necessary to utilize all the remaining commercial quantity or harvestable timber either from the unlogged or logged-over area. in collaboration with proper government agencies. insects and/or diseases detrimental to the forests. Wood Processing SEC. B. more importantly.D. The maximum period of any privilege to harvest timber is twenty-five (25) years. to prevent the introduction of pests. That logs imported for such centers shall be subject to such precaution as may be imposed by the Bureau. 29. It shall be a condition for the continued privilege to harvest timber under any license or license agreement that the licensee shall reforest all the areas which shall be determined by the Bureau. Size of Forest Concessions—Forest lands shall not be held in perpetuity. The size of the forest lands which may be the subject of timber utilization shall be limited to that which a person may effectively utilize and develop for a period of fifty (50) years. Incentives to the Wood Industry. shall evolve incentives for the establishment of an integrated wood industry in designated wood industry centers and/or economic area. renewable for a period. P. _______________________ 15 15 As amended by Sec. and the capacity of healthy residuals for second growth. 1. to protect and manage the whole area. their locations and operations shall be regulated in order to rationalize the whole industry. The President of the Philippines. considering the cutting cycle. the yield capacity of harvestable timber. 30. upon the recommendations of the National Economic Development Authority and the Department Head.—While the SEC. may establish wood industry import-export centers in selected locations: Provided. even before the expiration of the license agreement or license. the moment the harvestable timber has been utilized without leaving any logged-over area capable of commercial utilization. No. as well as the establishment of new processing plants shall be encouraged.

attempt. DAO-98-11 (attempted). wood or forest products processors without forest concessions or areas that may be developed into industrial tree plantations. President. 29 December 1975 and further amended by Sec. as the case may be. lease. the grant of the privilege to establish.D. including processing plant permit. 1559. P. install additional capacity or operate a processing plant. the export of lumber is prohibited by DENR A. the wood residues thereof. or phase out all inefficient. or permit. All processing plants existing. 31. license. 2. 16 151 . other than log supply contract. for the approval of the Department Head: Provided. Henceforth within one year from the date of this law. 865. That the following conditions must be complied with by those who apply for them to be allowed to export a portion of their log production to be determined by the Department Head such that the total log export of these timber licensees shall not exceed twentyfive percent (25%) of the total national allowable cut: _______________________ Amended by P. and approved by the Department Head. A long-term assurance of raw material source from forest concessions and/or from industrial tree plantations. beginning January 1.D. No. It was met with such public outcry that the President of the Philippines had to suspend its effectivity indefinitely. to be integrated. license. tree farms or agro-forest farms and licensees. Likewise. to lift the ban on the export of lumber. suspend. The Department Head may cancel. Wood Wastes. for utilization and conversion into wood by-products and derivatives. wasteful. lessees or permittees without processing plants shall jointly adopt any feasible scheme or schemes. In 1998. and/or approval from the Bureau or the Department. uneconomical. 1976 be processed locally: Provided. and Residues—Timber licensees shall be encouraged and assisted to gather and save the wood wastes and weed trees in their concessions. lease or permit. upon recommendation of the Department Head. Weed Trees. 19-89. 32. and shall submit themselves to other regulations related to their operation. licenses. tree farms or agro-forest farms whose annual allowable cut and/or whose harvest is deemed sufficient to meet the requirement of such processing plant shall govern. 17 March 1989. SEC. among others. 17 The export of new logs has been prohibited since 6 May 1988. No. or perennially short in raw material wood or forest products processing plants which are not responsible to the rationalization program of the government. by virtue of DAO 33-88 (1988). 11 June 1978. or to be established shall obtain operating permits. and those with processing plants. as a condition to the exercise of the privileges granted them under a license agreement. That no license agreement.O. shall be granted or renewed unless said scheme or schemes are submitted to. 17 16 Log Production and Processing —Unless otherwise directed by the SEC.REVISED FORESTRY CODE No expansion or integration of an existing processing plant nor establishment of a new processing plant shall be allowed unless environmental considerations are taken into account and adequate raw material supply on a sustained-yield basis is assured. to be expanded. the entire production of logs by all timber licensees shall.

jointly with wood processors. Timber licensees with existing viable processing plants or 2. which need to be developed to increase their productivity. Timber licensees with processing projects duly approved by the Department Head or 3.LAND 1. C. upon recommendation of the Department Head. b. and/or Afforested. P. Provided. cancel log exportation or reduce the maximum allowable proportion for log exports. Bare or grass-covered tracts of forest lands. until we have only one: to fight for survival. that no person shall be given a permit to export if he has not complied with the requirements on replanting and reforestation.”— Morris K. c. Oposa) Lands to Be Reforested SEC. further. Open tracts of forest lands interspersed with patches of forest.—Lands to be reforested and/or afforested are as follows: 18 1. whenever the export price of logs falls to unreasonably low level or whenever public interest so requires. 11 June 1978. Reforestation “The more we exploit nature. _______________________ 18 As amended by Sec. adopt a scheme or schemes for the processing of the log production in accordance with Section 30 hereof.D. 1559. 3. That the President may. Timber licensees who have acquired viable processing machinery and equipment which will be installed and will become operational in accordance with the schedule approved by the Department Head. Udall (A. No. Timber licensees whose log export support is in line with governmentapproved trade agreement: Provided. and 4. 33. Brushlands or tracts of forest lands generally covered with brush. All timber licensees who have no processing plant and who have no plan to establish the same shall. The more our options are reduced. 152 . Public forest lands a.

11 June 1978. Denuded or inadequately timbered areas proclaimed by the President as forest reserves and reservations as critical watersheds. national parks. or portions thereof. may be granted by the Department Head. As amended by Sec. depend upon the capability of the lessee to develop or convert the area into productive condition within the term of the lease. 1559. road rights-of-way. 34. easements. among others. Private Lands a. the raw material needs of forest based and other industries and the maintenance of a wholesome ecological balance. in terms of benefits to the Government and the general surrounding area. contract.O. and beaches. game refuge. s. Portions of areas covered by pasture leases or permits needing immediate reforestation. rules and regulations. upon field evaluation. may be the subject of a lease under this section. 35. tree farm.3. 1987. 3. River banks. 1559.D. national historic sites. g. Portions of private lands required to be reforested or planted to trees 19 pursuant to Presidential Decree Nos. 287. tree farms or agro-forestry farms. taking into account.— SEC. to any person qualified to develop and exploit natural resources. Priority.—Over any suitable area covered by a timber license agreeSEC. tree farm or agro-forestry farm. convey. That the size of the area that may be granted under each category shall. Industrial Tree Plantations. Tree Farms. over timber or forest lands of the public domain categorized in Section 33 (1) hereof except those under paragraphs (d) and (g) with a minimum area of one hundred (100) hectares for industrial tree plantations and agro-forestry farms and ten (10) hectares for tree farms: Provided. No. tree farm.D. or agro_______________________ 19 20 20 21 P. e. ment or permit. P. former river beds. 1153 was repealed by E. No. No. are found to be more suitable for. 2. or can better be developed as industrial tree plantations. in each case. upon recommendation of the Director. bird sanctuaries. f. 11 June 1978. deltas. or dispose of said planted trees and other products in any manner he sees fit.D. 953 and 1153 and other existing laws. 21 As amended by Sec. which. Inadequately stocked forest lands within forest concessions. The lease may be granted under such terms and conditions as the Department Head may prescribe. A lease for a period of fifty (50) years for the establishment of an industrial tree plantation. or agro-forestry farm belong to the lessee who shall have the right to sell. Trees and other products raised within the industrial tree plantation. the priority to establish industrial a tree plantation. national shrines. swamps. and Agro-Forestry Farms. 153 . in accordance with existing laws. Reforestation projects of the government. P.REVISED FORESTRY CODE d.

or arising out of. the annual rental shall be One Peso (P1. no rental shall be collected from a lessee who.50) per hectare.D. 3. Payment of a nominal filing fee of fifty centavos (P0. The priority herein granted must. however. the following incentives are granted: a. _______________________ 22 23 22 As amended by Sec. or agro-forestry farm shall only be twenty-five percent (25%) of the regular forest charges prescribed in 23 the National Internal Revenue Code. be availed of within a reasonable period otherwise the area shall be declared open to any qualified person and consequently segregated from the licensee’s or permittee’s area. further.50) per hectare. No rental shall be collected during the first five (5) years from the date of the lease.LAND forestry farm shall be given to the holder thereof after the Bureau has determined the suitability of such and has set aside the same for the purpose. the provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code on withholding of tax at source upon interest paid on borrowings incurred for development and operation of the industrial tree plantation. and municipal taxes.00) per hectare: Provided. Priority shall also be given to the establishment of communal industrial tree plantations by barangays. the annual rental shall be One Peso (P1. P. 1559. for the first five (5) years following the renewal of the lease. substantially meets the schedule of development of the industrial tree plantation. or agro-forestry farm. b. 154 . d. whether in their original state or not. tree farm. Incentives. or agro-forestry farm. the tree farm.00) per hectare: Provided. Exemption from the payment of the percentage tax levied in Title V of the National Internal Revenue Code when the timber and Woodman spare that tree! forest products are sold. as In youth it sheltered me. 853. as certified by the director and approved by the department head. and thereafter. tree farm. e. and from the real property tax George Pope Morris under the provisions of Presidential Decree No. c. from the sixth year to the tenth year. local And I’ll protect it now. A lessee shall not be subject to any obligation prescribed in. the annual rental shall be Fifty Centavos (P0. upon verification by the Bureau. No. upon recommendation of the director. as prescribed in the development plan submitted to and approved by the Ministry Head. The forest charges payable by a lessee on the timber and other forest products grown and cut or gathered in an industrial tree plantation.50) per hectare. shall be exempted from the payment of rental for the full term of the lease which shall not exceed twenty-five (25) years. well as exemption from all forms of sales tax. 11 June 1978. and thereafter. municipalities or cities and provinces.—To encourage qualified persons to engage in industrial SEC. bartered or exchanged by Touch not a single bough! the lessee. the annual rental shall be Fifty Centavos (P0. as the case may be. See Secs. and/or agro-forest farm. 68-77 of this revised Forestry Code. That notwithstanding the foregoing. That lessees of areas long denuded. tree plantation. tree farm. 36.

5 April 1984. _______________________ 24 25 As added by B. and operated without a long-term assurance of raw material source from forest concessions and/or from industrial tree plantations. tree farms. j.D. The Board of Investments shall. tree farm. shall not be altered or modified. Approved industrial tree plantations. be regarded as ordinary and necessary business expenses or as capital expenditures. tree farms. or local processing plants manufacturing the same. or utilize. That the transport of trees cut shall be accompanied by the 24 corresponding certificate of origin duly issued by the authorized forest officer. to be governed by the rules and regulations of said Board. once established on the ground. 701. g. wood products. tree farms or agro-forestry farms in accordance with Section 30 hereof. m. or utilizing. manufactured products derived from trees grown and harvested from industrial tree plantations. 701. may. No wood. and agro-forestry farms shall be given priority in securing credit assistance from the government and governmentsupported financing institutions which shall set aside adequate funds for lending to the lessee and/or investor at reasonable interest rates. or agro-forestry farms. The lessee and its field employees and workers shall be exempted from the pro25 visions of Presidential Decree No. and agro-forestry farms as pioneer areas of investment under its annual priority plan. Amounts expended by a lessee in the development and operation of an industrial tree plantation. notwithstanding its nationality requirement on projects involving natural resources. or agro-forestry farm lease.REVISED FORESTRY CODE f. In addition to the incentives under this Section.1153. No processing plant of whatever nature or type. tree farms. No. l. tree farm. Government institutions administering or financing programs and projects requiring wood materials shall specify the purchase of. at the option of the lessee. paper. Except when public interest demands. h. classify industrial tree plantations. k. expanded or integrated. P. or agro-forestry farm prior to the time when the production state is reached. Blg. and paperboard shall be imported if the same are available in required quantities and reasonable prices. or wood-derivated products including pulp.P. wood as primary materials shall be allowed to be established. 5 April 1984. Blg. from artificial or manmade forests. i. as may be certified by the Department Head. the boundaries of an area covered by an industrial tree plantation. whenever possible.P. private landowners who engage in tree farming on areas fifty hectares or below by planting their lands with ipil-ipil and other fast growing trees shall be exempt from the inventory requirement and other requirements before harvest as provided in this Decree for lessees of forest lands of the public domain: Provided. made of. 155 . 1153 was repealed by B.

and if the exporter is the same person or firm qualified and allowed to export logs under the provisions of this Decree. further. the utilization of timber therein shall not be allowed except through license agreements under 156 . 37. Control of Concession Area—In order to achieve the effective protection of the forest lands and the resources thereof from illegal entry. impairment. and other forms of forest destruction. Tapan) The Department Head may provide other incentives in addition to those hereinabove granted to promote industrial tree plantations. insect infestation. That the rentals on the forest land and the forest charges on the plantation timber shall have been paid: Provided. 38. tree and agroforestry farms may be exported without restriction in quantity or volume. and o.—All measures shall be taken to protect the forest resources from destruction. but not limited to. theft. That the export of the plantation timber shall be covered by a certificate to export issued by the Department Head on a yearly basis. That the Department Head may at any time review the exportation of timber harvested from the plantations/farms and either reduce or totally suspend the export of such plantation timber whenever public interest so requires. tree farms and agro-forestry farms in special areas such as. or areas with rough topography and remote areas far from processing plants. Provided. those where there are no roads or where roads are inadequate. kaingin. unlawful occupation. Timber grown and harvested from industrial tree plantations.” — Juvenal. such timber from plantations/farms may be exported exclusive of the quantity or volume authorized under Section 32 hereof: Provided.LAND n. Forest Protection SEC. fire. Protection of All Resources. “Never does nature say one thing and wisdom another. SEC. Free technical advice from government foresters and farm technicians. finally. D. Satires (G. and depletion.

shall be allowed unless a one hundred percent (100%) timber inventory has been conducted thereon. Timber Inventory in Other Lands Containing Standing or Felled Timber. SEC.—The utilization of timber in alienable and disposable lands. 41. civil reservations. Regulation of Timber Utilization in All Other Classes of Lands and of Wood-Processing Plants. private lands. likewise. but with the corresponding obligation to adopt all the protection and conservation measures to ensure the continuity of the productive condition of said areas. private lands. civil reservation. SEC. to the exclusive of all others. SEC.—The Bureau shall conduct a one hundred percent (100%) timber inventory in alienable and disposable lands and civil reservations immediately upon classification or reservation thereof. license. or permit. The extent of participation shall be based on the amount of timber which may be harvested therefrom. alienable and disposable lands. shall be regulated in order to prevent them from being used as shelters for excessive and unauthorized harvests in forest lands. and shall not therefore be allowed except through a license agreement. 40. and all lands containing standing or felled timber. civil reservations. and control over the same. and all lands containing standing or felled timber must be subscribed and sworn to by all the forest officers who conducted the same. a license may be issued to another person for the harvest thereof without any right of possession or occupation over the areas where they are found. 39. possession. Participation in the Development of Alienable and Disposable Lands and Civil Reservations—The privilege to harvest timber in alienable and disposable lands and civil reservations shall be given to those who can best help in the delineation and development of such areas in accordance with the management plan of the appropriate government exercising jurisdiction over the same.REVISED FORESTRY CODE which the holders thereof shall have the exclusive privilege to cut all the allowable harvestable timber in their respective concessions.—All reports on timber inventories of forest lands. No harvest of standing or felled timber in alienable and disposable lands. hardwood or mangrove species therein. 42. but he shall. lease. including those under the jurisdiction of other government agencies. and all other lands. and the establishment and operation of sawmills and other wood-processing plants. private lands. 157 . conformably with multiple use and sustained yield management. except the government. including those under the jurisdiction of other government agencies. SEC. and the additional right of occupation. Sworn Timber Inventory Reports. If the holder of a license agreement over a forest area expressly or impliedly waives the privilege to utilize any softwood. adopt protection and conservation measures consistent with those adopted by the license agreement holder in the said areas.

this Code and pertinent laws. development and utilization of other surface resources. the shoreline roads. policies. SEC.—When in the performance of their official duties. 43. fish. water. lease. the Bureau shall establish control or scaling stations at suitably located outlets of timber and other forest products to insure that they were legally cut or harvested. by himself or through the Director or any qualified person duly designated by the Department Head. license. rules and regulations.—In collaboration with appropriate government agencies. books and other documents relating to the operation of any holder of a license agreement. rules and regulations. and to take testimony in official investigations conducted under the authority of this Code and the implementing rules and regulations. or which have been abandoned for five (5) years from the date of such release shall revert to the category of forest land. and even coastal communities from the destructive force of the sea during high winds and typhoons. investigate. vegetation. Forest officers are authorized to administer oath and take acknowledgment in official matters connected with the functions of their office. 158 . utilization. Authority of Forest Officers. prospecting. Mine tailings and other pollutants affecting the health and safety of the people. utilization or exploitation of mineral resources in forest reservations shall be governed by mining laws. secured. 44. Swamplands and Mangrove Forests. forest officers or other government officials or employees duly authorized by the Department Head or Director shall have free entry into areas covered by a license agreement. or permit.—The Department Head may. license. inspect and examine records. SEC. SEC. 46. exploration. exploration. lease. Location.LAND SEC. to determine compliance with the terms and conditions thereof. No location. Scaling Stations.—Strips of mangrove forest bordering numerous islands which protect the shoreline. and its subsidiary or affiliated companies.—Mining operations in forest lands shall be regulated and conducted with due regard to protection. or permit. animal life and other surface resources. All mangrove swamps set aside for coast-protection purposes shall not be subject to clear-cutting operation. shall be maintained and shall not be alienated. 47. Visitorial Power. Such strips must be kept free from artificial obstruction so that flood water will flow unimpeded to the sea to avoid flooding or inundation of cultivated areas in the upstream. Mining Operations. or exploitation of mineral resources inside forest concessions shall be allowed unless proper notice has been served upon the licensees thereof and the prior approval of the Director. SEC. prospecting. shall be filtered in silt traps or other filtration devices and only clean exhausts and liquids shall be released therefrom. 45. Mangrove and other swamps released to the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources for fishpond purposes which are not utilized.

and other infrastructure and installations inside forest lands. and other infrastructure in locations designated as woodprocessing centers or for the convenience of wood-based industries. port facilities. Logging Roads. communications. in order to adopt measures to avoid or reduce damage or injury to the forest resource values. Roads and Other Infrastructure. the requirement to save as many healthy residuals as possible during cutting and hauling operations. SEC. Prior thereto the Bureau may authorize the public use thereof. unless otherwise reserved for other purposes. and of the use of these roads by other parties and the collection of such fees as may be deemed necessary. They shall likewise extend assistance in the planning and establishment of roads. Mineral reservations where mining operations have been terminated due to the exhaustion of its minerals shall revert to the category of forest land. and specifications. In order to coincide and conform to government plans. Their construction must not only serve the transportation need of the logger but. especially if it will involve the utilization or destruction of timber and/or other forest resources. 50. piers. All roads and infrastructure constructed by holders of license agreements. wharves. programs. most importantly. or watershed disturbance therein. licenses. leases. leases and permits shall not undertake road or infrastructure construction or installation in forest lands without the prior approval of the Director. or in alienable and disposable lands. without the approval of the government agencies having administrative jurisdiction over the same. Mineral Reservations. Government agencies undertaking the construction of roads. civil reservations and other government lands. 159 . the Bureau shall prescribe the terms and conditions of joint use including the equitable sharing of construction and/or maintenance costs. Where roads are utilized by more than one commercial forest user. licenses. 48. if it will not be detrimental to forest conservation measures. and permits belong to the State and the use and administration thereof shall be transferred to the government immediately upon the expiration or termination thereof.—Mineral reservations which are not the subject of mining operations or where mining operations have been suspended for more than five (5) years shall be placed under forest management by the Bureau. bridges. holders of license agreements. 49. shall coordinate with the Bureau. Such roads shall be strategically located and their widths regulated so as to minimize clear-cutting.—Roads and other infrastructure in forest lands shall be constructed with the least impairment to the resource values thereof. SEC. standards. SEC.—There shall be no indiscriminate construction of logging roads. unnecessary damage or injury to healthy residuals. and erosion.REVISED FORESTRY CODE Surface-mined areas shall be restored to as near its former natural configuration or as approved by the Director prior to its abandonment by the mining concern.

A complete census of kaingineros. “To me a lush carpet of pine needles or spongy grass is more welcome than the most luxurious Persian rug. 51. cultural minorities. 160 . Cultural Minorities. 52. occupation shall be conditioned upon the planting of desirable trees thereon and/or adoption of other conservation measures. showing the extent of their respective occupation and resulting damage. determine and define which lands may be the subject of occupancy and prescribed therein.” — Helen Keller (M.LAND SEC. Census of Kaingineros. and Other Occupants and Residents in Forest Lands. and impairment of other resources to the detriment of community and public interest shall not be allowed. squatters. reduction in water yield.—Forest occupancy shall henceforth be managed. an agro-forestry development program. no person shall enter into forest lands and cultivate the same without lease or permit. and other occupants and residents in forest lands with or without authority or permits from the government. or impairment of forest resources. In areas above 50 percent in slope. Occupants shall undertake measures to prevent and protect forest resources. shall be conducted. Management of Occupancy in Forest Lands. Squatters. Any occupancy in forest land which will result in sedimentation. The Bureau shall study. erosion. Velas) SEC.—Henceforth.

and other occupants who entered into forest lands and grazing lands before May 19. Criminal Prosecution. SEC. 11 June 1978. squatters. cultural minorities SEC. If grass cover is insufficient. _______________________ 26 27 27 As amended by Sec. further. within two (2) months from notice thereof. lumber yards. renewable upon the expiration thereof for a similar period. cultural minorities and other occupants shall whenever the best land use of the area so demands as determined by the Director. and permit over forest lands to participate in the census. Wildlife. As amended by Sec. license. The DiSEC.—Forest lands may be leased for a period not exceeding twenty-five (25) years. for the establishment of sawmills.D. 1559.D. 3. 54. 3. the activities to be imposed upon them by the Bureau in accordance with management plan calculated to conserve and protect forest resources in the area. 55. and other forest resources. 1559. No. or held under permit. That kaingineros. in the preparation of multiple-use management plans. Provided. Pasture in Forest Lands. That they do not increase their clearings: Provided.—The Bureau shall. That they undertake. lease. squatters. Special Uses 26 SEC. P. 56. 53. without permit or authority.—Kaingineros. Recreation. Other Special Uses of Forest Lands.—All measures shall be adopted to conserve wildlife. E. the same shall be supplemented with trees or such vegetative cover as may be deemed necessary. be ejected and relocated to the nearest accessible government resettlement area. No. The construction and operation of necessary facilities to accommodate outdoor recreation shall be done by the Bureau with the use of funds derived from rentals and fees for the operation and use of recreational facilities by private persons or operators. Forest lands which are being utilized for pasture shall be maintained with sufficient grass cover to protect soil. The size of forest lands that may be allowed for pasture and other special uses shall be determined by rules and regulations. 1975. in addition to whatever funds may be appropriated for such purposes. rector shall regulate the hunting of wildlife in forest lands in order to maintain an ecological balance of flora and fauna. 11 June 1978. finally.—No forest land 50 percent in slope or over may be utilized for pasture purposes. P. 161 . 57. water. shall not be prosecuted: Provided.REVISED FORESTRY CODE The Bureau may call upon other agencies of the government and holders of license agreement. identify and provide for the protection of scenic areas in all forest lands which are potentially valuable for recreation and tourism. SEC. any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding. and plan for the development and protection of such areas to attract visitors thereto and meet increasing demands therefore.

and development measures to ensure the perpetuation of said forest in productive condition.—The privilege to utilize. lease. Transfers.—No license agreement. lease or permit. 162 . Financial and Technical Capability. 3. or possess forest lands. the applicant with more Filipino equity and participation shall be preferred. occupy. or to conduct any activity therein. lease or permit only if the license. license. or permit over forest lands shall be issued to an applicant unless he proves satisfactorily that he has the financial resources and technical capability not only to maximize utiliza“Behold this and always love it! It is very sacred. The licensee. Qualifications SEC. lease or permit. the transferee has all the _______________________ 28 28 As amended by Sec. bathing establishments. exploit. Velas) vation.. and you tion.—Unless authorized by the department head. license. the licensee.D. F. license. or permittee may transfer. SEC. salt works.”— Sioux Indian forest protection. or convey his license agreement. no licensee. 61. license. 59. but also to practice must treat it as such. Citizenship. rights-of-way. All other factors being equal. lessee or permittee has not violated any forestry law.. 11 June 1978. rule or regulation and has been faithfully complying with the terms and conditions of the license agreement. or other beneficial purposes which do not in any way impair the forest resources therein. increased Filipino equity and participation beyond the 60 percent (60%) constitutional limitation shall be encouraged. logging camps. lessee. SEC. or any of his assets used in connection therewith. or permittee shall be allowed to transfer or convey his license agreement. conser(M. camps. 1559. SEC. 58. or any of his rights or interests therein. lease or permit has been in existence for at least three (3) years.LAND timber depots. No. P. exchange. Diffusion of Benefits. 60. or for the construction of sanatoria. or to establish and operate wood-processing plants. lessee. sell. shall be diffused to as many qualified and deserving applicants as possible.—In the evaluation of applications of corporations.

license. 3. the term assets shall not include cattle and other livestocks or animals raised in grazing lands and forest lands.REVISED FORESTRY CODE qualifications and none of the disqualifications to hold a license agreement. No corporation shall be issued any license agreement. licenses. possession. shall within one (1) year after the effectivity of this amendatory Decree. 11 June 1978. factors affecting the selling price.—Every corporation holding a license agreement. formulate and submit to the Department Head for approval a plan for the sale of at least ten percent (10%) of its subscribed capital stock in favor of employees. lease or permit. in consideration of a fee. development. The industries concerned shall extend all assistance in the promulgation of policies on the matter. occupy. or activity inside forest _______________________ 29 29 As amended by Sec. 64. tree farms and agro-forestry farms. or conduct any activity therein. personnel management and asset evaluation. Fees. 1559. The plan shall be so implemented that the sale of the shares of stocks shall be effected by the corporation not later than the sixth year of its operation. upon recommendation of the Director. exploitation or utilization of the forest resources. As used in this section. and planted trees and other products raised in industrial tree plantations. cense. bonds. such as the submission of all data and information relative to their operation. may in the national interest. shall fix the amount of charges. leases or permits. Service Contracts. or permittees to enter into service contracts for financial. Existing valid and binding service contracts for financial. unless it submits such a plan and the same is approved for implementation within the sixth year of its operation. allow forest products licensees. establishment of priorities in the purchase of the shares of stock. The Department Head shall promulgate the necessary rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this section. lease. lease or permit after the effectivity of his amendatory Decree. exploitation. management or other forms of assistance are hereby recognized as such. there is no evidence that such transfer or conveyance is being made for purposes of speculation. technical. and the transferee shall assume all the obligations of the transferor. and the preparation of a fund to ensure the financial capability of the deserving employees and laborers. or permit to utilize. or establish and operate a wood-processing plant. Regulatory Fees SEC. or other forms of assistance. or the first year of effectivity of the amendatory Decree. with any foreign person or entity for the exploration. management. Equity Sharing. 63. technical.—The Department Head. exploit. G. No. license.D. and Bonds. Charges. 163 . rental. liSEC. 62. lessees. covered by their license agreements. SEC.—The Department Head. P. or possess any forest land. and the general public. laborers. and fees for the different kinds of utilization. occupation. particularly on the determination of the manner of payment. if the corporation has been in operation for more that five (5) years prior to such effectivity.

67. licenses. prescribe a new method of assessment of forest products and collection of charges thereon based upon the result of production cost and market studies undertaken by the Bureau. the present scaling method provided for in the National Internal Revenue Code shall be used.—In addition to the fees and charges imposed under existing laws. SEC. the proceeds of which shall accrue into a special deposit of the Bureau as its revolving fund for the aforementioned 30 purposes. Collection and Disbursement. further. That such charges shall not be lower than those now imposed. Series of 1993). the filing and processing of applications therefore. Provided. Basis of Assessment. reforestation. Authority of Department Head to Impose Other Fees. alienable or disposable lands. The Budget Commissioner and the National Treasurer shall effect the quarterly releases out of the collection accruing to the general fund upon request of the Director on the basis of a consolidated annual budget of a work program approved by the Department Head and the President. Provided. 18. management. SEC. the Department Head is hereby authorized. That timber taken and removed from private lands for commercial purposes shall be exempt from the payment of forest charges.—Tree measurement shall be the basis for assessing government charges and other fees on timber cut and removed from forest lands. 30 164 .LAND lands. 65.—The collection of the charges and fees above-mentioned shall be the responsibility of the Director or his authorized representative. and development. Prescribing the Revised Schedule of Forestry Administrative Fees (DAO No. the issuance and renewal of license agreements. and civil reservations. The Director may. That the proceeds of the collection of the fees imposed under Section 65 and the special deposit heretofore required of licensees shall be constituted into a revolving fund for such purposes and be deposited in the Philippine National Bank. 66. and for other services: Provided. upon recommendation of the Director and in consultation with representatives of the industries affected. That all fees and charges presently being collected under existing laws and regulations shall continue to be imposed and collected until otherwise provided: Provided. withdrawals therefrom shall be effected by the Department Head on the basis of a consolidated annual budget prepared by the Director of a work program for the specific purposes mentioned in Section 65. _______________________ Reforestation Bond. The Director shall remit his monthly collection of fees and charges mentioned in Section 64 to the Treasurer of the Philippines within the first ten (10) days of the succeeding month: Provided. to impose other fees for forest protection. In the case of the special deposit revolving fund. SEC. rules and regulations. leases and permits. with the approval of the Department Head. as a special deposit of the Bureau. That until such time as the mechanics of tree measurement shall have been developed and promulgated in rules and regulations.

10 October 1991. and in order to ascertain the volume of a log more than eight meters long. Reference should be to Sections 270.—Except as hereinbelow provided.”— Nathaniel Hawthorne officers. or the average of the diameters at both ends thereof shall be used as basis. 705). 7161. If a log in “How gladly does the spirit leap forth. or other natural defects. as amended. 271.REVISED FORESTRY CODE H. R.A. 165 . all timber shall be measured and manifested in the round or squared. (Section 2 creating subsection H of P.—The duties incident to the measuring of forest products shall be discharged by the Bureau of Forest Development under regulations of the Ministry of 32 Natural Resources.A. before being sawn or manufactured. Cayton) allowance for rot. R. No. 7161. is enlarge its sense of being to the full extent of the measured and manifested by forest broad.A. 83. the diameter of the middle of said log. sunny deep! His salt breath brings a blessing along with it. uring Timber. 32 Now Department of Environment and Natural Resources. However. Charges Thereon. 7161. but from any decision of the Director of Forest Development in this _______________________ 31 31 33 Renumbered by Sec. there appears to be an error in R. 10 October 1991. No. Section 1 referring to revisions of Sections 230 to 238 of the National Internal Revenue Code. as amended by B. but if the end of a log is irregular. Blg. 69. 7161 incorporating certain sections of the NIR Code of 1977. 33 Renumbered by Sec. Mode of MeasSEC. The volume of all round timber shall be ascertained by multiplying the area of the small and by the length of the log.D.P. and suddenly the round. 1. cavities. the average diameter shall be used. 1. The diameter of the log to be measured exclusive of the bark. R. No. 68. Charges on Forest Products Measuring of Forest Products and Invoicing and Collection of SEC. No. The invoicing and collection of the charges thereon shall be done by the Bureau of Internal Revenue under regulations approved by the Minister of Finance (now Department of Finance). blue.A. the Director of Forest Development shall make due (T. 17 September 1980. cut under license.

ten pesos (P10. Charges on Minor Forest Products. second. The manifest of timber cut by licensees operating sawmills in or near the forest shall be attested by forest officers whenever practicable. 72. _______________________ 36 35 34 As amended by Sec. However. 7161. branches and other recoverable wood wastes of timber. and bamboo which shall be charged at ten percent (10%) of the actual FOB market price. No. however.—There shall be collected SEC.LAND respect. Only third or fourth-group wood can be taken for firewood. the corresponding forest charges shall be assessed on twice the volume of the actual contents of such sawn or manufactured timber. R. That if squared timber cut under license is measured and manifested by forest officers. R. No.A. if jointly authorized by the Secretaries of both the Departments of Environment and Natural Resources. 4. 36 Sec. an appeal shall lie to his Ministry Head.D. Charges on Firewood. or other natural defects.A. 7161. Charges on Timber Cut in Forest Land. The privilege of manifesting timber after squaring shall. however. If sawn or otherwise manufactured timber is found which has not been manifested in accordance with the provisions hereof. or fourth group. Branches. be granted only to licensees who have squared their logs in the forests with the ax and intend to take it to the market in this form. 71.—All other forest products of forSEC. That in the case of pulpwood and matchwood cut in forest land. As amended by Sec. forest charges on each cubic meter shall be ten percent (10%) of the actual FOB market price. est land which are not covered by the preceding section shall be exempt from almaciga resin. whose decision shall be final. of Timber. 10 October 1991. first and second-group woods may be removed for firewood purposes from land which is more valuable for agricultural than for forest purposes. 10 October 1991. shall be added for loss in squaring: Provided. there shall be collected forest charges on each cubic meter of firewood cut in forest land. an appeal shall lie to his Department Head.A. whether belonging to the first. however. the Director of Forest Development shall make due allowance for rot. and stumps. 705. and Agriculture. third. such as timber ends. whose decision shall be final. tops. charges on each cubic meter of timber cut in forest land.00). when used as raw materials for the manufacture of finished products. The volume of squared timber shall be ascertained by multiplying the average of the cross section measured by the length. 73 of P. 5. 70. to which forty percent. R. but from any decision of the Director of Forest Development in this respect. twenty-five percent (25%) of the actual FOB market price based on species and grading: Provided.—Except for all mangrove species whose cutting shall be banned. No. 35 34 166 . 235 of the NIRC). cavities. 3. 7161. and Other Recoverable Wood Wastes SEC. further amended by Sec. as amended (formerly Sec. No. 10 October 1991.

in two daily newspapers of national circulation. 71.—The rates of forest charges provided for in Sections 70. resins. The actual FOB market price of forest products shall be justly determined once a year by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources: Provided. The market value of the various forest products on which forest charges may thus be collected shall be determined from time to time by a joint assessment of the Commissioner and the Director of Forest Development. risk involved and a reasonable margin of profit for domestic and export market prices for wood and wood products.—No charges shall be collected on forest products removed in conformity _______________________ 37 38 37 38 39 New section introduced by Sec. and Other Forest Products. Market Price of Forest Products. Sec. Resins. and other forest products of forest lands which are not hereinabove provided for. the Department of Trade and Industry. 8. Blg. 167 . tariff duties. Blg.P. tous License. 74. reforestation. No. 75.P. taking into consideration production cost (developing cost. Charges on Gums. Forest charges collected shall be in lieu of the administrative charge on environment and other fees and charges imposed thereon: Provided. That planted trees and other forest products harvested from industrial tree plantations and private lands covered by existing tiller or by approved land application are exempted from payment of forest charges. 7161. 39 As amended by B. as amended by B. 10 October 1991. rattan. Tax Exemptions of Forest Products Lawfully Removed under GratuiSEC.—On gums. SEC. and posted in a conspicuous place in the municipal building of a municipality concerned. the Bureau of Internal Revenue and the wood and furniture industry and consumers sectors which shall formulate the criteria and/or guidelines in the determination of the actual FOB market price to be used as the basis for the assessment of the ad valorem tax. 6. determined in the manner indicated below. 83. there is herein imposed upon the person removing such forest product a charge of ten percent (10%) of the actual market value thereof. The new rates shall be published in the Official Gazette or in two (2) newspapers of national circulation and shall also be posted in conspicuous places in the different Department of Environment and Natural Resources field offices. 17 September 1980. 73. contingencies and miscellaneous cost). species and grade of timber. 17 September 1980. to be approved by their respective Ministry Heads. government share. These forest charges shall be applied to naturally growing timber and forest products gathered within public forest lands.REVISED FORESTRY CODE Effectivity and Application of Forest Charges and Determination of SEC.A. That he shall cause the creation of a committee to be composed of representatives of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. taxes. the same to be published for the information of public in the Official Gazette. the National Economic and Development Authority. and 72 hereof shall be effective upon approval of this Act. 83. R. alienable and disposable lands and private lands.

and other forest products. s.—No charges shall be collected on trees and products removed from public lands planted to ipil-ipil and/or falcata under a tree farm lease with the government. water or air in the commission of the offense and to dispose of the same in accordance with per43 tinent laws. No. removed. may order the confiscation of any forest products illegally cut. No. No. See DENR Adm. Gathering. or possess timber or other forest products without the legal documents as required under existing forest laws and regulations.O. regulations or policies on the matter. thorized Representative to Order Confiscation. As amended by P. and/or Collecting Timber or Other Forest ProdSEC. equipment. 1987. Administrative Authority of the Department Head or His Duly AuSEC. renumbered under Sec. Order No. the officers who ordered the cutting. R. and Memo Order No. and all conveyances used either by land. 10 January 1997) that an action for replevin will not lie against conveyance pending administrative confiscation proceedings. removed or possessed or abandoned. 17 September 1980. ucts Without License. Order No.D. without any authority. 277. gathered. 2. collected. 43 The Supreme Court has clarified in Paat v. 1559. That in the case of partnerships. collection or possession shall be liable. E. remove timber or other forest products from any forest land. No.P. 7. shall be punished with the penalties imposed under Articles 309 and 310 of the Revised Penal Code: Provided. gather. post. implements and tools illegally used in the area where the timber or forest products are found. CA (G. 76. or corporations. _______________________ 42 41 40 As amended by B. 11 June 1978 and E.LAND with the terms of a gratuitous license of the Bureau of Forest Development and in compliance with the law and the regulations of such Bureau. 77. 59 (1990) and Adm. lumber. Guidelines for the disposition of confiscated logs. No.—In all cases of violations of this Code or other forest laws. 277.R. Guidelines in the confiscation.—Any person who shall cut. or from private land. 25 July 1987. 83. the Department Head or his duly authorized representative. (Summarize gist of proceedings) 41 40 168 . gathering. Tax Exemption of Trees and Products Removed from Public Lands SEC. 54 (1993). Blg.A. Chapter IV Criminal Offenses and Penalties Cutting. forfeiture and disposition of conveyances used in the commission of offenses. and if such officers are aliens. they shall. collect. The Court shall further order the confiscation in favor of the government of the timber or any forest products cut. be deported without further proceedings on the part of the Commission on Immigration and Deportation. in addition to the penalty. or possessed as well as the machinery. 10 October 1991. associations. or timber from alienable or disposable public land. 77-A.O. gathered. 42 New section introduced by Sec. under a Tree Farm Lease. 7161. rules and regulations. 162. 111107.

No. lease. No.—Any person who enters and occupies or possesses. and be liable to the payment to ten (10) times the rental fees and other charges which would have accrued had the occupation and use of the land been authorized under a license agreement. Bernard do so.D. 2. That the maximum of penalty prescribed herein shall be imposed upon the of_______________________ 44 New section introduced by Sec. s. 77-B. 277. E. rules and regulations.O. 11 June 1978. or causes any damage to the timber stand and other products and forest growth found therein.00) and imprisoned for not less than six (6) months nor more than two (2) years for each such offense.A. be fined in an amount of not less than Five Hundred Pesos (P500. P. R.—Any person who shall provide any inforSEC. That in the case of an offender found guilty of making kaingin. No. 78. or sets a fire. further. aids or abets any other person to do so. 7161. 3. 45 Unlawful OcSEC. of 1987. 10 October 1991. No.000. the penalty shall be imprisonment for not less than two (2) nor more than four (4) years and a fine equal to eight (8) times the regular forest charges due on the forest products destroyed. or negligently permits a fire to be set in any forest land or grazing land. 1559.00). 44 169 . mation leading to the apprehension and conviction of any offender for any violation of this Code or other forest laws. or in any manner destroys such forest land or grazing land or part thereof.”—St. license or permit: Provided. upon conviction. 7. R. 45 As amended by Sec. license or permit. pursuant to the provisions (Digital Vision) of Section 53 hereof shall. or refuses to “You will find something far greater in the woods than you will find in books. or makes kaingin for his own private use or for others.REVISED FORESTRY CODE Rewards to Informants.A. or confiscation of forest products shall be given a reward in the amount of twenty percent (20%) of the proceeds of the confiscated forest products. cupation or Destruction of Forest Lands and Grazing Lands. nor more than Twenty Thousand Pesos (P20. 7. Stones and trees will teach you that which vacate the area when ordered to you will never learn from masters. any forest land or grazing land without authority under a license agreement. lease. renumbered under Sec. or who assists. without prejudice to the payment of the full cost of production of the occupied area as determined by the Bureau: Provided. 10 October 1991. 7161. renumbered under sec.

shall be imposed upon any person.—Imprisonment for not less than six (6) months nor more than two (2) years and a fine equal to ten (10) times the regular rentals due. renumbered under Sec. 1559. it is a reality to be experienced. the proceeds of which shall accrue to the Development Fund of the Bureau. 3.—Any person who. 10 October 1991. occupy for any length of time any portion of the national parks system or shall. the officers and directors thereof shall be liable. 46 Pasturing LiveSEC. Illegal Occupation of National Parks System and Recreation Areas SEC. who shall. P. partnership or association. In case the offender is a government official or employee. 47 46 170 . 10 October 1991. Provided. 79. No. equipment and improvements shall be sold at public auction.A. _______________________ 47 “The real mystery of life is not a problem to be solved. destroy. without permit. No. 7. That in case the offender is a corporation. domestic animals.LAND fender who repeats the same offense and who commits the same offense and double the maximum of the penalty upon the offender who commits the same offense for the third time. shall. If not suitable for use by the Bureau. in any manner cut. in addition to the above penalties be deemed automatically dismissed from office and permanently disqualified form holding any elective or appointive position. 7. As amended by Sec. said vehicles. domestic animals and equipment of any kind used in the commission of the offense. and Vandalism Therein. grazing lands and alienable and disposable lands which have not as yet been disposed of in accordance with the Public Land Act.A. R. Cayton) Renumbered under Sec. 11 June 1978. In all cases the Court shall further order the eviction of the offender from the land and the forfeiture to the government of all improvements made and all vehicles. 7161. graze or cause to graze livestock in forest lands.J.” — J. without authority under a lease or permit. stock.D. Van der Leeuw (T. 7161. 80. he shall. R. in addition to the confiscation of such livestock and all improvements introduced in the area in favor of the government. No.

Provided. two (2) nor more than four (4) years. That any person who. be dismissed from the service with prejudice to re-employment. shall be fined not less than One Hundred Pesos (P100. 171 .00) or more than Twenty Thousand Pesos (P20. R. fish or wild animal life within the area in the national parks system shall be subject to the same penalty. 10 October 1991.000. capture or kill any kind of bird.—Imprisonment for not less than SEC. suffer an imprisonment of not less than one (1) year and a fine of not less than One Thousand Pesos (P1. 50 Renumbered under Sec. 7161. or release of forest lands shall be null and void. the offender shall also be required to restore or compensate for the restoration of the damage: Provided. 81. the president or manager shall be directly responsible and liable for the act of his employees or laborers. classification. or shall mutilate. enter any forest lands. 82. and upon conviction by a court of competent jurisdiction. if any. 7161.00) exclusive of the value of the thing damaged. classifies. or not.00). in addition to the confiscation of the implements used in the violation of this Section including the cancellation of the license. whether covered by a license agreement. shall. Renumbered under Sec. after an appropriate administrative proceeding. R. and conduct or undertake a survey for whatever purpose. No. _______________________ 48 49 48 49 50 Renumbered under Sec. 7.A. No. 83. or the rules and regulations promulgated hereunder. 10 October 1991. sions of Section 55 of this Code. or destroy objects of natural beauty or of scenic value within areas in the national parks system. without proper permit shall hunt.A. shall be fined not less than Five Hundred Pesos (P500. or permit.REVISED FORESTRY CODE damage or remove timber or any species of vegetation or forest cover and other natural resources found therein. No. without permit to survey from the Director. In the event that an official or employee of a city or municipal government is primarily responsible for detecting and convicting the violator of the provisions of this section.— SEC.—Any person violating the proviSEC. lease. Any public officer or employee who knowingly surveys. If the offender is an association or corporation. shall be imposed upon any person who shall. Survey by Unauthorized Person. 7. license. 7. That if the area requires rehabilitation or restoration as determined by the Director. deface. Misclassification and Survey by Government Official or Employee. Provided. Destruction of Wildlife Resources. 10 October 1991.00) for each such violation and in addition shall be denied a permit for a period of three (3) years from the date of the violation. R. The survey. and any construction or improvement made thereon by the offender. That the Court shall order eviction of the offender from the land and the forfeiture in favor of the government of all timber or any species or vegetation and other natural resources collected or removed. or the regulations promulgated thereunder. 7161. or recommends the release of forest lands as alienable and disposable lands contrary to the criteria and standards established in this Code. fifty percent (50%) of the fine collected shall accrue to such municipality or city for the development of local parks.A. further. finally.000.

influences.A. be punished by a fine of not exceeding one hundred thousand pesos (P100. No. 53 Renumbered under Sec. or other manufactured wood products in the international or domestic _______________________ 51 52 51 52 53 54 Renumbered under Sec. classified. No. 7161. partnership or association. Sale of Wood Products. 86. If the offender is a corporation.00) and/or imprisonment for a period of not exceeding six (6) years in the discretion of the Court. less than two (2) nor more than four (4) years and perpetual disqualification from holding an elective or appointive office. Collection.000. SEC. influences. 3. or persuades the public officer or employee referred to in Sections 74 and 75 commit any of the acts mentioned therein shall suffer imprisonment of not less than one (1) year and pay a fine of Five Hundred Pesos (P500. 10 October 1991. or released. plywood. shall be liable to the payment of a surcharge of twenty-five percent (25%) of the amount due and payable.—Any person who coerces. 1955. who fails to pay the amount due and payable under the provisions of this Code. or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. any person who coerces. R. abets.A. 7. the National Internal Revenue Code.—Imprisonment for a period of not SEC. upon conviction. 85. As amended by Sec.000. No. or persuades the public officer or employee by using power and influence in deciding any pending case or matter in his favor shall be punished by a fine of not more than Five Thousand Pesos (P5. lumber.A. 54 Renumbered under Sec. and Remittance of Forest Charges. 87. No. P. 11 June 1978. the officers and directors thereof shall be liable. obstructs or prevents the same. 7. renumbered under Sec. Coercion and Influence. 7161. or who orders. causes or effects the transfer or diversion of the funds for purposes other than those specified in this Code. 7.—Any person SEC. Payment. in addition. 1559. 7161. In all other cases. he shall. be dismissed from the service with prejudice to reinstatement and with disqualification from holding any elective or appointive office.LAND Tax Declaration on Real Property. Any person who fails or refuses to remit to the proper authorities said forest charges collectible pursuant to the provisions of this Code or the National Internal Revenue Code. or who delays.—No person shall sell or offer for sale any log. abets. 10 October 1991. 7161. 172 . for each such offense shall. 10 October 1991.00) and imprisonment of not less than one (1) year. If the offender is a government official or employee. SEC. No. unless the property is titled or has been occupied and possessed by members of the national cultural minorities prior to July 4. R. R. 10 October 1991. 84.D.00) for every hectare or a fraction thereof so improperly surveyed. R.A. shall be imposed upon any public officer or employee who shall issue a tax declaration on real property without a certification from the Director of Forest Development and the Director of Lands or their duly designated representatives that the area declared for taxation is alienable and disposable lands. 7.

The arresting forest officer or employee shall thereafter deliver within six (6) hours from the time of arrest and seizure.REVISED FORESTRY CODE market unless he complies with grading rules established or to be established by the government. the Bureau or any personnel of the Philippine Constabulary/Integrated National Police shall arrest even without warrant any person who has committed or is committing in his presence any of the offenses defined in this Chapter. Any violation of this Section shall be sufficient ground for the suspension of the dealer’s license for a period of not less than two (2) years and. or other forest products shall be a sufficient cause for the suspension of the export. the latter shall be done within a reasonable time sufficient to the place of delivery.00) or the total value of the invoice. Failure to adhere to the established grading rules and standards. Every dealer in lumber and other building materials covered by this Code shall issue an invoice for each sale of such material and such invoice shall state that the kind. or any act of falsification of the volume of logs. P. renumbered under Sec. 1. shall immediately be investigated by the forest officer assigned in the area or any personnel of the Philippine Constabulary/Integrated National Police _______________________ 55 55 As amended by Sec. the offender and the confiscated forest products. and the forest products cut. barangay or barrio official. the delivery to. The seized products. not committed in the presence of any forest officer or employee. far from the authorities designated by law to conduct preliminary investigations. lumber. Institution of Criminal Actions.—A forest officer or employee of SEC. materials and equipment shall be immediately disposed of in accordance with forestry administrative orders promulgated by the Department Head. or any personnel of the Philippine Constabulary/Integrated National Police or any of the deputized officers or officials. 14 January 1981. standard and size of material sold to each purchaser in exactly the same as described in the invoice. and filing of the complaint with. Reports and complaints regarding the commission of any of the offenses defined in this Chapter. in favor of the government. the dealer shall be punished for each such offense by a fine of not less than Two Hundred Pesos (P200. gathered or taken by the offender in the process of committing the offense. No. tools and equipment and file the proper complaint with the appropriate official designated by law to conduct preliminary investigation and file information in Court. the tools and equipment used in committing the offense. If the arrest and seizure are made in the forest. or other license or permit authorizing the manufacture or sale of such products for a period of not less than two (2) years. or any qualified person to protect the forest and exercise the power or authority provided for in the preceding paragraph. 88.D. Arrest. A duly accredited representative of the Bureau shall certify to the compliance by the licensees with grading rules. The Department Head may deputize any agency. in addition thereto. 173 . sawmill. whichever is greater. He shall also seize and confiscate. 1775.

7161. and all laws. No. 10 October 1991.A. P. 452. renumbered by Sec. 7. or 21 hectares per minute. declared unconstitutional. Administrative Authority of the Director to Impose Fines—In all SEC. CommonSEC. 7. in every region to help enforce the provisions of this Act under such rules and regulations as may be agreed upon by the Secretaries of National Defense and Natural Resources.D. the director is hereby authorized to impose administratively the penalty consisting of the fine. 59 Renumbered under Sec. wealth Act No. 7161. No. _______________________ New section introduced by Sec. Effectivity. 56 174 . 4715.—Presidential Decree Nos. 4. 1559. No. 7. we will lose about 30. orders. 91. 10 October 1991. rules and regulations where fine is the principal penalty. 90. R. 7. 92. rules and regulations or any part thereof which are inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed or amended accordingly. No. 11 June 1978. Repealing Clause. 10 October 1991. 57 New section introduced by Sec. R. Special Clauses Separability Clause. R. No.A.D. 4. 1975.A. 7161. 10 October 1991. renumbered by Sec.A. Republic Act No. or 1. The Armed Forces of the Philippines shall organize a special force SEC.—Should any provision herein be subsequently SEC. who shall thereupon receive the evidence supporting the report or complaint. cases of violations of this Code and other forest laws. 58 Renumbered under Sec. P. 59 58 57 56 If today is a typical day on planet Earth. 89-B. the same shall not affect the validity or the legality of the other provisions. R. 89-A. No. 330 and 389.000 hectares of rain forests. If there is a prima facie evidence to support the complaint or report. SEC. the investigating forest officer and/or members of the Philippine Constabulary/Integrated National Police shall file the necessary complaint with the appropriate official authorized by law to conduct a preliminary investigation of criminal case and file an information in Court.—This Code shall take effect immediately upon promulgation. this 19th day of May.LAND where the offense was allegedly committed. 11 June 1978. Done in the City of Manila.250 hectares * per hour. 7161. 1559.

R. Finally.REVISED FORESTRY CODE Timber License is Not a Right A timber license agreement is not a contract but a mere privilege which may be modified. the petitioner’s failure to file his petition within a reasonable period precludes his availment of the benefits of certiorari. Oct.] Felipe Ysmael Jr. They may be validly amended. they are not deemed contracts within the purview of the due process of law clause. Dir. amended. Inc. 1990 _______________________ The MNR was later renamed the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) 60 175 . 79538. Deputy Executive Secretary G. Nueva Vizcaya. Laches had set in. denied both its requests and pointed out that there is an existing ban on all logging operations in the province of Nueva Vizcaya and Quirino. replaced or rescinded by the Chief Executive when national interests so require. The timber license agreement (TLA) was issued in 1965 and cancelled in 1983 when the government unilaterally ordered the cancellation of all logging concessions in Nueva Vizcaya and Quirino provinces. modified. 1983. However. v. the area covered by the Ysmael’s TLA was reawarded to two other logging companies. the OP denied the petition for lack of merit and for being prematurely filed. And it can hardly be gainsaid that they merely evidence a privilege granted by the State to qualified entities and do not vest in the latter a permanent or irrevocable right to the particular concession area and the forest products therein. 27. through then Minister Ernesto Maceda. Barely a year later. 125 SCRA 302. permits and license agreements are the principal instruments by which the State regulates the utilization and disposition of forest resources to the end that public welfare is promoted. the MNR’s refusal to reverse final and executory administrative orders is within its right as an administrative agency tasked to enforce governmental policies and objectives. & Co. October 18. or rescinded when required by national interest. Issue: Is there grave abuse of discretion on the part of the MNR in denying the reinstatement of Ysmael’s logging concession? Held: No. Furthermore.” [See Sections 3(e) and 20 of Presidential Decree No. this petition. “(t)imber licenses. of Forestry. 705. as amended. Tan v. Hence. but only a privilege which could be withdrawn whenever public interest or welfare so demands …” When the logging ban was lifted in 1986. Ysmael appealed the order of the Ministry to the Office of the President (OP). The Ministry. Facts: Petitioner company (Ysmael) wrote to the Ministry of Environment and 60 Natural Resources (MNR) seeking the reinstatement of its logging concession covering a portion of a public forest in Maddela. the Ministry ruled that “a timber license was not a contract within the due process clause of the Constitution. Second. Petitioner also seeks the cancellation of these TLAs alleging discrimination. First. Thus. No.

something which the government (T. Undoubtedly. In 1988. An environmental advocate—working with the Philippine Ecological Network (PEN) and the Haribon Foundation for the Conservation of Natural Resources (Haribon)—conceptualized a legal action. records disclosed that the Philippine government granted logging concessions (officially known as Timber License Agreement or TLAs) to some ninety-two corporations covering an area of some 3. “If future generations are to remember us with gratiWhile it was difficult to theorize a tude rather than contempt. it was necessary to bring these matters to the attention of the government officials and to the public at large. Background: Statistics showed that in the mid-twentieth century. the plaintiff will have to prove just after we got through with it. data from satellite photographs taken of the country indicated that only about 800. glimpse of the world as it was in the beginning. have the right and legal personality to sue in a court of law by way of a class suit in order to protect their environment. This is based on the principle of intergenerational responsibility. or almost five times more than what was available. the Philippines had about sixteen million (16M) hectares of virgin tropical rainforests.” — Henry David where the 800. 176 . Naming his own children as the main plaintiffs together with the children of his relatives and friends from all over the Philippines. Statistics also showed that deforestation was occurring at the rate of some 120. not (for one.89 million hectares. Cayton) itself did not quite know).000 hectares were left of these forests. we must leave them more than the miracles of technology. the timber industry and the logging companies were at the height of their political and financial power. legal proceedings were initiated. During this time.LAND The Right of the Future Generations Petitioners Filipino children. representing themselves and generations yet unborn. The official policy of the government then was that logging was being done in virgin forests.000 thousand hectares Thoreau are.000 hectares per year. this was a carryover of the policy when virgin forests were still abundant in the country. We must leave them a cause of action based on the above data. In 1989.

Inc. it touches on the issue of whether the said petitioners have a cause of action to ‘prevent the misappropriation or impairment’ of Philippine rainforests and ‘arrest the unabated hemorrhage of the country’s vital life-support systems and continued rape of Mother Earth.—was not responsible for the grant of the numerous TLAs. (PEN). was not of similar sentiment. are all minors duly represented and joined by their respective parents. At that end. the OSG filed a motion to dismiss on the technicality that plaintiffs failed to state a cause of action. the plaintiffs-children would no longer see. the Office of the Solicitor General (OSG). After the Opposition was filed by the plaintiffs.” The lawyer handling the case and the US professor did not know one another. this petition bears upon the right of Filipinos to a balanced and healthful ecology which the petitioners dramatically associate with the twin concepts of ‘intergenerational responsibility’ and ‘intergenerational justice. enjoy and benefit from the forests in their lifetime. The case “failed to state a cause of action. Any relief granted would result in the impairment of contracts. and even when it was initially brought to the Supreme Court. this principle was unknown both to the Court and to the plaintiffs’ lawyer himself. Metro Manila) of the Regional Trial Court (RTC). The plaintiffs brought the case directly to the Supreme Court on a pure question of law. a domestic. Instead of filing an answer to the complaint and then proceed to the trial of the case. On the contrary.’ Specifically. The theory of the case was based solely on common sense: That if the government were to allow the denudation of all the forests in the country in the next eight to ten years.’ “The controversy has its genesis in Civil Case No.” 2. this means that the plaintiff’s children did not have a legal personality to sue. now the principal petitioners. the lower court dismissed the case without any hearing for the reasons that: 1. The principal plaintiffs therein. At the other end of the globe. 3. In simple terms. Impleaded as an additional plaintiff is the Philippine Ecological Network. a Georgetown University Professor of Law had been working on the theoretical framework of the principle. The case is now known for having advanced the principle of intergenerational responsibility. when the case was filed before the lower court (Regional Trial Court of Makati). However. it was more sophisticatedly known with the terminological mouthful: “intergenerational responsibility. The issue was political in nature and therefore not the proper subject for judicial resolution. He was personally sympathetic to the cause being advocated by the case. However. National Capital Judicial Region.REVISED FORESTRY CODE It must be emphasized that the defendant—then DENR Secretary Fulgencio Factoran Jr. Facts: “In a broader sense. non-stock 177 . the official counsel of government agencies. 90-777 which was filed before Branch 66 (Makati. it was during his term that the number of TLAs were significantly reduced.

.LAND and non-profit corporation organized for the purpose of.000. engaging in concerted action geared for the protection of our environment and natural resources. brooks. then Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (b) salinization of the water table as a result of the intrusion therein of salt water. scientific evidence reveals that in order to maintain a balanced and healthful ecology. the distortion and disturbance of this balance as a consequence of deforestation have resulted in a host of environmental tragedies. endured and flourished since time immemorial. including the disappearance of the Filipino’s indigenous cultures. and unique species of flora and fauna may be found. residential.000. His substitution in this petition by the new Secretary. Cavite. . incontrovertible examples of which may be found in the island of Cebu and the Municipality of Bacoor. . commercial and other uses. his agents. industrial. was subsequently ordered upon proper motion by the petitioners. otherwise known as the aquifer. such other reliefs just and equitable under the premises. Alcala. renewing or approving new timber license agreements and granting the plaintiffs “. and entitled to the full benefit. (e) the disturbance and dislocation of cultural communities.” The minors further asseverate that they “represent their generation as well as generations yet unborn. lush. they are also the habitat of indigenous Philippine cultures which have existed.. processing.” The same was filed for themselves and others who are equally concerned about the preservation of said resource but are “so numerous that it is impracticable to bring them all before the Court. . Factoran. The original defendant was the Honorable Fulgencio S. representatives and other persons acting in his behalf to— (1) Cancel all existing timber license agreements in the country. and streams. (c) massive erosion and the consequential loss of soil fertility and agricultural productivity.000) hectares and is endowed with rich. it is prayed for that judgment be rendered: “. such as (a) water shortages resulting from the drying up of the water table. the country’s land area should be utilized on the basis of a ratio of fifty-four percent (54%) for forest cover and forty-six percent (46%) for agricultural. rare. and verdant rainforests in which varied. taxpayers. rare and varied flora and fauna. The complaint was instituted as a taxpayers’ class suit and alleges that the plaintiffs “are all citizens of the Republic of the Philippines. ordering defendant. inter alia. and chemical pool which is irreplaceable. Jr. accepting.” Consequently.100 islands has a land area of thirty million (30. (2) Cease and desist from receiving. the Honorable Angel C.000) cubic meters per annum— approximately the size of the entire island of Catanduanes.” “The complaint starts off with the general averments that the Philippine archipelago of 7. biological.000. with the volume of soil eroded estimated at one billion (1. (d) the endangering and extinction of the country’s unique. these rainforests contain a genetic. (f) the siltation of rivers and seabeds and consequential destruction 178 . as well as of rivers. use and enjoyment of the natural resource treasure that is the country’s virgin tropical rainforests.

that is about 200. 13. and irreparable damage of this continued trend of deforestation to the plaintiff minors’ generation and 179 . they expressed their intention to present expert witnesses as well as documentary. photographic and film evidence in the course of the trial. 8.0 million hectares of immature and uneconomical secondary growth forests. (g) recurrent spells of drought as is presently experienced by the entire country.000 hectares per annum or 25 hectares per hour—nighttime. This notwithstanding. More recent surveys reveal that a mere 850. 10.000 hectares of virgin old-growth rainforests are left. (j) the siltation and shortening of the lifespan of multibillion peso dams constructed and operated for the purpose of supplying water for domestic uses. Public records reveal that defendant’s predecessors have granted timber license agreements (TLAs) to various corporations to cut the aggregate area of 3. Saturdays. Sundays and holidays included— the Philippines will be bereft of forest resources after the end of this ensuing decade. irrigation and the generation of electric power. and (k) the reduction of the earth’s capacity to process carbon dioxide gases which has led to perplexing and catastrophic climatic changes such as the phenomenon of global warming. Twenty-five (25) years ago. Plaintiffs replead by reference the foregoing allegations. otherwise known as the greenhouse effect. . barely 2. A copy of the TLA holders and the corresponding areas covered is hereto attached as Annex A. 9. Satellite images taken in 1987 reveal that there remained no more than 1. they specifically alleged that: “CAUSE OF ACTION .8% of the entire land mass of the Philippine archipelago and about 3. (i) the flooding of lowlands and agricultural plains arising from the absence of the absorbent mechanism of forests.89 million hectares for commercial logging purposes. if not earlier.REVISED FORESTRY CODE of corals and other aquatic life leading to a critical reduction in marine resource productivity. (h) increasing velocity of typhoon winds which result from the absence of windbreakers. the Philippines had some sixteen (16) million hectares of rainforests constituting roughly fifty-three percent (53%) of the country’s land mass.” “Plaintiffs further assert that the adverse and detrimental consequences of continued deforestation are so capable of unquestionable demonstration that the same may be submitted as a matter of judicial notice.2 million hectares of said rainforests or four percent (4. 12. serious injury. 7. 11. At the present rate of deforestation. As their cause of action. The adverse effects.0%) of the country’s land area. disastrous consequences.

ibid). Furthermore. benefit from. 180 . The continued failure and refusal by defendant to cancel the TLAs is an act violative of the rights of plaintiffs. to create. A copy of the plaintiffs’ letter dated March 1. and enjoy this rare and unique natural resource treasure. in pertinent part. As a matter of fact.D. states that it is the policy of the State — a. Plaintiffs have a clear and constitutional right to a balanced and healthful ecology and are entitled to protection by the State in its capacity as the parens patriae. Defendant’s refusal to cancel the aforementioned TLAs is manifestly contrary to the public policy enunciated in the Philippine Environmental Policy which. Article XII of the Constitution). develop. barren and devoid of the wonderful flora. b. ‘protect the nation’s marine wealth. to the continuing serious damage and extreme prejudice of plaintiffs. 1151. maintain and improve conditions under which man and nature can thrive in productive and enjoyable harmony with each other. 18. economic and other requirements of present and future generations of Filipinos and. b. plaintiffs served upon defendant a final demand to cancel all logging permits in the country 17. The continued allowance by defendant of TLA holders to cut and deforest the remaining forest stands will work great damage and irreparable injury to plaintiffs— especially plaintiff minors and their successors—who may never see. ‘conserve and promote the nation’s cultural heritage and resources (sic). On March 2. Plaintiffs have exhausted all administrative remedies with the defendant’s office. to fulfill the social. 1990 is hereto attached as Annex B. 14. income and wealth’ and ‘make full and efficient use of natural resources (sic). This act of defendant constitutes a misappropriation and/or impairment of the natural resource property he holds in trust for the benefit of plaintiff minors and succeeding generations. 1990.’ (Section 2. Defendant. to ensure the attainment of an environmental quality that is conducive to a life of dignity and well-being’ (P. c.’ (Section 1. c.). 6 June 1977). id. bare. fails and refuses to cancel the existing TLAs. defendant’s continued refusal to cancel the aforementioned TLAs is contradictory to the Constitutional policy of the State to— a. especially plaintiff minors who may be left with a country that is desertified (sic). fauna and indigenous cultures which the Philippines has been abundantly blessed with. No. experienced and suffered by the generation of plaintiff adults. effect ‘a more equitable distribution of opportunities. Article XIV. 16. the environmental damages enumerated in paragraph 6 hereof are already being felt. 20. use.LAND to generations yet unborn are evident and incontrovertible. 19.’ (Section 14. however. 15.

Petitioners minors assert that they represent their generation as well as generations yet unborn. 181 . The original defendant and the present respondents did not take issue with this matter. (2) the motion is dilatory and (3) the action presents a justiciable question as it involves the defendant’s abuse of discretion.) 21. the respondent Judge further ruled that the granting of the reliefs prayed for would result in the impairment of contracts which is prohibited by the fundamental law of the land. Finally. the petitioners maintain that (1) the complaint shows a clear and unmistakable cause of action. We find no difficulty in ruling that they can.REVISED FORESTRY CODE d.. namely: (1) the plaintiffs have no cause of action against him and (2) the issue raised by the plaintiffs is a political question which properly pertains to the legislative or executive branches of government. speedy and adequate remedy in law other than the instant action to arrest the unabated hemorrhage of the country’s vital life-support systems and continued rape of Mother Earth. the latter being but an incident to the former. On 18 July 1991. ‘protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. the original defendant.” On 22 June 1990. This case. The subject matter of the complaint is of common and general interest not just to several. not only was the defendant’s claim—that the complaint states no cause of action against him and that it raises a political question— sustained. has a special and novel element. file a class suit. Petitioners instituted Civil Case No. however. We likewise declare that the plaintiffs therein are numerous and representative enough to ensure the full protection of all concerned interests. Consequently. all the requisites for the filing of a valid class suit under Section 12. since the parties are so numerous. Jr. id.’ (Section 16. Article II. filed a Motion to Dismiss the complaint based on two (2) grounds. for themselves. respondent Judge issued an order granting the aforementioned motion to dismiss. There is no other plain. Hence. We hereby rule that the said civil case is indeed a class suit. 90-777 as a class suit. if not totally impossible. Secretary Factoran. 22. defendant’s act is contrary to the highest law of humankind—the natural law—and violative of plaintiffs’ right to self-preservation and perpetuation. for others of their generation and for the succeeding generations. it becomes impracticable. to bring all of them before the court. but to all citizens of the Philippines. In the said order. Issues: Do the petitioners-children have the right to sue in their own behalf and on behalf of unborn generations? Does the issue here involve a political question and therefore non-justiciable? Would a relief granted here violate the constitutional provision against the non-impairment of contracts? Held: “Before going any further. In their 12 July 1990 Opposition to the Motion. Nevertheless. Rule 3 of the Revised Rules of Court are present both in the said civil case and in the instant petition. We must first focus on some procedural matters.

After a careful perusal of the complaint in question and a meticulous consideration and evaluation of the issues raised and arguments adduced by the parties. accepting. 1. We shall now proceed to the merits of the petition. management.” We do not agree with the trial court’s conclusion that the plaintiffs failed to allege 182 . considers the “rhythm and harmony of nature. wildlife. fisheries. the Court cannot help but agree with the defendant.. development and utilization be equitably accessible to the present as well as future generations. at the same time. processing renewing or approving new timber license agreements. we do not hesitate to find for the petitioners and rule against the respondent Judge’s challenged order for having been issued with grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack of jurisdiction. grant the reliefs prayed for by the plaintiffs. The Court is likewise of the impression that it cannot. For to do otherwise would amount to ‘impairment of contracts’ abhorred (sic) by the fundamental law. RRC). off-shore areas and other natural resources to the end that their exploration. no matter how we stretch our jurisdiction.” Nature means the created world in its entirety. being impressed with political color and involving a matter of public policy. plaintiffs fail to state a cause of action in its Complaint against the herein defendant. may not be taken cognizance of by this Court without doing violence to the sacred principle of ‘Separation of Powers’ of the three (3) co-equal branches of the government. the Court notes that the Complaint is replete with vague assumptions and vague conclusions based on unverified data. i. Furthermore. a specific legal right they are seeking to enforce and protect. waters. mineral. For although we believe that plaintiffs have but the noblest of all intentions. the performance of their obligation to ensure the protection of that right for the generations to come. the minors’ assertion of their right to a sound environment constitutes. Put a little differently. Such rhythm and harmony indispensably include. every generation has a responsibility to the next to preserve that rhythm and harmony for the full enjoyment of a balanced and healthful ecology. inter alia. the Court firmly believes that the matter before it. as hereinafter expounded. Needless to say. to cancel all existing timber license agreements in the country and to cease and desist from receiving. The locus standi of the petitioners having thus been addressed. the judicious disposition. utilization. renewal and conservation of the country’s forest.e. The pertinent portions of the said order read as follows: “After a careful and circumspect evaluation of the Complaint. Furthermore. Rule 2. Such a right. land. it (sic) fell short of alleging. with sufficient definiteness. In fine.LAND Their personality to sue in behalf of the succeeding generations can only be based on the concept of intergenerational responsibility insofar as the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is concerned. or a specific legal wrong they are seeking to prevent and redress (Sec.

VILLACORTA: Does this section mandate the State to provide sanctions against all forms of pollution—air. If they are now explicitly mentioned in the fundamental charter. is solemnly incorporated in the fundamental law. 15. and that the complaint is replete with vague assumptions and conclusions based on unverified data. and noise pollution? 183 . Article II of the 1987 Constitution explicitly provides: “SEC. water. the following exchange transpired between Commissioner Wilfrido Villacorta and Commissioner Adolfo Azcuna who sponsored the section in question: “MR. for the first time in our nation’s constitutional history. it does not follow that it is less important than any of the civil and political rights enumerated in the latter. thereby highlighting their continuing importance and imposing upon the state a solemn obligation to preserve the first and protect and advance the second. The right to a balanced and healthful ecology carries with it the correlative duty to refrain from impairing the environment. 16.REVISED FORESTRY CODE with sufficient definiteness a specific legal right involved or a specific legal wrong committed.” While the right to a balanced and healthful ecology is to be found under the Declaration of Principles and State Policies and not under the Bill of Rights. these basic rights need not even be written in the Constitution for they are assumed to exist from the inception of humankind. The complaint focuses on one specific fundamental legal right—the right to a balanced and healthful ecology which. Section 16. The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology n accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature. During the debates on this right in one of the plenary sessions of the 1986 Constitutional Commission.” This right unites with the right to health which is provided for in the preceding section of the same article: “SEC. Such a right belongs to a different category of rights altogether for it concerns nothing less than self-preservation and self-perpetuation—aptly and fittingly stressed by the petitioners—the advancement of which may even be said to predate all governments and constitutions. As a matter of fact. the day would not be too far when all else would be lost not only for the present generation. The State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them. it is because of the well-founded fear of its framers that unless the rights to a balanced and healthful ecology and to health are mandated as state policies by the Constitution itself. but also for those to come —generations which stand to inherit nothing but parched earth incapable of sustaining life. A reading of the complaint itself belies these conclusions.

The second paragraph of Section 1. As worded. the claimed violation of their rights. 90-777 cannot be said to raise a political question. Mr. the grantees thereof for they are indispensable parties. nonetheless. therefore. the reliefs prayed for. sanctions may be provided for impairment of environmental balance. involving the settlement of conflicting rights as conferred by law. noted: 184 . Policy formulation or determination by the executive or legislative branches of government is not squarely put in issue. as well as the specific averments under the subheading CAUSE OF ACTION. they may thus be granted. the judicious management and conservation of the country’s forests. now speaking for this Court. Philippine Political Law. We find the statements under the introductory affirmative allegations. Civil Case No. It must. On the basis thereof. The right to healthful (sic) environment necessarily carries with it the correlative duty of not impairing the same and. and particularly the Supreme Court. a distinguished member of this Court. however. Justice Isagani A. wholly or partly. as party defendants. there is the need to implead. Madam President. the ecological or environmental balance would be irreversibly disrupted. says: “The first part of the authority represents the traditional concept of judicial power. It bears stressing.’ which is a very elastic phrase that can expand or contract according to the disposition of the judiciary.” In Daza v. The foregoing considered. AZCUNA: Yes. Cruz. among many other things. prima facie. Article VII of the Constitution states that: “Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable. to be adequate enough to show.” Commenting on this provision in his book. After a careful examination of the petitioners’ complaint. that insofar as the cancellation of the TLAs is concerned. the discretion of the political departments of the government. the new provision vests in the judiciary. Justice Cruz. Mr. is the meaning of ‘grave abuse of discretion. Singson. Without such forests. of course.LAND MR.” The said right implies. The second part of the authority represents a broadening of judicial power to enable the courts of justice to review what was before forbidden territory. and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the Government. be emphasized that the political question doctrine is no longer the insurmountable obstacle to the exercise of judicial power or the impenetrable shield that protects executive and legislative actions from judicial inquiry or review. What is principally involved is the enforcement of a right vis-a-vis policies already formulated and expressed in legislation. The catch. to wit. the power to rule upon even the wisdom of the decisions of the executive and the legislature and to declare their acts invalid for lack or excess of jurisdiction because tainted with grave abuse of discretion.

Ong Tin. accepting. That when the national interest so requires. In Tan v. he would have acted with utmost infidelity to the government by providing undue and unwarranted benefits and advantages to the timber license holders because he would have forever bound the government to strictly respect the said licenses according to their terms and conditions regardless of changes in policy and the demands of public interest and welfare. nor is it taxation’ (37 C. 705) which provides: “. . If he had done so. in proper cases. property or a property right protected by the due process clause of the Constitution. . For to do otherwise would amount to ‘impairment of contracts’ abhorred (sic) by the fundamental law. for obvious reasons. replace or rescind any contract. even the political question. renewing or approving new timber license agreements. into every timber license must be read Section 20 of the Forestry Reform Code (P. . concession. if not shocked. we would still not be precluded from resolving it under the expanded jurisdiction conferred upon us that now covers. the respondent Secretary did not. i. . No.REVISED FORESTRY CODE “In the case now before us. permit. The reason is that. and is not a contract between the authority. Director of Forestry. The court a quo declared that: “The Court is likewise of the impression that it cannot. . A timber license is an instrument by which the State regulates the utilization and disposition of forest resources to the end that public welfare is promoted.” 185 .” Needless to say. federal.” The last ground invoked by the trial court in dismissing the complaint is the nonimpairment of contracts clause found in the Constitution.e. It is not a contract. ‘A license is merely a permit or privilege to do what otherwise would be unlawful. by such a sweeping pronouncement. the jurisdictional objection becomes even less tenable and decisive. . In the first place. 7576). it is only a license or privilege. We are amazed. licenses or any other form of privilege granted herein .. this Court held: “. Article VII. granting it and the person to whom it is granted.” We are not persuaded at all. state. processing. . grant the reliefs prayed for by the plaintiffs. all licenses may thus be revoked or rescinded by executive action. or municipal. Section 1. nor does it create a vested right. on the contrary. modify.G. 168). of the Constitution clearly provides: . even if we were to assume that the issue presented before us was political in nature. A timber license is not a contract within the purview of the due process clause. this Court held that the granting of license does not create irrevocable rights. the President may amend. neither is it property or a property right. to cancel all existing timber license agreements in the country and to cease and desist from receiving. . Thus. He was aware that as correctly pointed out by the petitioners. neither is it property or property rights (People v. Provided. . 54 O. which can be validly withdrawn whenever dictated by public interest or public welfare as in this case.J. .D. even invoke in his motion to dismiss the non-impairment clause. no matter how we stretch our jurisdiction.

Foster Wheeler Corp. as amended. Davide. Decree No. This is because by its very nature and purpose. 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. In other words. Director of Forestry. The seminal principles laid down in this decision are likely to influence profoundly the direction and course of the protection and management of the environment. granting further that a law has actually been passed mandating cancellations or modifications. v. Nevertheless. They may be validly amended. safety. promoting their health and enhancing the general welfare. such a law could have only been passed in the exercise of the police power of the state for the purpose of advancing the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology. Jr.” Concurring Opinion of Justice Feliciano: I join in the result reached by my distinguished brother in the Court. Thus. R. permits and license agreements are the principal instruments by which the State regulates the utilization and disposition of forest resources to the end that public welfare is promoted. & Co. is not meant to be absolute. under our system of government. is one of the most important cases decided by this Court in the last few years. Deputy Executive Secretary: “. modified. the same cannot still be stigmatized as a violation of the non-impairment clause. this Court stated: “The freedom of contract. the instant case does not involve a law or even an executive issuance declaring the cancellation or modification of existing timber licenses. 186 . even if it is to be assumed that the same are contracts. L-24548. No. to my mind. Tan v. and do not vest in the latter a permanent or irrevocable right to the particular concession area and the forest products therein. In Abe v. which reads: “SEC.. .LAND We reiterated this pronouncement in Felipe Ysmael. the non-impairment clause cannot as yet be invoked. Hence..” In the second place. 125 SCRA 302]. replaced or rescinded by the Chief Executive when national interests so require. October 27. Jr. . Inc. they are not deemed contracts within the purview of the due process of law clause [See Sections 3(ee) and 20 of Pres. Also. G. And it can hardly be gainsaid that they merely evidence a privilege granted by the State to qualified entities. J. Timber licenses.. the constitutional guaranty of non-impairment of obligations of contract is limited by the exercise of the police power of the State. the non-impairment clause. 1983. in this case which. moral and general welfare. moral. 705. basically to myself. I have therefore sought to clarify.” Since timber licenses are not contracts. in the interest of public health. The same is understood to be subject to reasonable legislative regulation aimed at the promotion of public health. what the Court appears to be saying. safety and welfare. which of course embraces the utilization of all the natural resources in the territorial base of our polity.

petitioners can be expected to fall back on the expanded conception of judicial power in the second paragraph of Section 1 of Article VIII of the Constitution which reads: “Section 1 . My suggestion is simply that petitioners must. appear to contemplate action on the part of private persons who are beneficiaries of implementation of that Code. there are due process dimensions to this matter The second is a broader-gauge consideration—where a specific violation of law or applicable regulation is not alleged or proved. One is that unless the legal right claimed to have been violated or disregarded is given specification in operational terms. As a matter of logic. imputed to the public respondent by petitioners so that the trial court can validly render judgement granting all or part of the relief prayed for. It seems to me important that the legal right which is an essential component of a cause of action be a specific. considering the general policy principles found in the Constitution and the existence of the Philippine Environment Code. by finding petitioners’ cause of action as anchored on a legal right comprised in the constitutional statements above noted. in other words.REVISED FORESTRY CODE Two (2) points are worth making in this connection. and that the trial court should have given petitioners an effective opportunity so to demonstrate. or failures to act. . . neither petitioners nor the Court has identified the particular provision or provisions (if any) of the Philippine Environment Code which give rise to a specific legal right which petitioners are seeking to enforce. Secondly. .” 187 . show a more specific legal right—a right cast in language of a significantly lower order of generality than Article II (15) of the Constitution—that is or may be violated by the actions. the Court is in effect saying that Section 15 (and Section 16) of Article II of the Constitution are selfexecuting and judicially enforceable even in their present form. defendants may well be unable to defend themselves intelligently and effectively. Judicial power includes the duty of the courts of justice to settle actual controversies involving rights which are legally demandable and enforceable. in other words. before the trial court. operable legal right. and to determine whether or not there has been a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction on the part of any branch or instrumentality of the government. the Philippine Environment Code identifies with notable care the particular government agency charged with the formulation and implementation of guidelines and programs dealing with each of the headings and sub-headings mentioned above. instead of aborting the proceedings on a motion to dismiss. Firstly. To my mind. for at least two (2) reasons. The Philippine Environment Code does not. The implications of this doctrine will have to be explored in future cases. rather than a constitutional or statutory policy. the Court should be understood as simply saying that such a more specific legal right or rights may well exist in our corpus of law. those implications are too large and far-reaching in nature even to be hinted at here.

including the forest cover of our territory. v. however.” the result will be.R. to propel courts into the uncharted ocean of social and economic policy making. and lengthy legal battle to prove violations on the part of the TLA holder in order to justify the cancellation.. No. At least in respect of the vast area of environmental protection and management. et al. then the policy making departments—the legislative and executive departments—must be given a real and effective opportunity to fashion and promulgate those norms and standards. I vote to grant the Petition for Certiorari because the protection of the environment. must be impleaded in the proceedings below. as well as the reality of the claimed factual nexus between petitioners’ specific legal right and the claimed wrongful acts or failures to act of public respondent administrative agency. Factoran. rightly insists that the timber companies..LAND When substantive standards as general as “the right to a balanced and healthy ecology” and “the right to health” are combined with remedial standards as broad ranging as “a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack or excess of jurisdiction. (2) Plaintiffs avoid being entangled in an unnecessary. July 30. 188 . G. if petitioners’ entitlement to the relief demanded is not dependent upon proof of breach by the timber companies of one or more of the specific terms and conditions of their concession agreements (and this. My learned brother Davide. 1993 Post-Supreme Court Decision It will be noted that the last part of the Decision directs the petitioners to return to the Regional Trial Court and try the case in said court impleading therein the TLA holders. however. tedious. operable norms and standards are shown to exist. what will those companies litigate about? The answer I suggest is that they may seek to dispute the existence of the specific legal right petitioners should allege. whose concession agreements or TLAs petitioners demand public respondents should cancel. our courts have no claim to special technical competence and experience and professional qualifications. it is respectfully submitted. be subjected to closer examination. impleading all the TLA holders was one of the options explored by the plaintiffs. protracted. Minors Oposa. and to implement them before the courts should intervene. At the very outset. is of extreme importance for the country. under all the circumstances which exist. petitioners implicitly assume). Two strategic and tactical considerations. Jr. The doctrines se out in the Court’s decision issued today should. et al. 101083. Where no specific. They may also controvert the appropriateness of the remedy or remedies demanded by petitioners. militated against this alternative: (1) Plaintiffs were represented by only one lawyer Picking a fight against 92 logging companies which were at the height of their power would be like an ant challenging an elephant to a duel. It might be asked that. J.

F. banned all logging in the remaining 800. is a processed log or timber. hectares) more than the area available (800. Factoran. Illegal Possession of Lumber Lumber. although omitted in the definition of forest products under the Forestry Code. to protect and preserve the remaining virgin forests of the country. we permits. When the company may begin to use it with love and respect. As such. While the class suit is necessarily couched in legal language and theory. of Environment and Natural Resources granted permits to cut trees over area (3. The concurring opinion of Justice Feliciano and his suggestions were very well taken..e. Metro Manila and found a variety of lumber products without the proper documentation and “We abuse the land because we regard it as a commodity belonging to us. it needs proper documentation as any forest product is required.”—Aldo Leopold was unable to explain the (Digital Vision) absence of any documentation and upon the discovery that the company’s permit had already expired. In effect therefore.REVISED FORESTRY CODE Instead of suing the holders of the TLA. i. during the pendency of the case. They have since become the basis for what is now the Citizen’s Suit provision in the Clean Air Act (RA 8749) and the Solid Waste Management Act (RA 9003). The eloquent pronouncements of the Supreme Court on the concept of intergenerational responsibility and the legal right of future generations to initiate the legal action were a purely accidental bonus. 24. the overall goal of the suit was to force a policy shift.000 hectares). When we see land as a community to which we belong. this was a very strategic goal of the legal action. By a happy coincidence. in effect. Facts: On April 1. 1992. plaintiffs opted for the line of least resistance—a suit against the grantor of the TLAs on the theory that the Dept. the DENR issued Department Administrative Order No. the policy question involved in the legal case had become moot and academic by executive action. a team of DENR operatives searched the premises of the Mustang Lumber in Valenzuela. Series of 1991 effective on January 1. The Order.000 hectares of virgin forests left in the Philippines.9 m. the DENR operatives confiscated 189 . 1990. Fortunately. to the credit of then DENR Secretary. Jr.

In Webster’s Third International Dictionary. Under (Section 9. 1990 was a continuation of the search on April 3. “We also affirm the rulings of both the trial court and the Court of Appeals that the search on April 4. Rule 126 of) the Rules of Court. lumber is a processed log or timber. 1996 190 . and if its object or purpose cannot be accomplished in one day.R. neither should we). Mustang Lumber now questions the validity of the confiscation without any search and seizure order by the court.” Issue: Was there a valid seizure of the lumber? Held: Yes. and common usage meaning. 705. as amended. 1775. Neither should we. “Search of a moving vehicle is one of the five doctrinally accepted exceptions to the constitutional mandate that no search or seizure shall be made except by virtue of a warrant issued by a judge after personally determining the existence of a probable cause. Moreover. it could be served at any time within the said period.LAND the lumber products without any search warrant. as amended by Presidential Decree No.” Mustang Lumber v. June 18. (3) customs searches. makes no distinction between raw or processed timber. And insofar as possession of timber without the required legal documents is concerned. ordinary. words and phrases used in a statute should be given their plain. The seizure of such truck and its cargo was a valid exercise of the power vested upon a forest officer or employee by Section 80 of Presidential Decree No. provided it is still within the ten-day period. as “timber or logs after being prepared for the market. Section 68 of Presidential Decree No. “They (Mustang Lumber) are presumably trifling attempts to block the serious efforts of the DENR to enforce the decree. CA G. 104988. efforts which deserve the commendation of the public in the light of the urgent need to take firm and decisive action against the despoilers of our forests whose continuous destruction only ensures to the generations to come. if not the present. The other exceptions are (1) search as an incident to a lawful arrest. It is settled that in the absence of legislative intent to the contrary. lumber is defined. It was duly established that the petitioner’s truck was coming out from petitioner’s lumberyard loaded with lauan and almaciga lumber of different sizes and dimensions which were not accompanied with the required invoices and transport documents.” Simply put. The government must not tire in its vigilance to protect the environment by prosecuting without fear or favor any person who dares to violate our laws for the utilization and protection of our forests. the same may be continued under the same warrant the following day.705. 1990. 1990 done under and by virtue of the search warrant issued on April 3. Ubi lex non distinguit nec nos distinguire debemus (where the law does not distinguish. and (4) consented warrantless search. inter alia. Hence. No. a search warrant has a lifetime of ten days. (2) seizure of evidence in plain view. it alleges that the word “lumber” is not included in the term “timber. an inheritance of parched earth incapable of sustaining life.

On June 22. De Guzman failed to submit the required explanation. in legal language. The truck owners. an action to recover property which is alleged to be wrongfully withheld by another is. in law. 705).REVISED FORESTRY CODE Replevin in Motor Vehicles Impounded by the DENR A legal action for replevin to recover a motor vehicle which was found to be transporting illegal forest product is not proper without the exhaustion of administrative remedies. the action for damages has a demoralizing and chilling effect on the DENR and/or police officers who apprehended the vehicles. Upon inspection by operatives of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and finding that the driver could not produce the required documents for the forest products found concealed in the truck. however. D. not to mention the personal expense that the officials sued have to incur to defend themselves. the same was seized. De Guzman brought the case on appeal to the Office of the DENR Secretary. a tool. The procedure for forfeiture is covered by an administrative procedure of the DENR where the owner of the truck is given due notice and the opportunity to explain. have resorted to the filing of cases against the DENR officers in custody of the motor vehicle.” Background: Illegally-cut forest products are usually apprehended not while they are being cut inside the forests but while they are being transported along the main highway. the truck of private respondent Victoria de Guzman while on its way to Bulacan from Cagayan Province. It usually also includes actions for damages against the DENR officers. The order also directed the owner to submit within fifteen (15) days an explanation why the truck should not be forfeited. 1989. No. De Guzman then filed a letter of request for reconsideration which was denied. Regional Executive Director (RED) Rogelio Baggayan of DENR sustained Layugan’s action of confiscation and ordered the forfeiture of the truck invoking Section 68-A of the Forestry Code (P. This case. 1989. Facts: On May 19. known as an action for replevin. The court must “not arrogate unto itself the authority to resolve a controversy the jurisdiction over which is initially lodged with an administrative body of special competence. This has a very frustrating effect on the officers concerned who went to great lengths in apprehending the vehicle and its contraband. On May 23. often in cahoots with the illegal loggers. The administrative procedure for the confiscation and forfeiture of the motor vehicle must be allowed to run its course. 1989. In addition. 191 . Jovito Layugan. equipment or instrument used in the commission of a crime and is therefore subject to seizure and forfeiture. The truck used to transport the forest contraband is. then the Community Environment and Natural Resource Officer (CENRO) of Aritao issued an order of confiscation of the truck.

they cannot now. Hence. then this letter should be considered as an appeal to the Secretary. “.” It was easy to perceive then that the private respondents looked up to the Secretary for the review and disposition of their case. among others. without violating the principle of exhaustion of administrative remedies. The letter. . By appealing to him. development and management of forest lands fall within the primary and special responsibilities of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. . pending resolution of the appeal. the DENR should be given a 192 . it is a pre-condition that he should have availed of all the means of administrative processes afforded him. Appeal was filed by the DENR through its officers with the Court of Appeals which sustained the trial court’s ruling. reads. that private respondents had no cause of action for their failure to exhaust administrative remedies. Hence. 1989. spouses de Guzman clearly recognize the presence of an administrative forum to which they seek to avail. Layugan and Baggayan filed a motion to dismiss with the trial court contending.LAND However. as they did avail. The premature invocation of the court’s intervention is fatal to one’s cause of action. in the resolution of their case. If this motion for reconsideration does not merit your favorable action. Thus. In the case at (hand). Leonardo Paat was substituted as petitioner being the successor of Baggayan as the Regional Executive Director of the DENR in Region 2. de Guzman filed a suit for replevin against CENRO Layugan and RED Baggayan with the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Cagayan. this present petition before the Supreme Court seeking to reverse the decision of the Court of Appeals. (I)t is (also) important to point out that the enforcement of forestry laws. . there is no question that the controversy was pending before the Secretary of DENR when it was forwarded to him following the denial by (DENR officers) of (De Guzman’s) motion for reconsideration…” “In their letter of reconsideration dated June 28. “This Court has consistently held that before a party is allowed to seek the intervention of the Court. then such remedy should first be exhausted first before the court’s judicial power can be sought. rules and regulations and the protection. Issue: Can a petition for replevin be used to recover movable property subject of an administrative forfeiture proceeding in the DENR? Held: No. thus: “ . if a remedy within the administrative machinery can still be resorted to. The court issued an order requiring the return of the truck to de Guzman. . they acknowledged the existence of an adequate and plain remedy still available and open to them in the ordinary course of the law. The trial court denied the motion to dismiss and a subsequent motion for reconsideration. seek court’s intervention by filing an action for replevin for the grant of their relief during the pendency of an administrative proceedings. By the very nature of its function.

that a suit for replevin is founded solely on the claim that the defendant wrongfully withholds the property sought to be recovered. that the same has not been taken for tax assessment. It (is the proper petition) to recover possession of personal chattels that are unlawfully detained. January 10. The doctrine of primary jurisdiction does not warrant a court to arrogate unto itself the authority to resolve a controversy the jurisdiction over which is initially lodged with an administrative body of special competence. of the replevin suit filed by private respondents constitutes an unjustified encroachment into the domain of the administrative agency’s prerogative. 111107.REVISED FORESTRY CODE free hand unperturbed by judicial intrusion to determine a controversy which is well within its jurisdiction.” “Hence. R. the petitioner (Plaintiff) seeking the return of a thing must state under oath that the same has not been seized by law. No. it is indispensable in a replevin proceeding that the plaintiff must show by his own affidavit that he is entitled to the possession of property. De Guzman miserably failed to convince this Court that a wrongful detention of the subject truck obtains in the instant case. The assumption by the trial court. “Under the Rules of Court. Evidently. or an exercise or claim of dominion over it.” “It is worth stressing at this point. or attachment. 1997 Counter-Strike In a replevin action. that it is exempt from such seizure. (there is) no wrongful detention (and thus a petition for replevin cannot prosper). This is one of the formal requirements of the petition and is necessary before a Court of Law will entertain the same. therefore. Where a petitioner states under oath that a thing has not been seized—knowing 193 . alleging the cause of detention. the continued possession or detention of the truck by the DENR for administrative forfeiture proceeding is legally permissible. double which is the amount of the required replevin bond. It should be noted that the truck was seized by the DENR because it was transporting forest products without the required permit of the DENR in manifest contravention of Section 68 of (the Forestry Code)…” “(This) unquestionably (justifies) the confiscation as well as the disposition by the Secretary of DENR or his duly authorized representatives of the conveyances used in violating the provision of forestry laws. that the property is wrongfully detained by the defendant. or seized under execution. or if so seized.’ and it has been held that there is tortuous taking whenever there is an unlawful meddling with the property. CA G.” Paat v. without any pretense of authority or right …”. The affidavit must also indicate the actual value of the property. ‘To detain’ is defined as to mean ‘to hold or keep in custody.

rendered operative by an electric or internal com“If trees could scream. Title. distribution. and 194 . Toward this end.—It is the policy of the State. c.—This Act shall be known as the “Chainsaw Act of 2002”. consistent with the Constitution. sale. 3. if they screamed all the that may be used for. develop and protect the forest resources under sustainable management. Lest we forget. natural or juridical.— As used in this Act. The State shall therefore regulate the ownership. Chainsaw Act of 2002 (Republic Act 9175) SECTION 1. to conserve. but is not time.” — Jack Handey limited to. the felling of trees or the (Digital Vision) cutting of timber. b. the term: a. He who blinks. loses. “Chainsaw dealer” shall refer to a person. the State shall pursue an aggressive forest protection program geared towards eliminating illegal logging and other forms of forest destruction which are being facilitated with the use of chainsaws. purchase and/or sale of chainsaws. engaged in the manufacture. transfer. SEC. importation. “Chainsaw” shall refer to any portable power saw or similar cutting implement.LAND fully well that it has been so seized by the DENR and that confiscation proceedings were under way—he exposes himself to criminal liability for perjury. would we be so cavalier about bustion engine or similar means. 2. Declaration of Policy. Filing a case against him for perjury during the pendency of the replevin proceedings adds leverage for the DENR. cutting them down? We might. importation and/or use of chainsaws to prevent them from being used in illegal logging or unauthorized clearing of forests. law is a game of pressure. “Department” shall refer to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources . for no good reason. possession. Definition of Terms. SEC.

is an industrial tree farmer. 4. has a subsisting timber license agreement. hereof. Agencies of the government that use chainsaws in some aspects of their functions must likewise secure the necessary permit from the Department before operating the same. “Secretary” shall refer to the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. is a licensed wood processor and the chainsaw shall be used for the cutting of timber that has been legally sold to said applicant. through any of its Community Environment and Natural Resources Office. which shall issue the corresponding registration certificate or permit if it finds such persons to be qualified hereunder. timber and other forest or agro-forest products to any applicant who: a. Registration of Chainsaws. b. SEC. SEC. Every permit to possess and/or use a chainsaw for legitimate purpose shall be valid for two (2) years upon issuance: Provided. d. that permits to possess and use chainsaw issued to non-commercial orchard and fruit tree farmers shall be valid for a period 195 . or e. and Import Chainsaws. 6.—Within a period of three (3) months from effectivity “Suburbia is where the developer bulldozes out the trees. all persons who own or are then names the streets after them.” — Bill Vaughan otherwise in possession of chain(Digital Vision) saws must register the same with the Department.CHAINSAW ACT d.— Chainsaws shall only be sold and/or imported by manufacturers. dealers and/or private owners who are duly authorized by the Department.—The Department is hereby authorized to issue permits to possess and/or use a chainsaw for the felling and/or cutting of trees. 5. c. is an orchard and fruit tree farmer. or a private land timber permit. Sell. production sharing agreement. or similar agreements. Persons Authorized to Possess and Use a Chainsaw. Shall use the chainsaw for a legal purpose. SEC. Persons Authorized to Manufacture.

SEC. Unlawful Importation or Manufacturing of Chainsaw. partnership or corporation. Penal Provisions. For this purpose.00) or both at the discretion of the court.000.—Any person who sells.00) but not more than Fifty thousand pesos (PhP 50. Selling.—Any person who is found to be in possession of a chainsaw and uses the same to cut trees and timber in forest land or elsewhere except as authorized by the Department shall be penalized with imprisonment of six (6) years and one (1) day to eight (8) years or a fine of not less than Thirty thousand pesos (PhP 30. he shall be removed from office and perpetually qualified from holding any public office. 2.00). distributes. purchases.000.00) nor more than four thousand pesos (PhP 4. 8. and the chainsaw/s confiscated in favor of the government. two (2) months and one (1 ) day to six years or a fine of not less than Fifteen thousand pesos (PhP 15.LAND of five (5) years upon issuance. in addition to the above penalties.000.00) but not more than Thirty thousand pesos (PhP 30. Reward. SEC. Actual Unlawful Use of Chainsaw. transfers the ownership. Transferring.—Any person who imports or manufactures a chainsaw without obtaining prior authorization from the Department shall be punished by imprisonment of not less than one (1) month nor more than six (6) months and a fine of not less than One thousand pesos (PhP 1.00) nor more than Four thousand pesos (PhP 4. Re-selling.—Any person who voluntarily gives information leading to the recovery or confiscation of an unregistered chainsaw and the conviction of persons charged thereof shall be entitled to a reward equivalent to twenty (20%) of the value of 196 .000. the Department shall be allowed to collect reasonable registration fees for the effective implementation of this Act. or the responsible officer/s in such partnership or corporation. If the violation under this Section is committed by or through the command or order of another person.000. The chainsaw unlawfully used shall be likewise confiscated in favor of the government.00) or both at the discretion of the court without prejudice to being prosecuted for a separate offense that may have been simultaneously committed.00).000. 1. Tampering of Engine serial Number. 7. If the offender is a public official or employee. The chainsaws confiscated under this Section shall be sold at public auction to qualified buyers and the proceeds thereof shall go to the Department. Purchasing. 3. or otherwise disposes or possesses a chainsaw without first securing the necessary permit from the Department shall be punished with imprisonment of four (4) years. 4.—Any person who is found to have defaced or tampered with the original registered engine serial number of any chainsaw unit shall be punished by imprisonment of not less than one (1) month nor more than six (6) months and a fine of not less than one thousand pesos (PhP 1.000. Distributing or Possessing a Chainsaw Without a Proper Permit.000. the penalties herein provided shall likewise be imposed on such other person.

rules and regulations. letters or instruction. within the shortest possible time.—All laws. for any reason. SEC. SEC. He shall likewise organize an office within the Department to ensure that the requirements imposed by this Act may be complied with qualified persons. SEC. Repealing Clause. such parts or provisions not affected thereby shall remain in full force and effect.—In the interim while the Department is formulating the implementing rules and regulations to effectively carry out the provisions of this Act. executive orders. 12. 7611 or the Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan. five (5) members of each of the Senate and the House of Representatives who shall be designated by the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives as members: Provided. or parts thereof which are inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed and/or amended accordingly. that the two (2) of the five (5) senators and two (2) of the five (5) House Members shall be nominated by the respective Minority Leaders of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Joint Congressional Oversight Committee. 10. In the Province of Palawan. 15. Separability Clause. there is hereby created a Joint Congressional Oversight Committee to be composed of the Chairpersons of the Senate Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources and the house committee on Natural Resources as Chairperson and Co-chairperson.—If. SEC. including the approval of the rules and regulations issued pursuant hereto. presidential decrees. The Department is authorized to include in its budget the amount necessary to carry out the purpose of this section.—The Secretary may revoke any Certificate of Registration or permit previously issued to a person found violating the provisions of this Act. 13. SEC. the provisions of this Act shall be implemented by the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development pursuant to Republic act No. 197 .—To monitor and oversee the implementation of this Act. Effectivity. SEC. SEC. or the rules and regulations issued pursuant thereto. 11. Revocation of Registration and Permit. at the least possible expense.CHAINSAW ACT the chainsaw unit/s. 14. 9. Transitory Provision. Authority of the Secretary.—This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its complete publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two (2) national newspaper of general circulation. any part or provision of this Act shall be declared as unconstitutional or invalid. the Secretary shall issue the implementing rules and regulations within ninety (90) days upon approval of this Act.—To effectively implement the provisions of this Act. whichever comes earlier. the Bureau of Customs is prohibited from approving any chainsaw importation without clearance from said Department.

This Act shall also apply to exotic species which are subject to trade. to pursue.LAND Protected Species Conservation and Protection of Wildlife Resources (Republic Act 9147) Chapter I General Provisions SECTION 1. b. the Philippine commitment to international conventions. c. maintained and/or bred in captivity or propagated in the country. including but not limited to crocodiles. 3. all turtles and tortoises and wetland species. Oposa) shall be enforceable for all wildlife species found in all areas of the country. including protected areas under Republic Act No. with due regard to the national interest.—It shall be the policy of the State to conserve the country’s wildlife resources and their habitats for sustainability. are cultured. protection of wildlife and their habitats.—The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) shall have jurisdiction over all terrestrial plant and animal species. otherwise known as the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) Act. Scope of Applica— Ralph Waldo Emerson tion.” SEC. Declaration of Policy. to regulate the collection and trade of wildlife. 7586. 198 . “The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn. this Act shall have the following objectives: a.” SEC. SEC.—This Act shall be known as the “Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act. 4. 2. and d.—The provisions of this Act (A. Jurisdiction of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Department of Agriculture. to conserve and protect wildlife species and their habitats to promote ecological balance and enhance biological diversity. In the pursuit of this policy. Title. to initiate or support scientific studies on the conservation of biological diversity. and critical habitats.

a) “Bioprospecting” means the research. including but not limited to all fishes. 7611.CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE RESOURCES waterbirds and all amphibians and dugong. invertebrates and all marine mammals. its by-products or derivatives. f) “Critically endangered species” refers to a species or subspecies that is facing extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future. 5. and. j) “Exotic species” means species or subspecies which do not naturally occur in the country. Chapter II Definition of Terms SEC. except dugong. This includes stuffed animals and herbarium specimens. c) “Captive-breeding/culture or propagation” means the process of producing individuals under controlled conditions or with human interventions. e) “Conservation” means preservation and sustainable utilization of wildlife. jurisdiction herein conferred is vested to the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development pursuant to Republic Act No. all aquatic resources. g) “Economically important species” means species which have actual or potential value in trade or utilization for commercial purposes. b) “By-product or derivatives” means any part taken or substance extracted from wildlife. k) “Export permit” refers to a permit authorizing an individual to bring out wildlife from the Philippines to any other country. 199 . and/or maintenance. aquatic plants. collection and utilization of biological and genetic resources for purposes of applying the knowledge derived therefrom solely for commercial purposes. h) “Endangered species” refers to species or subspecies that is not critically endangered but whose survival in the wild is unlikely if the causal factors continue operating. restoration and enhancement of the habitat. the term. by joint administrative order. Definition of Terms. The secretaries of the DENR and the DA shall review. revise and regularly update the list of species under the respective jurisdiction. i) “Endemic species” means species or subspecies which is naturally occurring and found only within specific areas in the country. in raw or in processed form. d) “Collection or collecting” means the act of gathering or harvesting wildlife. In the Province of Palawan. The Department of Agriculture (DA) shall have jurisdiction over all declared aquatic critical habitats.—As used in this Act.

y) “Wildlife collector’s permit” means a permit to take or collect from the wild certain species and quantities of wildlife for commercial purpose. t) “Trade” means the act of engaging in the exchange. their derivatives or by-products. operate and maintain a wildlife breeding farm for conservation. o) “Indigenous wildlife” means species or subspecies of wildlife naturally occurring or has naturally established population in the country. p) “Introduction” means bringing species into the wild that is outside its natural habitat. v) “Transport permit” means a permit issued authorizing an individual to bring wildlife from one place to another within the territorial jurisdiction of the Philippines. including those which are in captivity or are being bred or propagated. u) “Traditional use” means utilization of wildlife by indigenous people in accordance with written or unwritten rules. locally or internationally. s) “Threatened species” a general term to denote species or subspecies considered as critically endangered. in all developmental stages. n) “Import permit” refers to a permit authorizing an individual to bring in wildlife from another country.LAND l) “Gratuitous permit” means permit issued to any individual or entity engaged in noncommercial scientific or educational undertaking to collect wildlife. customs and practices traditionally observed. vulnerable or other accepted categories of wildlife whose population is at risk of extinction. 200 . and z) “Wildlife farm/culture permit” means a permit to develop. r) “Secretary” means either or both the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture. x) “Wildlife” means wild forms and varieties of flora and fauna. exportation or importation. w) “Vulnerable species” refers to species or subspecies that is not critically endangered nor endangered but is under threat from adverse factors throughout their range and is likely to move to the endangered category in the near future. trade and/or scientific purposes. accepted and recognized by them. usage. m) “Habitat” means a place or environment where a species or subspecies naturally occur or has naturally established its population. purchase or sale of wildlife. q) “Reexport permit” refers to a permit authorizing an individual to bring out of the country a previously imported wildlife.

9. furthermore.—Local transport of wildlife. That collection and utilization for said purpose shall not cover threatened species: Provided. SEC. by-products and derivatives may be collected and or possessed: Provided. likewise. shall be authorized by the Secretary upon proper evaluation of best available information or scientific data showing that the activity is. That the recipient of the wildlife is technically and financially capable to maintain it. Collection and/or Possession of By-Products and Derivatives.—Local transport of wildlife. SEC. 201 . Collection of Wildlife. Introduction. By-Products and Derivatives.—No person or entity shall be allowed possession of wildlife unless such person or entity can prove financial. reintroduction or restocking of endemic and indigenous wildlife shall be allowed only for population enhancement or recovery purposes subject to prior clearance from the Secretary or the authorized representative pursuant to Section 6 of this Act. subject to strict compliance with the provisions of this Act and rules and regulations promulgated pursuant thereto: Provided. That the source was not obtained in violation of this Act. be required: Provided. further. 8.CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE RESOURCES Chapter III Conservation and Protection of Wildlife Resources SEC. appropriated and acceptable wildlife collection techniques with least or no detrimental effects to the existing wildlife populations and their habitats shall. Exportation and/or Importation of Wildlife. SEC. For this purpose. SEC.—Collection of wildlife may be allowed in accordance with Section 6 of this Act: Provided. That in the collection of wildlife. technical capability and facility to maintain said wildlife: Provided. Local Transport of Wildlife. SEC. 7.—Wildlife species may be exported to or imported from another country as may be authorized by the Secretary or the designated representative. the Secretary shall regularly update wildlife information through research. by-products and derivatives collected or possessed through any other means shall be authorized unless the same is prejudicial to the wildlife and public health. 12. not detrimental to the survival of the species or subspecies involved and/or their habitat. 11. as subsequently manifested under this Chapter. That collection of wildlife by indigenous people may be allowed for traditional use and not primarily for trade: Provided. SEC. 10. Possession of Wildlife. 6. that Section 23 of this Act shall govern the collection of threatened species. Wildlife Information.—All activities. Reintroduction or Restocking of Endemic and Indigenous Wildlife. or for a purpose. finally. That the source was not obtained in violation of this Act.—The introduction.

the Secretary shall act on the research proposal within a reasonable period. If the applicant is a foreign entity or individual. Upon submission of the complete requirements. The proponent shall also be required to secure the prior informed consent from the local stakeholders. unless a clearance from the Secretary or the authorized representative is first obtained. 13. 14. collection and. whenever applicable and appropriate. In no case shall exotic species be introduced into protected areas covered by Republic Act No. The applicant shall disclose fully the intent and scope of the bioprospecting activity in a language and process understandable to the community. local communities. it shall be subject to environmental impact study which shall focus on the bioecology. The proponent shall also conduct public consultations with concerned individuals or entities.” — Dave Barry proponent. SEC. a local institution should be actively involved in the research. socioeconomic and related aspects of the area where the species will be introduced. SEC. The prior informed consent from the indigenous peoples shall be obtained in accordance with existing laws. In cases where introduction is allowed. in consultation with concerned agencies. which has execution of an undertaking by any endangered many whale species. shall require that prior informed consent be obtained by the applicant from the concerned indigenous cultural communities. management board under Republic Act No. Introduction of Exotic Wildlife.LAND Any proposed introduction shall be subject to a scientific study which shall focus on the bioecology. in 202 .—No exotic species shall be introduced into the country. The Secretary or the authorized representative. Bioprospecting— Bioprospecting shall be allowed upon “The real threat to whales is whaling. stipulating therein its (Digital Vision) compliance with and commitment(s) to reasonable terms and conditions that may be imposed by the Secretary which are necessary to protect biological diversity. 7586 and to critical habitats under Section 25 thereof. The action on the bioprospecting proposal by concerned bodies shall be made within a reasonable period. 7586 or private individual or entity. before granting the necessary permit.

For this purpose. shall be subject to an environmental impact study.CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE RESOURCES the technological development of the products derived from the biological and genetic resources. 16.—All activities dealing on genetic engineering and pathogenic organisms in the Philippines. That prior clearance from concerned bodies shall be secured before the issuance of the gratuitous permit: Provided. Calauit Island: A. shall establish a list of economically-important species. 17. field release and breeding of organisms that are potentially harmful to man and the environment shall be reviewed in accordance with the biosafety guidelines ensuring public welfare and the protection and conservation of wildlife and their habitats. SEC. That commercial breeding operations for wildlife. as well as unproductive parent stock shall be utilized for trade: Provided. within one (1) year after the effectivity of this Act. the Secretary shall establish a schedule and volume of allowable harvests. the population of such species can still remain viable and capable of recovering its numbers. educational or breeding/propagation purposes. any form of collection shall be prohibited except for scientific. further. whenever appropriate. Economically Important Species—The Secretary. Oposa SEC. despite certain extent of collection. 203 . introduction. Whenever an economically important species become threatened. That the last paragraph of Section 14 shall likewise apply. A population assessment of such species shall be conducted within a reasonable period and shall be regularly reviewed and updated by the Secretary. as well as activities requiring the importation. pursuant to the provisions of this Act. Commercial Breeding or Propagation of Wildlife Resources. Scientific Researches on Wildlife. further. The collection of certain species shall only be allowed when the results of the assessment show that. That only progenies of wildlife raised. 15. SEC. Biosafety.—Breeding or propagation of wildlife for commercial purposes shall be allowed by the Secretary or the authorized representative pursuant to Section 6 through the issuance of wildlife farm/culture permit: Provided. 18. SEC.—Collection and utilization of biological resources for scientific research and not for commercial purposes shall be allowed upon execution of an undertaking/agreement with and issuance of a gratuitous permit by the Secretary or the authorized representative: Provided.

7611. How I wonder what you’re at! Up above the world you fly. the U. Visayas. To provide advice to the management authorities. the management authorities for terrestrial and aquatic resources shall be the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB) of the DENR and the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) of the DA. Marine Science Institute shall chair the scientific authorities. Like a tea-tray in the sky” — Lewis Carroll (G. twinkle little bat. respectively and that in the Province of Palawan the implementation hereof is vested to the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development pursuant to Republic Act No. That in the case of terrestrial species. whenever appropriate. U. the scientific authorities shall be the FBAR. Marine Science Institute.—For the implementation of the international agreement on international trade in endangered species of wild fauna and flora.P. For the marine and aquatic species.—The Secretary or the duly authorized representative. in order to effectively implement this Act. Tapan) Wildlife farm or culture permit 3 to 5 years.P.LAND SEC. 204 .P. the U. 20. there shall be designated scientific authorities for terrestrial and aquatic/marine species. Authority of the Secretary to Issue Permits. 19. the ERDB shall chair the scientific authorities.P. the scientific authorities shall be the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau (ERDB) of the DENR. the U. 2. For the terrestrial species. shall issue permits/certifications/clearances with corresponding period of validity. Wildlife collector’s permit 1 to 3 years. Designation of Management and Scientific Authorities for International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. SEC. Silliman Universtiy and the National Museum and other agencies as may be designated by the Secretary: Provided. “Twinkle. Institute of Biological Sciences and the National Museum and other agencies as may be designated by the Secretary. and in the case of marine and aquatic species. which shall include but not limited to the following: 1.

produced from farms shall be exempted from the said export fee: Provided. further. Determination of Threatened Species. the status of the species concerned and act on said petition within a reasonable period. the Secretary shall evaluate in accordance with the relevant factors stated in the first paragraph of this section. the list shall be updated regularly or as the need arises: Provided. c) inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms. and 5. Cutflowers. excluding transport costs. 4. Local transport permit 1 to 3 months. 21. which species shall likewise be categorized as threatened.—Reasonable fees and charges as may be determined upon consultation with the concerned groups. That fees and charges shall be reviewed by the Secretary every two (2) years or as the need arises and revise the same accordingly. leaves and the like. The Secretary shall review. b) over-utilization for commercial. however. and d) other natural or man-made factors affecting the existence of wildlife. recreational.—The Secretary shall determine whether any wildlife species or subspecies is threatened. modification or curtailment of its habitat or range. shall charged: Provided. That a species listed as threatened shall not be removed therefrom within three (3) years following its initial listing. vulnerable or other accepted categories based on the best scientific data and with due regard to internationally accepted criteria. ARTICLE TWO Protection of Threatened Species SEC. Upon filing of a petition based on substantial scientific information of any person seeking for the addition or deletion of a species from the list. Fees and Charges. scientific or educational purposes. Gratuitous permit 1 year. subject to consultation with concerned sectors. endangered. 22. That in the determination of aforesaid fee. For the export of wildlife species.CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE RESOURCES 3. and export permit fee of not greater than three per centum (3%) of the export value. Export/Import/Re-export permit 1 to 6 months. The Secretary shall also prepare and publish a list of wildlife which resembles so closely in appearance with listed threatened wildlife. SEC. and in the amount fixed by the Secretary shall be imposed for the issuance of permits enumerated in the preceding section. 205 . the production costs shall be given due consideration. Thereafter. revise and publish the list of categorized threatened wildlife within one (1) year after effectivity of this Act. These permits may be renewed subject to the guidelines issued by the appropriate agency and upon consultation with concerned groups. including but not limited to the following: a) present or threatened destruction. and classify the same as critically endangered.

26. Conservation Breeding or Propagation of Threatened Species. By-Products and Derivatives. presence of manmade pressures/threats to the survival of wildlife living in the area. Commercial breeding or propagation of threatened species may be allowed provided that the following minimum requirements are met by the applicant. lands. Establishment of Critical Habitats. business. shall be allowed only for scientific. SEC. including the acquisition of usufruct. to wit: e) and f) Commitment to undertake commercial breeding in accordance with Section 17 of this Act. 23. For such purpose. research. the Secretary may acquire. donation or expropriation. taking into consideration species’ endemicity and/or richness. simultaneous with conservation breeding. Such designation shall be made on the basis of the best scientific data. ARTICLE THREE Registration of Threatened and Exotic Species SEC. The Secretary shall prepare a list of threatened species for commercial breeding and shall regularly revise or update such list or as the need arises. where threatened species are found.—Within two (2) years following the effectivity of this Act. Collection of Threatened Wildlife. Twelve (12) months after the effectivity of this Act. as determined and listed pursuant to this Act. the Secretary shall designate critical habitats outside protected areas under Republic Act No.—No person or entity shall be allowed possession of wildlife unless such person or entity can prove financial and technical capability and facility to maintain said wildlife. from any form of exploitation or destruction which may be detrimental to the survival of the threatened species dependent therein. by purchase. 206 . All designated critical habitats shall be protected. in coordination with the local government units and other concerned groups.— Conservation breeding or propagation of threatened species shall be encouraged in order to enhance its population in its natural habitat. or interests therein. including its by-products and derivatives. It shall be done simultaneously with the rehabilitation and/or protection of the habitat where the captive-bred or propagated species shall be released. establishment of easements or other undertakings appropriate in protecting the critical habitat. SEC.LAND SEC. 7586. 24. within which person/entities shall register all threatened species collected and Proven effective breeding and captive management techniques of the species. educational or scientific entities shall be allowed to collect for conservation breeding or propagation purposes. Registration of Threatened and Exotic Wildlife in the Possession of Private Persons. among others. That only the accredited individuals. 25. reintroduced or restocked. the Secretary shall set a period. or breeding or propagation purposes in accordance with Section 6 of this Act: Provided.—The collection of threatened wildlife.

—Terry Tempest Williams (A. Illegal Acts. However. except in the following instances. threatened wildlife possessed without certificate of registration shall be confiscated in favor of the government. when the threatened species is needed for breeding/propagation or research purposes. After the period set has elapsed. Oposa) b.—Unless otherwise allowed in accordance with this Act. Perhaps the wildernes we fear is the pause within our own heartbeats. the State may acquire the wildlife through a mutually acceptable arrangement.CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE RESOURCES exotic species imported prior to the effectivity of this Act. All Philippine wildlife which are not listed as threatened prior to the effectivity of this Act but which may later become so. or undertake the following acts: a. (iii) when it is deemed necessary to put an end to the misery suffered by the wildlife. (iv) when it is done to prevent an imminent danger to the life or limb of a human being. Wilderness lives by this same grace. Chapter IV Illegal Acts SEC. (i) when it is done as part of the religious rituals of established tribal groups or indigenous cultural communities (ii) when the wildlife is afflicted with an incurable communicable disease. shall likewise be registered during the period set after the publication of the updated list of threatened species. inflicting injury which cripples and/or impairs the reproductive system of wildlife species. and (v) when the wildlife is killed or destroyed after it has been used in authorized research or experiment. it shall be unlawful for any person to willfully and knowingly exploit wildlife resources and their habitats. To protect what is wild is to protect what is gentle. 207 . subject to the penalties herein provided. the silent space that says we live only by grace. killing and destroying wildlife species. 27.

g.LAND c. effecting any of the following acts in critical habitat(s): (i) (ii) dumping of waste products detrimental to wildlife. gathering or destroying of active nests. the following penalties and/or fines shall be imposed: a) imprisonment of a minimum of six (6) years and one (1) day to twelve (12) years and/or fine of One hundred thousand pesos (P 100. c) imprisonment of two (2) years and one (1) day to four (4) years and/or a fine of Thirty thousand pesos (P 30. if inflicted or undertaken against other threatened species.00). Chapter V Fines and Penalties SEC.000. introduction. (iii) mineral exploration and/or extraction.000. squatting or otherwise occupying any portion of the critical habitat. their by-products and derivatives. trading of wildlife. maltreating and/or inflicting other injuries not covered by the preceding paragraph.000. and (vi) quarrying.00) to One million pesos (P 1.000. hunting or possessing wildlife. (iv) burning.000. if inflicted or undertaken against vulnerable species.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos (P 500.000.000. if inflicted or undertaken against endangered species. (v) logging. collecting.—For any person who undertakes illegal acts under paragraph (a) of the immediately preceding section to any species as may be categorized pursuant to this Act. f. d) imprisonment of one (1) year and one (1) day to two (2) years and/or a fine of Twenty thousand pesos (P 20.00). if inflicted or undertaken against species listed as critical. reintroduction or restocking of wildlife resources.000.000. h.00). 208 . d.00) to Three hundred thousand pesos (P 300. transporting of wildlife.00). nest trees.000. and e) imprisonment of six (6) months and one (1) day to one (1) year and/or a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P 10. e. if inflicted or undertaken against other wildlife species. 28. host plants and the like. b) imprisonment of four (4) years and one (1) day to six (6) years and/or a fine of Fifty thousand pesos (P 50.00). and i.00) to One hundred thousand pesos (P 100.00) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P 200.000. Penalties for Violations of this Act.

and e) imprisonment of one (1) month to six (6) months and/or a fine of Five thousand pesos (P 5. if inflicted or undertaken against species listed as critical: b) imprisonment of two (2) years and one (1) day to four (4) years and/or a fine of Thirty thousand pesos (P 30. d) imprisonment of six (6) months and one (1) day to one (1) year and/or a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P 10. For illegal acts under paragraph (c) and (d) of the immediately A true conservationist is a man who knows that the world is not given by his fathers but borrowed from his children.00).000. For illegal acts under paragraphs (e).000.00).000.00).00) to Three hundred thousand pesos (P 300.00) to Twenty thousand pesos (P20. c) imprisonment of one (1) year and one (1) day to two (2) years and/or a fine of Twenty thousand pesos (P 20. if inflicted or undertaken against vulnerable species.000. if inflicted or undertaken against other threatened species.000.00).000.00) to Fifty thousand pesos (P 50.00) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P 200.000.000.000. if inflicted or undertaken against other wildlife species. if inflicted or undertaken against species listed as critical.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos (P 500.00).00) to Five million pesos (P 5. Oposa.000.00) shall be imposed.000.00) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P 200. the following penalties and/or fines shall be imposed: a) imprisonment of two (2) years and one (1) day to four (4) years and/or a fine of Five thousand pesos (P 5.—Audobon (A. Trees) preceding section.CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE RESOURCES For illegal acts under paragraph (b) of the immediately preceding section. the following penalties and/or fines shall be imposed: a) imprisonment of a minimum of four (4) years and one (1) day to six (6) years and/or a fine of Fifty thousand pesos (P 50. an imprisonment of one (1) month to eight (8) years and/or a fine of Five thousand pesos (P 5.000.000.000. if inflicted or undertaken against endangered species.000. 209 .00).

000.000.000.00) to Fifty thousand pesos (P 50. c) imprisonment of six (6) months and one (1) day to one (1) year and/or a fine of One thousand pesos (P 1.00). that in case of paragraph (f).00).000.000.00).LAND b) imprisonment of one (1) year and one (1) day to two (2) years and/or a fine of Two thousand pesos (P 2. if inflicted or undertaken against other wildlife species: Provided.000.00) to Five thousand pesos (P 5.000.00) to One hundred thousand pesos (P 100. where the acts were perpetuated through the means of inappropriate techniques and devices.00) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P 200. d) imprisonment of one (1) month and one (1) day to six (6) months and a fine of Five thousand pesos (P 5.000. and e) imprisonment of ten (10) days to one (1) month and/or a fine of Two hundred pesos (P 200.000. if inflicted or undertaken against species listed as other threatened species. if inflicted or undertaken against endangered species.00) to Twenty thousand pesos (P 20.00). 210 . if inflicted or undertaken against endangered species.00).000.000.00) to Fifty thousand pesos (P 50. if inflicted or undertaken against vulnerable species. the maximum penalty herein provided shall be imposed.000.00) to Fifty thousand pesos (P 50. c) imprisonment of six (6) months and one (1) day to one (1) year and a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P 10.00). and e) imprisonment of ten (10) days to one (1) month and a fine of One thousand pesos (P 1. For illegal acts under paragraph (f) and (g) of the immediately preceding section. if inflicted or undertaken against species listed as critical species. b) imprisonment of three (3) months and one (1) day to six (6) months and a fine of Twenty thousand pesos (P 20.00) to Three hundred thousand pesos (P 300.00) to One hundred thousand pesos (P 100. b) imprisonment of one (1) year and one (1) day to two (2) years and a fine of Twenty thousand pesos (P 20.000.00).000.00). if inflicted or undertaken against species listed as critical species.000. if inflicted or undertaken against vulnerable species. if inflicted or undertaken against endangered species. For illegal acts under paragraphs (h) and (i) of the immediately preceding section.000.000.000.00). the following penalties and/or fines shall be imposed: a) imprisonment of two (2) years and one (1) day to four (4) years and a fine of Thirty thousand pesos (P 30.00) to Two hundred thousand pesos (P 200.000. if inflicted or undertaken against other wildlife species. the following penalties and/or fines shall be imposed: a) imprisonment of six (6) months and one (1) day to one (1) year and a fine of Fifty thousand pesos (P 50.00) to One hundred thousand pesos (P 100.00).00). d) imprisonment of one (1) month and one (1) day to six (6) months and/or a fine of Five hundred pesos (P 500. if inflicted or undertaken against species listed as other threatened species.000.

charges. its derivatives or by-products. Chapter VI Miscellaneous Provisions SEC. the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI).00) to Twenty thousand pesos (P 20. It shall finance rehabilitation or restoration of habitats affected by acts committed in violation of this Act and support scientific research. 30. Wildlife Management Fund.000. and other law enforcement agencies shall designate wildlife enforcement officers.000. the wildlife enforcement officers shall have the full authority to seize illegally traded wildlife and to arrest violators of this Act subject to existing laws. citizens groups.00). without any further proceedings. as well as enhancement of capabilities of relevant agencies. endowments.—There is hereby established a Wildlife Management Fund to be administered by the Department as a special account in the National Treasury.—The Secretary shall deputize wildlife enforcement officers from non-government organizations.000.00) to One thousand pesos (P1. That where the ownership of the aforesaid conveyances belongs to a third person who has no participation in or knowledge of the illegal acts. d) imprisonment of ten (10) days to one (1) month and a fine of One thousand pesos (P 1. and all paraphernalia. All wildlife. SEC. The apprehending agency shall immediately cause the transfer of all wildlife that have been seized or recovered to the nearest Wildlife Rescue Center of the Department in the area. e) imprisonment of five (5) days to ten (10) days and a fine of Two hundred pesos (P 200. if inflicted or undertaken against other wildlife species. The fund shall derive from fines imposed and damages awarded. charges or fees imposed by the government. As such. The Philippine National Police (PNP). fees.CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE RESOURCES c) imprisonment of one (1) month and one (1) day to three (3) months and a fine of Five thousand pesos (P 5. Contributions to the Fund shall be exempted from donor taxes and all other taxes.000.00).00) to Five thousand pesos (P 5. Deputation of Wildlife Enforcement Officers. 211 . The fines herein prescribed shall be increased by at least ten percent (10%) every three (3) years to compensate for inflation and to maintain the deterrent function of such times. donations. rules and regulations on arrest and detention. administrative fees or grants in the form of contributions. 29. If the offender is an alien. the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). shall be ipso facto forfeited in favor of the government: Provided. if inflicted or undertaken against vulnerable species. the same may be released to said owner.000.00). he shall be deported after service of sentence and payment of fines. tools and conveyances used in connection with violations of this Act. if inflicted or undertaken against species listed as other threatened species. community organizations and other volunteers who have undergone the necessary training for this purpose. enforcement and monitoring activities.

bequest.—The Secretary shall establish designate wildlife rescue centers to take temporary custody and care of all confiscated. SEC. Philippine teak (Tectona philippinensis). SEC. rules and regulations. subsidy of financial aid which may be made to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources or to the Department of Agriculture and to NGOs engaged in wildlife conservation duly registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission as certified by the local government unit. secure a clearance from the wildlife traffic monitoring unit assigned in the area. In this regard. prior to further disposition thereof. Customs officers and/or other authorized government representatives assigned at air or seaports who may have intercepted wildlife commodities in the discharge of their official functions shall. which shall serve as emblems of conservation for the local government concerned. Exemption from Taxes.LAND SEC. respectively. tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis). Flagship Species.—The Secretary shall regulate the establishment. 35. education and conservation. contribution. for the conservation and protection of wildlife resources and their habitats shall constitute as an allowable deduction from the taxable income of the donor and shall be exempt from donor’s tax. 33. the Secretary shall encourage the participation of experts from academic/research institutions and wildlife industry. Establishment of National Wildlife Research Centers. operation and maintenance of botanical gardens. SEC. Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta). the secretaries of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.—The Secretary shall establish national wildlife research centers for terrestrial and aquatic species to lead in the conduct of scientific researchers on the proper strategies for the conservation and protection of wildlife. 37. 31. Creation of Wildlife Traffic Monitoring Units.—Local government units shall initiate conservation measures for endemic species in their areas. The Secretary shall formulate guidelines for the disposition of wildlife from the rescue centers. abandoned and/or donated wildlife to ensure their welfare and well-being. Zoological Parks and Other Similar Establishments. and the Department of Agriculture. shall promulgate respective rules and regulations for the effective implementation of this Act.—Any donation. SEC. SEC. including pertinent international agreements. zoological parks and other similar establishments for recreation. the Department of Environment and Natural Resources or the Department of Agriculture.—Within twelve (12) months following the effectivity of this Act. 36. SEC. Wildlife Rescue Center. including captive breeding or propagation. in coordination with the Committees on Environment and Ecology of the Senate and the House of Representative.—The Secretary shall create wildlife traffic monitoring units in strategic air and seaports all over the country to ensure the strict compliance and effective implementation of all existing wildlife laws. they may adopt flagship species such as the Cebu black shama (Copsychus cebuensis). Implementing Rules and Regulations. 212 . For this purpose. Botanical Gardens. 32. 34.

the same shall not affect the validity or the legality of the other provisions. Thereafter. 39. such sums as may be necessary to fully implement the provisions of this Act shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. 2001. 6147. orders and regulations inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed or amended accordingly. SEC. Republic Act No. as amended. Presidential Decree No. as amended. The commitments of the State to international agreements and protocols shall likewise be a consideration in the implementation of this Act. 38.— Act Nos. 1219.—Nancy Newhall (N. SEC. 63. Commonwealth Act No. and other laws.—The amount necessary to initially implement the provisions of this Act shall be charged against the appropriations of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in the current General Appropriations Act. Appropriations. coordination in the preparation and implementation of rules and regulations on joint and inseparable issues shall be done by both Departments. Oshima) 213 . Effectivity.—This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after publication in the Official Gazette or two (2) newspapers of general circulation. 41. SEC. Approved: July 30. Separability Clause.—Should any provision of this Act be subsequently declared as unconstitutional. The (forests) hold answers to more questions than we yet know how to ask. 2590 and 3983. 40. Repealing Clause.CONSERVATION AND PROTECTION OF WILDLIFE RESOURCES Whenever appropriate. SEC.

the World Wildlife Fund.” In preparation of said rules — Dr. No. the Philippine Eagle is the largest in terms of wingspan and height. Haribon Foundation) Natural Resources shall seek the recommendation of the Director of Parks and Wildlife and the Philippine Wildlife Conservation Foundation. It is hereby declared that the Pithecophaga jefferyi.LAND Protection of the Philippine Eagle (Republic Act 6147) SECTION 1. commonly known as the monkey-eating eagle. SEC. For this purpose. hunting. Manaloto. the Director of Parks and Wildlife may seek the assistance of the National Science Development Board including private associations or foundations. but after the effectivity thereof. the killing. or technical cooperation _______________________ All reference to the Department or Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources should now read as Department of Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources pursuant to E. 61 214 . and management of the monkey-eating eagle. 3. The Director of Parks and Wildlife shall establish sanctuaries as are necessary to preserve this threatened species. financial grant. wounding. SEC. 192 (1987). or taking away of the same and/or destroying. To ensure the proper conservation. 2. Robert Kennedy of the Harvard Museum of Natural and regulations. disturbing. such as the Philippine Wildlife Conservation Foundation. or taking away of the nests or eggs of such a bird. and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources shall promulgate rules and regulations for the implementation of this Act within ninety (90) days from and “The Harpy Eagle maybe the largest in terms of bulk or weight. shall be a protected bird in the Philippines. for such support. in contravention of the rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary of Environment 61 and Natural Resources. preservation. is hereby prohibited and made subject to the penal provisions in Section 5 hereon. the SecreHistory tary of Environment and (Alejo P.O.

Oposa.”— A.PROTECTION OF WILD FLOWERS arrangements. 4. the conduct of studies on the natural habitat. offer or expose for sale. Any person violating any provision of this Act shall be punished by a penalty of prision correccional or by a fine of not less than Six Hundred Pesos (P600.00). rules and regulations inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed. the corresponding subsidiary imprisonment shall be suffered. Approved: November 9. alive or dead. living or dead. 2. or export. SEC. any protected flowering plant. or have in his or her possession.00). For the expenses in the establishment and maintenance of the sanctuaries. transport. orchid. All Acts.00) for the first year after the approval of this Act and subsequent appropriations shall be included in the General Appropriations Act. Except as provided in this Act. SEC. 1970. nor more than One Thousand Pesos (P1. or to purchase. fern. food requirements. the sum of One Hundred Thousand Pesos (P100. once you get to know them. SEC. ship. Milne Eeyore from Winnie the Pooh (A. It shall be the duty of the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources to issue and promulgate regulations which shall _______________________ 62 “Weeds are flowers too. lycopod or club moss or other wild plants in the Philippines. kill. collect. In case of insolvency. 7. orders. the court shall impose both the imprisonment and the fine. 5. SEC. mutilate. Protection of Wild Flowers 62 (Republic Act 3983) SECTION 1. predatory-prey control measure and other ecological factors most conducive to the conservation and management of the monkey-eating eagle and other requirements for the implementation of this Act.000. 6. as may be necessary or requisite to carry out and effectively implement the provisions of this Act. Flowers in Pulo) The Philippines is a party to the Convention of International Trade and Endangered Species (CITES). This Act shall take effect upon its approval. 215 . SEC. it shall be unlawful for any person in the Philippine Islands to take. part of Acts. A. there is hereby authorized to be appropriated out of any funds in the National Treasury not otherwise appropriated.000. or by both such imprisonment and fine at the discretion of the Court. In case of any subsequent offense.

No license or permit shall be granted under the provisions of this Act except to citizens of the Philippine Islands or of the United States. permitting the holder to collect specimens of protected wild plants for scientific or educational purposes. SEC. killing. alive or dead. transportation. sale. or to associations or corporations that are duty registered or incorporated under the laws of the Philippine Islands or of the United States or of any state thereof and authorized to transact business in the Philippine Islands and sixty-one percent of whose capital stock or interest in said capital stock is owned wholly by citizens of the Philippine Islands or of the United States. The Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources is hereby empowered to issue licenses for the collection. 4. and lycopods or club mosses and such other plants as may be designated by the Secretary of 216 . he shall be subject to the same penalty as if he had no permit. or mutilation of orchids. 5. destruction. or destroyed any protected wild plant in whole or in part for other than a scientific or educational purpose. alive or dead. Such licenses shall specify the number and kind of plants which may be collected. and may be made applicable to the whole Philippine Islands or any specified locality or localities and may be continued in force indefinitely or for a given number of years or for any specific portion or portions of each successive year. and to issue such other regulations as may be necessary prescribing the conditions governing the collection. or export of such protected wild plants as should be collected only by licensed collectors. or to citizens of countries the laws of which allow similar rights to citizens of the Philippine Islands. collection. SEC. 7. possession. killed. to which the duty of carrying out the purposes of this Act may be delegated by the Department Head. possession. SEC. A permit may be granted by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources free of charge to any person of good repute of legal age. of any of the Protected Wild Plants in the Philippines. Such permits shall be in force for a period of one year only and shall be subject to such conditions as the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources may deem wise to impose for the proper carrying out of the purposes of this Act. destruction. The Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources may issue a special permit for the possession of very rate specimens. lycopods or club mosses (known in some localities as buntot pusa or palawit). shall fix the fees for the collection of individual species or group of species of protected wild plants. ferns. including orchids. SEC. transportation. which shall be protected under this Act. The taking. The making of any false statement upon the application blank for a collecting license or permit shall subject the offender both to the forfeiture of his license or permit and to the other penalties hereinafter provided. ferns. and the conditions under which they may be kept or disposed of. SEC.LAND specify from time to time the classes or species of the rare and flowering plants. 6. Upon proof that the holder of such permit has taken. upon payment of the fees to be fixed in accordance with this Act. The rules so promulgated shall also specify the bureau or office of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. 3. 8. SEC. sale or exposure for sale or export.

PROTECTION OF WILD FLOWERS

Environment and Natural Resources is prohibited within a distance of one hundred meters from any public highway or trail; Provided, however, That this prohibition shall not apply to the owner of land on which such plants may be found or the duly authorized agent of the owner. SEC. 9. Members of the Philippine Constabulary; members of municipal and municipal district police, and such foresters, rangers, and forest guards of the Bureau of Forestry; botanists, geologists, and field chemists of the Bureau of Science; public lands inspectors, special attorneys and surveyors of the Bureau of Lands; agronomists and plant inspectors of the Bureau of Plant Industry; and other competent persons as may be designated in writing by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources, are hereby made deputy wardens of protected wild plants and are hereby given full authority and directed to enforce the provisions of this Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and to arrest offenders against the same. SEC. 10. Any person, association, or corporation violating this Act or any order or regulation deriving force from its provisions shall be punished for each offense by a fine of not less than Ten Pesos (P10.00) nor “I am the Lorax, I speak for the trees, for the trees more than Two Hundred Pesos have no tongues.” — Dr. Suess (P200), or by imprisonment, in the (G. Tapan) discretion of the court; Provided, That in the case of an association or corporation, the president or manager shall be directly responsible for the acts of his employees or laborers if it is proven that the latter acted with his knowledge; otherwise the responsibility shall extend only as far as fine is concerned; Provided, further, That all plants gathered or collected in violation of this Act shall be forfeited to the government. SEC. 11. This Act shall take effect on its approval. Approved, December 3, 1932.

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Prospecting of Biological and Genetic Resources
(Executive Order No. 247) WHEREAS, Section 16, Article II of the Philippine Constitution, vests in the State the ultimate responsibility to preserve and protect the environment; and Section 2, Article XII provides that wildlife, flora and fauna, among others, are owned by the State and the disposition, development, and utilization thereof are under its full control and supervision; WHEREAS, it is in the interest of the State’s conservation efforts to ensure that the research, collection, and use of species, genes, and their products be regulated; and to identify and recognize the rights of indigenous cultural communities and other Philippine communities to their traditional knowledge and practices when this information is directly and indirectly put to commercial use; WHEREAS, under Article XVI of the Convention on Biological Diversity of which “The human spirit needs places where nature has not been the Philippines is a party, rearranged by the hand of man.”— Author Unknown each contracting party is (Digital Vision) mandated to take legislative, administrative, or policy measures, as appropriate, with the aim that contracting parties, in particular those that are developing countries, which provide genetic resources are provided access to and transfer of technology which makes use of those resources, on mutually agreed terms, including technology protected by patents and other intellectual property rights; WHEREAS, the Department on Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) is the primary government agency responsible for the conservation, management, development, and sustainable use of the country’s environment and natural resources; the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), the primary agency mandated to pro-

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PROSPECTING OF BIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC RESOURCES

mote local capability in science and technology to achieve technological self-reliance in selected areas vital to national development; the Department of Agriculture (DA), the agency responsible for the promotion of sustainable agriculture and aquatic resource development; the Department of Health (DOH), the agency responsible for the formulation, planning, implementation, and coordination of policies and programs in the field of health, including the research, regulation, and development of drugs and medicine; the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA), the agency responsible for promoting international relations; WHEREAS, an inter-agency approach is the most appropriate way of regulating the research, collection, exploitation, and use of biological and genetic resources; NOW, THEREFORE, I, FIDEL V. RAMOS, President of the Republic of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by Law and the Constitution, do hereby order: SECTION 1. Policy of the State.—It shall be the policy of the State to regulate the prospecting of biological and genetic resources so that these resources are protected and conserved, are developed and put to the sustainable use and benefit of the national interest. Further, it shall promote the development of local capability in science and technology to achieve technological self-reliance in selected areas. SEC. 2. Consent of Indigenous Cultural Communities— a. Prospecting of biological and genetic resources shall be allowed within the ancestral lands and domains of indigenous cultural communities only with the prior informed consent of such communities; obtained in accordance with the customary laws of the concerned community. b. Prospecting of biological and genetic resources shall be allowed only with the prior informed consent of the concerned local communities. SEC. 3. When Research Agreement Is Necessary—The prospecting of biological and genetic resources shall be allowed when the person, entity, or corporation, foreign or domestic, undertaking such activities, on recommendation of the Inter-Agency Committee on Biological and Genetic Resources, has entered into a Research Agreement with the Philippine government, represented by the DENR, DOH, DA, or DOST, depending on the nature and character of the prospecting activity. For purposes of this Executive Order, traditional uses of biological resources by indigenous and local communities shall not require a Research Agreement. If the research and collection of biological and genetic resources is intended, directly or indirectly, for commercial purposes, the agreement must be a Commercial Research Agreement. For purposes of this Executive Order, all Research Agreements with private persons and corporations, including all agreements with foreign or international entities, shall conform with the minimum requirements of a Commercial Research Agreement. If the prospecting of biological and genetic materials is intended primarily for academic purposes, the agreement shall be an Academic Research Agreement. Only duly-

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recognized Philippine universities and academic institutions, domestic governmental entities, and intergovernmental entities may apply for an Academic Research Agreement. Where the Commercial or Academic Collector is merely an agent or merely collecting for another person or entity, the agreement between the Commercial Collector and the Principal must be reviewed by the Inter-Agency Body to determine the latter agreement does not undermine the substantive requirements of this Executive Order. SEC. 4. Application for Academic Research Agreement and Commercial Research Agreement.—The applicant shall first submit an application for a Research Agreement to the Inter-Agency Committee on Biological and Genetic Resources through the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB). It must include a research proposal stating the purpose, source of funds, duration, and a list of biological and genetic materials and the amount to be taken. The requisites for research agreements are in Appendix B. For Academic Research Agreements, the proposal may be broader and more general in character as provided in Section 5 (m). A copy of the proposal must be submitted to the recognized head of the local Flow, flow, flow, the current of life is ever onward.— or indigenous cultural comKobodashi munity or communities that (A. Oposa) may be affected. Action on the proposal shall be made only after 60 days has lapsed after a copy of the proposal is received by the persons concerned. SEC. 5. Minimum Terms of the Commercial Research Agreement and Academic Research Agreement.—The Minimum Terms of the Commercial Research Agreement and Academic Research Agreement are as follows: a. There must be a limit on samples that the Commercial/Academic Collector may obtain and export and that the approved list and amount of the samples taken from the area must be followed strictly;

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b. A complete set of all specimens collected shall be deposited by the Commercial/Academic Collector with the National Museum or a duly designated governmental entity; Provided, That holotypes designated by the author must be maintained at the National Museum; c. Access to collected specimens and relevant data shall be allowed to all Filipino citizens and the Philippine governmental entities whenever these specimens are deposited in depositories abroad; d. The Commercial/Academic Collector, or in appropriate cases, its Principal, must inform the Philippine government, as well as the affected local and indigenous cultural communities all discoveries from the activity conducted in the Philippines, if a commercial product is derived from such activity; e. The agreement shall include a provision for the payment of royalties to the national government, local or indigenous cultural community an individual person or designated beneficiary in case commercial use is derived from the biological and genetic resources taken. Where appropriate and applicable, other forms of compensation may be negotiated: f. There shall be a provision allowing the Philippine government to unilaterally terminate the agreement whenever the Commercial/Academic Collector has violated any of its terms. The Agreement may also be revoked on the basis of public interest and welfare; g. A status report of the research and the ecological state of the area and/or species concerned shall be submitted to the Inter-Agency Committee regularly as agreed upon; h. If the Commercial Collector or its Principal is a foreign person or entity, it must be stipulated that scientists who are citizens of the Philippines must be actively involved in the research and collection process and, where applicable and appropriate as determined by the Inter-Agency Committee, This involvement shall be at the cost of the Commercial Collector; i. The Commercial Collector and/or its Principal shall be encouraged to avail of the services of Philippine universities and academic institutions. Where applicable and appropriate, the Commercial Collector and/or its Principal shall be required to transfer equipment to a Philippine institution or entity; j. A fixed fee must be paid to the DENR in accordance with a schedule of fees formulated by the Inter-Agency Committee; k. The maximum term for a Commercial Research Agreement shall be for three years and renewable upon review by the Inter-Agency Committee; and l. In case of endemic species, there must be a statement that the technology must be made available to a designated Philippine institution and can be used commercially and locally without paying royalty to a Collector or Principal. Provided, however, That where appropriate and applicable, other agreements may be negotiated. Provided, further, that the following terms shall be considered in an Academic Research Agreement: 221

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m. The Academic Research Agreement may be comprehensive in scope and cover as may areas as may be projected. It may stipulate that all scientists and researchers affiliated with a duly-recognized university, academic institution, governmental and intergovernmental entity need not apply for a different Research Agreement but may conduct research and collection activities in accordance with an existing Academic Research Agreement. In such cases, the university, academic institution and governmental entity shall ensure that all the terms and conditions of the government are complied with by the affiliated scientist or researcher. In all cases, the university institution or governmental entity must ensure that affected communities have given their prior informed consent to the activities to be undertaken; n. There must be a provision requiring the Academic Collector to apply for a commercial research agreement when it becomes clear that the research and collection being done has commercial prospects; o. A minimal fee must be paid to the Philippine government in accordance with a schedule of fees by the Inter-Agency Committee; and p. The maximum term for an Academic Research Agreement shall be for five years and renewable upon review by the Inter-Agency Committee. SEC. 6. Composition and Functions of the Inter-Agency Committee on Biological and Genetic Resources.—An Inter-Agency Committee on Biological and Genetic Resources attached to the DENR is hereby created as the regulatory body to ensure that the provisions of this Executive Order are enforced and implemented. The Inter-Agency Committee shall be composed of the following: 1. An Undersecretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources designated by the DENR Secretary who shall be the Chairperson of the Committee. 2. An Undersecretary of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) designated by the DOST Secretary who shall be co-chairperson of the Committee. 3. A permanent representative of the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture, who must be knowledgeable about biodiversity or biotechnology. 4. Two permanent representatives of the Philippine science community from the academe and who must be experts in any of the following fields: biodiversity, biotechnology, genetics, natural products chemistry or similar disciplines, shall be appointed by the DOST Secretary after nominations from and consultations with the science community. 5. A permanent representative of the Secretary of the Department of Health who must be knowledgeable about pharmaceutical research and development. 6. A permanent representative of the Department of Foreign Affairs who has to facilitate international linkage relative to bioprospecting. 7. A permanent representative of the National Museum who has expertise on natural history and/or biological diversity. 8. A representative from a non-government organization (NGO) active in biodiversity protection to be selected by the NGO community through a process designed by themselves and later endorsed by the Philippine Council of Sustainable Development. 222

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9. A representative from a People’s Organization (PO) with membership consisting of indigenous cultural communities and/or their organizations to be selected by the PO community through a process designed by themselves and through the endorsement of the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development. All members of the Inter-Agency Committee shall serve for a period of three years which may be renewed for another three years. In case of death, resignation, removal or other circumstance which requires the replacement of a member, said member may be succeeded by another person with the same qualifications and appointed in a similar process. The replacement shall serve the unexpired term of the member replaced. A Technical Secretariat, to be headed by the PAWB, shall be created to support the work of the Inter-Agency Committee. The Technical Secretariat shall be staffed with personnel from the PAWB and other agencies who shall be designated by the members of the Inter-Agency Committee. SEC. 7. Powers and Functions of the Inter-Agency Committee.—The InterAgency Committee shall meet at least once every quarter and shall have the following functions: a. Process applications for Research Agreements and recommend for approval thereof to the Secretary of DENR, DOH, DA, or DOST depending on the nature and character of the prospecting activity; b. Ensure that the conditions for the Research Agreements are strictly observed; c. Determine the list and amount of biological and genetic materials that may be taken from the area and ensure that these are complied with; d. Deputize and train appropriate agencies so as to ensure that no biological and genetic materials are taken from the Philippines and exported abroad except under a valid Research Agreement. It shall also be ensured that the specimens collected have been deposited in the Philippines; e. Ensure that the rights of the indigenous and local communities wherein the collection or researches are being conducted are protected, including the verification that the consent requirements in Sections 3 and 4 are complied with. The Inter-Agency Committee, after consultations with the affected sectors, shall formulate and issue guidelines implementing the provision on prior informed consent; f. Study and recommend to the President and the Congress appropriate laws on the utilization of biological and genetic resources including new laws on intellectual property rights; g. Involve local scientists in the decision making process by creating a MultiDisciplinary Advisory Body and other entities as may facilitate local involvement in the research, collection and utilization of biological and genetic resources; h. Develop a conceptual framework, using the research agreements entered into as well as other data as basis, for significantly increasing knowledge of Philippine biodiversity. The Inter-Agency Committee shall establish mechanisms to ensure the inte-

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gration and dissemination of the information generated from research, collection and utilization activities; i. Coordinate with the National Committee on Biosafety when necessary or appropriate; j. Issue rules and regulations to effectively carry out the provisions of this Executive Order; and k. Perform such other functions as may be necessary to implement this Executive Order. All decisions of the InterAgency Committee must be by a majority of all its members. SEC. 8. Monitoring Implementation of the Research Agree“There is a tragic clash between Truth and the world. Pure undistorted truth burns up the world.” -ment.—The Protected Areas and Nikolai Berdyaev Wildlife Bureau (PAWB) of the DENR shall be the lead agency in monitoring the implementation of the research agreement. The regional offices of the DENR shall also participate in the monitoring. SEC. 9. Appeals.—Decisions of the Secretary (DENR, DA, DOH, or DOST) may be appealed to the Office of the President. Recourse to the courts shall be allowed after It is not so much for its beauty that the forest makes exhaustion of all administrative a claim upon men’s hearts, as for that subtle someremedies. thing, that quality of air that emanation from old trees, that so wonderfully changes and renews a SEC. 10. Sanctions and Peweary spirit.—Robert Louis Stevenson nalties.—Undertaking activities in (A. Oposa, Bugsuk Island) violation of this Executive Order shall be subjected to such criminal penalties as may be proper under existing laws including the National Integrated Protected Areas System Act of 1992 and the Revised Forestry Code. Failure to comply with the provisions of the Research Agreements entered into under Sections 3, 4, and 5 shall be a valid cause of immediate termination of the Agreement and the imposition of a perpetual ban on undertaking prospecting of biological and genetic resources in the Philippines. SEC. 11. Existing Researches, Contracts Agreements.—All existing research projects, where allowed under existing law, may proceed pending the negotiation and entry into force of appropriate research agreement. All valid and existing contracts and agreements entered into by the PAWB, the National Museum or other governmental 224

TREE PLANTING

entities shall remain valid and effective; Provided, That the parties shall be required to enter into a new agreement conforming to this Executive Order. SEC. 12. Official Depository.—The official depository of all original and official documents such as agreements and minutes of the meeting is the PAWB. SEC. 13. Funding.—The activities of the Inter-Agency Committee on Biological and Genetic resources shall be funded in accordance with law. Such funding, where allowed by law, may include savings coming from the appropriate and concerned Departments and proceeds from the fees imposed on the Research Agreements. SEC. 14. Effectivity.—This Executive Order and rules and regulations take effect immediately upon publication in two newspapers of general circulation and upon filing of three certified copies with the U. P. Law Center. SEC. 15. Implementing Rules and Regulations.—The implementing rules and regulations shall be formulated by the Inter-Agency Committee and signed by the Secretary of DENR not later than three “Trees give peace to the souls of men.”—Nora months after the effectivity of the Executive Waln Correspondent 1895-1964 Order. (A. Oposa) Done in the City of Manila, on this 18th day of May, 1995. Tree Planting Requiring the Planting of Trees in Certain Places (Presidential Decree No. 953) Whereas, the planting of trees on lands adjoining the edge of rivers and creeks is both a measure of beautification and reforestation; and Whereas, the planting of trees along roads and areas intended for the common use of owners of lots in subdivisions will provide shade and healthful environment therein; Now, Therefore, I, Ferdinand E. Marcos, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby order and decree: SECTION 1. The following shall plant trees: 1. Every person who owns land adjoining a river or creek shall plant trees extending at least five meters on his land adjoining the edge of the bank of the river or

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creek, except when such land, due to its permanent improvement, cannot be planted with trees; 2. Every owner of an existing subdivision shall plant trees in the open spaces required to be reserved for the common use and enjoyment of the owners of the lots therein as well as along all roads and service streets. The subdivision owner shall consult the Bureau of Forest Development as to the appropriate species of trees to be planted and the manner of planting them; and 3. Every holder of a license agreement, lease, license or permit from the government involving occupation and utilization of forest or grazing land with a river or creek therein, shall plant trees extending at least twenty (20) meters from each edge of the bank of the river or creek. The persons hereinabove required to plant trees shall take good care of them, and, from time to time, remove any tree planted by them in their respective areas which has grown very old, is diseased, or is defective, and replant with trees their respective areas whenever necessary. SEC. 2. Every owner of land subdivided into residential/commercial/industrial lots after the effectivity of this Decree shall reserve, develop, and maintain not less than thirty percent (30%) of the total area of the subdivision, exclusive of roads, service 63 streets and alleys, as open space for parks and recreational areas. No plan for a subdivision shall be approved by the Land Registration Commission or any office or agency of the government unless at least thirty percent (30%) of the total area of the subdivision, exclusive of roads, service streets and alleys, is reserved as open space for parks and recreational areas and the owner thereof undertakes to develop such open space, within three (3) years from the approval of the subdivision plan, in accordance with the development plan approved by the Bureau of Forest Development and to maintain such parks and recreational areas. SEC. 3. Any person who cuts, destroys, damages, or injures naturally growing or planted trees of any kind, flowering or ornamental plants and shrubs, or plants of scenic, aesthetic, and ecological values, along public roads, in plazas, parks other than national parks, school premises or in any other public ground or place, or on banks of rivers or creeks, or along roads in land subdivisions or areas therein for the common use of the owners of lots therein, or any species of vegetation or forest cover found therein shall, be punished with imprisonment for not less than six months and not more than two years, or a fine of not less than Five Hundred Pesos (P500.00) and not more than Five Thousand Pesos (P5,000.00), or with both such imprisonment and fine at the discretion of the court, except when the cutting, destroying, damaging or injuring is necessary for public safety or the pruning thereof is necessary to enhance beauty, and only upon the approval of the duly authorized representative of the head of agency or political subdivision having jurisdiction therein, or of the Director of Forest Development in the case of trees on banks of rivers and creeks, or of the owner of the land subdivision in
_______________________
63

The open space requirement has been modified by B.P. Blg. 220.

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the case of trees along roads and in other areas therein for the common use of owners of lots therein. If the offender is a corporation, partnership or association, the penalty shall be imposed upon the officer or officers thereof responsible for the offense, and if such officer or officers are aliens, in addition to the penalty herein prescribed, he or they shall be deported without further proceedings before the Commission on Immigration and Deportation. Nothing in this Decree shall prevent the cancellation of a license agreement, lease, license or permit from the government, if such cancellation is prescribed therein or in government regulations for such offense. person who SEC. 4. Any shall violate any provision of Section 1 hereof, or any regulation promulgated thereunder, shall be punished with imprisonment for not less than six months but not more than two years, or with a fine of not less than Five Hundred Pesos (P500.00) but not more than Five Thousand Pesos (P5,000.00), or with both such imprisonment and fine at the discretion of the court. If the offender is a public officer or employee, he shall, in addition, be dismissed from the public service and disqualified per“A tree is the climax species of the plant kingdom petually to hold public office. as man is the climax species of the animal kingdom.—Anonymous SEC. 5. Any person who shall (A. Oposa) violate the provision of Section 2 hereof, or any regulation promulgated thereunder, shall be punished with imprisonment for not less than two (2) years but not more than five (5) years, or with a fine equivalent to the value, at current valuation, of the area representing thirty percent (30%) of the total area of the subdivision, or both such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the Court. SEC. 6. The Director of Forest Development shall issue such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Decree. SEC. 7. All laws, rules and regulations, or parts thereof, inconsistent herewith are hereby repealed. SEC. 8. This Decree shall take effect upon its promulgation. Done in the City of Manila, this 6th day of July, 1976.

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List of Endangered Species (DAO 2004-15) Pursuant to Sections 5 & 22 of Republic Act No. 9147 otherwise known as the Wildlife Conservation and Protection Act, the preliminary List of Threatened Wildlife, including their different categories and the List of Other Wildlife Species under the jurisdiction of DENR are hereby established. SECTION 1. Definition of Terms. —As used in this Order, the following terms shall mean as follows: 1. Threatened Species—is a general term to denote species or subspecies considered as critically endangered, endangered, vulnerable or other accepted categories of wildlife whose population is at risk of extinction; 2. Critically Endangered Species —refers to a species or subspecies that is facing extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future; 3. Endangered Species—refers to species or subspecies that is not critically endangered but whose survival in the wild is unlikely if the causal factors continue operating; 4. Vulnerable Species—refers to species or subspecies that is not critically endangered nor endangered but is under threat from adverse factors throughout their range and is likely to move to the “The peace of nature and of the innocent creaendangered category in the near future; tures of God seem to be secure and deep, only 5. Other Threatened Species— so long as the presence of man and his restless refers to species or subspecies that is not and unquiet spirit are not there to trouble its sanctity.” — Tomas De Quincey, “Prelimicritically endangered, endangered nor nary Confessions” (1821-56) (G. Tapan) vulnerable but is under threat from adverse factors, such as over collection, throughout their range and is likely to move to the vulnerable category in the near future; 6. Other Wildlife Species—refers to non-threatened species that have the tendency to become threatened due to predation and destruction of habitat or other similar causes as may be listed by the Secretary upon the recommendation of the National Wildlife Management Committee. 228

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SEC. 2.

The List of Threatened Wildlife and their Categories.

A. Critically Endangered Species MAMMALS Family Bovidae Cervidae Muridae Pteropodidae Dugongidae Suidae Scientific Name Bubalus mindorensis Cervus alfredi Crateromys australis Crateromys paulus Dobsonia chapmani Dugong dugon Sus cebifrons BIRDS Family Psittacidae Bucerotidae Dicaeidae Accipitridae Cuculidae Sternidae Gruidae Columbidae Scientific Name Cacatua haematuropygia Aceros waldeni Anthracoceros montani Dicaeum quadricolor Pithecophaga jefferyi Centropus steerii Sterna bernsteini Grus antigone Phapitreron cinereiceps Gallicolumba menagei Gallicolumba keayi Gallicolumba platenae Ptilinopus arcanus Common Name Philippine Cockatoo Walden’s hornbill Sulu hornbill Cebu flowerpecker Philippine eagle Black-hooded coucal Chinese crested tern Sarus crane Tawi-tawi brown dove Sulu bleeding-heart Negros bleeding-heart Mindoro bleeding-heart Negros fruit-dove Common Name Tamaraw Visayan spotted deer Dinagat hairy-tailed cloud rat Ilin hairy-tailed cloud rat Philippine bare-backed fruit bat Dugong Visayan warty pig

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“I am not nearly so interested in what monkey man was derived from as I am in what kind of monkey he is to become.” — Loren Eiseley (G. Tapan)

REPTILES Family Cheloniidae Bataguridae Crocodylidae Varanidae Scientific Name Eretmoche lys imbricata Heosemys leytensis Crocodylus mindorensis Varanus mabitan Common Name Hawksbill turtle Philippine pond turtle Philippine crocodile Panay monitor lizard

CITES-LISTED SPECIES (APPENDIX I) All species of fauna and flora listed under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) B. Endangered Species MAMMALS Family Pteropodidae Cervidae Muridae Suidae Scientific Name Acerodon jubatus Nyctimene rabori Cervus calamianensis Crateromys heaneyi Sus sp. A from the Sulu Archipelago Common Name Golden-crowned fruit bat Philippine tube-nosed fruit bat Calamian deer Panay bushy-tailed cloud rat

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BIRDS Family Bucerotidae Pycnonotidae Psittacidae Ciconiidae Muscicapidae Scientific Name Penelopides panini Penelopides mindorensis Hypsipetes siquijorensis (=Ixos siquijorensis ) Prioniturus verticalis Ciconia boyciana Rhinomyias albigularis Stachyris speciosa (=Dasycrotapha speciosa) Turdidae Columbidae Ardeidae Scolopacidae Copsychus cebuensis Rhyacornis bicolor Gallicolumba criniger Gorsachius goisagi Tringa guttifer REPTILES Family Cheloniidae Scientific Name Caretta caretta Chelonia mydas Lepidochelys olivacea Dermochelys coriacea Bataguridae Trionychidae Heosemys spinosa Pelochelys cantorii Common Name Loggerhead turtle Green sea turtle Olive ridley sea turtle Leatherback turtle Spiny terrapin Southeast Asian softshell Turtle Black shama Luzon water-redstart Mindanao bleeding-heart Japanese night-heron Nordmann’s greenshank Common Name Visayan tarictic hornbill Mindoro hornbill Streak-breasted bulbul (=Mottle-breasted bulbul) Blue-winged racket-tail Japanese white stork White-throated jungle flycatcher Flame-templed babbler

AMPHIBIANS Family Ranidae Scientific Name Platymantis negrosensis Platymantis polilloensis Common Name Negros forest tree frog Polillo forest tree frog

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Family

Scientific Name Platym antis spelaeus Platymantis subterrestris

Common Name Negros limestone frog Mt. Data cloud frog

CITES-LISTED SPECIES (APPENDIX II) All species of fauna and flora listed under Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) C. Vulnerable Species MAMMALS Family Pteropodidae Scientific Name Acerodon leucotis Pteropus dasymallus Pteropus speciosus Pteropus leucopterus Muridae Archboldomys luzonensis Crateromys schadenbergi Phloeomys cumingi Batomys russatus Cervidae Manidae Erinaceidae Felidae Suidae Tragulidae Pteropodidae Cervus mariannus Manis culionensis Podogymnura aureospinula Prionailurus bengalensis Sus barbatus Sus philippensis Tragulus napu Pteropus sp. A from Mindoro Island Haplonycteris sp. A from Sibuyan Island Common Name Palawan flying fox Wooly flying fox Philippine gray flying fox White-winged fruit bat Isarog shrew-mouse Bushy tailed-cloud rat Southern Luzon giant cloud rat Dinagat hairy-tailed rat Philippine brown deer Palawan pangolin Dinagat gymnure Leopard cat Bearded pig Philippine warty pig Mouse deer

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BIRDS Family Columbidae Scientific Name Ducula carola Ducula mindorensis Ptilinopus marchei Ducula pickeringii Caloenas nicobarica Ducula poliocephala Gallicolumba luzonica Ptilinopus merrilli Treron formosae Alcedinidae Ceyx melanurus Alcedo argentata Todiramphus winchelli Actenoides hombroni Muscicapidae Muscicapa randi Ficedula platenae Rhinomyias insignis Ficedula basilanica Hypothymis coelestis Campephagidae Dicaeidae Eurylaimidae Picidae Chloropseidae Pittidae Estrildidae Coracina ostenta Coracina mcgregori Dicaeum haematostictum Dicaeum retrocinctum Eurylaimus samarensis Eurylaimus steerii Picoides ramsayi Chloropsis flavipennis Pitta steerii Pitta kochi Erythrura viridifac ies Common Name Spotted imperial pigeon Mindoro imperial-pigeon Flame-breasted fruit dove Grey imperial-pigeon Nicobar pigeon Pink-bellied imperial-pigeon Luzon bleeding-heart pigeon Cream-bellied fruit dove Whistling green-pigeon Philippine dwarf kingfisher Silvery kingfisher Rufous-lored kingfisher Blue-capped kingfisher Ashy-breasted flycatcher Palawan flycatcher White-browned jungle flycatcher Little slaty flycatcher Celestial blue monarch White-winged cuckoo-shrike Mcgregor’s cuckoo-shrike Visayan flowerpecker Scarlet-collared flowerpecker Visayan broadbill Mindanao broadbill Sulu woodpecker Philippine leafbird Azure-breasted pitta Koch’s pitta Green-faced parrotfinch

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Family Turdidae Timaliidae Phasianidae Bucerotidae

Scientific Name Zoothera cinerea Rhyacornis bicolor Ptilocichla falcate Polyplectron emphanum Anthracoceros marchei Aceros leucocephalus Buceros hydrocorax

Common Name Ashy thrush Luzon water-redstart Falcated wren-babbler Palawan peacock-pheasant Palawan hornbill Writhed hornbill Rufous hornbill Blue-headed racket-tail Green-headed racket-tailed parrot Blue-naped parrot Philippine eagle-owl Giant scops-owl Philippine hawk-eagle Grey-headed fish-eagle Streaked reed-warbler Ijima’s leaf-warbler Chinese egret Japanese yellow bunting Spoon-billed sandpiper Bristle-thighed curlew Malaysian plover Palawan hill myna Philippine duck Darter Tabon scrubfowl

Psittacidae

Prioniturus platenae Prioniturus luconensis Tanygnathus lucionensis

Strigidae Accipitridae Silviidae

Bubo philippensis Mimizuki gurneyi Spizaetus philippensis Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Acrocephalus sorghophilus Phylloscopus ijimae Egretta eulophotes Emberiza sulphurata Eurynorhynchus pygmaeus Numenius tahitiensis Charadrius peronii Gracula religiosa Anas luzonica Anhinga melanoga ster Megapodius cumingii

Ardeidae Emberizidae Scolopacidae

Charadriidae Sturnidae Anatidae Anhingidae Megapodiidae

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REPTILES Family Varanidae Scientific Name Varanus olivaceus Varanus salvator cumingi Varanus salvator marmoratus Varanus salvator nuchalis AMPHIBIANS Family Ichthyophiidae Bufonidae Ranidae Scientific Name Ichthyophis glandulosus Ichthyophis mindanaoensis Ansonia mcgregori Limnonectes magnus Platymantis hazelae Platymantis insulatus Platymantis lawtoni Platymantis rabori Rana igorota Rhacophoridae Philau tus schmackeri Common Name Basilan caecilian Mindanao caecilian Macgregor’s slender toad Mindanao fanged Frog Hazel’s forest frog Gigante island limestone frog Lawton’s forest frog Rabor’s forest frog Taylor’s igorot frog Mindoro tree frog Common Name Gray’s monitor lizard Malay monitor lizard (Mindanao population) Malay monitor lizard (Northern Philippine population) Malay monitor lizard (Central Visayas population)

D. Other Threatened Species MAMMALS Family Viverridae Cynocephalidae Cercopithecidae Pteropodidae Tarsiidae Scientific Name Arctictis binturong Cynocephalus volans Macaca fascicularis Pteropus vampyrus Tarsius syrichta Common Name Binturong Flying lemur Philippine macaque Giant flying fox Philippine tarsier 235

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REPTILES Family Varanidae Agamidae Boidae Scientific Name Varanus salvator rudicollis Hydrosaurus postulatus Python reticulates Trimeresurus flavomaculatus mcgregori The List of Other Wildlife Species BIRDS Family Oriolidae Scientific Name Oriolus isabellae AMPHIBIANS Family Discoglossidae Scientific Name Barbourula busuangensis Common Name Philippine flat-headed frog Common Name Isabela oriole Common Name Rough-necked monitor Philippine sailfin Lizard Reticulated python Batanes pit viper

SEC. 3.

SEC. 4. Interpretation.—In case of conflict between the scientific name and the common name in the actual application, the scientific name shall be the controlling interpretation. SEC. 5. Species under more than one category.—In case of conflict between the enumeration of species in this Order and the CITES Appendices, the listing in this Order shall prevail. However, for conservation purposes other than the application of penalties under Section 28 of Republic Act 9147, the higher category shall apply. and SEC. 6. Review Updating of the List—The Secretary, in consultation with scientific authorities, the

“Fish say, they have their Stream and Pond; But is there anything Beyond”? — Rupert Brooke (Y. Lee)

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academe and other stakeholders, shall regularly review and update or as the need arises the herein list of wild fauna and flora; Provided that a species listed as threatened shall not be removed therefrom within three years following its initial listing. SEC. 7. Effectivity.—This Order shall take effect fifteen (15) days after publication in a newspaper of national circulation.

Agriculture
Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization (Republic Act 8435) SECTION 1. Short Title.—This act shall be known as the “Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act of 1997.” SEC. 2. Declaration of Policy.—The goals of the national economy are more equitable distribution of opportunities, income and wealth; a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the people; and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all, especially the underprivileged. The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform, through industries that make full and effi“Agriculture is the first form of culture.”— Will Durant cient use of human and (A. Oposa) natural resources, and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. In pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. Thus, it is hereby declared the policy of the State to enable those who belong to the agriculture and fisheries sectors to participate and share in the fruits of development and growth in a manner that utilizes the nations resources in the most efficient and sustainable way possible by establishing a more equitable access to assets, income, basic and support services and infrastructure. 237

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The State shall promote food security, including sufficiency in our staple food, namely rice and white corn. The production of rice and white corn shall be optimized to meet our local consumption and shall be given adequate support by the State. The State shall adopt the market approach in assisting the agriculture and fisheries sectors while recognizing the contribution of the said sector to food security, environmental protection, and balanced urban and rural development, without neglecting the welfare of the consumers, especially the lower income groups. The state shall promote marketoriented policies in agricultural production to encourage farmers to shift to more profitable crops. The state shall empower the agricultural and fisheries sector to develop and sustain themselves. Toward this end, the State shall unsure the development of the agriculture and fisheries sectors in accor“Forget not that the earth delights to feel your bare dance with the following principles: feet and the wind longs to play with your hair.”— Kahlil Gibran a. Poverty Alleviation and So(A. Oposa) cial Equity—The State shall ensure that the poorer sectors of society have equitable access to resources, income opportunities, basic and support services and infrastructure especially in areas where productivity is low as a means of improving their quality of life compared with other sectors of society; b. Food Security—The State shall assure the availability, adequacy, accessibility of food supplies to all at all times; c. Rational Use of Resources—The State shall adopt a rational approach in the allocation of public investments in agriculture and fisheries in order to assure efficiency and effectiveness in the use of scarce resources and thus obtain optimal returns on its investments; d. Global Competitiveness—The State shall enhance the competitiveness of the agriculture and fisheries sectors in both domestic and foreign markets; e. Sustainable Development—The State shall promote development that is compatible with the preservation of the ecosystem in areas where agriculture and fisheries activities are carried out. The State should exert care and judicious use of the country’s natural resources in order to attain long-term sustainability;

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f. People Empowerment—The State shall promote people empowerment by enabling all citizens through direct participation or through their duly elected, chosen or designated representatives the opportunity to participate in policy formulation and decision-making by establishing the appropriate mechanisms and by giving them access to information; and g. Protection from Unfair Competition—The State shall protect small farmers and fisher folk from unfair competition such as monopolistic and oligopolistic practices by promoting a policy environment that provides them priority access to credit and strengthened cooperative-based marketing system. SEC. 3. Statement of Objectives.—This Act shall have the following objectives: a. To modernize the agriculture and fisheries sectors by transforming these sectors from a resource-based to a technology-based industry; b. To enhance profits and incomes in the agriculture and fisheries sectors, particularly the small farmers and fisherfolk, by ensuring equitable access to assets, resources and services, and promoting higher-value crops, value-added processing, agribusiness activities, and agro-industrialization; c. To ensure the accessibility, availability and stable supply of food to all at all times; d. To encourage horizontal and vertical integration, consolidation and expansion of agriculture and fisheries activities, group functions and other services through the organization of cooperatives, farmers’ and fisherfolk‘s associations, corporations, nucleus estates, and consolidated farms and to enable these entities to benefit from economies of scale, afford them a stronger negotiating position, pursue more focused, efficient and appropriate research and development efforts and enable them to hire professional managers; e. To promote people empowerment by strengthening people’s organizations, cooperatives and NGO’s and by establishing and improving mechanisms and resources for their participation in government decision-making and implementation; f. To pursue a market-driven approach to enhance the comparative advantage of our agriculture and fisheries sectors in the world market; g. To induce the agriculture and fisheries sectors to ascend continuously the value-added ladder by subjecting their traditional or new products to further processing in order to minimize the marketing of raw, unfinished or unprocessed products; h. To adopt policies that will promote industry dispersal and rural industrialization by providing incentives to local and foreign investors to establish industries that have backward linkages to the country’s agriculture and fisheries resource base; i. To provide social and economic adjustment measures that increase productivity and improve market efficiency while ensuring the protection and preservation of the environment and equity for small farmers and fisherfolk; and j. To improve the quality of life of all sectors. 239

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SEC. 4.

Definition of Terms.—

“Agrarian Reform Community” is a barangay at the minimum or a cluster of contiguous barangays where there is a critical mass of farmers or farm workers and which features the main thrust of agrarian development land tenure improvement and effective delivery of support services. “Agricultural Lands” refers to lands devoted to or suitable for the cultivation of the soil, planting of crops, growing of trees, raising of livestock, poultry, fish or aquiculture production, including the harvesting of such farm products, and other farm activities and practices performed in conjunction with such farming operations by persons whether natural or juridical and not classified by the law as mineral land, forest land, residential land, commercial land, or industrial land. “Agricultural Land Use Conversion” refers to the process of changing the use of agricultural land to non-agricultural uses. “Agricultural Sector” is the sector engaged in the cultivation of the soil, planting of crops, growing of fruit trees, raising of livestock, poultry, or fish, including the harvesting and marketing off such farm products, and other farm activities and practices. “Agricultural Mechanization” is the development, adoption, manufacture and application of appropriate location-specific, and cost-effective agricultural technology using human, animal, mechanical, electrical and other non-conventional sources of energy for agricultural production and post-harvest operations consistent with agronomic conditions and for efficient and economic farm management. “Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization” is the process of transforming the agriculture and fisheries sectors into one that is dynamic, technologically advanced and competitive yet centered on human development guided by the sound practices of sustainability and the principles of social justice. “Agro-Processing Activities” refers to the processing of raw agricultural and fishery products into semi-processed or finished products which include materials for the manufacture for food and/or non-food products, pharmaceuticals and other industrial products. “Banks”, collective used, means government banks and private banks, rural banks and cooperative banks. “Basic Needs Approach to Development” involves the identification, production and marketing of wage goods and services for consumption of rural communities. “Communal Irrigation System (CIS)” is an irrigation system that is managed by a bona fide Irrigators Association. “Competitive Advantage” refers to competitive edge in terms of product quality and/or price. It likewise refer to the ability to produce a product with the greatest relative efficiency in the use of resources.

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“Cooperatives” refers to duly registered associations of persons with a common bond of interest who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a lawful common social and economic end, making equitable contributions to the capital required and accepting a fair share of the risks and benefits of the undertaking in accordance with universally accepted cooperatives principles. “Department” refers to the Department of Agriculture. “Economic Scale “ refers to the minimum quantity of volume of goods required to be efficient. “Economies of Scale” refers to the decrease in unit cost as more units are produced due to the spreading out of fixed costs over a greater number of units produced. “Empowerment” involves providing authority, responsibility and information to people directly engaged in agriculture and fishery production, primarily at the level of the farmers, fisher folk and those engaged in food and non-food production and processing, in order to give them wider choices and enable them to take advantage of the benefits of the agriculture and fishery industries. “Extension Services” refers to the provision of training, information, and support services by the government and non-government organizations to the agriculture and fisheries sectors to improve the technical, business, and social capabilities of farmers and fisher folk. “Farmer’s and Fisherfolk’s Organizations or Associations” refer to farmers and fisherfolks cooperatives, associations or corporations duly registered with appropriate government agencies and which are composed primarily of small agricultural producers, farmers, farm, workers, agrarian reform beneficiaries, fisher folk who voluntarily join together to form business enterprises or non-business organizations which they themselves own, control and patronize. “Farm-to-Market Roads” refer to roads linking the agriculture and fisheries production sites, coastal landing points and post-harvest facilities to the market and arterial roads and highways. “Fisheries“ refers to all systems or networks of interrelated activities which include the production, growing, harvesting, processing, marketing, developing, conserving, and managing of all aquatic resources and fisheries areas. “Fisheries Sector” is the sector engaged in the production, growing, harvesting, processing, marketing, developing, conserving, and managing of aquatic resources and fisheries areas. “Fishing” refers to the application of techniques using various gear in catching fish and other fisheries products. “Fishing Grounds” refers to areas in any body of water where fish and other aquatic resources congregate and become target of capture.

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“Food Security” refers to the policy objective, plan and strategy of meeting the food requirements of the present and future generations of Filipinos in substantial quantity, ensuring the availability and affordability of food to all, either through local production or importation, of both, based on the country’s existing and potential resource endowment and related production advantages, and consistent with the over all national development objectives and policies. However, sufficiency in rice and white corn should be pursued. “Fresh Agricultural And Fishery Products” refers to agricultural and fisheries products newly taken or captured directly from its natural state or habitat, or those newly harvested or gathered from agricultural areas or bodies of water used for aquiculture. “Global Competitiveness” refers to the ability to compete in terms of price, quality and value of agriculture and fishery products relative to those of other countries. “Gross Value-Added” refers to the total value, excluding the value of nonagricultural of fishery intermediate inputs, of goods and services contributed by the agricultural and fisheries sectors. “Head works” refers to the composite parts of the irrigation system that divert water from natural bodies of water such as river, streams, and lakes. “Industrial Dispersal” refers to the encouragement given to manufacturing enterprises to establish their plants in rural areas. Such firms normally use agricultural raw materials either in their primary or intermediate state. “Irrigable Lands” refers to lands which display marked characteristics justifying the operation of an irrigation system. “Irrigated Lands” refers to lands services by natural irrigation or irrigation facilities. These include lands where water is not readily available as existing irrigation facilities need rehabilitation or upgrading or where irrigation water is not available year-round. “Irrigation System” refers to a system of irrigation facilities covering contiguous areas. “Irrigators’ Association (IA)” refers to an association of farmers within a contiguous area served by a National Irrigation System or Communal Irrigation System. “Land Use” refers to the manner of utilizing the land, including its allocation, development and management. “Land Use Plan” refers to a document embodying a set of policies accompanied by maps and similar illustrations which represent the community-deserved pattern of population distribution and a proposal for the future allocation of land to the various land-using activities, in accordance with the social and economic objectives of the people. It identifies the location, character and extent of the area’s land resources to be

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used for different purposes and includes the process and the criteria employed in the determination of the land use. “Land Use Planning” refers to the act of defining the allocation, utilization, development and management of all lands within a given territory or jurisdiction according to the inherent qualities of the land itself and supportive of sustainable, economic, demographic, socio-cultural and environmental objectives as an aid to decision-making and legislation. “Main Canal” refers to the channel where diverted water from a source flows to the intended area to be irrigated. “Market Infrastructure” refers to facilities including, but not limited to, market buildings, slaughterhouses, holding pens, warehouses, market information centers, connecting roads, transport and communication and cold storage used by the farmers and fisher folk in marketing their produce. “National Information Network (NIN)” refers to an information network which links all offices and levels of the Department with various research institutions and local end-users, providing easy access to information and marketing services related to agriculture and fisheries. “National Irrigation System (NIS)” refers to a major irrigation system managed by the National Irrigation Administration. “Network of Protected Areas for Agricultural and Agro-industrial Development (NPAAD)” refers to agricultural areas identified by the Department through the Bureau of Soils and Water Management in coordination with the National Mapping and Resources Information Authority in order to ensure the efficient utilization of land for agriculture and Agro-industrial development and promote sustainable growth . The NPAAD covers all irrigated areas, all irrigable lands already covered by irrigation projects with firm funding commitments; all alluvial plain land highly suitable for agriculture whether irrigated or not; Agro-industrial crop lands or lands presently planted to industrial crops that support the viability of existing agricultural infrastructure and agro-based enterprises, highlands, areas located at an elevation of five hundred (500) meters or above and have the potential for growing semi temperate and high-value crops; all agricultural lands that are ecological fragile, the conversion of which will result in serious environmental degradation, and mangrove areas and fish sanctuaries. “On-Farm Irrigation Facilities” refers to composite facilities that permit entry of water to paddy areas and consist of farm ditches and turnouts. “Primary Processing” refers to the physical alteration of raw agricultural or fishery products with or without the use of mechanical facilities. “Post-Harvest Facilities” includes, but is not limited to , threshing, drying, milling, grading , storing, and handling of produce and such other activities as stripping, winnowing, chipping and washing.

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the results of which modify or alter the physical characteristics of the agricultural lands to render them suitable for non-agricultural purposes.”—Kakuzo Okakura income. warehouses. “Shallow Tube Well (STW)” refers to a tube or shaft vertically set into the ground for the purpose of bringing ground water to the soil surface from a depth of less than 20 meters by suction lifting. As development continues. fish ports. 244 . ice plants and cold storage facilities. the agriculture and fisheries sectors in an environmentally and socio-cultural sound manner. market infrastructure and transportation. Agro-Processing and marketing activities to help develop and modernize. fish landings. without an approved order of conversion from the DAR. “Secondary Canal” refers to the channel connected to the main canal which distributes irrigation to specific areas. but it is not limited to. buying stations. dryers. industry and services begin to generate income and markets and concomitantly increase their share of total “Nothing is real to us but hunger. milling equipment. the labor that it absorbs. (M. “Rural Industrialization” refers to the process by which the economy is transformed from one that is predominantly agricultural to one that is dominantly industrial and service-oriented. and the income that it generates which is channeled to industry and services. either the support of government. threshers. weighing scales. processing plants. “Premature Conversion of Agricultural Land” refers to the undertaking of any development activity.LAND “Post -Harvest Facilities” includes. Velas) “Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones (SAFDZ)“ refers to the areas within the NAPAAD identified for production. with agriculture still an important sector. moisture meters. “Secondary Processing” refers to the physical transformation of semi-processed agricultural or fishery products. “Resource Accounting” refers to a tracking changes in the environment and natural resources biophysically and economically (in monitory terms) “Resource-based” refers to the utilization of natural resources. Agriculture provides the impetus and push for industry and services through the market that it creates.

000 Medium . ethnicity and cultural diversity of the population. partnership or corporation whose total assets. in consultation with the Congressional Oversight Committee on Agricultural and Fisheries Modernization. appropriate government agencies.000. “Zoning Ordinance” refers to a local legislation approving the development land use plan and providing for the regulations and other conditions on the uses of land including the limitation of the infrastructure that may be placed within the territorial jurisdiction of a city or municipality.— The Department shall. and in consultation wit the local government units . may adjust the above values as deemed necessary.not more than P 1. “Socio-culturally Sound” means the consideration of the social structure of the community such as leadership pattern. agribusiness and/or services. “Small and Medium Enterprise (SME)” refers to any business activity or enterprise engaged in industry. within six (6) months after the approval of this Act.P 1.000. identify the strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones (SAFDZ) within the 245 .—It is the policy of the State to ensure that all sectors of the economy and all regions of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop through the rational and sustainable use of resources peculiar to each area in order to maximize agricultural productivity. 6. concerned non-government organizations (NGOs)and organized farmers’ and fisherfolk‘s groups.001 to P 60. Network of Areas for Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Development. whether single proprietorship. the diversity of religion and other spiritual beliefs. “Technology-based” refers to utilization of technology. plan and equipment are situated.500. must have value falling under the following categories: Micro . cooperative. 5. promote efficiency and equity and accelerate the modernization of the agriculture and fisheries sectors of the country. distribution of roles across gender and age groups. inclusive of those arising from loans but exclusive of the land on which the particular business entity’s office.AGRICULTURE “Small Farmers and Fisherfolk” refers to natural person dependent on small-scale subsistence farming and fishing activities as their primary source of income.000 The Department. TITLE I PRODUCTION AND MARKETING SUPPORT SERVICES Chapter 1 Strategic Agricultural and Fisheries Development Zones SEC.000 Small . Declaration of Policy.500.000.001 to P 15.P15. SEC.

— The Department. in consultation with the Department of Agrarian Reform. culture.LAND network of protected areas for agricultural and agro-industrial development to ensure that lands are efficiently and sustainably utilized for food and non-food production and agro-industrialization. adequate capital and credit. Delineation of Strategic Agriculture and Fisheries Development Zones. Department of Science and Technology. c. The SAFDZ shall have an integrated development plan consisting of production. Strategic location of the area for the establishment of agriculture or fisheries infrastructure. cities and an appropriate scale.—The Department in coordination with the local government units (LGUs) and appropriate government agencies. 7. industrial complexness. and d. shall be identified on the basis of the following criteria a. SEC. investment. The BSWM may call on other agencies to provide technical and other logistical support in this undertaking . consistent with the existing laws. 8. in coordination with the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority (NAMRIA) and the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) shall undertake the mapping of network of areas for agricultural and agroindustrial development for all municipalities. through the Bureau of Soils and Water Management (BSWM). the concerned LGU’s. high-end quality production and productivity through the use of up-to-date technology and collateral resources such as skilled manpower. Agro-climatic and environmental conditions giving the area as competitive advantage in the cultivation. 9. production and processing of particular crops. The SAFDZ which shall serve as centers where development in the agriculture and fisheries sectors are catalyzed in an environmentally and socio-cultural sound manner. Strategic location and of the area for market development and market networking both at the local and international levels. the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. b. Farmer-landowners whose lands are located within these designated areas shall be given the option to enter into a management agreement with corporate entities with proven competence in farm operations and management. SEC. the organized 246 . Mapping. Dominant presence of agrarian reform communities (ARCs) and/or small owner-cultivators and amortizing owners/agrarian reform beneficiaries and other small farmers and fisher folk in the area. processing. may designate agrarian reform communities (ARCs) and other areas within the SAFDZ suitable for economic scale production which will serve as model farms. SEC. Modern Farms. human resources and environmental protection components. production and processing zones. the Department of Trade and Industry. marketing. and access to markets. animals and aquatic products.—The Department.

and lands with existing or having the potential for growing high-value crops so delineated and included within the SAFDZ shall not be converted for a period of five (5) years front the effectivity for this Act: Provided. That not more than five percent (5%) of the said lands located within the SAFDZ may be converted upon compliance with existing laws. however. Preparation of Land Use and Zoning Ordinance. within the protected areas for agricultural development. If the cities/municipalities fail to comply with the preparation of zoning and land use plans.—Within one (1) year from the finalization of the SAFDZ. if at all. irrigable lands already covered by irrigation a projects with firm funding commitments. in every city and municipality. SEC. all land use plans and zoning ordinances shall be updated every four (4) years or as often as may be deemed necessary upon the recommendation of the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board and must be completed within the first year of the term of office of the mayor. regulations. specifically of the productivity of the areas.AGRICULTURE farmers and fisher folk groups. Should the continued agricultural inactivity. regulations. the violator.000. 10. shall be subject to an idle land tax of Three Thousand Pesos (P3. and administrative orders relating to land use conversion: Provided. on a case-to-case basis subject to existing laws. rules. 3) in case of conversion. whether contiguous for not. rules. the DILG shall impose the penalty as provided for under Republic Act No. in coordination with the Congressional Oversight Committee on Agricultural Committee and Fisheries Modernization.—Any person or juridical entity who knowingly or deliberately causes any irrigated agricultural lands seven (7) hectares or larger. the private sector and communities shall. exceed a period of two (2) years.7160 SEC. Any person found guilty of premature or illegal conversion shall be penalized with imprisonment of two (2) to six (6) years. establish and delineate based on sound resource accounting. all cities and municipalities shall have prepared their respective land use and zoning ordinance incorporating the SAFDZ. the SAFDZ within one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act. unless due to force majeure. as specified under Section 6 in relation to Section 9 of this Act. All irrigated lands. That thereafter 1) a review of the SAFDZ. shall be required to put back such lands to productive agricultural use. Thereafter.00) per hectare per year. where applicable. 11. further. or a fine equivalent to one hundred percent 247 . and efficiency and defectiveness of the support services shall be conducted by the Department and the Department of Agrarian Reform. to lie idle and unproductive for a period exceeding one (1) year. executive order and issuances. executive orders and issuances. Penalty for Agricultural Inactivity and Premature Conversion. the land owners will pay the Department the amount equivalent to the government‘s investment cost including inflation. without prejudice to the development of identified economic zones and free ports. improvement of the quality of life of farmers and fisher folk. 2) conversion may be allowed. and administrative orders governing land use conversion. In addition. the land shall be subject to escheat proceedings. unless due to force majeure.

Sustainability. in coordination with other concerned departments or agencies. the DAR may impose the following penalties. The Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Plan shall focus on five (5) major concerns: a. Social Equity and Income Enhancement. or both. Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Plan (AFMP). SEC. and it was by learning the inner working of nature that man became a builder of machines. Poverty alleviation and social equity. and e. c. 14. Poverty Alleviation. people’s organizations and the appropriate government agencies and offices. more perfectly automated than any automated machine. d. especially for farmers and fisher folk. Income enhancement and profitability. and an accessory penalty of forfeiture of the land and any improvement thereon. In addition. Protection of Watershed Areas. SEC.—The Department.—All watersheds that are sources of water for existing and potential irrigable areas and recharge areas of major aquifers identified by the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Environment and Natural resources shall be preserves as such at all times. that violation of this law has been committed: a. 13.”—Erick Hoffer (T.LAND (100%) of the government‘s investment cost. NGOs. at the discretion of the court.—The Department. after determining. Backlisting. shall formulate and implement a medium-and long-term comprehensive Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Plan. Consolation or withdrawal of the authorization for land use conversion. b. shall formulate medium-and long-term plans addressing food 248 “Nature is self-made machine. Chapter 2 Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Plan SEC. Food security. 12. the private sector. Food Security. in consultation with the farmers and fisher folk. and b. To create something in the image of nature is to create a machine. Cayton) . Global competitiveness. or automatic disapproval of pending and subsequent conversion applications that they may file with the DAR. in an administrative proceedings.

—The Department shall formulate medium-and-longterm plans aimed at enhancing the global competitiveness and sustainability of the country in agriculture and fisheries based on. Velas) e. quality and value of agriculture and fisheries production for domestic consumption and for exports. Improvement in land tenure of small farmers. Reduction in postharvest losses. c. Global Competitiveness and Sustainability. Reduction of rural unemployment and underemployment. marketing and export activities. “We ask a simple question: And that is all we wish: Are fishermen all liars? Or do only liars fish?” — William Sherwood Fox. Increased income and profit of small farmers and fisherfolk. poverty alleviation. and h. Reduction of the incidence of malnutrition. Increase in the volume. Silken Lines and Silver Hooks. and f. but not limited to. but not limited to. e. Increase in the number of farms engaged in diversified farming. b. social equity and income enhancement concerns based on. the following goals and indicators for development: a. d. the following goals and indicators for development: a. Reduction of rural poverty and income inequality. b. Increase in the number of sustainable agriculture and fisheries firms engaged in domestic production. 15. g. Reduced use of agro-chemicals that are harmful to health and the environment. c. Increase in the number/types and quality of processed agricultural and fishery products. d. 249 . processing.AGRICULTURE security. 1954 (M. Increase in and wider level of entrepreneurship among farmers and fisher folk in the area. SEC. Increase in the number of international trading partners in agriculture and fishery products. Availability of rice and other staple foods at affordable process. f.

Special Concerns. A. The Department shall make periodic reports to the Congressional Oversight Committee on Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization. o. A. and q. Indigenous peoples. j. Basic needs program for the impoverished sectors of society who will be affected by liberalization. Comprehensive and integrated agriculture and fisheries research. it can secure the services of independent consultants and external evaluators in order to assess its over-all impact. i. Preservation of biodiversity.LAND SEC. 18. SEC. h. n. S. 17. d. information and technology readily available to farmers. Women. Credit programs for small farmers and fisher folk. development and extension services. k. m. c. b. Senior citizens. Identification of SAFDZ. and annual productivity cycles for the purpose of forecasting and formulating agriculture and fisheries production programs. and agricultural graduates. p.—The Department shall consider the following areas of concerns. weather disturbances. Infrastructure support to make agriculture and fisheries production inputs. Infrastructure and market support for the SAFDZ. Geophysical and Astronomical Service Administration (P. Monitoring and Evaluation. In addition. G. in coordination with the Philippine Atmospheric. among other in formulating the AFMP: a. cooperatives and entrepreneurs. fisherfolk. e. f. Adequate and timely response against environmental threats to agriculture and fisheries. l. shall devise a method of regularly monitoring and considering the effect of global climate changes. genetic materials and the environment. Access to aquatic resources by fisher folk.—The Department shall develop the capability of monitoring the AFMP through a Program Benefit Monitoring and Evaluation System (PBMES). Rural non-farm employment. A. 16.) and such other appropriate government agencies. Rural youth. Handicapped persons.—The Department. 250 . Strategies and programs aimed to achieve growth and profitability targets in the context of the constraints and challenges of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Programs arising from the implementation of the Agrarian Reform Program. SEC. Global Climate Change. g.

—It is hereby declared the policy of the State to alleviate poverty and promote vigorous growth in the countryside through access to credit by small farmers. Declaration of Policy. SEC. the Department of Health with the Department of Social Services and Development shall coordinate with the Department to determine the financial requirements of small farmers and fisherfolk to adjust to the effects of modernization as envisioned in the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Plan. In this regard. the State enjoins the active participation of the banking sector and government financial institutions in the rural financial system. the Technical Educational and Skills Development Authority. In particular. and Environment and Natural Resources shall coordinate their investment programs and activities to complement the Department’s implementation of the AFMP. processing and trading of agriculture and fisheries products and the small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) and industries engaged in agriculture and fisheries. Culture and Sports.—All units and agencies of the government shall support the Department in the implementation of the AFMP. 21. particularly the women involved in the production. however. The departments referred above shall be required to identify in their budget proposals the allocation intended for the improvement of the environmental and other conditions affecting agriculture and fisheries. Science and Technology. Emphasis of the program shall be on proper management and utilization. within a period of four (4) years from the effectivity of this Act. 20. the Department shall.—The Department shall implement existing DCPs. provided that existing credit arrangements with agrarian reform beneficiaries are not affected. The Department of Education. Interest rates shall be determined by market forces. 19. the Department of Public Works and Highways shall coordinate with the Department with respect to the infrastructure support aspect of the plan order to accomplish networking of related infrastructure facilities. phase-out all DCPs and deposit all its loanable funds including those under the Comprehensive Agricultural Loan Fund 251 . The Department of Interior and Local Government shall provide assistance to the Department in mobilizing resources under the control of local government units. The Department of Trade and Industry. Chapter 3 Credit SEC. Agrarian Reform. fisher folk. Congressional initiatives shall also be coordinated by the Committees on Agriculture on both Houses to complement and enhance the programs and activities of the Department in the implementation of the AFMP. Role of Other Agencies. Phase-out of the Directed Credit Programs (DCPs) and Provision for the Agro-Industry Modernization Credit and Financing Program (AMCPP).AGRICULTURE SEC.

trading. Agribusiness activities which support soil and water conservation and ecologyenhancing activities. Acquisition of work animals. Oposa) g. SEC. c. e. fisher folk those engaged in food and non-food production. Working capital for agriculture and fisheries graduates to enable them to engage in agriculture and fisheries related economic activities. processing and trading. fisheries and agrarian reform credit and financing system shall be designed for the use and benefit of farmers. Acquisition of seeds.LAND (CALF) including new funds provided by this Act for the AMCFP and transfer the management thereof to cooperative banks . farmers’/fisherfolk‘s organization. fertilizer. 22. The Land and the soil are the skin. processing.—The Agro-Industry Modernization Credit and Financing Program shall include the packaging and delivery of various credit assistance programs for the following: a. government financial institutions and viable NGOs for the Agro-Industry Modernization Credit Financing Program (AMCFP). Agriculture and fisheries production including possessing of fisheries and agribased products and farm inputs. livestock. Construction. Whatever we do to the vital organs of the earth. h. Trees and forests are the lungs of the earth. Procurement of agriculture and fisheries products for storage. d. processing and distribution. acquisition and repair of facilities for production. f. (A. storage. marketing and such other facilities in support of agriculture and fisheries. feeds and other similar items. we do to our bodies. 23. Scope of the Agro-Industry Modernization Credit and Financing Program (AMCFP).—An agriculture. Acquisition of water pumps and installation of tube wells for irrigation. Coverage. 252 . rural banks. and SMEs engaged in agriculture hereinafter referred to in this chapter as the “beneficiaries” SEC. Interest earnings of the said deposited loan funds shall be reverted to the AMCFP. b. cooperatives. poultry. transportation. The sea and the waterways are its blood. farm and fishery equipment and machinery. communication.

and k. Guarantee Fund For Small and Medium Enterprises. The rationalization shall cover the credit guarantee schemes and funds operated by the Quendancor. Agricultural Credit Policy Council. the GFSME and the Comprehensive Agricultural Loan Fund. Provided. Guarantee Fund for Small and Medium Enterprises (GFSME). The review shall start six (6) months after the enactment of this Act. 25.—The Department of Finance shall commission and independent review of the charters and the respective programs of the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP). shall. local government units and rural financial institutions. especially to small farmers and fisherfolk. That representation to the Quendancor Board shall be granted to cooperatives. Rationalization of Credit Guarantee Schemes and Funds. The Land Bank of the Philippines. in accordance with its original mandate. It may also cover loan guarantees for purchase orders and sales contracts. Privately-funded and LGU-funded irrigation systems that are designed to protect the watershed. 253 . Working capital for long-gestating projects. Thereafter. Review of the mandates of Land Bank of the Philippines Crop Insurance Corporation.AGRICULTURE i. Quedan and Rural Credit Guarantee Corporation (Quendancor). That agriculture and fisheries projects with long gestation period shall be entitled to a longer grace period in repaying the loan based on the economic life of the project. focus primarily on plans and programs in relation to the financing of agrarian reform and the delivery of credit services to the agriculture and fisheries sectors. the review shall make recommendations to the appropriate Congressional Committees for possible legislative actions and to the Executive Branch for policy and program changes within six (6) months after submission. 24. The Agriculture and Fisheries Credit Guarantee Fund shall be managed and implemented by the Quendancor Provided. SEC. j. Quedan and Rural Credit Guarantee Corporation. and medium enterprises. Credit guarantees on uncollaterized loans to farmers and fisherfolks.—All existing credit guarantee schemes and funds applicable to the agriculture and fishery sectors shall be rationalized and consolidated into an Agriculture and Fisheries Credit Guarantee Fund. and Agricultural Credit Policy Council (ACPC). That credit guarantee shall be given only to small-scale agriculture and fisheries activities and to countryside micro-small. SEC. further. Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation (PCIC). The Agriculture and Fisheries Credit Guarantee Fund shall be funded by at least ten percent (10%) of the funding allocation for the AMCFP. and recommend policy changes and other measures to induce the private sectors participation in lending to agriculture and to improve credit access by farmers and fisherfolk: Provided.

Affordability.LAND Chapter 4 Irrigation SEC. 26. g. appropriate . “Every dewdrop and raindrop had a whole heaven within it.—The construction. be subjected to a social cost-benefit analysis.”— Henry Wadsworth Longfellow All irrigation projects (A.—Irrigation Research and Development (R&D) shall be pursued and priority shall be given to the development of effective. Sustainability and simplicity of operation. Oposa) shall. Potential for increasing unit area productivity. the economic principle of comparative advantage shall always be adhered to. or maintenance of irrigation projects and facilities shall follow the Commission on Audit (COA) rules on simplified public bidding. SEC. and efficient irrigation and water management technologies. improvement. repair. rehabilitation. f. b. The Department shall coordinate with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources concerning the preservation and rehabilitation of watersheds to support the irrigation systems. 28. and h. c. Criteria for tion of appropriate scheme irrigation development shall location-specific and based the following criteria: Selection of Irrigation Development Scheme. The state shall prevent the further destruction of watersheds. and efficient. SEC.—It is the policy of the State to use its natural resources rationally and equitably. Length of gestation period. Simplified Public Bidding. Declaration of Policy. d. Recovery of operation and maintenance cost. e. appropriate. 254 . Technical feasibility. Cost-effectiveness. rehabilitate existing irrigation systems and promote the development of irrigation systems that are effective. 29.—The Selecof be on a. affordable. Research and Development. SEC. low investment cost per unit area. in addition to the criteria enumerated above. 27. Efficiency in water use. In the choice of location-specific irrigation projects.

design. as may be deemed necessary. SEC. such as Shallow Tube Wells (STWs). devolve the planning. SEC. and improve the NISs. SEC.AGRICULTURE Irrigation projects undertaken by farmers. 36. Low-Lift pumps (LLPs) and other inundation systems.—The Government shall also encourage the construction of irrigation facilities through other viable schemes for the construction of irrigation such as build-operate-transfer. within five (5) years from the effectivity of this Act. The budget for the development. 30. Other Irrigation Construction Schemes. 31. Communal Irrigation Systems (CIS). the national government shall issue the need payment guarantee for BOT projects which shall answer for default of the National Irrigation Administration. National Irrigation Systems (NIS).—The National Irrigation Administration (NIA) shall continue to plan. including the transfer of NIA’s assets and resources in relation to the CIS. It shall continue to maintain and operate the major irrigation structures including the head works and main canals. SEC. 35. Such amounts needed to answer for the payment guarantee is hereby to be appropriated. build-transfer and other schemes that will fast-track the development of irrigation systems. Minor Irrigation Schemes. The NIA shall continue to provide technical assistance to the LGUs even after complete devolution of the Irrigation Systems to the LGUs. The Department shall review all existing irrigation systems every four (4) years.—The Department shall formulate and develop a plan for the promotion of a private sector-led development of minor irrigation systems. Guarantee of the National Government. Monitoring and Evaluation. operation and maintenance of the CIS and other types of irrigation systems shall be prepared by and coursed through the LGUs. SEC. 32. Irrigation Service Fees (ISF). rehabilitate. farmer’s organizations and other private entities whose funding is partly or wholly acquired by way of loan from government financial institutions shall not be subject to the bidding requirements of the government. the NIA shall immediately review the ISF rates and recommend to the Department reasonable rates within six (6) months from the effectivity of this Act. SEC. the plan shall be included in the Short-term Agriculture and fisheries Modernization Plan. In addition.—The Department shall monitor the implementation of R&D programs and irrigation projects.—Upon effectivity of this Act.—To make build-operatetransfer (BOT) projects for irrigation attractive to proponents. design and management of CISs. develop. construction. 33. the NIA is mandated to gradually turn over operation and maintenance of the National Irrigation System’s secondary canals and on-farm facilities to Irrigators’ Associations SEC. 34. to determine their viability or ineffec- 255 . to the LGUs.—The Department shall.

—A National Information Network (NIN) shall be set up from the Department level down to the regional. The Marketing Assistance System. Exemption from Election Ban.—The NIN shall provide information and marketing services related to agriculture an fisheries which shall include the following: a.—The Department shall establish a National Marketing Assistance Program that will immediately lead to the creation of a national marketing umbrella in order to ensure the generation of the highest possible income for the farmers and fisher folk or groups of farmers and fisher folk. Price and Price trends.—The repair. processors. particularly the women. Coverage. 41. 39. All departments. National Information Network. They shall likewise be given innovative support toward the generation of maximum income through assistance in marketing. bureaus. SEC. SEC. matching supply and demand in both domestic and foreign markets. Demand data c. SEC. The NIN shall likewise link the various research institutions for easy access to data on agriculture and fisheries research and technology. 40. cooperatives.—A market information system shall be installed for the use and benefit of. 256 . b. maintenance and rehabilitation of irrigation facilities as well as BOT irrigation projects shall be exempted from the scope of the election ban on public works. Chapter 5 Information and Marketing Support Service SEC. involved in agriculture and fisheries through the provision of timely. accurate and responsive business information and efficient trading services which will link them to profitable markets for their products. research institutions. SEC. agencies. the farmers and fisher folk. Declaration of Policy. Information and Marketing Service. SEC. Supply data.—It is hereby declared the policy of the State to empower Filipino farmers and fisherfolk. the LGUs and the Department. 42. The Department shall employ the services of independent evaluators to assess the overall impact of the country’s irrigation development .LAND tiveness. 38. and local government units shall consolidate and continuously update all relevant information and data on a periodic basis and make such data available on the Internet. 37. traders. but not limited to. provincial and municipal offices within one (1) year from the approval of this Act taking into account existing information networks and seems.

257 . key market centers. 45. regional and local market forecasts.AGRICULTURE d. Role of Private Sector. Research information and technology generated from research institutions involved in agriculture and fisheries. the Department of Transportation and Communications.—The NIN shall likewise be accessible to the private sector engaged in agriculture and fisheries enterprises.—The Bureau of Agricultural Statistics will serve as the central information server and will provide technical assistance to endusers in accessing and analyzing product and market information and technology. Product standards for both fresh and processed agricultural and fisheries projects. and h. 46. The Department shall formulate guidelines and determine fees for private sector entities that use the NIN. SEC. Initial Set-up. processors and business institutions concerned with agriculture and fisheries at the provincial and municipal levels. g. SEC.—The Department shall provide technical assistance in setting -up the NIN at the local level through the cooperatives and the LGUs Provided . that The Department and the LGU shall also strengthen its agricultural engineering support in carrying out the smooth and expeditious implementation of agricultural infrastructure projects. f. LGUs shall coordinate with the Department for technical assistance in order to accelerate the establishment and training of information end-users in their respective jurisdictions. The Cooperative Development Authority shall coordinate with the Department for technical assistance in order to provide training assistance to cooperatives in the use of market information and technology. Role of Government Agencies. traders and consumers. Resource accounting data. That . 43. Chapter 6 Other Infrastructure SEC. but not limited to cooperatives.—The Department of Public Works and Highways . International. Directory of. a system that will make marketing information and services related to agriculture and fisheries will be readily available in the city/municipal public market for the benefit of the producers. The Department of Transportation and Communications shall provide technical and infrastructure assistance to the Department in setting up the NIN. Agriculture and Fisheries Infrastructure Support Services. e. SEC. the Department of Trade and Industry and the LGUs shall coordinate with the Department to address the infrastructure requirements in accordance with this Act Provided. 44. traders. at the local level.

—The prioritization of government resources for rural infrastructure shall be based on the following criteria: a. that fishports . Private investors include cooperatives or corporations of agriculture and fisheries producers and processors. b.—The Department of Public Works and Highways shall coordinate with the Department for the purpose of determining the order of priorities for public works funded under the Public Works Act directly or indirectly affect agriculture and fisheries.—The Department of Transportation and Communications. Public Works Act. 52. type and model of infrastructure facilities that are cost-effective and will be useful for the production. Philippine Ports Authority and Philippine Fisheries Development Authority shall coordinate with the Department for the purpose of determining priority fishports. c. and distribution of most commodities and should benefit the most number of agriculture and fisheries producers and processors. SEC. conservation. Public Infrastructure Facilities.—The Department shall coordinate with the LGUs and the resident-farmers and fisher folk in order to identify priority locations of farm-to -market roads that take into account the number of farmer and fisher folk and their families who shall benefit therefrom and the amount. 47. Farm-to-Market Roads. The DOTC shall recommend to the Philippine Ports Authority and consult with ship-owners and ship-operators in assessing the cargo-handling capabilities of cargo operators prior to extending new franchises or awards. Private Infrastructure Facilities. SEC. Agro-industrial potential of the area. 49. sanitary and phytosanitary centers. 50. and other post-harvest facilities needed to enhance the marketing of agriculture and fisheries products Provided. The Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) shall have the mandate to cancel arrastre and cargo handling franchises among operators whom it deems inefficient and/or ineffective owing. SEC. Absence of public investments in the area. SEC. Presence of agrarian reform beneficiaries and other small farmers and fisher folk in the area. seaports and airports and facilitating the installation of bulk-handling and storage facilities . seaports an airports are also equipped with quarantine . Fishports.—Public Infrastructure investments shall give preference to the kind . a past history of under-capitalization. kind and importance of agricultural and fisheries products produced in the area. Socio-economic contributions of the investments in the area. Criteria for Prioritization.—For infrastructure facilities primarily benefiting private investors. 258 . SEC. 48. the State shall facilitate the purchase and use of such utilities and shall keep to the minimum the bureaucratic requirements for these types of investments.LAND SEC. 51. Seaports and Airports. lack of equipment and lack of professional expertise. but not limited to. and d.

Price monitoring bulletin boards for selected commodities and weighing scales accessible to the public shall also be established. SEC. SEC. facilities . Research and Technology Infrastructure.—The Department shall coordinate with the DOTC to facilitate the installation of telecommunication facilities in priority areas. to identify appropriate post-harvest facilities and technology needed to enhance agriculture and fisheries development in the area. 54. 57. All markets shall have a sanitation unit. and abattoirs. in order to enhance agriculture and fisheries development. Post-Harvest Facilities.—The Department shall coordinate with the DPWH and the LGUs for the identification and installation of water supply system in the locality for agro-industrial uses to enhance agriculture and fisheries development in the area. 56. SEC. Public Market and Abattoirs. ice plants and cold storage.—The Department shall coordinate with the Department of Energy (DOE).AGRICULTURE Construction of farm-to-market roads shall be a priority investment of the LGUs which shall provide a counterpart of not less than ten percent (10%) of the project cost subject to their IRA in the area.—The Department in coordination with other government agencies shall give priority and facilitate the funding of infrastructure necessary for research ventures such as farm laboratories and demonstration farms with state colleges and universities that derive their core funds from the Department . The Department shall coordinate with the LGUs in the establishment of standardized market systems and use of sanitary market . the appropriation for post-harvest facilities shall include the support for market vendor’ facilities. intended to ensure the food safety and quality. ample water supply. the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH). 53.—The Department shall coordinate with the Bureau of Post-Harvest for Research and Extension and the Post-harvest Horticulture. Proper protection and preservation of agriculture and fisheries products being sold in the market shall also be observed. adequate lighting and ventilation and supply of electricity to ensure cleanliness and sanitation. public toilets with lavatories. All foods which require no further cooking shall be 259 . Rural Energy. Communications Infrastructure. the National Electrification Administration (NEA) and the National Power Corporation (NAPOCOR) for the identification and installation of appropriate types of energy sources particularly in the use of non-conventional energy sources for the locality in order to enhance agriculture and fisheries development in the area. SEC. SEC. garbage receptacles. SEC.—The Department shall encourage the LGUs to turn over the management and supervision of public markets and abattoirs to market vendors’ cooperatives and for that purpose. 58. Water Supply System. Los Baños. proper and adequate drainage and sewerage system. 55. Training and Research Center of the University of the Philippines.

Selling of products on market floors shall be prohibited. or enclosed in containers to preserve the freshness and prevent contamination. Agricultural Machinery. SEC. packaging.—It is the policy of the State that all sectors involved in the production. 260 . processing. Chapter 7 Products Standardization and Consumer Safety SEC.—The BAFPS shall set and implement standards for fresh. SEC. SEC. storage facilities.LAND wrapped. 59. Declaration of Policy. exportation. alignment of the local standards with the international standards. primary-and -secondary-processed agricultural and fishery products. The Department of Trade and Industry. labeling. abattoirs.—The Department shall give priority to the development and promotion of appropriate agricultural machinery and other agricultural mechanization technologies to enhance agricultural mechanization in the countryside. importation. preservation. distribution. within six (6) months after the approval of this act. shall establish the Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Product Standards (BAFPS). as well as public and private markets in order to ensure freshness. and implement the use of product standards in order to ensure consumer safety and promote the competitiveness of agriculture and fisheries products. Coverage. covered. and the Bureau of Food and Drug Administration shall provide technical advice and form part of the pool of experts/advisers of the BAFPS. 64. and in consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry and the Bureau of Food and Drug. safety and quality of products.—The Department. research institute. 61. SEC. 62.—The BAFPS may coordinate. 63. Conduct regular inspection of processing plants. SEC. the Food and Nutrition Research Institute. 60. b. distribution and marketing of food and non-food agricultural and fisheries products shall adhere to. Conduct research on product standardization. Powers and Functions. seek the services of. and consult with both private and governmental agencies. Pool of Experts and Advisers. Bureau of Agriculture and Fisheries Product Standards. Formulate and enforce standards of quality in the processing.—The BAFPS shall have the following powers and functions: a. educational establishments and such other individuals and entities with expertise in the field of product standards and consumer safety. and advertising of agricultural and fisheries products. and c.

Declaration of Policy. to develop appropriate values that form the foundation for sustained growth in agriculture and fisheries modernization. we will protect only what we love.—There is hereby established an Agriculture and Fisheries Education Program. maintain and support a complete and integrated system of agriculture and fisheries education relevant to the needs of the economy. Teaching Children in the Visayan Sea to see the underwater) mented by the DECS with the following objectives: a. National Agriculture and Fisheries Education System (NAFES). SEC. and we will understand only what we are taught. To establish. in coordination with the Department and appropriate government agencies.—The Commission on Higher Education (CHED). through industries that make full and efficient use of human and natural resources. the community and society.AGRICULTURE TITLE 2 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SEC. b. organized and imple- “In end. coordinate and improve the system of implementation of academic programs that are geared toward achieving agriculture and fisheries development in the country. at all levels. Education Program for Elementary and Secondary Levels. To modernize and rationalize agriculture and fisheries education from the elementary to the tertiary levels. 67. The State shall promote industrialization and full employment. ensure sustainability and promote the global competitiveness. and d. To upgrade the quality. 65. based on sound agriculture and fisheries development and agrarian reform. Oposa. c. we will love only what we understand. To unify. SEC.—It is hereby declared the policy of the State to give priority to education and training on science and technology in order to accelerate social progress and promote total human liberation and development.” — Baba Dioum (A. shall establish a National Agriculture and Fisheries Education System (NAFES) which shall have the following objectives: a. under the NAFES specially designed for elementary and secondary levels. The program shall be formulated. 261 . of agriculture and fisheries education. 66.

c. composed of qualified public and private colleges and universities. institutional accessibility. 68. and f. development of a system for the strict enforcement of school regulations regarding standards and requirements. That the system shall be based on the following criteria: a. d. institutionalizing agriculture and fisheries skills standards and technical testing and certification. to improve the present curriculum in the elementary and secondary levels by emphasizing the core values necessary for agriculture and fisheries modernization.— There is hereby established a Network of National Centers of Excellence in Agriculture and Fisheries Education. SEC. 262 . among others. the CHED shall formulate and implement a system of accreditation Provided. a mechanism for a flexible process of curriculum development. school buildings . Network of National Centers of Excellence for Tertiary Education. laboratory equipment. and f. 69. parents and schools become instruments in effecting positive changes in the pupil’s home and community. integration of entrepreneurship and global competitiveness in the agrofisheries curricula. Post-Secondary Education Program. e. b. economic contribution of agriculture and fisheries in the community.—There is hereby established a Post-Secondary Education Program for Agriculture and Fisheries under the NAFES. d. which shall be formulated and developed by TESDA in coordination with the appropriate government agencies and the private sector. to develop among students. to promote appreciation of science in agriculture and fisheries development. population. to develop an outreach program where students. to increase the attractiveness of agriculture and fisheries education. The program shall include. quantity and quality of research studies conducted. duly accredited as National Centers of Excellence (NCE) in the field of agriculture and fisheries. SEC. positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship and global competition in the agriculture and fisheries business. integration of the dual training system in the various agricultural curricula and training programs. e. That not more than one provincial institute in every province and no more than one national university in each field in every region shall be accredited as such and Provided. further.LAND b. the following: a. c. so that more young and talented person will look at agriculture and fisheries as an acceptable option for career and livelihood. regular upgrading of learning/training facilities. For this purpose. and the needs or unique requirements of the area b.

(2) years from the effectivity of this Act. Evaluation System. degree of utilization of research results. provide at least ten percent (10%) of the Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses (MOOE) budget for the operation of the provincial institutes within their area of responsibility. quantity and quality of faculty members. develop and implement an integrated human resource development plan in agriculture and fisheries which shall serve as an instrument that will provide over-all direction in setting priorities in curricular programs. National Integrated Human Resource Development Plan in Agriculture and Fisheries. the CHED shall develop a provincial-national partnership scheme for a reasonable sharing of financial support taking into account social equity factors for poor provinces. In consultation with the LGUs. SEC. For this purpose. within two. SEC. linkage with international organizations. and investment programs. Rationalization Plan. Counterpart Funding from LGUs. shall cause to be installed a computerized monitoring and evaluation system that periodically collects and regularly measures variables indicating institutional performance based on the Output-Oriented Performance Standards. Output-Oriented Performance Standards. SEC.AGRICULTURE c. type of facilities. 72. g. 73. 74. performance targets. 70.—Not later than one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act. all public and private universities and colleges. SEC. d. in coordination with the Department and appropriate government agencies. and potential contribution to agriculture and fisheries development in the target area. 71.—For the purpose of upgrading and maintaining a high decree of academic excellence in the fields of agriculture and fisheries. The Rationalization Plan shall include a policy for the effective utilization of affected personnel and facilities. all existing public and private colleges and universities that are not hereinafter designated and accredited as centers of excellence shall be given adequate time to redirect its program to non-agriculture and/or non-fisheries areas needed by the province or region and/or merge their program with accredited NCEs in accordance with the Rationalization Plan to be jointly formulated by CHED and the Philippine Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC) upon consultation with the institution concerned. shall formulate. efficiency. there shall be formulated and developed an Output-Oriented Performance Standards which shall serve as the primary instrument for institutional evaluation. and shall not be construed as to result in the decrease of the budget allocation for the state universities and colleges concerned.—The CHED. and quality. the CHED shall establish a baseline information using the Output-Oriented 263 . that are designated as centers of excellence. e.—The LGUs shall.—In order to ensure the institutional accountability. SEC. f. enrollment.

Once every five (5) years thereafter. Agriculture and Fisheries Board.—The Commission on Higher Education. shall institute an output. Continuing Agriculture and Fisheries Education Program. SEC. 79. 78. For this purpose. TESDA and the DBM. 75.oriented unified system of promotion for the academic personnel. which shall address the current education and training requirements of teachers. among others. Budgetary Allocation Scheme. and the National Economic and Development Authority. pre-service and in-service training of teachers in Home Economics Livelihood Education (HELE) for the primary level and Technology and Home Economics (THE) for the Secondary level. such scholarship program shall also provide opportunities for graduate work in foreign universities. Culture and Sports and Technical Education and Skills Development Authority. Scholarship Program. shall develop a national scholarship program that provides opportunities for deserving academic staff to pursue advanced degrees in agriculture and fisheries. Merit System.LAND Performance Standards referred to in Section 73 of this Title. the Department of Education. SEC.—To promote the development of scientific excellence and academic scholarship. SEC. the public and private universities and colleges. SEC. The current appropriation or budgets of state universities and colleges.—The Budgetary Allocation Scheme for NAFES shall be as follows: a. shall formulate and develop a National and Integrated Continuing Agriculture and Fisheries Education Program. professors and educators in agriculture and fisheries. in cooperation with the CHED and the DBM. that are herein designate as NCEs. in coordination with the Department and the public and private universities and colleges. all designated NCEs in agriculture and fisheries shall be subject to a third party evaluation. The evaluation shall include.S. 77. The first board of examination for B.—The CHED in coordination with the public and private universities and colleges. shall continue and shall be modified and adjusted in succeeding years in order to meet the standards of the rationalized programs of the 264 . SEC. management and educational experts of national stature and representatives of key sectors of the agriculture and fisheries industries. the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Where appropriate. Fisheries and/or Agriculture Graduates shall be conducted within one (1) year from the approval of this Act. shall be upgraded. 76. as well as representatives of the Department. the Department of Science and Technology. Those who have not passed the Civil Service Examination for Fisheries and Agriculture but have served the industry in either private or public capacity for not less than five (5) years shall be automatically granted eligibility by the Board of Examiners.—There shall be created an Agriculture and Fisheries Board in the Professional Regulation Commission to upgrade the Agriculture and Fisheries profession.

In addition to appropriate and relevant technology. SEC. and services. and their application to the country’s productive system and national life. There is no weak mercy in them. training. Declaration of Policy. NCEs that are created under this Act shall likewise be provided with budgetary support based on their programs and a new staffing pattern as approved by DBM and shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. (A. TITLE 3 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION Chapter 1 Research and Development SEC. the air consumes. the water drowns. The elements have no forbearance.AGRICULTURE institutions as approved by Congress and shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. The fire burns. b. Provided. The State shall likewise give priority to research and development. the earth buries.”—Henry Wadsworth Longfellow . 80. And perhaps it would be well for our race if the punishment of crimes against the Laws of Man were as inevitable as the punishment of crimes against the Laws of Nature—were Man as unerring in his judgments as Nature. 265 “The laws of nature are just. Cause and consequence are inseparable and inevitable. innovation. and their utilization and to science and technology education. from but in close coordination with that of agriculture. Oposa) in coordination with the Department of Science and Technology and other appropriate agencies and research institutions shall enhance.—It is hereby declared the policy of the State to promote science and technology as essential for national development and progress. The National Research and Development System in Agriculture and Fisheries. invention. 81. the state shall support indigenous and self-reliant scientific and technological capabilities. That fisheries research and development shall be pursued separately.—The Department. but terrible. support and consolidate the existing National Research and Development System in Agriculture and Fisheries within six (6) months from the approval of this Act.

That only the interest earnings of the funds shall be used. funding shall be based on the following guidelines: a. Research institutions and centers shall enjoy autonomy and academic freedom. 82. development and extension activities. The budget for agriculture and fisheries research and development shall be at least one percent (1%) of the gross value added (GVA) by year 2001 allocating at least one percent (1%) of the total amount by 1999. Appropriate technology shall be used to protect the environment. fisherfolk and their organizations. are encouraged to go into co-financing agreements with the private sector in the conduct of research and development provided that the terms and conditions of the agreement are beneficial to the country.—Research information and technology shall be communicated through the National Information Network (NIN) 266 . 85. b. improve product quality and increase value added for global competitiveness. 83. d. shall formulate the national guidelines in evaluating research and development activities and institutions. Excellence and Accountability in Research and Development. Allocation of multi-year budgets which shall be treated as research and development grants. SEC. Communication of Research Results and Research-Extension Linkage. which shall involve an independent and interdisciplinary team of collegial reviewer and evaluators. Special Concerns in Agriculture and Fisheries Research Services. The Department. c. Funds for Research and Development.—Considering the nature of research. The Department of Finance (DOF) in consultation with the Department shall formulate revenue enhancement measures to fund this facility. At least twenty percent (20%) shall be spent in support of basic research and not more than eighty percent (80%) shall be used for applied research and technology packaging and transfer activities. The Department and other research agencies. in collaboration with the Department of Science and Technology and other appropriate agencies. in the national interest. SEC. 84.—The Department. Provide.LAND SEC. SEC. in collaboration with the Department of Science and Technology and other appropriate government agencies. A science fund shall be established from which the scientific community in agriculture and fisheries shall draw its financial resource for sustained career development.— Agriculture and Fisheries Research and Development activities shall be multidisciplinary and shall involve farmers. and those engaged in food and non-food production and processing including the private and public sectors. shall harmonize its merit and output-oriented promotion system governing the scientific community in order to promote increased research excellence and productivity and provide the government research system a competitive edge in retaining its scientific personnel. reduce cost of production .

c. It shall support the development of a national extension system that will help accelerate the transformation of Philippine agriculture and fisheries from a resource -based to a technology-based industry. and training services. Training services. The private sector subsystem. through the NIN results of research and development activities and current available technology relating agriculture and fisheries. regardless of source of funding. 89. and c. b. SEC.—The delivery of agriculture and Fisheries Extension Services shall be multidisciplinary and shall involve the farmers. Special Concerns in the Delivery of Extension services. Extension Services. SEC. The State shall give priority for the utilization of research results through formal and nonformal education. b. including the private and public sectors. fisherfolk. SEC. 88. The Role of Local Government Units. Declaration of Policy. 86. SEC. The National Extension System for Agriculture and Fisheries shall be composed of three (3) subsystems: a. 267 .—The Department in coordination with the appropriate government agencies. Farm or business advisory services.—The LGUs shall be responsible for delivering direct agriculture and fisheries extension services. Chapter 2 Extension Services SEC. 87.—It is hereby declared the policy of the State to promote science and technology as essential for national development and progress.—Agriculture and Fisheries extension services shall cover the following major services to the farming and fishing community: a. The national government subsystem which directly complements. to promote professionalism and achieve excellence and productivity in the provision of the government extension services. and their organizations and those engaged in food and non-food production and processing. networked . 90. d. and Information and communication support services through trimedia.AGRICULTURE All government agencies including the state colleges and universities and private educational institutions selected as NCEs shall be computerized . There shall be a national merit and promotion system governing all extension personnel. The local government subsystems. shall formulate a National Extension System for Agriculture and Fisheries. Demonstration services. provided with regular updated information and shall likewise provide. extension. The National Extension System for Agriculture and Fisheries (NESAF).

and e. The extension program of state colleges and universities shall primarily focus on the improvement of the capability of the LGU extension service by providing: a. technical assistance.” Sundial of the Seasons (1964) (A. use of participatory approaches. but the ultimate wisdom. 91. improvement of physical facilities.—Hal Borland “The Certainty-April 5. 92. c. b. Extension cum research activities. c.LAND The provincial governments shall integrate the operations for the agriculture extension services and shall undertake an annual evaluation of all municipal extension programs. SEC. d. and e. The Role of Government Agencies.—The Department. the simplest fact of the universe and at the same time the one which calls forth faith rather than reason. Role of the Private Sector in Extension. remains locked in a seed. Oposa) The Department is hereby authorized to commission and provide funding for such training and extension services undertaken by the private sector. There it lies. regenerative agricultural technologies. training of LGU extension personnel. agri-business and management skills. Technical assistance. Information support services through the tri-media and electronics. Man is wise and constantly in quest of more wisdom. popularization of training materials. b. extension cum research. 268 . Monitoring and evaluation of LGU extension projects. together with state colleges and universities shall assist in the LGU’s extension system by improving their effectiveness and efficiency through capability-building and complementary extension activities such as: a. information support services. Degree and non-degree training programs. d. —The department shall encourage the participation of farmers and fisherfolk cooperatives and associations and others in the private sector in the training and other complementary extension services especially in community organizing. SEC. which deals with beginnings.

98.—The Department in coordination with the public and private universities and colleges. activities. the budget for agriculture and fisheries extension services shall be at least one percent (1%) of the gross value added (GVA) by year 2001 SEC. and institutions. in coordination with the appropriate government agencies. Funding for Extension Activities. promote rural industrialization and the establishment of agro. Objectives. 94. promote a basic needs approach to rural development. TITLE 4 RURAL NON-FARM EMPLOYMENT Chapter 1 SEC. 93.—Rural non-farm employment aims to: a. shall develop an integrated multimedia support for national and LGU extension programs. c. SEC. make rural workers more adaptable and flexible through education and training. Excellence and Accountability in Extension. Principles. 96. b.—It is hereby declared the policy of the State to promote full employment. Economic history. b. Chapter 2 The Basic Needs Program SEC. which shall involve an independent and interdisciplinary team of the collegial reviewers and evaluators. It is therefore necessary to formulate policies and implement programs that will employ workers efficiently in rural areas in order to improve their standard of living. The Department shall assist the LGU’s in the computerization of communication support services to clients and linkages to the NIN. however. SEC. and d.—The Department.—Extension activities shall be supported by the following measures: a. shall formulate the Basic Needs Program to create employment and cushion the effect of liberalization based on the following principles: 269 . 97. and c. Extension Communication Support for LGU’s.—The Department shall formulate the guidelines in evaluating extension. increase the income of rural workers. shows that as an economy modernizes the number of workers employed in its agricultural sector declines. Declaration of policy.AGRICULTURE SEC. and reduce their propensity to migrate to urban areas.processing enterprises in rural communities. allow transfer of funds from the Department to the local government units as extension grants. allocation of multi-year budgets that shall be treated as grants. 95.

advisory and related services of the Government free of charge. No credit subsidies shall be granted. The participation of the private sector shall be voluntary. SEC. The Cooperatives Development Authority shall encourage the establishment and growth of associations and cooperatives as vehicles for the stable expansion of basic needs enterprises. and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority shall coordinate with the Department and Congress in the review. Principles. in consultation with the appropriate government agencies concerned. That the appropriate national government agencies shall continue to provide the necessary technical as well as financial assistance to the LGUs in the replication of the program. c. 270 . The local government units shall bear the costs of promoting and monitoring the basic needs program for which their IRA shall be increased accordingly as recommended by the Secretary of the Department Provided. health and other welfare services for farmers and fisherfolk. Chapter 3 Rural Industrialization Industry Dispersal Program SEC. provided that existing credit arrangements with ARBs shall not be affected. and the private sector. The Board of Investments (BOI) is hereby required to give the highest priority to the grant of incentives to business and industries with linkages to agriculture. rationalization and reallocation of their regular budgets as well as their budgets under the GATT. 101. The Department of Education.related measures fund to finance education. Local government units are authorized to undertake investment and marketing missions provided that the costs of such missions are borne by the LGUs concerned. shall provide integrated services and information to prospective enterprises under the one-stop-shop concept. training. shall identify areas for industrial parks. Participation of Government Agencies.—The replication of the program shall be the responsibility of the local government units concerned in collaboration with the appropriate government agencies. under the leadership of the LGUs concerned. Culture and Sports. 99.—Rural industrialization and industry dispersal programs shall be based on the interplay of market forces. information. In making their land use plans. The normal rules of banking shall apply to all enterprises involved. Role of Government Agencies.LAND a. b.—The appropriate government agencies. the LGUs. implementation and evaluation procedures. Teams composed of specialists from government agencies and the private sectors shall develop pilot programs in selected locales to establish the planning. Enterprises can use training. 100. SEC. Department of Health.

the Board of Investments. The farmers therefore. Financing.—Except for basic infrastructure and other goods that benefit all citizens. in particular. in the formulation of investments priorities for rural areas. Webster (A. The Regional Wage Boards shall consult participating enterprises in this program before they issue wage orders.”—D. 103. Oposa) 271 . “Let us never forget that the cultivation of the Earth is the most important labor of man. are the founders of civilization. A set of incentives shall be given to enterprises that subcontract part of their production to farmers. SEC. the facilities of this program should be undertaken and financed by the private sector.AGRICULTURE The Department shall coordinate with the Department of Trade and Industry . technical and advisory services free of cost. fisherfolk and landless workers during periods when they are not engaged in agricultural activities. Participating Enterprises. 102. After tillage. SEC.—Participating enterprises may request any government agency for training. the acts follow.

shall. pesticide. Role of the DENR. All enterprises engaged in agriculture and fisheries as duly certified by the Department in consultation with the Department of Finance and the board of Investment. genetic materials. SEC. harvesting equipment. in collaboration with the appropriate government agencies concerned shall plan and implement special training projects for women for absorption in the basic needs and rural industrialization programs. however. fertilizer. SEC. threshers. but not limited to.—The Department and the DENR shall organize the training of workers in coastal resources management and sustainable fishing techniques. equipment and machinery such as. equipment and machinery.—TESDA shall organize local committees that will advise on the scope. trucks. Special Training Projects for Women. That after a reasonable period. The Department. TESDA is authorized to request the additional budgetary resources for these programs: Provided. SEC. fishing equipment and parts thereof. 104. 105. formulate the implementing rules and regulations governing the importation of agriculture and fishery inputs. hybrid seeds. spare parts of all agricultural equipment. insecticide. 108. in consultation with the Department of Finance and the Board of Investment.LAND Chapter 4 Training of Workers SEC. and renewable energy systems such as solar panels Provided. farm implements and machinery. be exempted from the payment of tariff and duties for the importation of all types of agriculture and fisheries inputs. 109.—The Department. packaging machinery and materials. TITLE 5 TRADE AND FISCAL INCENTIVES SEC. 272 . shall. trailers. the task of coordinating the training is transferred to the LGUs concerned. SEC. sprayers. Role of the Technology and Livelihood Resource Center (TLRC). bulk-handling facilities such as conveyors and mini loaders. harvesters. equipment and machinery shall be for the exclusive use of the importing enterprise. nature and duration of training for the above-mentioned programs. 107. 106. Role of TESDA. refrigeration equipment. That the imported agricultural and fishery inputs. Taxation policies must not deter the growth of value-adding activities in the rural areas. tractor. within ninety (90) days from the effectivity of this Act. weighing scales.—The TLRC shall undertake field training in entrepreneurship and management of workers involved in the basic needs program. for five (5) years after the effectivity of this Act.

or the authorized capital stock in case of corporations. and airports. corporation. or a fine equivalent to two hundred percent (200%) of the value of the imported materials. water supply system.000. four percent (4%) of which shall be used to support the Biotechnology Program. or both. Initial Appropriation. In cases where the violator is a juridical entity. watershed rehabilitation. association and other juridical entity found circumventing the provisions of Section 109 of this Act shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment for a period of not less than six (6) months but not more than one (1) year. at the discretion of the court. and/or the resale of the imported goods shall be a prima facie evidence of the violation of the provisions of Section 109 of this Act. farm-and -coast-to-market roads. said amount shall fund the post-harvest facilities of the market -assistance system. and the accessory penalties of confiscation of the imported goods in favor of the government and revocation of the privileges given under this title. 4. 111. further. especially market vendors’ cooperatives. GENERAL PROVISIONS SEC. Ten percent (10%) for research and development. Eight percent (8%) for the implementation of the Farmer-Fisherfolk Marketing Assistance System and support of market vendors’ cooperatives. Ten percent (10%) for other infrastructure including fishports. partnership. That if no cooperatives are operational. The importation of goods equivalent to or exceeding the declared assets of the enterprise. Any person.000. public markets and abattoirs.AGRICULTURE SEC.—For the first year of implementation of this Act. Ten percent (10%) for post-harvest facilities Provided. That the amount shall be allocated and disbursed as follows: 1. Thirty percent (30%) for irrigation. 5. 110. The Department is hereby authorized to re-align its appropriations in the current year of the date of effectivity of this Act to conform with the requirements of this Act Provided.000.00) is hereby appropriated. research and technology infrastructure. communications infrastructure. 6. partnership. rural energy. the amount of Twenty Billion pesos (P20. where said cooperatives exist and are operational Provided. Ten percent (10%) for the Agro-industry Modernization Credit and Financing Program (AMCFP) to be deposited by the Department in participating rural-based public and private financial institutions provided that no less than fifty percent (50%) of said funds shall be deposited in rural banks in cooperative banks. That the Secretary of Agriculture may invest up to fifty percent (50%) of the said amount to fund post-harvest facilities of cooperatives. seaports. 273 . the officers responsible in the violation of Section 109 shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment prescribed in this Section. 2. 3.

—The Secretary within ninety (90) working days after the effectivity of this act.LAND 7. whether from local or foreign sources. Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Continuing Appropriation.—The Department of Budget and Management (DBM) is hereby mandated to include annually in the next six (6) years. the Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI). c. including the Subic. 8178. Commission on Higher Education (CHED). Four percent (4%) for the National Information Network (NIN) consisting of both the national and local levels. One-and-three-fourth percent (1. 10. One-fourth percent (0. 11.25%) for the identification of the SAFDZs. 8. b. Poverty alleviation Fund. Six percent (6%) for salary supplement of Extension Workers under the LGUs. 113. together with the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR). Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). and other assets of the Department that will be identified by the DA Secretary and recommended to the President for privatization.000. Forty percent (40%) of the TESDA Skills Development Fund. or donations.000. 112. Implementing Rules and Regulations. Loans. grants. in the President’s Program of expenditures for submission to Congress. f.and TESDA-administered Rural Non-Farm Employment Training. and 12. Additional funds over and above the regular yearly budget of the Department shall be sourced from twenty percent (20%) of the proceeds of the securitization of government assets. 274 . Proceeds from the Minimum Access Volume (MAV) in accordance with the provisions of Republic Act No. the Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI). SEC. Department of Science and Technology (DOST). SEC. bequest. and other special economic zones.75%) for SUC. Fifty Percent (50%) of the net earnings of the Public Estates Authority. (FTI). Other sources of funds shall be from the following: a.000. for the upgrading of the facilities of State Universities and Colleges that will be chosen as national center of excellence in agriculture and fisheries education. 9. 6657. Department of Finance (DOF). an amount not less than Seventeen billion pesos (P17.00) for the implementation of this Act. Fifty Percent (50%) of the Support Facilities and Services Fund under Republic Act No. Five percent (5%) for NAFES . and g. Clark. e. Net proceeds from the privatization of the Food Terminal Inc. d. and release. Five percent (5%) for capability-building of farmers and fisherfolk organizations and LGUs for the effective implementation of the agriculture and fisheries programs at the local level.

Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE). No. 6713 otherwise known as the “Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees” and other existing administrative and/or criminal laws. Prescribe and adopt guidelines that will govern its work. in the national. municipal. Department of Budget and Management (DBM). Culture and sports (DECS). Congressional Oversight Committee on Agricultural and Fisheries Modernization. farmers. to be designated respectively by the Speaker of the House and the President of the Senate. and sectoral development plans to recommend the disposal of assets no longer needed by the Department to fund the modernization program. fisherfolk and agribusiness organizations. shall promulgate the rules and regulations for the effective implementation of this act.—The Congressional Oversight on Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization shall have the following powers and functions: a. Department of Social services and Development (DSSD). shall be respectively. 275 .AGRICULTURE Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). The Chairs of the Committees on Agriculture in the Senate and House of Representatives. traveling and other necessary expenses shall be allowed. projects and activities related to agriculture and fisheries. with a view to providing all legislative support and assistance within the powers of Congress to ensure their inclusion. and to see them through their successful implementation. provincial. wherever feasible. six (6) members of the House of Representatives and six (6) members of the Senate. who shall endeavor to have the various sectors and regions of the country represented. Any violation of this section shall render the official/s concerned liable under Republic Act. Powers and Functions of the Committee. The Committee shall oversee and monitor the implementation of the Congressional Commission on Agricultural Modernization (AGRICOM) recommendations as well as all programs. and in coordination with the Congressional Oversight committee on Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization. and its allied concerns in both public and private sectors. SEC. Commission on Audit (COA). Department of Education . Civil Service Commission (CSC). 114. The other members shall receive no compensation: however. in consultation with other agencies concerned. National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA).—A congressional Committee on Agricultural and Fisheries Modernization is hereby created to be composed of the Chairs of the Committee on Agriculture of both Houses. regional. SEC. 115. The Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture of both houses of congress copies of the implementing rules and regulations within thirty (30) days after their promulgation. the Chair and Co-Chair of the Oversight Committee.

SEC. c. supplies and equipment of AGRICOM. Summon by subpoena any public or private citizen to testify before it. reports or other documents as may be necessary in the performance of its functions. including compensation of all personnel.—The Committee shall submit periodic reports on its findings and make recommendations on actions to be taken by Congress and the appropriate department. 276 . Cause to be transferred to the Committee all works. 117. e. Secure from any department. SEC. Generally to exercise all the powers necessary to attain the purposes for which its created. g. and in order to carry out the objectives of this Act. or require by subpoena duces tecum to produce before it such records.000. and j. and assets. based on its findings. Periodic Reports. Approve the budget for the work of the Committee and all disbursements therefrom. outputs. Separability Clause. an initial amount of Twenty million pesos (P20. funds. Hold hearings. including technical information. subject to applicable rules. the validity of the other provisions shall not be affected thereby. to the President and to both Houses of Congress. continue its information and advocacy work. and in the event one or more of such provisions are held unconstitutional. executive issuance. preparation. decrees.—This Act shall take effect thirty (30) days from the date of its publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two (2) newspapers general circulation.—The provisions of this Act are hereby declared to be separable. 118.—Every five (5) years after the effectivity of this Act. 116. Carry on the winding-up work of AGRICOM. h. i. Use resource persons from the public and private sectors as may be needed.LAND b. Effectivity. SEC. 119. source materials. f.—All laws. contractual or on consultancy. Repealing Clause. 120.000. such as editing and printing all technical reports and studies as well as bibliographic cataloguing of its collection of source materials. an independent review panel composed of experts to be appointed by the President shall review the policies and programs in the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act and shall make recommendations. bureau. rules and regulations inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly.00) is hereby appropriated for the Oversight Committee for the first year of its operation. SEC. Approved: 22 December 1997. SEC. receive testimonies and reports pertinent to its specified concerns. Organize its staff and hire and appoint such employees and personnel whether temporary. and production of reports and submission of recommendations or plans as it may require. d. Automatic Review. office or instrumentality of the Government such assistance as may be needed.

repealing clause. 15-22). Sec.—This Act shall be known as the “High-Value Crops Development Act of 1995. 7-8). transition period. approval and delisting procedures. Sec. 1-4). These comprise the confidential business information. separability. competencies and efficiency of agribusiness and develop high-value crops as export crops that will significantly augment the foreign exchange earnings of the country. 8. Sec. and the miscellaneous provisions: The first part contains the general provisions (Part I). enhance productivity and incomes of farmers and the rural population. 2. Sec. 13-14). fees. The second major portion provides the procedures for different aspects of transgenics. 5-6). This can be further classified into three major portions that include the general provisions. 2002) “This is the Philippine government policy regarding “the importation and release into the environment of plants and plant products derived from the use of modern biotechnology. the approval process for importation of regulated articles for direct use as food or feed.” — Marcus Antoninus (A. through an all-out pro- “Our understandings are always liable to error. the approval process for field testing of regulated articles (Part III. Oposa) 277 . S. and. and the effectivity (Sec.” It is divided into 22 sections and classified into seven parts. 11-12). Sec. The remaining portion contains the miscellaneous provisions (Part VII). and infallibility is mere vanity and pretense. outside experts and accreditation of laboratories. the procedure for delisting of regulated articles (Part VI. 9-10).” High—Valued Crops (Republic Act 7900) SECTION 1.” SEC. Title. improve investment climate. or for processing (Part V. Declaration of Policy.—It is hereby dedeclared the policy of the State to accelerate the growth and development of agriculture in general.HIGH—VALUED CROPS Philippine Policy on Transgenics (Department of Agriculture Administrative Order No. These consist of the definition of terms. the approval process for propagation of regulated articles (Part IV. This includes the approval process for importation of regulated articles for contained use (Part II. Nature and certainty are very hard to come at. coverage of the policy. appeal. the risk assessment process and the responsible officer (Sec.

As such. game refuge.LAND motion of the production. legumes. pineapple. offices. cashew. 4. the departments. indigenous and cultural communities. mangosteen. and watermelon). bell pepper. cauliflower. The State shall effect an efficient use of land and other productive resources with due regard to ecological balance and environmental protection. root crops (potato and ubi). and increased agro-industrial production for the alleviation of poverty and sustainable growth objectives. orchids. marketing. jackfruit. SEC. rambutan. and patola). timberlands. “Forest land”—refers to the lands of the public domain which have not been declared as alienable or disposable. 3. radish. anthuriums. The State has the right to expropriate lands not utilized for the benefit of the community and the country as a whole. subdivisions. and onion). “Alienable and disposable lands”—refer to those lands of the public domain which have been the subject of the present system of classification and declared as not needed for forest purposes. broccoli. Definition of Terms. owners and lessees of agricultural land. Scope of Application. and cutflower and ornamental foliage plants (chrysanthemum. and bird sanctuaries. farmers’ organizations/associations/cooperatives. the term: 1. but are not limited to: coffee and cacao. forest reservations. 2. 5. being stewards. upland farm owners. “High-value crops (HVC)”—these are crops other than traditional crops which include. celery.—This Act shall cover upland dwellers as well as lowland tenants. 4. cabbage. vegetable crops (asparagus. 278 .—For purposes of this Act. coconut and sugar. tomato. pole sitao (snap beans and garden pea). titled or developed to produce any crop nor devoted to any specific economic purpose continuously for a period of three (3) years immediately prior to the receipt of notice of acquisition by the government as provided under the CARP. farmers. branches or instrumentalities in the areas identified by the Department of Agriculture as key commercial crop production areas. have the obligation to cultivate the lands they own or lease and make the land economically productive on a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. permanent forests or forest reserves. “Idle and abandoned land”—refers to any agricultural land not cultivated. corn. lanzones. Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) beneficiaries. rural development. strawberry. gladiolus. grazing lands. 3. The State shall be guided by the principles that land has a social function and land ownership has a social responsibility. papaya. and statice). agencies. garlic. mobilization of human resources. ginger. and distribution of high-value crops in suitable areas of the country. fruit crops (citrus. spices and condiments (black pepper. public forests. guava. guyabano. and to the extent herein provided. durian. carrots. SEC. equity consideration. “Non-traditional crops”—refer to crops other than rice. mango. processing. community associations and farmworkers.

shall also be considered to further support the program: Provided.000). in coordination with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. That such site identification shall be reviewed at appropriate intervals to ensure consistency with the agrarian reform program and the national land use policy. which is directly responsible for the management of the HVCDF. within six (6) months after the effectivity of this Act: Provided. marketing.—For the purpose of providing the funding requirements of the production.000. Site Identification. The Department of Agriculture. 5. Farm Model.—The Department of Agrarian Reform and the Department of Agriculture. That they shall lend a minimum of five percent _______________________ Providing an Agrarian Reform Credit and Financing System for Agrarian Reform Beneficiaries through Banking Institutions [P. 8. planning and coordinating crops varieties. including but not limited to borrowings from local and international financial institutions.000 has. with an initial amount of One billion pesos (P1. 64 279 . SEC. and the municipal government concerned. hectarage. whether public or private. That sixty percent (60%) of the HVCDF shall be utilized for direct lending to high-value crop producers while the remaining forty percent (40%) shall be allocated by the Department of Agriculture to guarantee loans granted by private financial institutions toward high-value crop production through existing guarantee institutions. 7. 717: Provided. All financial institutions. Tenurial Arrangement.000. Other sources of funds. farmers may adopt the cooperative system in putting up economically-sized farms for high-value crop farming. and processing of high-value crops. High-Value Crops Development Fund (HVCDF). distribution and some production measures with reference to the market it shall serve.HIGH—VALUED CROPS SEC. shall identify the broad areas suitable for high-valued crops production.) in area.—Farmer cooperatives may lease the land for a period of twenty-five (25) years. SEC. and not to exceed one thousand hectares (1. 6. Participating banks are hereby exempted from the compliance requirement of 64 Presidential Decree No. is hereby authorized to designate the Land Bank of the Philippines and the Development Bank of the Philippines to manage the direct lending operations of the sixty percent (60%) portion of the HVCDF through LBP and DBP facilities or their conduits. there is hereby created a High-Value Crops Development Fund (HVCDF). Farmer members shall collectively manage individual farms which includes contracting process and means of production. 717 (29 May 1975)]. and raising breed. No.—For the program. shall be tapped to support the program. SEC. and the establishment of low-cost credit to qualified project proponents. Said farm models may be replicated by farmers’ organizations all over the country.D. The HVCDF shall be sourced from the Comprehensive Agricultural Loan Fund (CALF) and shall be managed by the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP) and the Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP).

e. f. subject to the prevailing Land Bank interest rates. and 3. Grace period on lease of government lands payments—project proponents shall effect payment on the lease not earlier than two (2) years after the lease agreement is signed and approved. b. d.—The proponents of the program shall be entitled to the following incentives: a. Market linkage—the Department of Agriculture. 10 October 1991. CARP beneficiaries. including but not limited to borrowings from local and international financial institutions. The premium rates shall be set not on the basis of the performance of previous programs specifically on rice and corn. 280 . shall link-up agribusiness cooperatives directly with consumers cooperatives.A. Exemption from taxes. The grace period shall be determined by the gestation periods of the crops. shall also be considered to further support the program. or exporters to provide marketing outlets and assure relatively higher and stable prices. fees and charges under Title One of Book Two of 66 the Local Government Code of 1991 in accordance with Section 133(n) of the said Code. Agro-processing firms buying directly from project proponents shall be granted tax rebates. _______________________ 65 66 R. out of the HVCDF. 6938 or the Cooperative Code of the Philippines. Credit assistance—the HVCDF shall be loaned out to farmers’ organizations/ associations/cooperatives composed of. No. 7160. No. R. 8424. Crop insurance—the insurance program of the Philippine Crop Insurance Corporation (PCIC) shall be expanded to cover high-value crops. in the form of equity. 9. Exemption from the value-added tax in accordance with Section 103 of 65 the National Internal Revenue Code. a credit guarantee cover shall be extended by the Quedan and Rural Credit Guarantee Corporation (QUEDANCOR) which shall thereby be provided with a commensurate guarantee fund. 2. Incentives. agro-processing companies. c. SEC. in coordination with the Department of Trade and Industry. Exemptions from taxes and duties subject to the provisions of Article 62 of Republic Act No. Other sources of funds. 11 December 1997. Tax exemption—project proponents as defined in Section 7 of this Act shall be entitled to the following tax exemptions: 1. Credit Guarantee—to enhance the bankability of projects.LAND (5%) of their loanable funds without alternative compliance directly to farmers’ associations or cooperatives. but not limited to.A. as amended.

of the committee. units of measurement. code of practice and packaging. h. high quality seeds/planting materials subject to quarantine laws and Section 15 of Republic Act No. state universities and colleges and other relevant government agencies. coordinate 281 . Cooperative Development Authority. the implementing rules and regulations in order to carry out the provisions of this Act. financial and market information shall be provided by the Department of Agriculture. Inter-Agency Committee.—The agribusiness development group of the Department of Agriculture shall be strengthened to implement. the Department of Trade and Industry. and the Department of the Interior and Local Government and one (1) each from the small farmers and commercial producers sectors to be designated by the Secretary of Agriculture. preservation. 10. nomenclature. the agribusiness development group of the Department of Agriculture shall establish and enforce standards in grading. the project proponents may be allowed to import.HIGH—VALUED CROPS To ensure health and proper trading. specifications. Post harvest facilities—access to post harvest facilities. infrastructure development. the Department of Science and Technology. The representatives from the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Trade and Industry shall be the chairman and the vicechairman.—A committee. the Department of Agrarian Reform. shall formulate and prescribe. The Secretary of the Department of Agriculture shall report to both Houses of Congress on the status of the High-Value Crops Development Program biannually. SEC. 7083 or the Seed Industry Development Act of 1992. the Cooperative Development Authority. conservation and transportation of highvalue crops. Good seeds and planting materials—the Department of Agriculture. and farmers organizations shall make good seeds and materials readily available to farmers/farmers’ cooperatives to ensure high yield and good quality produce. SEC. Technical and infrastructure support—technical support on research and extension. respectively. free of duties. However. the Development Bank of the Philippines. Department of Trade and Industry. tests and analysis. Guidelines for the eventual transfer of ownership of these facilities to the proponent shall be formulated by the Department of Agriculture. and j. after public hearing and publication as required by law. processing and storage facilities. storage and distribution/transport facilities of existing government agencies shall be facilitated. Agribusiness Development Group. composed of representatives from the Department of Agriculture. g. the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Department of Science and Technology. the Land Bank of the Philippines. Assistance shall be given to qualified and viable farmers/growers cooperatives in the availment of soft loans or grants for the construction of post-harvest. Fiscal incentives—the same fiscal incentives granted by the Board of Investments shall be automatically granted to project proponents. 11. in coordination with the state universities and colleges. sampling and inspection. i. the Department of Trade and Industry.

Enjoin the Department of Transportation and Communications to effect a more efficient. f. including identification of the local supply-demand situation. regular. it shall be tasked to perform the following functions: a. the amount necessary for its operations shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act. packaging houses.LAND and monitor the program based on the rules and regulations set forth by the interagency committee. pick-up points and meeting places of farmers’/growers’ cooperatives. their prices and movement in trade. Establish linkages with various government and private research institutions for the conduct of studies and researches designed to promote the production. and economical means of transporting and/or shipping of high-value crops. Encourage the establishment of wholesale markets in identified major centers of the country: Provided. c. Thereafter. e. to determine and effect a balanced distribution of high-value crops by means of inter-trading or intra-trading among the established wholesale markets. Extend assistance in marketing and distribution of high-value crops through monitoring and dissemination of market information. Assist in the formulation of general and specific policies for the development of high-value crops. the DTI or the LGU’s technicians or by contracting agriculturists and marketing specialists from private or academic institutions. suitable. d. Devise and maintain a system for regularly obtaining information on current and future production. for purposes of reducing marketing costs and ensuring stable consumer supply. Set up the appropriate system to monitor the utilization of the HVCDF and shall furnish the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas regular reports on the financial institutions’ compliance to the program. Aside from its usual functions. That agricultural produce collection centers may also be established in areas where feasible. b. and i. h. g. adequate. marketing and processing of high-value crops. Establish experimental stations and seed farms for the development of varieties suitable to the agro-climatic conditions of the area and markets that will provide greatest value added to high-value crops. Such amount as may be needed for the initial operating expenses of the group shall be charged to any available funds in the appropriation for current operating expenditures of the Department of Agriculture. Conduct farmers’ training programs primarily aimed at increasing their knowledge on production technologies and on market potentials and prospects for various types of high-value crops. which may also serve as buying stations of farm products. through the DA-Agricultural Training Institute (ATI). domestic market matching and overseas market intelligence and promotion activities on high-value crops. 282 .

fertilizer and pesticides are vital inputs in food production and must be supplied in adequate quantities at reasonable cost. however. SEC. 1144) WHEREAS. we in effect removed the interplay of predator and prey in the cycle of life. handlers. SEC. Oposa) 283 . and the public in general because of the inherent toxicity of these compounds which are. whichever comes first. Repealing Clause. Approved: 23 February 1995.—All laws or parts thereof. Fertilizers and Pesticides (Presidential Decree No. WHEREAS. it is Government policy to provide adequate assistance to the agricultural sector in line with the national objective of increasing food production. rules and regulations inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly: Provided. 12. potential environmental contaminants. orders. Effectivity Clause. poisoning ourselves. 14. decrees. in the end. improper pesticides usage presents serious risks to users. WHEREAS. the other provisions not affected thereby shall remain in full force and effect. we call them pests.FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES SEC. 13. That nothing in this Act shall be construed or applied as amending the CARL and other laws on agrarian reform. and eventually poisoning also the living soil. moreover. WHEREAS. “Because we decided to plant only one crop in a certain patch of land. there is a need to educate the agriculture sector on the benefits as well as the hazards of pesticides use so that it can utilize pesticides properly to promote human welfare while avoiding dangers to health and environmental pollution. because the bugs that prey on grains no longer have their own predator. Thus.—If any of the provisions of this Act is declared invalid.” (A.—This Act shall take effect immediately following its publication in a newspaper of general circulation or in the Official Gazette. and. Separability Clause. use chemical poison to kill them.

The term shall be understood to include insecticide. herbicide. the foregoing considerations make it desirable to have one agency to regulate fertilizer importation. the Fertilizer Industry Authority was created by Presidential Decree No. delivery. defoliant. SEC. control and develop the fertilizer industry but does not include the pesticide industry in its jurisdiction. “Pesticide”—any substance or product. the fertilizer and pesticides industries have much in common in terms of clientele. prevent. Abolition of the Fertilizer Industry Authority. rodenticide. desiccant and the like. 517 and 669. SEC.—The Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority. do hereby decree and order the following: SECTION 1. fungicide. bactericide. distribution. Creation of the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority. distribution channels. sale. is hereby created and attached to the Department of Agriculture for the purpose of assuring the agricultural sector of adequate supplies of fertilizer and pesticide at reasonable prices. 284 . that such assumption is made within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this decree. nematocide. formulation.—The Fertilizer Industry Authority created under Presidential Decree 135 dated 22 February 1973. Definitions. repel or mitigate directly or indirectly. control and develop both the fertilizer and the pesticide industries. as amended by Presidential Decrees 517 and 669. THEREFORE. plant regulator. dated 19 July 1974 and 11 March 1975 respectively. there is an urgent need to create a technically-oriented government authority equipped with the required expertise to regulate. President of the Philippines by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution. any pest.LAND WHEREAS. 3. use and disposal. molluscicide. the terms herein below shall be understood to mean as follows: a. manufacture. FERDINAND E. The FPA shall assume such appropriations. and educating the agricultural sector in the use of these inputs. dated 22 February 1973. storage. Provided. adjuvants and pesticide formulations. and amended by Presidential Decree Nos. destroy. distribution. or mixture thereof. 2. I. is hereby abolished. assets and liabilities and hire such personnel of the FIA as may be determined by its Board of Directors. hereinafter referred to as the FPA. including active ingredients. transport and the storage as well as pesticide labeling. NOW.—For the purpose hereof. WHEREAS. transportation. in order to regulate. intended to control. 135. system of application in farmer’s fields. WHEREAS. rationalizing the manufacture and marketing of fertilizer. and technical supervision by the same farm management technicians under the government‘s food production program. avicide. protecting the public from the risks inherent in the use of pesticides. WHEREAS. MARCOS. dated 19 July 1974 and 11 March 1975 respectively.

5. 2. Organization. distributors. applied directly to the soil for the purpose of promoting plant growth. chemical inputs and chemical compounds not herewith covered by the definition of fertilizer and pesticide but utilized by the agricultural sector. commercial applicators. Board of Directors. e. “Other agricultural chemicals”—shall mean chemicals. inability or temporary incapacity of the Chairman. and retailers of fertilizers. 5. pesticide and other agricultural inputs. positions and salaries of its officers and employees. Secretary of Agriculture – Chairman Secretary of Industry – Member Secretary of Finance – Member Secretary of Trade – Member Governor. Deputy Administrator for Fertilizer. wholesalers. “Imminent hazard”—shall mean a situation which exists when the continued use of a pesticide will likely result in unreasonable adverse effects on the public and/or the environment or will involve unreasonable hazards to the survival of a species declared endangered by the appropriate authorities. Pollution Control Commission – Member Administrator. discipline and/or remove for cause. and other subordinates officials as may be required. 6. importers. f. The Board is empowered to create the positions of Administrator. “Tolerance level”—shall mean the maximum amount of pesticides as determined by the FPA. Central Bank – Member President. The Board shall appoint all the officers of the FPA. 8. Philippine National Bank – Member Director. manufacturers. establish a compensation scheme including allowances and benefits working hours and such other conditions of employment as it may deem proper.solid or liquid .singly or in combination with other materials. increasing crop yield or improving their quality. warehousers. SEC. suppliers. fertilizer inputs.or any nutrient element or elements . which may be allowed to remain in any raw agricultural produce at any stage between harvesting and consumption. 9. 4. c. “Fertilizer”—includes any substance . “Handlers”—shall mean exporters. 4.—The powers and functions of the FPA shall be vested in and exercised by a Board of Directors which shall be composed of the following officials or their representatives: 1. 7. dealers. formulators. including the number. Bureau of Plant Industry – Member Commissioner. and exercise 285 .—The FPA is empowered to determine and create its organizational structure in order to achieve its objectives. Deputy Administrator for Pesticides.FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES b. d.organic or inorganic .Member The members of the Board shall elect a Vice-Chairman who shall act as Chairman in case of the absence. SEC. Food and Drug Administration . repackers. 3.

” For his anti-illegal fishing Decree. 2006. To establish and impose Cebu on April 12. campaign Jojo dela Victoria was murdered in his home in 5. To institute proceedings against any person violating any provisions of this Decree and/or such rules and regulations as may be promulgated to implement the provisions of this Decree after due notice and hearing. collect fees pertaining thereto. agency instrumentality of the government. bureau. To call upon any department. suspension. for such information or assistance as it may need in the exercise of its powers and in the performance of its functions and duties. SEC. fertilizers and other agricultural chemical inputs. 2. To conduct an information campaign regarding the sale and effective use of these products. To promulgate rules and regulations for the registration and licensing of handlers of these products. I. appropriate penalties on handlers of these products for violations of any rules and regulations established by the FPA.LAND such other powers over its personnel as may be necessary for the efficient operation of the FPA. Common to Fertilizers. or cancellation of such registration or licenses and such other A. 4. including governmentowned or controlled corporations. 286 . Oposa and Jojo Dela Victoria tracing the source of rules and regulations as may be ammonium nitrates seized in a raid in the Island of necessary to implement this Calituban. as well as the renewal. 6. 3. Powers and Functions. higher standards and quality of products and better application methods. revocation. To promote and coordinate all fertilizer and pesticide research in cooperation with the Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research and other appropriate agencies to ensure scientific pest control in the public interest. The FPA shall have the following powers and functions. or any officer or employee thereof and on the private sector. safety in the use and handling of pesticides. Pesticides and Other Agricultural Chemicals 1. March 2004. office.—The FPA shall have jurisdiction over all existing handlers of pesticide. 6.

whether importer. associations or individuals as may presently exist or be organized to assists the FPA in carrying out its functions. association. To obtain complete access to all pertinent information on the operations of the industry. to itself import and/or export such items. II. inventor. cooperatives. To control and regulate all marketing companies. 7. To import fertilizer and fertilizer inputs exempt from customs duties. To control and assist in the financing of the importation of fertilizer and fertilizer inputs of production. including the utilization of ideal capacity and the orderly expansion of the industry and to compel the utilization of unused or underutilized capacities of fertilizer companies and to direct any improvement. To establish and enforce sales quotes. including audited and/or unaudited financial statements. of fertilizer and fertilizer industry. 2. both wholesale and retail. production. 6. and of the expansion of the industry. 10. and to purchase naptha locally free from specific taxes. of inventory and working capital. distribution channels. mark-ups. marketing. To control and regulate all aspects of domestic fertilizer production. including the negotiating and contracting of such imports and exports. distribution areas and such other marketing regulations as may be necessary to assure market stability and viable operations in the industry. both domestic and worldwide. 8.FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES 7. and 8. To delegate such selected privileges. compensating and sales taxes and all other taxes. production schedules. and the corresponding duty on the imported crude. 9. Fertilizers 1. or corporation likewise exempt from the payment of customs duties and all other taxes. by controlling and regulating prices. wholesaler or retailer. 11. storage and other marketing factors in the domestic fertilizer market. 5. To determine and set the volume and prices. 287 . 4. To approve or to reject the establishment of new fertilizer or fertilizer input plants and the expansion or contraction of existing capacities. To make a continuous assessment of the fertilizer supply and demand situation. modifications or repairs as may be necessary to accomplish this. powers or authority as may be allowed by law to corporations. and inventory data. and when necessary. To establish and implement regulations governing the import and export of fertilizer and fertilizer inputs. promotion. To do any and all acts not contrary to law or existing decrees and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the FPA. 3. and to sell or convey such fertilizer or fertilizer input to any individual. To regulate and control quality of the different grades of fertilizer and to set new grades when necessary. terms.

c. 4. storage. To inspect the establishment and premises of pesticide handlers to endure that industrial health and safety rules and anti-pollution regulations are followed. stored. or to public health and the environment. of such pesticides or raw materials thereof as may be in short supply. -. or is causing widespread serious damage to crops. To deal in pesticide and/or fertilizers which have not been previously registered with FPA. and other agricultural chemicals or for any farmer.—It shall be unlawful for any handlers of pesticides. To restrict or ban the use of any pesticide or the formulation of certain pesticide in specific areas or during certain periods upon evidence that the pesticide is an imminent hazard. To engage in any form of production. produced. b. 2.LAND 12. III. 7. 288 . imported. controls on inventories. or which registration has expired or has been suspended or revoked. has caused. and the environment in a manner contrary to good agricultural practice as hereinabove defined. 8. of every handler of these products. To prevent the importation of agricultural commodities containing pesticide residues above the accepted tolerance levels and to regulate the exportation of agricultural products containing pesticide residue above accepted tolerance levels. 5. SEC. To require if and necessary. Pesticide and Other Agricultural Chemicals 1. 7. 3. delivered. SEC. formulated. Should there be any extraordinary and unreasonable increases in prices. 6. fish or livestock. To determine specific use or manners of use for each pesticide or pesticide formulation.The FPA is hereby authorized to issue or promulgate rules and regulations to implement and carry out the purposes and provisions of this Decree. d. To do all such things as may be necessary to maintain an adequate supply of fertilizers to the domestic market at reasonable prices while maintaining the long-term viability of the industry. Power to Issue Rules and Regulations to Implement Decree. the submission to the FPA of a report stating the quantity. or sold. repacked. or a severe shortage in supply of pesticides. and sale in commercial quantities without securing from the FPA a license therefore. including but not limited to such restrictions and controls as the imposition of price ceilings. To establish and enforce tolerance levels and good agricultural practice for use of pesticides in raw agricultural commodities. the FPA is empowered to imposed such control as may be necessary in the public interest. livestock. fertilizers. distribution. To use any pesticide or pesticide formulation on crops. importation. or imminent dangers or either occurrences. distribution. Prohibitions Governing Sale and Use of Fertilizers and Pesticides. value of each kind of product exported. manufactured. To adulterate pesticides’ formulation and fertilizer grades. planter or end-user of the same as the case may be: a.

or modify the registration of any pesticide. as well as a fine ranging from an amount equal to the value involved to three times such value but which in no case be less than PhP5.00 or less.000. or other agricultural chemical shall be exported. fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals except under a license issued by the FPA. f. transported. the simultaneous purchase of pesticide or other agricultural chemical inputs and vice-versa.000. in the pursuit of its duties and functions. shall be liable to a penal servitude of not in excess of one year or a fine of PhP5. that if the violation is commit- 289 . Provided. partnership.00 provided.00 nor more than PhP20.00 but not more than PhP10. sold or offered for sale. marketing. SEC.000. The FPA. b. storing. may suspend. Fertilizer—Any person who violates any of the provisions of this Decree or nay of the provisions of the rules and regulations issued or promulgated by the FPA on Fertilizer shall be punished by imprisonment of not less than 15 years and 1 day or more than 20 years if the amount involved is more than PhP50. of any pesticide. that if falsification of a public or commercial document is committed by reasons or on the occasion of the commission of any of the acts punishable herein.00 but not more than PhP10.000. stored. manufacturing. association or any other entity. Registration and Licensing. by imprisonment of not less than 10 years and 1 day or more than 15 years if the amount involved is PhP10. distributing.FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES e. supplying. If the violation is committed by a corporation. distributed. fertilizer.00. SEC. selling.000. 10. by a fine of PhP5. Pesticides—Any person who violates any of the provisions of this Decree or any of the Provisions of the rules and regulations issued or promulgated by the FPA on pesticide.000. To impose as a condition for the purchase of fertilizer. commercially applying. firm.—No pesticides.000. To violate such other rules and regulations as may be promulgated by FPA. formulating. the offender shall be imposed the maximum fine and term of imprisonment as above prescribed. the penalty shall be imposed upon the guilty officer or officers of such corporations. importing. association or entity. manufactured.000. fertilizer and other agricultural chemicals after due notice and hearing. formulated.00 by other violations where the amount involved cannot be determined. firm.00. Penalties— a. No person shall engage in the business of exporting. 9. partnership. cooperative. Separate registrations shall be required for each active ingredient and its possible formulations in the case of pesticides or for each fertilizer grade in the case of fertilizer. delivered for transportation or used unless it has been duly registered with the FPA or covered by a numbered provisional permit issued by FPA for use in accordance with the conditions as stipulated in the permit. repacking. imported. revoke. and g. To mislabel or make claims which differ in substance from the representation made in connection with a product’s registration or from its actual effectiveness.

Any provision of existing law to the contrary notwithstanding. decrees. SEC. the penalty shall be imposed upon the guilty officials or officers of such entities. donations. executive orders. and in the event any one or more of such provisions are held unconstitutional. ordinances. 11. subsidies. cooperative. acts.—The provisions of this Decree are hereby declared to be separable. be released out of any funds in the National Treasury not otherwise appropriated. Approved. or contributions from any entity and retain such funds for its operation. Appropriation.—The FPA shall constitute itself immediately and shall continue to exist until and unless abolished by the President of the Philippines. amended or modified accordingly.—The sum of One Million and Two Hundred Thousand (1. Life of FPA. firm.” — Joseph Woodkrutch 290 . SEC. SEC.—This Decree shall take effect upon approval. SEC.—All laws. Separability Clause. Repealing Clause. Effectivity. For every calendar year thereafter.2 Million) Pesos shall. 14. such sums as may be necessary in the General Appropriations Decree.LAND ted by a corporation. association or any other entity. “If we do not permit the Earth to produce beauty and joy. 15. 13. partnership. in addition to what has been appropriated for the Fertilizer Industry Authority for the Calendar Year 1977. the validity of other provisions shall not be affected. it will in the end not produce food either. 12. the FPA may impose fees or receive grants. rules and regulations which are inconsistent with the provisions of the Presidential Decree are hereby repealed. SEC.

—Considering the importance of the coconut industry in nation building being one of the principal industries and one of the largest income earners of the country. Replanting program refers to the program formulated by the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) to replenish the coconut trees which have been permitted to be cut by the PCA. the following terms shall be defined as follows: a. 2. SEC. SEC. b. Oposa) c. it is hereby declared the policy of the State to provide for the growth of the industry by embarking on a sustainable and efficient replanting program SEC.” Title.” (A. d. 1995. Coconut tree refers to a tall pinnate-leaved palm bearing a large edible fruit called the coconut. Economically unproductive farm refers to a coconut area where the cost of farm production and maintenance is greater than the generated proceeds or income for a period of at least three (3) years. e. Definition of Terms.COCONUT CUTTING Coconut Cutting (Republic Act 8048) Regulating the Cutting of Coconut Trees SECTION 1. “Coconut—The Tree of Life.—this act shall be known as the “Coconut Preservation Act of Sunrise in Bantayan Island. 4. 3. it becomes mandatory for the government to step in and regulate the unabated and indiscriminate cutting of coconut trees. and no longer productive. Permit refers to the written authorization of the PCA allowing the cutting of coconut trees.—No coconut tree shall be cut except in the following cases and only after a permit had been issued therefore: 291 . Declaration of Policy. weak. Senescent coconut trees are coconut trees which are already over age. Prohibition.— For purposes of this Act. For reasons of national interest.

it shall be incumbent upon the PCA to conduct.LAND a.00) in favor of the barangay unit concerned. f. drainage and other conditions rendering the farm economically unproductive. For this purpose. When the tree is sixty (60) years old. No other causes other than those abovementioned shall be considered as a valid ground for cutting. When the tree is no longer economically productive. When the tree would cause hazard to life and property. in coordination with the local government unit concerned.00) for every tree intended to be cut payable to the PCA. Such replantings. ten pesos (P10. has already planted the equivalent number of coconut trees applied for to be cut. commercial or industrial areas. shall not apply to areas converted into industrial. upon due application being made. When the tree is disease-infested. 292 . When the agricultural land devoted to coconut production shall have been converted in accordance with law into residential. Permit to Cut. 5. d. and g. shall regulate and oversee the planting. however. The applicant shall pay an application fee in the amount of twenty-five pesos (P25. Ten pesos (P 10.—No coconut tree or trees shall be cut unless a permit therefore. That DO conversion shall be allowed by the PCA until after it shall have been verified and certified that for a period of at least three (3) years the majority of the coconut trees have become senescent and economically unproductive or where the coconut farm is not adaptable to sound management practices on account of geographical location. on-the-spot inspections of the sites where the coconut trees have been planted. The PCA.00) in favor of the municipal government concerned. fertilization and care of the newly planted coconut trees. from time to time. in coordination with the PCA and the local government unit concerned. c. topography. and five pesos (P5. commercial or residential sites or land transformed in accordance with law. has been issued by the PCA pursuant to Section 6 of this Act. When the land devoted to coconut production shall be converted into other agricultural uses or other agriculture-related activities in pursuance to a conversion duly applied for by the owner and approved by the proper authorities: Provided. b. into other agricultural purposes. e. No permit to cut shall be granted unless the applicant.00) of the fee shall accrue in favor of the PCA. When the tree is damaged by typhoon or lightning. SEC. The fees shall be used for the PCX s replanting program and for the repair and rehabilitation of roads of the respective local government units which have been damaged by the passage of heavy vehicles used for transporting coconut lumber.

in coordination with the local government unit concerned. The PCA. be punished by imprisonment of not less than one (1) year but not more than six (6) years. upon conviction.—Those found guilty of violating this Act or any rules and regulations issued pursuant hereto shall. sawing of the coconut trees. Implementing Rules. the (T. Penalties. 9. the Philippine Coconut Authority shall prescribe the necessary rules and regulations for the immediate and effective implementation of this Act.COCONUT CUTTING SEC. the PCA may deputize the Philippine National Police or other law enforcement agencies to investigate and apprehend those caught violating the provisions of this Act. 7. to monitor and ensure compliance with this Act including its implementing rules and regulations. the official who ordered or allowed the commission of the offense shall be punished with the same penalty. For this purpose. Cayton) PCA shall also. Authority to Cut. Separability Clause. he shall. 6. For this purpose. If the offender is a corporation or a juridical entity. If the offender is in die government service. coconut wood dealers and other persons or entities dealing in the processing.000) but not more than Five Hundred Thousand Pesos (P500. In addition to the foregoing. 8. in order to effectively implement the provisions of this Act. require the registration of all sawmills.—The Philippine Coconut Authority shall have the exclusive authority to grant permit for the cutting of coconut trees. such declaration shall not affect the other parts or sections of this Act.—If any part or section of this Act is declared unconstitutional. SEC. SEC. The authority may be delegated to the city or municipal mayors as the PCA may determine.” — Hazrat Inayat Khan 293 . be dismissed from office. may request the assistance of any local government unit. in addition. including the confiscation of illegally cut trees. lumberyards. or both in the discretion of the court. “Everything in life is speaking in spite of its apparent silence. or a fine of not less than Fifty Thousand Pesos (P50.— The Philippine Coconut Authority shall be the lead agency to implement the provisions of this Act. SEC.000).

maintain and operate any pet shop. 11.” — Jacques cate shall be valid for a period of one Deval. stud farm or stock farm or zoo for the breeding. kennel. rules and regulations inconsistent with any provisions of this Act shall be deemed repealed or modified accordingly. corral. For purposes of this Act. 294 . Approved: Effectivity Clause. It is the purpose of this Act to protect and promote the welfare of all animals in the Philippines by supervising and regulating the establishment and operations of all facilities utilized for breeding. nor cause pain and/or “God loved the birds and invented trees.—This Act shall take effect upon its approval. presidential decrees. clean and sanitary and will not be used for. executive orders. partnership. or training of animals without first securing from the Bureau of Animal Industry a certificate of registration therefore. maintaining. Repealing Clause. June 7. veterinary hospital. Tapan) just cause before the expiration of its term by the Director of the Bureau of Animal Industry and may be renewed from year to year upon compliance with the conditions imposed hereunder. 2. stockyard. treatment. The certifiloved the birds and invented cages. (1) year unless earlier cancelled for (G. corporation. treating or training of all animals either as objects of trade or as household pets. No person. SEC. keeping. veterinary clinic. The Bureau shall charge reasonable fees for the issuance or renewal of such certificate. Animal Welfare (Republic Act 8485) SECTION 1. sale or trading. The certificate shall be issued upon proof that the facilities of such establishment for animals are adequate. 10. SEC. 1995. Man suffering to the animals. association.—All laws.LAND SEC. cooperative or any government agency or instrumentality including slaughter houses shall establish. pet animal shall include birds.

The Committee shall be composed of the official representatives of the following: 1. subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture. air or water public utility transporting pet. There is hereby created a Committee on Animal Welfare attached to the Department of Agriculture which shall. veterinary hospitals. corrals. Cruelty in transporting includes overcrowding. The Director may call upon any government agency for assistance consistent with its powers.ANIMAL WELFARE The condition that such facilities be adequate. veterinary clinics. and responsibilities for the purpose of ensuring the effective and efficient implementation of this Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder. if not totally eradicate. or kept either for sale or trade or for training as well as the transport of such animals in any form of public or private transportation facility in order to provide maximum comfort while in transit and minimize. clean and sanitary. wildlife and all other animals to provide in all cases adequate. treated. placing of animals in the trunks or under the hood trunks of the vehicles. clean and sanitary facilities for the safe conveyance and delivery thereof to their consignee at the place of consignment. SEC. 295 . stud farms and zoos and any other form or structure for the confinement of animals where they are bred. No cruel confinement or restraint shall be made on such animals while being transported. 4. incidence of sickness and death and prevent any cruelty from being inflicted upon the animals. maintained. The Director of the Bureau of Animal Industry shall supervise and regulate the establishment. operation and maintenance of pet shops. It shall be the duty of such government agency to assist said Director when called upon for assistance using any available fund in its budget for the purpose. within thirty (30) calendar days following its approval. 3. Such guidelines shall be reviewed by the Committee every three (3) years from its implementation or whenever necessary. kennels. issue the necessary rules and regulations for the strict implementation of the provisions of this Act. stockyards. The Bureau may revoke or cancel such certificate of registration for failure to observe these conditions and other just causes. They shall provide sufficient food and water for such animals while in transit for more than twelve (12) hours or whenever necessary. No public utility shall transport any such animal without a written permit from the Director of the Bureau of Animal Industry or his/her authorized representative. and that they will not be used for nor cause pain and/or suffering to the animals is a continuing requirement for the operation of these establishments. SEC. The Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG). It shall be the duty of any owner or operator of any land. 5. including the setting of safety and sanitary standards. duties. Any form of cruelty shall be penalized even if the transporter has obtained a permit from the Bureau of Animal Industry. SEC.

Philippine Society of Swine Practitioners (PSSP). When the pet animal is afflicted with an incurable communicable disease as determined and certified by a duly licensed veterinarian. SEC. 3. 2. 12. National Meat Inspection Commission (NMIC) of the DA. Philippine Society of Animal Science (PSAS). horses. and 14. 5. Department of Education. Culture and Sports (DECS). sustenance or shelter. deer and crocodiles is likewise hereby declared unlawful except in the following instances: 1. 296 . Philippine Animal Hospital Association of the Philippines (PAHA). 8. Philippine Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PSPCA). The Committee members shall not receive any compensation but may receive reasonable honoraria from time to time. sustenance or shelter. Bureau of Animal Industry (BAI) of the Department of Agriculture (DA). to neglect to provide adequate care. 11.LAND 2. Philippine Veterinary Medical Association (PVMA). 10. Philippine Animal Welfare Society (PAWS). Philippine College of Canine Practitioners (PCCP). or maltreat any animal or to subject any dog or horse to dogfights or horsefights. poultry. leaders shall keep records in cooperation with the Committee on Animal Welfare. 13. goats. 6. The Committee shall be chaired by a representative coming from the private sector and shall have two (2) vice-chairpersons composed of the representative of the BAI and another from the private sector. 7. The Committee shall meet quarterly or as often as the need arises. The killing of any animal other than cattle pigs. It shall be unlawful for any person to torture any animal. kill or cause or procure to be tortured or deprived of adequate care. When the killing is deemed necessary to put an end to the misery suffered by the animal as determined and certified by a duly licensed veterinarian. 3. Veterinary Practitioners Association of the Philippines (VPAP). When it is done as part of the religious rituals of an established religion or sect or a ritual required by tribal or ethnic custom of indigenous cultural communities. 4. however. 6. rabbits. Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau (PAWB) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). 9. sheep. carabaos. Agriculture Training Institute (ATI) of the DA. or maltreat or use the same in research or experiments not expressly authorized by the Committee on Animal Welfare.

000. When done for the purpose of animal population control. be punished by imprisonment of not less than six (6) months nor more than two (2) years or a fine of not less than One thousand pesos (P1. the emptiness of ages in his face. decrees. horses. carabaos. Oposa) 297 . It shall be the duty of every person to protect the natural habitat of the wildlife. In all the above mentioned cases. and 7. sheep. Only those procedures approved by the Committee shall be used in the killing of animals. rabbits. pigs. executive orders. 8. 9. and on his back the burden of the world. humane procedures shall mean the use of the most scientific methods available as may be determined and approved by the committee. SEC. When the animal is killed after it has been used in authorized research or experiments. 6. poultry. If the violation is committed by an alien. deer and crocodiles the killing of the animals shall be done through humane procedures at all times. he or she shall be immediately deported after service of sentence without any further proceedings. “Bowed by the weight of centuries he leans upon his hoe and gazes on the ground. acts. SEC. When it is done to prevent an imminent danger to the life or limb of a human 5.00) nor more than Five thousand pesos (P5. the officer responsible therefore shall serve the imprisonment when imposed. SEC. All laws. 7. goats. For this purpose.00) or both at the discretion of the Court. upon conviction by final judgment. rules and regulations inconsistent with the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. being. Any person who violates any of the provisions of this Act shall. The destruction of said habitat shall be considered as a form of cruelty to animals and its preservation is a way of protecting the animals.” — Edwin Markham (A.ANIMAL WELFARE 4. including those of cattle. If the violation is committed by a juridical person. Any other ground analogous to the foregoing as determined and certified licensed veterinarian.000.

if female. 234. and WHEREAS. 234 is further amended such that the slaughtering of carabaos and buffaloes is hereby prohibited except under the following conditions: a. MARCOS. to the effect that the carabao or buffalo to be slaughtered is of the required age and free from any disease. upon recommendation of the Director of the Bureau of Animal Industry. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately. — George Elliot Regulating the Slaughter of Carabaos (Executive Order No. may be slaughtered upon issuance of the necessary slaughter permit by the authorities concerned. 10. 298 . SEC. 253. This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in at least two (2) newspapers of general circulation. Only carabaos and buffaloes that are seven years old or over. The Minister of Agriculture. or their authorized representatives. No slaughter permit shall be issued without a certificate by the Provincial or City Veterinarian concerned. Executive Order No. Approved: February 11. President of the Philippines. b. do hereby promulgate the following: SECTION 1. Executive Order No. if male. present conditions demand that the carabao and the buffalo be conserved for the benefit of the small farmers who rely on them for energy needs. 626) WHEREAS. as amended by Executive Order No. allows the slaughter of carabaos and buffaloes that are three years old or over. 1980. 1998. October 21. THEREFORE. Done in the City of Manila. Animals are such agreeable friends. FERDINAND E. NOW. I.LAND SEC. 2. shall issue such rules and regulations that will effectively carry out the provisions of this Executive Order. 3. SEC. They ask no questions and Pass no criticisms. and eleven years old or over. by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution.

PLANT QUARANTINE Plant Quarantine (Presidential Decree No. modern means of transportation and handling of imports and exports have favored the expeditious and extensive movements of plants and plant products. WHEREAS. it being the actual front-line defense against the introduction or incursion into the country of plant pests which are destructive to our agricultural crops. IN ORDER TO PROTECT THE AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES OF THIS COUNTRY AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES” are no longer relevant and applicable to the protection of plant industries of this country. require urgent and immediate modification and updating. entitled. BIRDS. Seuss. 3027 dated March 8. It’s not. Tapan) . “AN ACT TO PROTECT THE AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS FROM INJURIOUS PLANT PESTS AND DISEASES EXISTING IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES AND FURTHER TO REGULATE THE DOMESTIC MOVEMENT OF THE PLANT MATERIALS IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE INJURY FROM PESTS AND DISEASES ALREADY INTRODUCED. NOT FALLING WITHIN THE SCOPE OF THE TERM ‘DOMESTIC ANIMALS’ AS PROVIDED AND DEFINED IN SECTION FOUR OF ACT NUMBERED THIRTY-SIX HUNDRED AND THIRTY-NINE. WHEREAS.” And Act No. incursion. REPTILES. entitled “AN ACT REGULATING THE IMPORTATION. some of the provisions of Act No. WHEREAS. MAMMALS. and therefore. SUCH AS INSECTS. Nothing is going to get better. plant quarantine is basically and essentially a preventive measure. WHEREAS. thereby. increasing the risk of plant pest introduction and/or incursion. BRINGING OR INTRODUCTION INTO THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS OF LIVING ANIMALS. 1433) WHEREAS. is considered more practical and economical than any other method of plant pest control. economic losses due to injury on agricultural crops brought about by plant pests have become increasingly significant. establishment and subsequent spread of plant pests by regulating the international and domestic movements of plants and plant products.” — Dr. 299 “Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot. MOLLUSKS. 1930. AND OTHER ANIMALS. 1922. 3767. CRUSTACEANS. the prevention of introduction. dated November 26. “The Lorax” (G. BATS.

d. finches. rhizomes. or converting and are capable of harboring plant pets. President of the Philippines. monkeys. companies and other legal entities. water or air. capable of being used as means of transportation in land. packing. “Plant Products” shall mean products derived from plants. WHEREAS. the attainment of the foregoing objectives require the necessary improvement and strengthening of the Plant Quarantine Services of the Bureau of Plant Industry by providing adequate laws. either in their natural state or in manufactured or processed form and are capable of harboring plant pests. “Carrier” includes any sort or craft or other artificial contrivance used. colony and political or territorial subdivision. “Plant Pest” any form of plant or animal life. regulations. I. This Decree shall be known as the “Plant Quarantine Decree of SEC. THEREFORE. 2. firms. NOW. “Plant Quarantine Officer” any person so appointed and/or designated by the Director of Plant Industry. f. i. roots. k. rabbits. grafts.—The following terms used in this Decree shall mean as follows: a. bats. straw. including seeds. 300 . g. bark and other plant materials used as wrapping. cuttings. Definition of Terms. FERDINAND E. “Country” any independent political unit or sovereign nation. rodents. scions and others that are capable of propagation. e. “Plants” shall compromise living plants and parts thereof. snails and other forms of animal life capable of causing injury to agricultural crops. partnerships. injurious or potentially injurious to plants and/or plant products. or any pathogenic agent. 1978”. “Packing Materials” includes leaves. MARCOS. j. b. h. “Quarantine Orders” shall mean those Administrative Orders promulgated and issued by the Director of Plant Industry to implement the provision of this Decree. the Plant Quarantine rules and regulations of the Philippines must be compatible with those of other countries and with the provisions of the Food and Agriculture Organization International Plant Protection Convention of the United Nations to which the Philippines is a signatory. “Potential Animal Pest” shall compromise certain species of animal that are liable to become agricultural crop pests such as insects. territory. “Director” The Director of Plant Industry. resources and facilities. by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution do hereby decree and order the following: SECTION 1. societies. leaves.LAND WHEREAS. c. and incentives to Plant Quarantine Officers. associations. “Person” any natural or juridical person such as corporation. bulbs and corns.

4. is hereby restricted subject to such quarantine orders. food provisions of plant origin and plant ornaments on board carriers.—The importation of certain species of animals which are liable to become agricultural crop pests and are capable of causing injury to agricultural crops. plant products. SEC. potential animal pests. manufacturing. as well as. for the purpose of destroying or eliminating any infection/infestation caused by plant pests. However.PLANT QUARANTINE l. “Port of Entry” is a port open to both foreign and domestic trade. 8. SEC. SEC. “Importation” is the act of bringing into the country the foreign commodities mentioned under Section 3 and 4 of this Decree for planting. 6. q. “Commodity Treatment” any form of treatment applied to plants. p. is hereby prohibited. Importation of plants and plant products.—The Director shall cause the appropriate inspection. from time to time. SEC.—Commodities mentioned under Section 3 and 4 of this Decree. consumption. if the importing country so requires. of injurious plant pests existing in certain localities within the Philippines. packing materials of plant origin capable of harboring and are a source of medium of infection/infestation of plant pests. and/or the Plant Quarantine Officers shall 301 . 3. may be allowed. plant products. Domestic Quarantine of plants and plant products. SEC. m. Importation of potential animal pests. 7. importation in limited quantities for a justifiable purpose and upon a written permit from the Director of Plant Industry. 4 5 and 6 and to apply the necessary plant quarantine measures in order to attain the objectives of this Decree. by the Director with the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture. domestication or for any other purpose. from a local port to a foreign port. that are in transit shall be required of a clearance from the Plant Quarantine Officers assigned at the port concerned. 5. “Phytosanitary Certification” shall mean plant health certification. Commodities in transit. 4.—The Director and/or Plant Quarantine Officers shall cause the inspection and phytosanitary certification of all plants. SEC. Inspection of plants/plants products. “Plants Plant Products in Transit” shall refer to plants/plant products brought into any port in the country but are not intended for landing at the said port. “Exportation” is the act of transporting commodities mentioned under Sections 3. Exportation of plants and plant products. The importation and/or introduction into the Philippines of plants. and other materials. o. n. the Director. The term includes principal ports of entry and subports of entry. soil. plant products and other related materials capable of harboring plant pests. and other materials capable of harboring plant pests. and 6 hereof.—In order to prevent and arrest the spread to other areas. rules and regulations as may be promulgated. of the commodities mentioned in Sections 3.

treatment. and other (A.—All charges for storage. Powers and Duties of Plant Quarantine Officers. SEC. To inspect. To inspect all carriers. 9. cartage. 11. likewise. Flower) materials capable of harboring plant pests are landed. 10. d. SEC. as well as prohibited plants and plant products which exportation is. in order to determine the presence of plants. In cases where it is necessary to contain plant pest(s) the Director may limit the movement of certain plants and/or plant products. in implementing and enforcing the provisions of this Decree. b. if necessary. prohibited. Appointment and/or designation of Plant Quarantine Officers. Provided.—The Director shall cause the appointment and/or special designation of Plant Quarantine Officers.”—William Blake plants. who shall act as his representatives. plant products and potential animal pests involved in prohibited importations. and other materials capable of harboring plant pests. administer treatment. c. that such special designation shall be in written form. from time to time. f. cost of disinfection or disinfestation and other 302 . crew/passenger luggages and incoming mails.LAND cause the inspection. potential animal pests. And a heaven in a wild flower. stored. if necessary. SEC. and certification of plants and plant products involved in the movement from one locality to another within the country. Oposa. and other related materials intended for export. An eternity in spect any and all areas where an hour. To perform such other related duties which maybe assigned to him. Non-liability clause. demurrage. plant products. and issue phytosanitary certificates on plants. however. and/or grown. To enter into the in“To see a world in a grain of sand. as well as. labor and delays incident to inspection. plant products. In the exercise of the powers and duties herein vested to Plant Quarantine Officers. and other materials capable of harboring plant pests as well as potential animal pests and to administer necessary measures to ensure effective implementation of the provisions of this Decree. To confiscate and destroy or refuse entry of plants. Hold infinity in the palm of your hand. plant products. plant products. if the improving country so requires. they are hereby given police power and authority. a. To examine imported plants. e.

agent or master of carriers flying international and/or domestic routes are hereby required to serve a notice of arrival and departure and to provide inward and outward cargo manifests and other declarations of said carriers to the Plant Quarantine Officer at the port. the agent or master of said carrier must secure a clearance from the Plant Quarantine Officer thereat. or before the time of entry/embarkation of commodities mentioned under Sections 3. SEC.PLANT QUARANTINE post-entry requirements shall be the responsibility of the importer or the exporter. SEC. Such declaration shall indicate the name and address of the consignor/ consignee. Oposa) The Collector of Customs or his authorized agents shall.” — Nelson Henderson (A. 4 and 6.—The importers. commodity treatment and other. Collection of fees. 13. that the Bureau of Plant Industry and/or its authorized representative shall not be held liable for damages to the commodity in the course of the implementation of the provisions of this Decree. the purpose. “The true meaning of life is to plant trees. kind. under whose shade you do not expect to sit. 14. require the owner. import permits. that said collections shall constitute the Revolving Fund of 303 . Duties of the Importer and Exporter. nature and quantity of said commodities. certification. Provided. as the case may be. for importation/exportation. SEC. Prior to departure. Provided. place and date of unloading or embarkation.—The Director shall promulgate rules and regulations governing the collection of nominal regulatory fees for inspection. the country or locality where the same was grown.—The owner. agent or master of carrier to submit a copy of the certificate of Plant Quarantine Clearance as a pre-requisite to the issuance of the Customs Clearance. or their authorized representatives shall submit a declaration to the Director of Plant Industry or his authorized representatives at. on commodities mentioned under Section 3. exporters. operator. 4 and 6 hereof. 12. Entrance and Clearance of Carriers. and the registered name of carrier carrying the consignment.

e. transportation. national or local) in the implementation of plant quarantine regulation and dissemination of information to the general public. to augment the existing appropriations therefore. k. l. i. The Plant Quarantine Board. is hereby authorized to promulgate such Special Quarantine Orders. Bureau of Plant Industry Postmaster-General or representative Chief. c. SEC. civil. d. are exempted from payment of such fees excluding. that importations and exportations of all government agencies. lodging and other incidental expenses shall be chargeable to party or parties served at rates to be prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture upon recommendation of the Director. in the interest of economic development. the expenses incurred in commodity treatment. when necessary. fumigators and helpers performed outside office hours and reimbursement of meal.—The Director. however. Overtime Services. SEC. Cooperating Agencies.—The services of Plant Quarantine Officers. and those that may be declared by the President. 18. Crop Protection Division. 17. f. b. Rules and Regulations. Plant Quarantine Section. h. call upon other government agencies (military. The Director of Plant Industry Commissioner of Customs or representative General Manager or representative of Philippine Ports Authority Director.—For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this Decree. a Plant Quarantine Board is hereby created composed of the following: a. with the approval of the Secretary of Agriculture. j. or any charitable institution certified by the Department of Social Services and Development. g. Bureau of Animal Industry or representative Representative from the National Economic and Development Authority Representative from the Central Bank of the Philippines Administrative or representative of the Philippine Coconut Authority Director of Forestry or representative Bureau of Plant Industry Legal Officer Representative from the Importers’ and Exporters’ Confederation Chief. n. subject to government accounting and auditing regulations. rules and regulations to implement the provisions of this Decree. embassies of foreign governments. however. Bureau of Plant Industry Chairman Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Secretary 304 . donations to and for the account of any duly registered relieforganizations.LAND the National Plant Quarantine Service. SEC. 16. upon the recommendation of the National Economic and Development Authority. Bureau of Quarantine or representative Director. m. SEC. 15.—The Director may. Provided. Authority to promulgate Special Quarantine Orders. government owned or controlled corporations.

20. Effectivity. SEC.—The Board shall meet once every quarter.00) or by imprisonment from prison correctional to prison mayor.00) each per meeting. company or corporation who violates the provisions of this Decree. rules and regulations for the effective implementation of the revisions of this Decree. hereby superseded or revoked accordingly. Board Meeting. or both. SEC. Oposa) than Twenty Thousand Pesos (P20.—If any of the provisions of this Decree shall be invalid. 19. 25. Separability Clause. SEC. this 10th day of June.000. that such special meetings shall not be held more than four (4) times annually. 1978. or forges.00 annually is. counterfeits. at the discretion of the Court. 305 .PLANT QUARANTINE SEC. 23. rules and regulations inconsistent with the provisions of this Decree are. Appropriation of the Plant Quarantine Board. provided. SEC.—A majority of the members of the Board shall constitute a quorum. SEC. Quorum. the remainder shall be operative. The members of the Board shall receive a per diem of Two Hundred Pesos (P200. SEC.—The sum of P300. 26. Done in the City of Manila. hereby appropriated for the expenses of the Plant Quarantine Board.—This Decree shall take effect immediately upon approval. defaces and destroys any document issued by virtue of this Decree shall be fined not more (A. Penalty Clause.—All laws. 21. Duties of the Board. or may call special meetings when necessary.—The Plant Quarantine Board shall be the advisory body to assist the Director of Plant Industry in formulating orders. 24.000. Provided. that any unexpected amount of the said sum shall be reverted to the Plant Quarantine Revolving Fund. Repealing Clause. alters. SEC.— Any person. 22.

For one. In contrast. However. To possess land is a privilege. the underlying philosophy in Environmental Law is that man is a mere trustee of the Land. he may ‘acquire’ the privilege to possess it. This is the concept of an ‘ecological encumbrance’ or eco-lien. Tapan) ian of the Land – the temporary holder. It can be owned by a land title and the law emphasizes the rights of a ‘landowner’. 306 . more than the rights.”— Ralph Waldo Emerson (G. Strictly speaking. In the Law on Natural Resources. This is the fundamental difference between the treatment and philosophy of land between Natural Resources Law and Environmental Law.LAND Land Tenure Property Registration Law (Presidential Decree No. therefore. 1529) The Public Land Act (Commonwealth Act 141) and the Property Registration Law (Pres. a policy can be formulated and implemented whereby responsibility for sound land management is made a condition precedent for the acquisition and continued possession of land. There are many outmoded provisions of the Public Land Act. among them the provisions on foreshore lease agreements. a most vital life-support system. for short. the provisions of land titling and land registration can be used creatively. they are “natural resources laws” in that these laws relate to the utilization and ‘acquisition of ownership’ of land. Decree 1529) contained in the 1st edition of the Legal Arsenal have been omitted in this version. not a right. and emphasizes the responsibilities. is: So long as a person ensures that the land he takes care of is sustainably productive and kept in proper vegetative condition. land is treated as a commodity. Note the use of the word ‘privilege’. of the guard- “If a man owns land. and it comes with great responsibility. The basic idea. the land owns him. and other land tenure instruments that emphasize the rights more than the responsibilities of land ‘ownership’.

1899. Section 15). in time.” A native title to land in the province of Benguet in the Philippine Islands. Cariño v. etc. For example. Under the Forestry Law (Pres. Pres. for example. The problem is not in the law.” Certain plots of land along riverbanks. for a start. Hopefully. it will also become a tool to till and green the landscape of ideas. 51. Issue: Is the presumption correct? Held: Yes. which have been for more than fifty years prior to the treaty of peace with Spain of April 11. Native Title to Land should be recognized by the Government Facts: Mateo Cariño filed a petition in the Court of Land Registration asking that he be inscribed as the owner of a 146-hectare land in Baguio. and the land being agricultural. 150. Thereafter. and 40 meters from water of rivers and seashores as easement zones for salvage and recreation (Sec. Not having shown any title from the government. 1906 307 . mangroves. some provisions of the Laws are already in place. mountainous areas. protection and restoration. as private property. still a grant is to be conclusively presumed based on his immemorial use and occupation of the land. we can start using them creatively to ensure that possessing or holding or ‘owning’ a parcel of land becomes a responsibility to \care for that land as if it were. although no document of title has been issued from the Spanish Crown. Law begins with desire. Where there is a sincere desire to use the Law creatively to advance the ends of conservation. then to understand them. should be recognized by the Insular Government. the Law begins to sing. a native Igorot and his ancestors have held in accordance with Igorot custom. we may use the provisions on easements creatively. This was because mere possession of land would not give the possessor any title as against the government. “Every presumption should be indulged against the United States claiming title to the land. as it is. has been held by the present native Igorot holder and his ancestors under claim of private ownership. 20. which for more than fifty years prior to the treaty of peace with Spain. The government of the Philippines and of the United States appeared and opposed the petition on the ground that the land was part of the military reservation of Baguio. Under the Water Code. December 6. Decree 705. Cariño insists that although prescription did not run against the government.LAND TENURE Actually. Cariño’s case was dismissed. a living being. It is in having the interest to read them. must be set aside as forest lands. Decree 1067). all lands with a 10 degree (or 18%) slope must be “kept in a vegetative condition sufficient to prevent erosion and adverse effects on the lowlands and streams. there must be a margin of 3. Insular Government 8 Phil.

L-31666–68. No. Declaration of Principles and Policies. Nos. 67 308 . The welfare of the landless farmers and farmworkers will receive the highest consideration to promote social justice and to move the nation toward sound rural development and industrialization. “The defense of indefeasibility of a certificate of title issued pursuant to a free patent does not lie against the state in an action for reversion of the land covered thereby when such land is a part of a public forest or of a forest reservation. with due regard to the rights of landowners to just compensation and to the ecological needs of the nation. March 29. 1974 “It is well settled that a certificate of title is void when it covers property of public domain classified as forest or timber and mineral lands.A. and the establishment of owner cultivatorship of economic-size farms as the basis of Philippine agriculture.” SEC. Title. 2. L-37682.—This Act shall be known as the “Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988.R.—It is the policy of the State to pursue a Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). _______________________ 67 As amended by R. 27. 7881. a more equitable distribution and ownership of land. Manuel Dumyung G. 1979 Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (Republic Act 6657) Chapter I Preliminary Chapter SECTION 1.” Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company v. one of the first laws passed by former President Ferdinand Marcos upon the declaration of Martial Law in the Philippines in 1972). a handwritten presidential decree. 20 February 1995.LAND Forest Land is Not Disposable If the area covered by the patent and title is not disposable public land. April 30.R. Animas G. then the patent and title thereto are null and void. The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law is an amendment and revision of the Tenant Emancipation Decree (P. it being a part of the forest zone. shall be cancelled. 1972. To this end. No.” Republic of the Philippines v. shall be undertaken to provide farmers and farmworkers with the opportunity to enhance their dignity and improve the quality of their lives through greater productivity of agricultural lands. Any title issued on nondisposable lots even in the hands of alleged innocent purchaser for value.D.

COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM The agrarian reform program is founded on the right of farmers and regular farmworkers. and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research. suitable to agriculture. or stewardship. which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law. both inland and offshore.” — Gladys Taber (A. whenever applicable. and subject to the payment of just compensation. Oposa) The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates. By means of appropriate incentives. taking into account ecological. To this end. including lands of the public domain. production and marketing assistance and other services. under lease or concession. the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands. and management of the program. the State shall encourage the formation and maintenance of economic-size family farms to be constituted by individual beneficiaries and small landowners. and shall provide incentive for voluntary landsharing. adequate financial. in accordance with law. The State shall also protect. marketing and other support services. subject to prior rights. who are landless to own directly or collectively the lands they till or. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform. organization. homestead rights of small settlers and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands. especially of local communities. and equity considerations. farmworkers and landowners. develop and conserve such resources. to the preferential use of communal marine and fishing resources. as well as cooperatives and other independent farmers’ organizations. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen. to participate in the planning. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fisher309 . in the case of other farm-workers to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. The State shall recognize the right of farmers. “My own recipe for world peace is a little bit of land for everyone. The State shall respect the right of small landowners. in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources. and adequate financial production. subject to the priorities and retention limits set forth in this Act. developmental. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research.

_______________________ 68 As amended by Sec. to farmers and regular farmworkers who are landless. to include the totality of factors and support services designed to lift the economic status of the beneficiaries and all other arrangements alternative to the physical redistribution of lands. or seeking to arrange terms or conditions of such tenurial arrangements. including the harvesting of such farm products. unless the context indicates a. agricultural enterprise. stewardship or otherwise. and other farm activities and practices performed by a farmer in con68 junction with such farming operations done by persons whether natural or juridical. including disputes concerning farmworkers’ associations or representation of persons in negotiating. tenants and other agrarian reform beneficiaries. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program to promote industrialization.LAND men against foreign intrusion. or agricultural activity means the cultivation of the soil. planting of crops. such as production or profit-sharing. Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. c. 7881. 1. 310 . landowner and tenant. forest. commercial or industrial land. whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of farm operator and beneficiary. Financial instruments used as payment for lands shall contain features that shall enhance negotiability and acceptability in the marketplace. and the distribution of shares of stock. labor administration. The State shall be guided by the principles that land has a social function and land ownership has a social responsibility. and traditional and pioneering crops especially those for exports subject to the prior rights of the beneficiaries under this Act. SEC. irrespective of tenurial arrangement. fixing. changing. Agriculture. employment and privatization of public sector enterprises. d. 3. The State may lease undeveloped lands of the public domain to qualified entities for the development of capital intensive farms. residential. or lessor and lessee. Agrarian reform means redistribution of lands. tenancy. over lands devoted to agriculture. whether leasehold. no. b. which will allow beneficiaries to receive a just share of the fruits of the lands they work. growing of fruit trees. regardless of crops or fruits produced. 20 February 1995. otherwise: Definitions. Agrarian dispute refers to any controversy relating to tenurial arrangements.A. R. maintaining.—For the purpose of this Act. Owners of agricultural lands have the obligation to cultivate directly or through labor administration the lands they own and thereby make the land productive. Agricultural land refers to land devoted to agricultural activity as defined in this Act and not classified as mineral. It includes any controversy relating to compensation of lands acquired under this Act and other terms and conditions of transfer of ownership from landowners to farmworkers.

h. as provided in Proclamation No. 131 and Executive Order No. but does not include land that has become permanently or regularly devoted to nonagricultural purposes. Other farmworker is a farmworker who does not fall under paragraphs (g). j. 229. regardless of tenurial arrangement and commodity produced. Farmworker is a natural person who renders service for value as an employee or laborer in an agricultural enterprise or farm regardless of whether his compensation is paid on a daily. 4. sacada. f. monthly or pakyaw basis. The term includes an individual whose work has ceased as a consequence of. all public and private agri69 cultural lands. Cooperatives shall refer to organizations composed primarily of small agricultural producers. farmworkers. Idle or abandoned land refers to any agricultural land not cultivated. g. such land was previously used for agricultural or other economic purpose. either by himself. weekly. farmers. provided that prior to such event. such as dumaan. i. 311 .The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988 shall cover. technological. or other agrarian reform beneficiaries who voluntarily organize themselves for the purpose of pooling land. and (i).COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM e. including other lands of the public domain suitable for agriculture. and operated on the principle of one member. a pending agrarian dispute and who has not obtained a substantially equivalent and regular farm employment. k. human. or in connection with. Scope. whether the land is owned by him. _______________________ 69 22 July 1987. and the like. with the same rights and duties as a natural person. Farmer refers to a natural person whose primary livelihood is cultivation of land or the production of agricultural crops. (h). whether as a permanent or a nonpermanent laborer. tilled or developed to produce any crop nor devoted to any specific economic purpose continuously for a period of three (3) years immediately prior to the receipt of notice of acquisition by the government as provided under this Act. Regular farmworker is a natural person who is employed on a permanent basis by an agricultural enterprise or farm. Chapter II Coverage SEC. Seasonal farmworker is a natural person who is employed on a recurrent. one vote. A juridical person may be a member of a cooperative. periodic or intermittent basis by an agricultural enterprise or farm. It does not include land which has become unproductive by reason of force majeure or any other fortuitous event. or by another person under a leasehold or share tenancy agreement or arrangement with the owner thereof. financial or other economic resources. or primarily with the assistance of his immediate farm household.

further. Emancipation of Tenants. b. That in case the area selected for retention by the landowner is tenanted. All alienable and disposable lands of the public domain devoted to or suitable for agriculture.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act.—The distribution of all lands covered by this Act shall be implemented immediately and completed within ten (10) years from the effectivity thereof. but in no case shall retention by the landowner exceed five (5) hectares. _______________________ 70 All other lands owned by the government devoted to or suitable for agriculture. shall pertain to the landowner.LAND More specifically the following lands are covered by the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program: a. No reclassification of forest or mineral lands to agricultural lands shall be undertaken after the approval of this Act until Congress. any public or private agricultural land. no person may own or retain. the size of which shall vary according to factors governing a viable family-size farm. developmental and equity considerations. see footnote 68. In case the tenant chooses to remain in the retained area. 312 . SEC. which shall be compact or contiguous. 6. taking into account ecological. such as commodity produced. subject to the following qualifications: (1) that he is at least fifteen (15) years of age. infrastructure. Three (3) hectares may be awarded to each child of the landowner. In case the tenant chooses to be a beneficiary in another agricultural land. 27 shall be allowed to keep the area originally retained by them thereunder: Provided. Retention Limits. terrain. however. he shall be considered a leaseholder and shall lose his right to be a beneficiary under this Act. the tenant shall have the option to choose whether to remain therein or be a beneficiary in the same or another agricultural land with similar or comparable features. Schedule of Implementation. directly or indirectly. he loses his right as a leaseholder to the land retained by the landowner. All private lands devoted to or suitable for agriculture regardless of the agricultural products raised or that can be raised thereon. SEC. 5. and (2) that he is actually tilling the land or directly managing the farm. shall have determined by law. The right to choose the area to be retained. Provided. That landowners whose lands have been covered by 70 Presidential Decree No. c. All lands of the public domain in excess of the specific limits as determined by Congress in the preceding paragraph. and d. Provided. and soil fertility as determined by the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARC) created hereunder. the specific limits of the public domain. That original homestead grantees or their direct compulsory heirs who still own the original homestead at the time of the approval of this Act shall retain the same areas as long as they continue to cultivate said homestead.

disposition. Thereafter. to implement principally the rights of farmers and regular farmworkers. pasture and agricultural leases already cultivated and planted to crops in accordance with Section 6. Phase Two: All alienable and disposable public agricultural lands. however. and all private agricultural lands in excess of fifty (50) hectares. Upon the effectivity of this Act. In all cases. 27. all arable public agricultural lands under agroforest. all private lands voluntarily offered by the owners for agrarian reform. any sale. Lands shall be acquired and distributed as follows: Phase One: Rice and corn lands under Presidential Decree No. That those executed prior to this Act shall be valid only when registered with the Register of Deeds within a period of three (3) months after the effectivity of this Act. “How can we own something which we did not create—can we then own land? or are we mere caretakers? — Anonymous SEC. all idle or abandoned lands. which shall be acquired and distributed immediately upon the effectivity of this Act. all lands foreclosed by the government financial institutions. with the implementation to be completed within a period of not more than four (4) years. the security of tenure of the farmers or farmworkers on the land prior to the approval of this Act shall be respected. insofar as the excess hectarage is concerned. Priorities. 7. to own directly or collectively the lands they till. Phase Three: All other private agricultural lands commencing with large landholdings and proceeding to medium and small landholdings under the following schedule: 313 . all Registers of Deeds shall inform the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) within thirty (30) days of any transaction involving agricultural lands in excess of five (5) hectares. who are landless. all public agricultural lands which are to be opened for new development and resettlement.—The Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) in coordination with the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARC) shall plan and program the acquisition and distribution of all agricultural lands through a period of ten (10) years from the effectivity of this Act. and all other lands owned by the government devoted to or suitable for agriculture. of the Constitution. management contract or transfer of possession of private lands executed by the original landowner in violation of the Act shall be null and void. with the implementation to be completed within a period of not more than four (4) years.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM The tenant must exercise this option within a period of one (1) year from the time the landowner manifests his choice of the area for retention. which shall be distributed immediately upon the effectivity of the Act. lease. Article XII. Provided. all lands acquired by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG).

In any case. and the availability of funds and resources to implement and support the program. institutions. and b. and the like. shall be disposed of as follows: a. In effecting the transfer within these guidelines. to implement principally the right of farmers and regular farmworkers who are landless. to begin on the fourth (4th) year from the effectivity of this Act and to be completed within three (3) years. taking into consideration the following: the need to distribute lands to the tillers at the earliest practicable time. The PARC shall establish guidelines to implement the above priorities and distribution scheme. Landholdings above twenty four (24) hectares up to fifty (50) hectares. associations. shall be 314 . in which case the acquisition and distribution of private agricultural lands therein may be implemented ahead of the above schedules. in the case of such individuals. upon recommendation by the Provincial Agrarian Reform Coordinating Committee (PARCCOM).LAND a. priority must be given to lands that are tenanted. management. grower or service contracts covering such lands covering an aggregate area in excess of 1. and other lands owned by the government or by government-owned or controlled corporations. Landholdings from the retention limit up to twenty four (24) hectares. may declare certain provinces or regions as priority land reform areas. operated by multinational corporations and associations. to begin on the sixth (6th) year from the effectivity of this Act and to be completed within four (4) years.000 hectares in the case of such corporations and associations. shall be programmed for acquisition and distribution immediately upon the effectivity of this Act. The schedule of acquisition and redistribution of all agricultural lands covered by this program shall be made in accordance with the above order of priority. b. Multinational Corporations. leased or held by foreign individuals in excess of 500 hectares are deemed amended to conform with the limits set forth in Section 3 of Article XII of the Constitution. to own directly or collectively the lands they till. under lease. Contracts covering areas not in excess of 1. the PARC. SEC. the need to enhance agricultural productivity. including the determination of who are qualified beneficiaries: Provided. and 500 hectares. 8. held or possessed by multinational corporations or associations. grower or service contracts. Lease.—All lands of the public domain leased. devoted to existing and operational agrobusiness or agroindustrial enterprises. which shall be provided in the implementing rules to be prepared by the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARC). or entities. management.000 hectares. with the implementation to be completed within three (3) years. Lands covered by the paragraph immediately preceding. That an owner-tiller may be a beneficiary of the land he does not own but is actually cultivating to the extent of the difference between the area of the land he owns and the award ceiling of three (3) hectares.

The provisions of Section 32 of the Act. owned by private individuals and private nongovernmental corporations. with regard to production and incomesharing shall apply to farms operated by multinational corporations. on the other. 315 . Such agreements can continue thereafter only under a new contract between the government or qualified beneficiaries or awardees. but not later than after ten (10) years following the effectivity of the Act. c. the new owners shall be assisted in their efforts to learn modern technology in production. such agreements shall continue only when confirmed by the appropriate government agency. lands shall be distributed directly to the individual worker beneficiaries. after which. grower or service contract in effect as of August 29. Enterprises which show a willingness and commitment and good faith efforts to impart voluntarily such advanced technology will be given preferential treatment where feasible. on the one hand. Until a new agreement is entered into by and between the workers’ cooperative or association and the corporation.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM allowed to continue under their original terms and conditions but not beyond August 29. or otherwise. whichever comes sooner. or in which they may have a vested right. any agreement existing at the time this Act takes effect between the former and the previous landowner shall be respected by both the workers’ cooperative or association and the corporation business association or such other proper party. associations. institutions and entities. upon its valid termination. or their valid termination. at the time this Act becomes effective. held or possessed by multinational corporations. In case it is not economically feasible and sound to divide the land. which transfer shall be immediately commenced and implemented. then they shall form a workers’ cooperative or association which will deal with the corporation or business association or any other proper party for the purpose of entering into a lease or growers’ agreement and for all other legitimate purposes. 1987. citizens of the Philippines. During the transition period. In general. However. or business association or any other proper party. management. In no case shall the implementation or application of this Act justify or result in the reduction of status or diminution of any benefits received or enjoyed by the worker-beneficiaries. and said enterprises. 1992. whichever comes sooner. when all lands subject hereof shall have been distributed completely to qualified beneficiaries or awardees. Such contracts shall likewise continue even after the land has been transferred to beneficiaries or awardees thereof. In no case will such leases and other agreements now being implemented extend beyond August 29. the government shall take steps to acquire these lands for immediate distribution thereafter. Lands leased. during the said period of effectivity. 1992. shall be subject to immediate compulsory acquisition and distribution upon the expiration of the applicable lease. and completed within the period of three (3) years mentioned in the first paragraph hereof.

wildlife. the systems of land ownership. No. including experimental farm stations operated by public or private schools for educational purposes. Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding. land use. the fishponds or prawn farms shall be distributed collectively to the worker-beneficiaries or tenants who shall form a cooperative or association to manage the same.LAND In no case shall a foreign corporation. Provided.—For purposes of this Act. school sites and campuses. social and cultural wellbeing. The right of these communities to their ancestral lands shall be protected to ensure their economic. by voluntary offer to sell.A. association. ancestral lands of each indigenous cultural community shall include. continuous and open possession and occupation of the community and its members. the PARC may suspend the implementation of this Act with respect to ancestral lands for the purpose of identifying and delineating such lands. 10. When the workers or tenants do not agree to this exemption. reforestation. however. watersheds and mangroves shall be exempt from the coverage of this Act. Lands actually. 71 Exemptions and Exclusions— a. directly and exclusively used for prawn farms and fishponds shall be exempt from the coverage of this Act. seeds and seedlings research _______________________ 71 As amended by Sec. the respective legislatures may enact their own laws on ancestral domain subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the principles enunciated in this Act and other national laws. directly and exclusively used for parks. but not be limited to. lands in the actual. the consent of the farm workers shall no longer be necessary. the provision of Section 32-A hereof on incentives shall apply. a simple and absolute majority of the actual regular workers or tenants must consent to the exemption within one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act. 9. SEC. 2. entity or individual enjoy any rights or privileges better than those enjoyed by a domestic corporation. Lands actually. SEC. association. 20 February 1995. R. In line with the principles of selfdetermination and autonomy. forest reserves. Provided. That the Torrens System shall be respected. 316 . That in the autonomous regions. That said prawn farms and fishponds have not been distributed and Certificate of Land Ownership Award (CLOA) issued to agrarian reform beneficiaries under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program. directly and exclusively used and found to be necessary for national defense. and the modes of settling land disputes of all these communities must be recognized and respected. b. Ancestral Lands. In cases where the fishponds or prawn farms have been subjected to the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law. fish sanctuaries and breeding grounds. Provided. entity or individual. or commercial farms deferment or notices of compulsory acquisition. In cases where the fishponds or prawn farms have not been subjected to the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law. Private lands actually. 7881. c.

lease. Determination of Lease Rentals. shall be subject to immediate compulsory acquisition and distribution after ten (10) years from the effectivity of this Act. and cacao. such areas shall automatically be subject to redistribution. SEC. as amended: Provided. No. In the case of new farms. as determined by the DAR. During the ten-year period. _______________________ 72 72 As amended by Sec. of different regions in order to improve progressively the conditions of the farmer. Commercial Farming. 12. That the DAR shall immediately and periodically review and adjust the rental structure for different crops. If the DAR determines that the purposes for which this deferment is granted no longer exist. management contract or other similar arrangement and any farm covered by Sections 8 and 11 hereof is hereby mandated to execute within ninety (90) days from the effectivity of this Act. with regard to production and incomesharing. the DAR is mandated to determine and fix immediately the lease rentals thereof in accordance with Section 34 of Republic Act No. vegetable and cut-flower farms. which shall thereafter manage the said lands for the workers-beneficiaries. —Commercial farms. shall be exempt from the coverage of this Act.—Any enterprise adopting the scheme provided for in Section 32 hereof or operating under a production venture. mosque sites and Islamic centers appurtenant thereto. Nothing herein shall be construed to sanction the diminution of any benefits such as salaries. preferably in favor of organized cooperatives or associations. except those already developed. Chapter III Improvement of Tenurial and Labor Relations SEC. which are private agricultural lands devoted to salt beds.—In order to protect and improve the tenurial and economic status of the farmers in tenanted lands under the retention limit and lands not yet acquired under this Act. a production-sharing plan. orchards.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM and pilot production center. upon payment of just compensation for the land and the improvements thereon. 20 February 1995.A. penal colonies and penal farms actually worked by the inmates. agreements. 3. bonuses. government and private research and quarantine centers and all lands with eighteen percent (18%) slope and over. coffee and rubber plantations. and voluntary practice by the enterprise. 7881. The provisions of Section 32 of the Act. 13. including rice and corn. the Government shall initiate steps necessary to acquire these lands. communal burial grounds and cemeteries. under guidelines prescribed by the appropriate government agency. SEC. tenant or lessee. church sites and convents appurtenant thereto. shall apply to commercial farms. R. 3844. leaves and working conditions granted to the employeebeneficiaries under existing laws. 317 . 11. the ten-year period shall begin from the first year of commercial production and operation. Production-Sharing Plan. fruit farms.

natural or juridical.—Within one hundred eighty (180) days from the effectivity of this Act. c. who shall be entitled to such incentives as may be provided for the PARC. b. shall register all agricultural lessees. lease. 14. Registration of Beneficiaries. 1987. c. d. Chapter IV Registration SEC. 15. except those who have already registered pursuant to Executive Order No. shall file a sworn statement in the proper assessor’s office in the form to be prescribed by the DAR. the average gross income from the property for at least three (3) years. location and area of the land they work. that own or claim to own agricultural lands. b. 229. Oposa) SEC. These potential beneficiaries with the assistance of the PARC and the DAR shall provide the following data: a. tenants and farmworkers who are qualified to be beneficiaries of the CARP. 1987. the terms of mortgages. Registration of Landowners. stating the following information: a. whether in their names or in the name of others. the latest declared market value of the land as determined by the city or provincial assessor.” — Anonymous (A. names and members of their immediate farm household. and f. the crops planted in the property and the area covered by each crop as of June 1. including government entities. the names of all tenants and farmworkers therein. “One does not sell the earth upon which the people walk. the description and area of the property.—The DAR in coordination with the Barangay Agrarian Reform Committee (BARC) as organized in this Act. all persons. e. 318 . owners or administrators of the lands they work on and the length of tenurial relationship. and management contracts subsisting as of June 1.LAND nor shall the enterprise and its employee-beneficiaries be prevented from entering into any agreement with terms more favorable to the latter.

landowners. the landowner. Said notice shall contain the offer of the DAR to pay a corresponding value in accordance with the valuation set forth in Sections 17. c. A copy of the registry or list of all potential CARP beneficiaries in the barangay shall be posted in the barangay hall.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM d. within fifteen (15) days from the receipt of the notice. the matter is deemed submitted for decision. and other pertinent provisions hereof. the DAR shall conduct summary administrative proceedings to determine the compensation for the land by requiring the landowner. The DAR shall thereafter proceed with the redistribution of the land to the qualified beneficiaries. his administrator or representative shall inform the DAR of his acceptance or rejection of the offer. In case of rejection or failure to reply. and e. Any party who disagrees with the decision may bring the matter to the court of proper jurisdiction for final determination of just compensation. _______________________ 73 73 See also Sec. and post the same in a conspicuous place in the municipal building and barangay hall of the place where the property is located. 28 on standing crops at time of acquisition. After the expiration of the above period. d. the DAR shall send its notice to acquire the land to the owners thereof. 319 . Procedure for Acquisition of Private Lands. their share in the harvest or amount of rental paid or wages received. by personal delivery or registered mail. the following procedures shall be followed: a. —For purposes of acquisition of private lands. and 18. crops planted. the LBP and other interested parties to submit evidence as to the just compensation for the land. and beneficiaries. in case of rejection or no response from the landowner. f. Within thirty (30) days from the date of receipt of written notice by personal delivery or registered mail. the DAR shall take immediate possession of the land and shall request the proper Register of Deeds to issue a Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT) in the name of the Republic of the Philippines. Chapter V Land Acquisition SEC. After having identified the land. If the landowner accepts the offer of the DAR. the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP) shall pay the landowner the purchase price of the land within thirty (30) days after he executes and delivers a deed of transfer in favor of the government and surrenders the Certificate of Title and other monuments of title. Upon receipt by the landowner of the corresponding payment or. The DAR shall decide the case within thirty (30) days after it is submitted for decision. upon the deposit with an accessible bank designated by the DAR of the compensation in cash or in LBP bonds in accordance with this Act. school or other public buildings in the barangay where it shall be open to inspection by the public at all reasonable hours. b. 16. e.

in accordance with the criteria provided for in Sections 16 and 17. in so far as the excess hectarage is concerned b. the current value of like properties. as the just compensation for the land.—The LBP shall compensate the landowner in such amounts as may be agreed upon by the landowner and the DAR and the LBP. Tax credits which can be used against any tax liability. physical assets. actual use and income. SEC. For lands above twentyfour (24) hectares and below Twenty-five percent cash(25%). Cash payment. the balance to be paid in government financial instruments negotiable at any time 2. Valuation and Mode of Compensation. Shares of stock in government-owned or controlled corporations. the balance to be paid in government financial instruments negotiable at any time Thirty percent (30%) cash. the tax declarations. the cost of acquisition of the land. For lands above twentyfour (24) hectares and up to fifty (50) hectares c. 18. LBP bonds. For lands above fifty (50) hectares. its nature. The social and economic benefits contributed by the farmers and the farmworkers and by the government to the property as well as the nonpayment of taxes or loans secured from any government financing institution on the said land shall be considered as additional factors to determine its valuation. under the following terms and conditions: a. or other qualified investments in accordance with guidelines set by the PARC.—In determining just compensation. and other pertinent provisions hereof. or as may be finally determined by the court. 17. 4. LBP preferred shares. The compensation shall be paid in one of the following modes. the balance to be paid in government financial instruments negotiable at any time Thirty-five percent (35%) cash.LAND Chapter VI Compensation SEC. the sworn valuation by the owner. which shall have the following features: 320 . at the option of the landowner: 1. 3. and the assessment made by government assessors shall be considered. Determination of Just Compensation.

20. Ten percent (10%) of the face value of the bonds shall mature every year from the date of issuance until the tenth (10th) year. who voluntarily offer their lands for sale shall be entitled to an additional five percent (5%) cash payment. for any of the following: i. SEC. b. or performance bonds. Incentives for Voluntary Offers for Sale. That the PARC shall determine the percentage mentioned above. Security for loans with any government financial institution. his successors in interest or his assigns. Substitution for surety or bail bonds for the provisional release of accused persons. In case of extraordinary inflation. 19. ii. iii. other than banks and other financial institutions. trade schools. he shall be paid correspondingly in LBP bonds.—Landowners of agricultural lands subject to acquisition under this Act may enter into a voluntary arrangement for direct transfer of their lands to qualified beneficiaries subject to the following guidelines: 321 . Such other uses as the PARC may from time to time allow. and viii. Provided. That the use of these bonds for these purposes will be limited to a certain percentage of the outstanding balance of the financial instruments. the PARC shall take appropriate measures to protect the economy. Market interest rates aligned with 91day treasury bill rates. vi. provided the proceeds of the loans shall be invested in an economic enterprise. Provided. Such LBP bonds may be used by the landowner. Payment for fees of the immediate family of the original bondholder in government hospitals. preferably in a small and medium-scale industry. whether in full or in part. Payment for tuition fees of the immediate family of the original bondholder in government universities.—Landowners. Acquisition of land or other real properties of the government. including assets under the Asset Privatization Program and other assets foreclosed by government financial institutions in the same province or region where the lands for which the bonds were paid are situated. and other institutions. further.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM a. Acquisition of shares of stock of government-owned or controlled corporations or shares of stock owned by the government in private corporations. colleges. That should the landowner choose to forego the cash portion. Voluntary Land Transfer. Transferability and negotiability. iv. up to the amount of their face value. vii. Provided. v. SEC. Payment for various taxes and fees to government. in the same province or region as the land for which the bonds are paid.

Qualified Beneficiaries. b. actual tillers or occupants of public lands. landless residents of the same municipality in the following order of priority: a. Provided. Chapter VII Land Distribution SEC. g.LAND a. or in the absence thereof. 22. SEC.—Direct payments in cash or in kind may be by the farmer-beneficiary to the landowner under terms to be mutually agreed upon by both parties. c. Negotiations between the landowners and qualified beneficiaries covering any voluntary land transfer which remain unresolved after one (1) year shall not be recognized and such land shall instead be acquired by the government and transferred pursuant to this Act. In the event they cannot agree on the price of land. agricultural lessees and share tenants. collectives or cooperatives of the above beneficiaries. c. f. which shall be binding upon them. Payment of Compensation by Beneficiaries Under Voluntary Land Transfer. seasonal farmworkers. and d. the procedure for compulsory acquisition as provided in Section 16 shall apply. 21. other farmworkers. further. Said approval shall be considered given. b. regular farmworkers. unless notice of disapproval is received by the farmerbeneficiary within thirty (30) days from the date of registration. if such offers have been made and are fully known to both parties. That actual tenant-tillers in the landholdings shall not be ejected or removed therefrom. e. The voluntary agreement shall include sanctions for noncompliance by either party and shall be duly recorded and its implementation monitored by the DAR. That the children of landowners who are qualified under Section 6 of this Act shall be given preference in the distribution of the land of their parents. and Provided. 322 . All notices for voluntary land transfer must be submitted to the DAR within the first year of the implementation of the CARP. The LBP shall extend financing to the beneficiaries for purposes of acquiring the land. upon registration with the approval by the DAR. however. The terms and conditions of such transfer shall not be less favorable to the transferee than those of the government‘s standing offer to purchase from the landowner and to resell to the beneficiaries.—The lands covered by the CARP shall be distributed as much as possible to landless residents of the same barangay. others directly working on the land.

That the total area that may be awarded shall not exceed the total number of co-owners or members of the cooperative or collective organization multiplied by the award limit above prescribed. 27 who have culpably sold. which shall contain the restrictions and conditions provided for in this Act. at the option of the beneficiaries. so that any beneficiary guilty of negligence or misuse of the land or any support extended to him shall forfeit his right to continue as such beneficiary. due to the landowner’s retention rights or to the number of tenants. which award shall be completed within one hundred eighty (180) days from the time the DAR takes actual possession of the land. Ownership of the beneficiary shall be evidenced by a Certificate of Land Ownership Award. Farmers already in place and those not accommodated in the distribution of privately-owned lands will be given preferential rights in the distribution of lands from the public domain. except in meritorious cases as determined by the PARC. Provided. 26.—No qualified beneficiary may own more than three (3) hectares of agricultural land. and ability to cultivate and make the land as productive as possible. For purposes of this Act. or abandoned their land are disqualified to become beneficiaries under this Program. The payments for the first three (3) years after the award may be at reduced amounts as established by the PARC. SEC. SEC. aptitude. lessees. 23.—The rights and responsibilities of the beneficiary shall commence from the time the DAR makes an award of the land to him.—Lands awarded pursuant to this Act shall be paid for by the beneficiaries to the LBP in thirty (30) annual amortizations at six percent (6%) interest per annum. 25. The beneficiaries may opt for collective ownership. such as co-ownership or farmers cooperative or some other form of collective organization. 24. Award Ceilings for Beneficiaries.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM Beneficiaries under Presidential Decree No. The DAR shall submit periodic reports on the performance of the beneficiaries to the PARC. and shall be recorded in the Register of Deeds concerned and annotated on the Certificate of Title. If. they may be granted ownership of other lands available for distribution under this Act. Payment by Beneficiaries. there is not enough land to accommodate any or some of them. Provided.—Beneficiaries shall be awarded an area not exceeding three (3) hectares which may cover a contiguous tract of land or several parcels of land cumulated up to the prescribed award limits. Award to Beneficiaries. Title to the property shall be issued in the name of the co-owners or the cooperative or collective organization as the case may be. That the first 323 . disposed of. a landless beneficiary is one who owns less than three (3) hectares of agricultural land. A basic qualification of a beneficiary shall be his willingness. Distribution Limit. SEC. or workers on the land. SEC. The DAR shall adopt a system of monitoring the record or performance of each beneficiary.

LAND five (5) annual payments may not be more than five percent (5%) of the value of the annual gross production as established by the DAR. shall cultivate the land himself. Due notice of the availability of the land shall be given by the LBP to the Barangay Agrarian Reform Committee (BARC) of the barangay where the land is situated. Chapter VIII Corporate Farms SEC. be given due notice thereof by the BARC. together with the value of improvements he has made on the land. A beneficiary whose land. SEC. and this mortgage may be foreclosed by the LBP for nonpayment of an aggregate of three (3) annual amortizations. In the event of such transfer to the LBP. If the land has not yet been fully paid by the beneficiary. Farms Owned or Operated by Corporations or Other Business Associations. shall. the land shall be transferred to the LBP which shall give due notice of the availability of the land in the manner specified in the immediately preceding paragraph. 28.—The landowner shall retain his share of any standing crops unharvested at the time the DAR shall take possession of the land under Section 16 of the Act. 27. with prior approval of the DAR. The LBP shall advise the DAR of such proceedings and the latter shall subsequently award the forfeited landholding to other qualified beneficiaries. Transferability of Awarded Lands. Should the scheduled annual payments after the fifth year exceed ten percent (10%) of the annual gross production and the failure to produce accordingly is not due to the beneficiary’s fault. That the children or the spouse of the transferor shall have a right to repurchase the land from the government or LBP within a period of two (2) years. as provided herein. as a condition for such transfer or conveyance. the latter shall compensate the beneficiary in one lump sum for the amounts the latter has already paid. SEC. and shall be given a reasonable time to harvest the same. to any heir of the beneficiary or to any other beneficiary who. the LBP may reduce the interest rate or reduce the principal obligation to make the repayment affordable. however. or to the government.—Lands acquired by beneficiaries under this Act may not be sold. the rights to the land may be transferred or conveyed.—In the case of farms owned or operated by corporations or other business associations. in turn. the following rules shall be observed by the PARC: 324 . has been foreclosed shall thereafter be permanently disqualified from becoming a beneficiary under this Act. Failing compliance herewith. The Provincial Agrarian Reform Coordinating Committee (PARCCOM) as herein provided. or the LBP. Provided. transferred or conveyed except through hereditary succession. The LBP shall have a lien by way of mortgage on the land awarded to the beneficiary. or to other qualified beneficiaries for a period of ten (10) years. 29. Standing Crops at the Time of Acquisition.

SEC. equity or participation in favor of their workers or other qualified beneficiaries under this section shall be deemed to have complied with the provisions of the Act: Provided. subject to confirmation by the DAR. In no case shall the compensation received by the workers at the time the shares of stocks are distributed be reduced. Until a new agreement is entered into by and between the workers’ cooperative or association and the corporation or business association. “A man’s country is not a certain area of land. Corporate Landowners. under such terms and conditions. lands shall be distributed directly to the individual workerbeneficiaries.” — George William Curtis (T. In case it is not economically feasible and sound to divide the land. and patriotism is loyalty to that principle. rivers. corporations owning agricultural lands may give their qualified beneficiaries the right to purchase such proportion of the capital stock of the corporation that the agricultural land. to be taken from the land owned by the cooperative or corporation. actually devoted to agricultural activities. Homelots and Farmlots for Members of Cooperatives. under such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon by them.—The individual members of the cooperatives or corporations mentioned in the preceding section shall be provided with homelots and small farmlots for their family use. as they may agree upon. 31. but it is a principle.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM In general. and woods. Cayton) SEC. 30. consistent with this Act. The same principle shall be applied to associations. with respect to their equity or participation. any agreement existing at the time this Act takes effect between the former and the previous landowner shall be respected by both the workers’ cooperative or association and the corporation or business association. That the following conditions are complied with: 325 . Corporations or associations which voluntarily divest a proportion of their capital stock.—Corporate landowners may voluntarily transfer ownership over their agricultural landholdings to the Republic of the Philippines pursuant to Section 20 hereof or to qualified beneficiaries. bears in relation to the company’s total assets. Upon certification by the DAR. of mountains. then it shall be owned collectively by the worker-beneficiaries who shall form a workers’ cooperative or association which will deal with the corporation or business association.

In order to safeguard the right of beneficiaries who own shares of stocks to dividends and other financial benefits. 32. d. if one exists. supervisory and technical group in place at the time of the effectivity of this Act. the land or stock transfer envisioned above is not made or realized or the plan for such stock distribution approved by the PARC within the same period. an additional ten percent (10%) of the net profit after tax shall be distributed to said regular and other farmworkers within ninety (90) days of the end of the fiscal year. as compensation for such transitory managerial and technical functions as it will perform. the beneficiaries shall be assured of at least one (1) representative in the board of directors. supervisory and technical group may conclude. individuals or entities owning. That these individuals or entities realize gross sales in excess of five million pesos per annum unless the DAR. If within two (2) years from the approval of this Act. Provided. and c. upon proper application. or operating under lease or management contract agricultural lands are hereby mandated to execute a production-sharing plan with their farmworkers or farmworkers’ organization. To forestall any disruption in the normal operation of lands to be turned over to the farmworker-beneficiaries mentioned above.—Pending final land transfer. During this transitory period. a transitory period. In the event that the individual or entity realizes a profit. Any transfer of shares of stock by the original beneficiaries shall be void ab initio unless said transaction is in favor of a qualified and registered beneficiary within the same corporation. determines a lower ceiling. the books of the corporation or association shall be subject to periodic audit by certified public accountants chosen by the beneficiaries. the length of which shall be determined by the DAR. whereby three percent (3%) of the gross sales from the production of such lands are distributed within sixty (60) days at the end of the fiscal year as compensation to regular and other farmworkers in such lands over and above the compensation they currently receive. Any shares acquired by such workers and beneficiaries shall have the same rights and features as all other shares. the agricultural land of the corporate owners or corporation shall be subject to the compulsory coverage of this Act. pursuant to an agreement that the farm worker-beneficiaries and the managerial. shall be established. SEC. of the corporation or association. Production-Sharing. subject to the approval of the DAR. 326 .LAND a. Irrespective of the value of their equity in the corporation or association. at least one percent (1%) of the gross sales of the entity shall be distributed to the managerial. b. if any. or in a management or executive committee.

No. 35. SEC. The Office shall provide general support and coordinative services in the implementation of the programs particularly in carrying out the provisions of the following services to farmer-beneficiaries and affected landowners: _______________________ 74 74 New section introduced by Sec. 7881. the books of the fishpond or prawn farm owners shall be subject to periodic audit or inspection by certified public accountants chosen by the workers. shall be followed. Valuation of Lands. taking into account the factors enumerated in Section 17.A. In order to safeguard the right of the regular fishpond or prawn farm workers under the incentive plan. R. In case of disagreement. if accepted by the workers-beneficiaries. whereby seven and a half percent (7.5%) of their net profit before tax from the operation of the fishpond or prawn farms are distributed within sixty (60) days at the end of the fiscal year as compensation to regular and other pond workers in such ponds over and above the compensation they currently receive. The foregoing provision shall not apply to agricultural lands subsequently converted to fishpond or prawn farms provided the size of the land converted does not exceed the retention limit of the landowner. and prawn farms are hereby mandated to execute within six (6) months from the effectivity of this Act an incentive plan with their regular fishpond or prawn farmworkers or fishpond or prawn farm workers’ organization.—There is hereby created the Office of Support Services under the DAR to be headed by an Undersecretary. The landowner and the LBP shall assist the farmersbeneficiaries and workers-beneficiaries in the payment for said shares by providing credit financing. if any. 327 .—A valuation scheme for the land shall be formulated by the PARC. Chapter IX Support Services SEC. 20 February 1995. 34. SEC. 4. Payment of Shares of Cooperative or Association. the PARC shall consult closely with the landowner and the workers-beneficiaries. Creation of Support Services Office. 33.—Shares of a cooperative or association acquired by farmers-beneficiaries or workers-beneficiaries shall be fully paid for in an amount corresponding to the valuation as determined in the immediately succeeding section. 32-A. in addition to the need to stimulate the growth of cooperatives and the objective of fostering responsible participation of the workers-beneficiaries in the creation of wealth In the determination of a price that is just not only to the individual but to society as well.—Individuals or entities owning or operating fishponds SEC. the price as determined by the PARC.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM Incentives. without prejudice to the landowner’s right to petition the Special Agrarian Court to resolve the issue of valuation.

irrigation systems and other facilities for a sound agricultural development plan. Development of cooperative management skills through intensive training. d. 9. potable water and power resources. especially second crop or dry season irrigation facilities. development and dissemination of information on agrarian reform and low-cost and ecologically sound farm inputs and technologies to minimize reliance on expensive and imported agricultural inputs. like concessional and collateral-free loans. 5. 10. Assistance in the identification of ready market for agricultural produce and training in other various aspects of marketing. at least twenty-five percent (25%) of all appropriations for agrarian reform shall be immediately set aside and made available for this purpose. Administration. Infrastructure such as access trails. production and postharvest technology transfer. 3. marketing and storage facilities. Land surveys and titling. mini dams. cropping. Extending to small landowners.—The PARC shall ensure that support services to farmers-beneficiaries are provided. aid and other forms of financial assistance from any source. Infrastructure development and public works projects in areas and settlements that come under agrarian reform. Government subsidies for the use of irrigation facilities. 8. as well as marketing and management assistance and support to cooperatives and farmers’ organizations. SEC. 6. b. Price support and guarantee for all agricultural produce. 37. c. 4. management and funding of support services programs and projects including pilot projects and models related to agrarian reform as developed by the DAR. Liberalized terms on credit facilities and production loans. public utilities. operation. and for this purpose. SEC. In relation. Extension services by way of planting. developing and extending financial assistance to small and medium-scale industries in agrarian reform areas. Assigning sufficient numbers of agricultural extension workers to farmers’ organization. Promoting. Funding for Support Services. Irrigation facilities. 7. the DAR shall be authorized to package proposals and receive grants. and 328 . the preparation of the physical development plan of such settlements providing suitable barangay sites. farmers’ organizations the necessary credit. Undertake research.LAND 1. for agro-industrialization based on social collaterals like the guarantees of farmers’ organizations. 36.—In order to cover the expenses and cost of support services. such as: a. and 11. 2. Support Services to the Beneficiaries.

without prejudice to criminal prosecution. financial and counseling assistance. to the extent of thirty percent (30%) of the face value of said LBP bonds. to provide the needed infrastructures in agriculture. subject to guidelines that shall be issued by the LBP. 329 . personnel.—The PARC with the assistance of such other government agencies and instrumentalities as it may direct. Marketing of LBP bonds. Support Services to Landowners. b. Other services designated to utilize productively the proceeds of the sale or such lands for rural industrialization. Land Consolidation. properties.—The DAR shall carry out land consolidation projects to promote equal distribution of landholdings. the LBP. Facilities. production and use of organic fertilizers and other local substances necessary in farming and cultivation. programs and schemes for the conversion or exchange of bonds issued for payment of the lands acquired with stocks and bonds issued by the national government. 38. The LBP shall redeem a landowner’s LBP bonds at face value. Research. 39. and to conserve soil fertility and prevent erosion. The PARC shall formulate policies to ensure that support services to farmer beneficiaries shall be provided at all stages of land reform. shall provide landowners affected by the CARP and prior agrarian reform programs with the following services: a. as well as promoting the marketability of said bonds in traditional and non-traditional financial markets and stock exchanges. and d. including the forfeiture of the land transferred to him or lesser sanctions as may be provided by the PARC. equipment and records. provided that the proceeds thereof shall be invested in a BOI-registered company or in any agribusiness or agro-industrial enterprise in the region where the landowner has previously made investments. or to such other incentives as the PARC.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM e. Misuse diversion of the financial and support services herein provided shall result in sanctions against the beneficiary guilty thereof. SEC. SEC. The Bagong Kilusang Kabuhayan sa Kaunlaran (BKKK) Secretariat shall be transferred and attached to the LBP. Investment information. the Central Bank and other government institutions and instrumentalities. for its supervision including all its applicable and existing funds. A landowner who invests in rural-based industries shall be entitled to the incentives granted to a registered enterprise engaged in a pioneer or preferred area of investment as provided for in the Omnibus Investment Code of 1987. c. or other government financial institutions may provide.

Subsistence fishing—Small fisherfolk. in logging. Parties who will engage in the development of capital intensive. shall be assured of greater access to the utilization of water resources. All historic nobility rests on rules and regulations. 330 .—This is an integral part of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program.LAND Chapter X Special Areas of Concern SEC. proclaimed and developed as farm settlements for qualified landless people based on an organized program to ensure their orderly and early development. Sparsely occupied public agricultural lands—Sparsely occupied agricultural lands of the public domain shall be surveyed. 40. traditional or pioneering crops shall be given priority. as determined by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). uncultivated lands of the public domain shall be made available on a lease basis to interested and qualified parties. Subject to existing laws. Subject to the prior rights of qualified beneficiaries. “The first farmer was the first man. including seaweed farmers. Lee) tribal communities shall be allowed to enjoy and exploit the products of the forest other than timber within the logging concessions. the following principles in these special areas of concern shall be observed: 1. Special Areas of Concern. suitable areas. Pioneers and other settlers shall be treated equally in every respect. mining and pasture areas.” — Ralph Waldo Emerson settlers and members of (Y. the possession and use of land. 3. Logging and mining concessions—Subject to the requirement of a balanced ecology and conservation of water resources. Agricultural land allocations shall be made for ideal family-size farms as determined by the PARC. 2. shall be opened up for agrarian settlements whose beneficiaries shall be required to undertake reforestation and conservation production methods.

Local Government. in their desire to own and till agricultural lands. the EXCOM may meet and decide on any and all matters in between meetings of the PARC. and three (3) representatives of affected landowners to represent Luzon. Visayas and Mindanao. Provided.—There shall be an Executive Committee (EXCOM) of the PARC composed of the Secretary of the DAR as Chairman. 331 . six (6) representatives of agrarian reform beneficiaries. through the DAR. Budget and Management. Rural women—All qualified women members of the agricultural labor force must be guaranteed and assured equal right to ownership of the land. 41. foreclosed and sequestered lands shall be planned for distribution as homelots and family size farmlots to actual occupants. 4. Land Bank of the Philippines. Unless otherwise directed by PARC. and such other members as the President may designate. shall be proportionate to the amount of investment and production goals of the lessee. their surviving spouse and orphans. Agriculture graduates—Graduates of agricultural schools who are landless shall be assisted by the government. returnees. and sequestered lands—Idle. The Presidential Agrarian Reform Council. 42. however. retirees of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and the Integrated National Police (INP). Veterans and retirees—In accordance with Section 7 of Article XVI of the Constitution. the Secretary of Agrarian Reform as Vice Chairman and the following as members: Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture. Executive Committee. Environment and Natural Resources. Labor and Employment. and representation in advisory or appropriate decision-making bodies. other landless families shall be accommodated in these lands. That its decisions must be reported to the PARC immediately and not later than the next meeting. and similar beneficiaries shall be given due consideration in the disposition of agricultural lands of the public domain. Finance. abandoned. 6. National Irrigation Administration. provided that one of them shall be from the cultural communities. which shall not be more than a total of fifty (50) years. Director-General of the National Economic and Development Authority. If land area permits. President.—The Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARC) shall be composed of the President of the Philippines as Chairman. Idle. A system of evaluation and audit shall be instituted. Administrator. 5. foreclosed. Chapter XI Program Implementation SEC. Public Works and Highways. Section 5 of the Constitution. equal shares of the farm’s produce. surrenderees. abandoned.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM The lease period. two (2) each from Luzon. Trade and Industry. 7. taking into account Article XIII. Visayas and Mindanao. landless war veterans and veterans of military campaigns. SEC.

SEC. Province by Province Implementation. Provincial Agrarian Reform Coordinating Committee (PARCCOM). Functions of the BARC. agricultural cooperatives and nongovernmental organizations in the province. Provided. Secretariat. the latter shall likewise have one representative. two representatives from landowners.— A Provincial Agrarian Reform Coordinating Committee is hereby created in each province. who shall be appointed by the President upon the recommendation of the EXCOM. 229 regarding the organization of the Barangay Agrarian Reform Committee (BARC) shall be in effect. 332 . in every case ensuring the support services are available or have been programmed before actual distribution is effected. and one representative each from the Departments of Agriculture. Mediate and conciliate between parties involved in an agrarian dispute including matters related to tenurial and financial arrangements. at least one of whom shall be a farmer or farmworker representing the principal crop of the province. and of Environment and Natural Resources and from the LBP. 47. 44. Assist in the identification of qualified beneficiaries and landowners within the barangay. guidelines issued by the PARC and on the progress of the CARP in the province. The PARCCOM shall coordinate and monitor the implementation of the CARP in the province.—A PARC Secretariat is hereby established to provide general support and coordinative services such as interagency linkages.—In addition to those provided in Executive Order No. the BARC shall have the following functions: a. the Provincial Agrarian Reform Officer as Executive Officer. SEC. SEC. as members. the provisions of Executive Order No. and two representatives from farmer and farmworker-beneficiaries. That in areas where there are cultural communities. The Secretariat shall be headed by the Secretary of Agrarian Reform who shall be assisted by an Undersecretary and supported by a staff whose composition shall be determined by the PARC Executive Committee and whose compensation shall be chargeable against the Agrarian Reform Fund. 229.—The PARC shall provide the guidelines for a province-by-province implementation of the CARP.—Unless otherwise provided in this Act. one representative each from existing farmers’ organizations. and general operations monitoring for the PARC. 45. 46. It shall provide information on the provisions of the CARP.LAND SEC. Barangay Agrarian Reform Committee. The ten-year program of distribution of public and private lands in each province shall be adjusted from year to year by the province’s PARCCOM in accordance with the level of operations previously established by the PARC. SEC. program and project appraisal and evaluation. 43. b. composed of a Chairman. All officers and employees of the Secretariat shall be appointed by the Secretary of Agrarian Reform. at least one of whom shall be a producer representing the principal crop of the province.

administer oaths. Coordinate the delivery of support services to beneficiaries. Assist in the initial determination of the value of the land. and subpoena duces tecum. SEC. SEC.—The BARC or any member thereof may.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM c. it shall issue a certification of its proceedings and shall furnish a copy thereof upon the parties within seven (7) days after the expiration of the thirty day period. whenever necessary in the exercise of any of its functions hereunder. f. Assist qualified beneficiaries in obtaining credit from lending institutions. to carry out the objects and purposes of this Act. Legal Assistance. Toward this end. Quasi-Judicial Powers of the DAR. Assist the DAR representatives in the preparation of periodic reports on the CARP implementation for submission to the DAR. expeditious and inexpensive determination for every action or proceeding before it. It shall likewise have the power 333 . g.—The DAR is hereby vested with the primary jurisdiction to determine and adjudicate agrarian reform matters and shall have exclusive original jurisdiction over all matters involving the implementation of agrarian reform except those falling under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture (DA) and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). 48. Rules and Regulations. whether substantive or procedural. and enforce its writs through sheriffs or other duly deputized officers. disputes or controversies in a most expeditious manner. it is unable to settle the dispute.—The PARC and the DAR shall have the power to issue rules and regulations. take testimony. or municipal government. If after the lapse of the thirty-day period. 50. Said rules shall take effect ten (10) days after publication in two (2) national newspapers of general circulation. conciliate and settle agrarian disputes lodged before it within thirty (30) days from its taking cognizance thereof. Attest to the accuracy of the initial parcellary mapping of the beneficiary’s till- d. Chapter XII Administrative Adjudication SEC. age. The BARC shall endeavor to mediate. require submission of reports. e. It shall not be bound by technical rules of procedure and evidence but shall proceed to hear and decide all cases. it shall adopt a uniform rule of procedure to achieve a just. Perform such other functions as may be assigned by the DAR. seek the legal assistance of the DAR and the provincial. employing all reasonable means to ascertain the facts of every case in accordance with justice and equity and the merits of the case. 49. and h. It shall have the power to summon witnesses. compel the production of books and documents and answers to interrogatories and issue subpoena. city.

necessary to.—The DAR shall not take cognizance of any agrarian dispute or controversy unless a certification from the BARC that the dispute has been submitted to it for mediation and conciliation without any success of settlement is presented. SEC. SEC. enforcement. Notwithstanding an appeal to the Court of Appeals. award or ruling of the DAR on any agrarian dispute or on any matter pertaining to the application. ruling or decision shall be final after the lapse of fifteen (15) days from receipt of a copy thereof. Provided. the decision of the DAR shall be immediately executory. Chapter XIII Judicial Review SEC. or in connection with the application implementation. the DAR may impose reasonable penalties. Certificate of the BARC. or interpretation of this Act and other pertinent laws on agrarian reform may be brought to the Court of Appeals by certiorari except as otherwise provided in this Act within fifteen (15) days from the receipt of a copy thereof. implementation. 334 . 51.—No court in the Philippines shall have jurisdiction to issue any restraining order or writ of preliminary injunction against the PARC or any of its duly authorized or designated agencies in any case. That when there are two or more representatives for any individual or group. SEC. however. however. or interpretation of this Act and other pertinent laws on agrarian reform. their fellow farmers. Responsible farmer leaders shall be allowed to represent themselves. enforcement. Only one (1) motion for reconsideration shall be allowed. 52. or their organizations in any proceedings before the DAR. order. That if no certification is issued by the BARC within thirty (30) days after a matter or issue is submitted to it for mediation or conciliation the case or dispute may be brought before the PARC. Certiorari. 54. Any order.—Any decision. 55. including but not limited to fines or censures upon erring parties. dispute or controversy arising from. Frivolous Appeals. Provided.—To discourage frivolous or dilatory appeals from the decisions or orders on the local or provincial levels. No Restraining Order or Preliminary Injunction. 53. SEC.LAND to punish direct and indirect contempts in the same manner and subject to the same penalties as provided in the Rules of Court.—Any case or controversy before it shall be decided within thirty (30) days after it is submitted for resolution. Finality of Determination. The findings of fact of the DAR shall be final and conclusive if based on substantial evidence. the representatives should choose only one among themselves to represent such party or group before any DAR proceedings.

SEC.—Review by the Court of Appeals or the Supreme Court.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM SEC. or from any order. investigate and ascertain facts relevant to the dispute. In the designation. 61. The Special Agrarian Courts shall decide all appropriate cases under their special jurisdiction within thirty (30) days from submission of the case for decision. The Regional Trial Court (RTC) judges assigned to said courts shall exercise said special jurisdiction in addition to the regular jurisdiction of their respective courts. Special Agrarian Court. may appoint one or more commissioners to examine. and to file a written report thereof with the court. 57. The Court of Appeals.—The Supreme Court shall designate at least one (1) branch of the Regional Trial Court (RTC) within each province to act as a Special Agrarian Court. SEC. 59. the decision shall become final. including the valuation of properties. The Rules of Court. 58. The Supreme Court may designate more branches to constitute such additional Special Agrarian Courts as may be necessary to cope with the number of agrarian cases in each province. upon their own initiative or at the instance of any of the parties. An appeal from the decision of the Court of Appeals. shall be by petition for review with the Supreme Court within a non-extendible period of fifteen (15) days from receipt of a copy of said decision.—An appeal may be taken from the decision of the Special Agrarian Courts by filing a petition for review with the Court of Appeals within fifteen (15) days from receipt of notice of the decision. however. as the case may be. SEC. ruling or decision of the DAR. SEC. shall apply to all proceedings before the Special Agrarian Courts unless modified by this Act. as the case may be. 56. Appointment of Commissioner. otherwise. 60. question. shall be governed by the Rules of Court. Procedure on Review. the Supreme Court shall give preference to the Regional Trial Courts which have been assigned to handle agrarian cases or whose presiding judges were former judges of the defunct Court of Agrarian Relations. may require the parties to file simultaneous memoranda within a period of fifteen (15) days from notice. Special Jurisdiction. 335 .s—The Special Agrarian Courts. matter or incident raised before them shall be elevated to the appellate courts until the hearing shall have been terminated and the case decided on the merits. Orders of the Special Agrarian Courts.—The Special Agrarian Courts shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction over all petitions for the determination of just compensation to landowners. The Special Agrarian Courts shall have the powers and prerogatives inherent in or belonging to the Regional Trial Courts. Appeals. SEC. after which the case is deemed submitted for decision. and the prosecution of all criminal offenses under this Act.—No order of the Special Agrarian Courts on any issue.

tried and decided into their finality. infrastructures. Funding Source. to be used for the specific purposes of financing production credits. Portion of amounts accruing to the Philippines from all sources of official foreign aid grants and concessional financing from all countries.—The Land Bank of the Philippines shall be the financial intermediary for the CARP. or the locality has become urbanized and the land will have a greater economic value for Proceeds of the disposition of the properties of the Government in foreign coun- 336 . Chapter XIV Financing SEC. 229. and other support services required by this Act. d. All receipts from assets recovered and from sales of ill-gotten wealth recovered through the Presidential Commission on Good Government. e. when the land ceases to be economically feasible and sound for agricultural purposes. b.—After the lapse of five (5) years from its award. notwithstanding the expiration of the ten-year period mentioned in Section 5 hereof. 62. 63. both trial and appellate. All funds appropriated to implement the provisions of this Act shall be considered continuing appropriations during the period of its implementation. Financial Intermediary for the CARP. SEC. Chapter XV General Provisions SEC.LAND SEC.—The initial amount needed to implement this Act for the period of ten (10) years upon approval hereof shall be funded from the Agrarian Reform Fund created under Sections 20 and 21 of Executive Order No. Additional amounts are hereby authorized to be appropriated as and when needed to augment the Agrarian Reform Fund in order to fully implement the provisions of this Act. Preferential Attention in Courts. Proceeds of the sales of the Assets Privatization Trust. 65. 64. Conversion of Lands.—All courts in the Philippines. tries. and shall ensure that the social justice objectives of the CARP shall enjoy a preference among its priorities. shall give preferential attention to all cases arising or in connection with the implementation of the provisions of this Act. All cases pending in court arising from or in connection with the implementation of this Act shall continue to be heard. c. Other government funds not otherwise appropriated. Sources of funding or appropriations shall include the following: a.

with due notice to the affected parties. the DAR. the De_______________________ 75 75 New section introduced by Sec. That small-farmer coo(G. That the beneficiary shall have fully paid his obligation. further. 2146.A. entitled “Proclaiming Certain Areas and Types of Projects as Environmentally Critical and Within the Scope of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) System established under Presidential Decree No.—No conversion of SEC. 5. 65-A. Tapan. public agricultural lands into fishponds and prawn farms shall be made except in situations where the provincial government with the concurrence of the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) declares a coastal zone as suitable for fishpond development. 7881. aquifers and mangrove vegetations from pollution and environmental degradation. Provided. the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) shall allow the lease and development of such areas. (B-5) and (C-1) and title (B). number eleven (11) of Proclamation No.”— Robert the BFAR. No. and subject to existing laws.” to ensure the protection of river systems. In such case. 1586. 20 February 1995. and a simple and absolute majority of the regular farm workers or tenants agree to the conversion. may authorize the reclassification or conversion of the land and its disposition. Provided. except when the use of the land is more economically feasible and sound for fishpond and/or prawn farm. upon application of the beneficiary or the landowner. R. as certified by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). Provided. 337 . furtherMuller more.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM residential. Conversion into Fishpond and Prawn Farms. Siargao Mangrove Forest) peratives and organizations shall be given preference in the award of the Fishpond Lease Agreement (FLAs). That the approval shall be in accordance with a set of guidelines to be drawn up and “To see mangrove trees with a solid green makes people promulgated by the DAR and look at the landscape instead of the people. That the declaration shall not apply to environmentally critical projects and areas as contained in title (A) subparagraph two. Provided. commercial or industrial purposes. No conversion of more than five (5) hectares of private lands to fishpond and prawn farms shall be allowed after the passage of this Act.

These transactions shall also be exempted from the payment of registration fees.—Within one (1) year from the effectivity of this Act. 5. That all arrearages in real property taxes. the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB). The change in crop should however. SEC. _______________________ 76 77 76 77 78 New section introduced by Sec. the quantity of fertilizers.A. Provided. the provisions of Section 32-A hereof on incentives shall apply.A. ments (FLAs) and those that will be issued after the effectivity of this Act. shall be deductible from the compensation to which the owner may be entitled. 65-D. R. R. Exemptions from Taxes and Fees of Land Transfers. 65-B. may approve applications for change in the use of the land. the SEC. In these cases where the change of use is approved. primarily Presidential Decree No. pollution charges and other pollution control measures such as. a portion of the fishpond area fronting the sea. shall be established as a buffer zone and be planted to specified mangrove species to be determined in consultation with the regional office of the DENR. No lease under Section 65-A hereof may be granted until after the completion of the said inventory. not prejudice the rights of tenants or leaseholders should there be any and the consent of a simple and absolute majority of the affected farm workers. 65-C.—Transactions under this Act involving a transfer of ownership. No.A. without penalty or interest. No. finally. 7881.LAND partment of Agrarian Reform. entitled “A Decree Instituting a Water Code. shall first be obtained. 66. 20 February 1995. The sustainable management and utilization of prawn farms and fishponds shall be in accordance with the effluent standards. 1067. and other appropriate government regulatory bodies. That no piecemeal conversion to circumvent the provisions of this Act shall be allowed. that may be established by the Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority (FPA). Utilization. and all other taxes and fees for the conveyance or transfer thereof. Provided. Inventory. New section introduced by Sec. Thereby Revising and Consolidating the Laws Governing the Ownership. Change of Crops. The Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources shall provide the penalties for any violation of this undertaking as well as the rules for its implementation. Conservation and Protection of Water Resources.—The change of crops to commercial crops or SEC. shall be exempted from taxes arising from capital gains. 20 February 1995.—In existing Fishpond Lease AgreeSEC. Development. sufficient to protect the environment. pesticides and other chemicals used. Exploitation. high value crops shall not be considered as a conversion in the use or nature of the land. BFAR shall undertake and finish an inventory of all government and private fishponds and prawn farms.” Protection of Mangrove Areas. 7881. 7881. 78 New section introduced by Sec. 5. 338 . 20 February 1995. and existing regulations governing water utilization. but not limited to. Appropriation. No. and undertake a program to promote the sustainable management and utilization of prawn farms and fishponds. 5. if any. whether from natural or juridical persons. R.

may acquire title to these mortgaged properties. Mortgages. and Other Claims. 71. been transferred to qualified beneficiaries. grower or service contracts. subject to existing laws on compulsory transfer of foreclosed assets and acquisition as prescribed under Section 16 of this Act.—All Registers of Deeds are hereby directed to register.—The following are prohibited: 339 . in the exercise of its functions. is hereby authorized to call upon the assistance and support of other government agencies. Immunity of Government Agencies from Undue Interference. the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Lease. 73. Any sale or disposition of agricultural lands after the effectivity of this Act found to be contrary to the provisions hereof shall be null and void.—The PARC. Management.—The sale or disposition of agricultural lands retained by a landowner as a consequence of Section 6 hereof shall be valid as long as the total landholdings that shall be owned by the transferee thereof inclusive of the land to be acquired shall not exceed the landholding ceilings provided for in this Act.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM SEC. Free Registration of Patents and Titles. free from payment of all fees and other charges. bureaus and offices. 70. 69. The Register of Deeds shall not register the transfer of any agricultural land without the submission of this sworn statement together with the proof of service of a copy thereof to the BARC. SEC. Transferees of agricultural lands shall furnish the appropriate Register of Deeds and BARC an affidavit attesting that his total landholdings as a result of the said acquisition do not exceed the landholding ceiling. SEC.—No injunction. SEC. management. Bank Mortgages. b. including government-owned or controlled corporations. 68. Disposition of Private Agricultural Lands. regardless of area. restraining order. Lease. in the meantime. titles and documents required for the implementation of the CARP. patents. and the like shall be disposed of as follows: a.—Lands covered by this Act under lease. SEC. 67. Prohibited Acts and Omissions. Mortgages and other claims registered with the Register of Deeds shall be assumed by the government up to an amount equivalent to the landowner’s compensation value as provided in this Act. and the Department of Justice (DOJ) in their implementation of the program. grower or service contracts covering private lands may continue under their original terms and conditions until the expiration of the same even if such land has. Assistance of Other Government Entities. SEC. 72. the Department of Agriculture (DA). prohibition or mandamus shall be issued by the lower courts against the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR). SEC.—Banks and other financial institutions allowed by law to hold mortgage rights or security interests in agricultural lands to secure loans and other obligations of borrowers. management. Grower or Service Contracts.

20 February 1995. The sale. e. SEC. 5. association or entity of the implementation of the CARP. 73-A. or both. except those under collective ownership by farmer beneficiaries.—Section 35 of Republic Act No.—Any person who knowingly or willfully violates the provisions of this Act shall be punished by imprisonment of not less than one (1) month to not more than three (3) years or a fine of not less than one thousand pesos (P1. If the offender is a corporation or association. 228 and 229. at the discretion of the court. to the conSEC.LAND a. for the purpose of circumventing the provisions of this Act. Presidential Decree Nos. 340 . of agricultural lands in excess of the total retention limits or award ceilings by any person. Suppletory Application of Existing Legislation. R. transfer or conveyance by a beneficiary of the right to use or any other usufructuary right over the land he acquired by virtue of being a beneficiary. transfer. SEC. The sale. b. transfer or conveyance is made necessary as a result of a bank’s foreclosure of the mortgaged land is hereby permitted. 946. 76. 316. conveyance or change of the nature of lands outside of urban centers and city limits either in whole or in part after the effectivity of this Act. Repealing Clause. Presidential Decree No. The conversion by any landowner of his agricultural land into any nonagricultural use with intent to avoid the application of this Act to his landholdings and to dispossess his tenant farmers of the land tilled by them. paragraph (e). natural or juridical. 27 and 266 as amended. trary notwithstanding. 3844. the officer responsible therefore shall be criminally liable. No.A. The forcible entry or illegal detainer by persons who are not qualified beneficiaries under this Act to avail themselves of the rights and benefits of the Agrarian Reform Program.00). 3844 as amended. _______________________ 79 79 New section introduced by Sec. Penalties.000. as the case may be. c. 7881. the sale and/or transfer of agricultural land in cases where such sale. both series of 1987. 75. The ownership or possession.—The provisions of Republic Act No.00) and not more than fifteen thousand pesos (P15. The willful prevention or obstruction by any person. the last two paragraphs of Section 12 of Presidential Decree No. in order to circumvent the provisions of this Act. Exception—The provisions of Section 73. SEC.000. and other laws not inconsistent with this Act shall have suppletory effect. Executive Order Nos. shall be conclusive for the purpose of this Act. 74. The date of the registration of the deed of conveyance in the Register of Deeds with respect to titled lands and the date of the issuance of the tax declaration to the transferee of the property with respect to unregistered lands. d.

Approved: June 10. executive orders. issuances or parts thereof inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed or amended accordingly.R. 60269. 86889. SEC. no other section. or part thereof shall be affected and the same shall remain in full force and effect. decrees. but needs additional and extensive capital to establish and operate) G. SEC. poultry and swine in the Agrarian Reform Law is unconstitutional. Failure on the part of the farmer to comply with his obligations can result in the forfeiture of his certificate of land transfer. 77. Separability Clause. Secretary of Agrarian Reform The inclusion of land devoted to the raising of livestock. G. provision.COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM Presidential Decree No. 1038.—This Act shall take effect immediately after publication in at least two (2) national newspapers of general circulation. 78. 1988. Neither is this recognition permanent nor irrevocable. (Note: Poultry and livestock do not grow out of the land or soil. At most. the certificate merely evidences the government‘s recognition of the grantee as the party qualified to avail of the mechanism for the acquisition of ownership of the land. 4 December 1990 341 .R.—If. Effectivity Clause. and regulations. and all other laws. any section or provision of this Act is declared null and void. Estrella The issuance of a certificate of land transfer to a land reform beneficiary prior to payment does not violate the property rights of the original owner. Cases on Land Reform Vinzons-Magana v. 13 September 1991 Luz Farms v. ECO-LIEN — The psychological need for security of tenure must be used for ecological advantage. for any reason. rules.

175 SCRA 343. As to the manner of fixing compensation The determination by administrative authorities as to the amount of compensation may always be reviewed by the courts. As to the time when title is transferred The law conditions the transfer of possession and ownership of the land to the government on receipt by landowner of the corresponding payment or the deposit by the DAR of the compensation in cash or LBP bonds with an accessible bank. As to the mode of compensation Since the Agrarian Reform Program does not deal with traditional expropriation. known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law is constitutional. GSIS The GSIS. G. Department of Agrarian Reform Republic Act 6657. hence constitutional. Since in land reform the owner seldom gets what he wants for his property. some other device was found necessary. Hence. 61293.LAND Maddumba v.R. title also remains with the landowner. a government-owned and controlled corporation. unfair. 1989 342 . No outright change of ownership is contemplated. may be compelled to accept at face value Land Bank notes earlier received in payment of land expropriated under land reform. Until then. for the government to compel him further to discount those notes would be another sacrifice. it is understandable for government not to immediately have the money needed for compensation. and thus. 15 February 1990 Association of Small Landowners v.

Section 10 provides for the promotion of social justice to all citizens in all phases of national development. development. the State adopted a policy of granting long-term tenurial instruments in the concept of a lease to deserving occupants. and management. Community Based Forest Management (Executive Order No. and targets the protection.” People who have a stake in the well-being of the forest are in the best position to. 263) Whereas. Section 17 mandates the State to recognize and respect the rights of the indigenous peoples to their ancestral domains and consider their customs. Article II. This perception began to shift when it was realized that they could be effective partners in the management of forested areas. the management of the forest. management. Thus was born the concept of community-based forest management. Whereas. Whereas. rehabilitation. Whereas.COMMUNITY BASED FOREST MANAGEMENT Integrated Social Forestry The kaingineros (slash-and-burn farmers) had always been viewed as “enemies” of the forest. the Philippines 2000 and the government‘s Social Reform Agenda support people empowerment and the full. Section 16 of the 1987 Constitution provides for the protection and advancement of the right of the Filipino people. Executive Order No. Over the years. both men and women. Whereas. and most effective partners in. traditions and beliefs in the formulation of laws and policies. 1260 forms the core of the regulatory instrument that now governs land tenure in forest lands. series of 1987. Although the law prohibits the disposition of public lands (such as forest lands) to private individuals. meaningful. and indispensable participation of communities as immediate stakeholders of the forest land resources in the protection and management of the forest ecosystem. the 25-year Master Plan for Forestry Development also recognizes the indispensable role of local communities in forest protection. Article II. Article XIV. rehabilitation. 192. thus ensuring a long-term interest on said land. mandates the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) as the primary government agency responsible for the sustainable management and development of the country’s natural resources. Section 5 of Letter of Instruction No. and 343 . to a healthful and balanced ecology. this concept has evolved into what is now known as the “community based approach. One strategy is to give the forest occupants certain tenurial privileges and rights over the land that they till. Whereas.

The DENR. 3. at all times. from the mighty peaks to the smallaccess to the forestland resources est of the tiny flowers hidden in the meadow’s grass. ecologically-sustainable. protection. and labor-intensive harvesting methods. 2. I Fidel V. SEC. Therefore.LAND utilization of at least 4 million hectares of forest lands. 344 . expressSEC. 4. by virtue of the powers vested in me by law. entrusting the responsibility for forest rehabilitation. and conservation to the community of stakeholders and affording them equitable access to the forest and coastal resources are viable forest land management strategies as borne by the experience of the DENR and various supporting agencies. Oposa) ronment-friendly. Such harvesting methods shall be mentioned under a site-specific management plan of each recipient community and duly approved by the DENR. SEC. do hereby order that: SECTION 1. lofty or humble.” under long term tenurial agree— Alexandria David-neel ments. provided they employ envi(A. The indigenous peoples may participate in the implementation of CBFM activities in recognition of their rights to their ancestral domains and land rights and claims. through the community-based forest management strategy. take into account the needs and aspirations of local communities whose livelihood depends on the forestlands. Ramos. through its Community and Provincial Environment and Natural Resource Offices. in coordination with the local government units and the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) shall. Now. which nized communities may be granted constitute them. President of the Philippines. Whereas. “Landscapes have a language of their own. Communitybased forest management (herein referred to as CBFM) shall be the national strategy to achieve sustainable forestry and social justice. Participating orgaing the soul of the things.

5. local government units. religious groups. SEC. Committee on Flagship Programs and Projects of the Office of the President. The Committee may invite representatives from the Philippine Chamber of Commerce. such as people’s organizations. Agrarian Reform. Philippine Commission on Countrywide Development under the Office of the President. SEC. Cooperative Development Authority. 8. at least. Science and Technology. be represented by concerned Assistant Secretaries or heads of bureaus and agencies. Labor and Employment. NGO coalition groups. National Economic Development and Authority. In its budget preparation. members of the CBFM Steering Committee should. non-government organizations (NGOs). The DENR shall support and set up jointly with relevant colleges and universities. Accordingly. and other government personnel. and other concerned organizations to ensure that communities are empowered to initiate and achieve the objectives of this Order. and Offices of Northern and Southern Cultural Communities. Trade and Industry. business and industry.COMMUNITY BASED FOREST MANAGEMENT SEC. SEC. people’s organizations (POs). CBFM Steering Committee shall be created immediately and headed by the DENR with members from the Departments of Agriculture. 6. and other public and private organizations to become members of the Steering Committee. National Defense and Justice. the DENR shall allot adequate funds to effectively accomplish CBFM targets and shall seek supplementary funding from local and foreign supporting agencies and organizations. DENR shall ensure the inclusion of budgetary allocation for CBFM in the annual General Appropriations Act. A. Budget and Management. 9. Philippine Wood Products Association. Finance. SEC. private and public organizations. The Committee shall formulate and develop policy guidelines that will create incentives and conditions necessary to effectively carry out community-based forest management strategy. Presidential Management Staff under the Office of the President. The DENR may source local and international grants and donations for the establishment of the CBFM Special Account. SEC. Interior and Local Government. The DENR shall establish a Community-Based Forest Management Special Account (CBFMSA) to support the implementation of the strategy and provide financial and professional incentive system for deserving communities and government personnel. The DENR shall work with local governments. Other sources of fund may later be determined by the CBFM Steering Committee subject to existing government regulations. arrangements for a community forestry training program for members of participating units. 10. 7. non-government organizations. pending the passage of the revised Forestry Code. 345 .

11. SEC. submit to the Office of the President. which emboa world that will not sustain people.LAND SEC. within six months from the signing of this Order. which are inconsistent herewith. the Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP). and other non-forest-based alternative livelihood systems. The action plan shall be discussed and approved by the CBFM Steering Committee prior to its submission to the President. regulations. enterprise development. 12. 13.” — Bryce Nelson dies the Department’s short. and guidelines necessary to implement this Order and repeal or modify existing ones consistent with the policies set forth by the CBFM Steering Committee. such as the Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP). agro-forestry development. this 19th day of July. The DENR Secretary shall. Within six months after the signing of this Order. me(A. 346 . SEC. in consultation with government financial institutions. SEC. The DENR Secretary shall issue new rules. the DENR. 1995. Done in the City of Manila. a National Comprehensive Community “People who will not sustain trees will soon live in Forestry Action Plan. All previous executive and administrative issuances. are repealed or amended accordingly. 14. tree plantations. procedures. GSIS and the SSS. shall effect the creation of favorable financing mechanisms for access by communities and organizations in the pursuit of the CBFM strategy and its sub-strategies such as community training and empowerment. Oposa) dium and long-term plans.

ISFP. Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim-Community-Based Forest Management Agreement (CADC-CBFMA) and Certificate of Ancestral Land ClaimCommunity-Based Forest Management Agreement (CALC-CBFMA): These instruments are for CADC and CALC holders entering into a CBFMA Program. and Recognition of Ancestral Domains/Claims. CFP. b. sell and utilize products _______________________ CBFM has integrated and unified all people oriented forestry programs. CSCs are subject to the allocation and endorsement of the PO. possession and sustainable development over a designated portion of the CBFM project. 80 347 .COMMUNITY BASED FOREST MANAGEMENT Allocation/Tenure Instruments in Production Forest Lands There are four basic categories of instruments that are used in production forest lands. It also includes the privilege to harvest. Forestry Sector Project (FSP). LIUCP. Coastal Environment Program (CEP). CBFMA can also take other forms as discussed below: a. Protected Area Community-Based Resource Management Agreement (PA-CBRMA): This is awarded to POs of qualified tenured migrants and indigenous peoples (IP) in community based projects within protected areas. develop and manage specified areas of forest lands. Regional Resources Management Project (RRMP). Communities 80 1. 2. Series of 1995. Community-Based Forest Management Agreement (CBFMA): This is the current instrument used in the country under EO 263. Upland Development Program (UDP). Certificate of Stewardship Contract (CSC): This is an agreement between and among the government and an individual forest occupant or families. The agreement is binding for 25 years and renewable for another 25 years. Programs Prior to CBFMA: a. This includes FLMP. These are classified according to those involved as follows: A. Forest Land Management Program (FLMP): This provides sole and exclu sive rights to its participants to occupy. It is a production sharing contract entered into by and between the government and People’s Organization (PO) to utilize a portion of the forest land with the sustainable forest management principles in mind. Integrated Rainforest Management Project (IRMP). This assures the latter peaceful occupation. c.

Investors 1. Integrated Social Forestry Program (ISFP): This endows families with Certificates of Stewardship (CS) over portions of forest lands. 81 _______________________ The issuance of CADC and CALC was turned over to the NCIP from the DENR in 1997 with the passage of IPRA (RA 8371). c. occupy and used since time immemorial. Recognition of Ancestral Domain Claims : The program aims to recognize the rights of indigenous cultural communities and indigenous peoples to their ancestral domains/lands. protecting and rehabilitating the same. e. Certificate of Ancestral Land Claim (CALC): This is bestowed to an indigenous Filipino individual. Integrated Forest Management Agreement (IFMA): This is a production-sharing contract entered into by and between the DENR and a qualified applicant. B. Income Upland Communities Project (LIUCP): This aims to achieve both a sustainable upland forest management and poverty alleviation in rural communities. The contract is effective for a period of 25 years and renewable for another 25 years. and improving the socio. protect and utilize a specified area of forestland and its forest resources. enhancing ecological stability. d. Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim (CADC): This is conferred to indigenous cultural community/indigenous people claiming a particular traditional territory they possess since time immemorial where ownership is based on their customs and traditions. 81 348 . 2. The government enters into a Forest Land Management Agreement (for this program) with forest occupants and residents of upland communities in lieu of national reforestation objectives. develop and utilize forest resources in a sustainable manner. manage. b. Timber License Agreements (TLA): These endow individuals the right to possess and occupy and thus to utilize forest resource within a forestland with the condition of developing. The government does not issue TLAs anymore pursuant to the 1987 constitution. DENR awards two forms of certificates as described below: I. They are binding for 25 years and renewable for another 25 years. The former confers exclusive rights to the latter to develop. Community Forestry Program (CFP): This allows organized communities to manage.LAND grown on the land. It was conceptualized with the end of maximizing land productivity. II.economic conditions of forest occupants and communities. family or clan claiming a particular area they traditionally possess.

” 83 EcoGov Book by Atty. C. Socialized Industrial Forest Management Agreement (SIFMA): This provides natural and juridical persons the right to develop. 4. 1. D. Community Watershed Areas: These are forestlands designated by the DENR for specific local communities as 83 sources of water supply. Other Allocation / Tenure Instruments 1. Forest Land Grazing Management Agreement (FLGMA): This is used for grazing areas.” 82 349 . Oliva notes “[t]here is as yet no communal watershed that has been assigned by DENR to the LGU. Communal Forest: This is a tract of forestland provided by the DENR Secretary for personal use of residents of a municipality or city. Individuals or families and associations or cooperatives are qualified recipients through an agreement with the DENR. collect and remove 82 forest products in accordance with the law and principles of sustainable development. utilize and manage a small tract of forest land consistent with the principles of sustainable development. Government Employees Contract of Usufruct: This endows a DENR employee with the rights to enjoy a maximum of 5 hectares in certain forest lands as tree farms while associations may be granted up to 150 hectares. Co-Management Agreement: This is an understanding between the DENR and an LGU towards comanagement of certain forest areas consistent with their respective mandates and the principles of sustainable forest management. binding for 25 years and renewable for another 25 years. 3. 2. Oliva notes “[t]here is as yet no communal forest assigned by DENR to an LGU. _______________________ EcoGov Book by Atty. Beneficiaries enjoy the property with the condition of preserving its form and substance without right of occupation.COMMUNITY BASED FOREST MANAGEMENT 3. This endows privileges to cut.

Scientific/Academic Researches 5. 2001. : These are governed by RA 9147 s. etc. uprooted and fire/typhoon damaged trees. 1987 and sections 17 and 20 of RA 9147 s. electric power lines. Instrument 1. : This is a permit issued by the DENR for the recovery and disposition of abandoned logs. 2. 2001.LAND Permits Issued for the Utilization of Forest Resources in Production Forest Lands Issued Permit 1. Energy Resources Surveys 6. EO 247 s. tree stumps. Protected Area Community Based Resource Management Agreement 2. : These are for energy resources surveys. and the National Caves and Cave Resources Management and Protection Act. Collection and Breeding of Wildlife Description : This is similar to the CBFM Agreements issued in production forest lands : These are usually done through Contracts. drifted logs. disposition and transport of rattan. : These are governed by EO 192 s. sunken logs. Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act. : This allows the cutting and gathering of rattan inside forest lands for the purpose of utilization. 350 . 2001. : These are governed by RA 9147 s. 3. 2001. 1995 and RA 9147 s. Use/Development of Facilities Inside Protected Area 3. Bioprospecting (Commercial Research Agreements) 7. granted by the DENR. 1996. : These refer to installation of communication facilities. Export/Import/Re-Export (CITES/Non-CITES Permits and Certifications) 8. Special Land Uses within PA 4. Memorandum of Agreements. Wood Recovery Permit (WRP) Allocation/Tenure Instruments in Protected Areas Activities within protected areas are governed by NIPAS Act. or Memorandum of Understanding. Ordinary Minor Forest Products License (OMFPL) Rattan (RCC) Cutting Contract Description : This provides permission to cut and utilize any forest products except for timber and rattan. : These are governed by DAO 20 s. tops and branches.

Sales Patents and Torrens titles obtained under the Land Registration Act : This is a permit granted to landowners for cutting. dao. bolongeta. bakuling. Permits are to be secured from PAWB. supa. 2. 2001. Special Private Permit (SPLTP) Land Timber 4. molave. teak. Homestead Patents. Collection and Removal of Guano and Other Cave Resources 11. : This is covered by RA 9702. kamagong. Premium hardwood species include narra. The instrument is in the form of a Memorandum of Understanding or Memorandum of Agreement between PAWB and the applicant. : This is a permit issued by the Secretary of DENR for the cutting. This provides incentives to applicants. akle. Development and Management of Caves Description : This is governed by RA 9147 s. Private (PLTP) Land Timber Permit 3. lumbayao. sangilo. apanit. : This is covered by RA 9702. lanete. Agreements and Permits Involving Forest Resources in Private Lands Instrument 1. Special (STCP) Tree Cutting Permit 351 . kalantas. gathering and utilization of premium hardwood species. This is granted to lands covered by administrative and judicial titles such as Free Patents. manggis including Benguet pine. betis. gathering and/or utilization of trees which are affected in the implementation of government or private infrastructure and development projects. ipil. Local Transport of Wildlife 10. Private Forest Development Agreement (PFDA) Description : This is an agreement between DENR and a private landowner for the establishment and development of forest plantation within his private property.COMMUNITY BASED FOREST MANAGEMENT Instrument 9. gathering and utilization of naturally grown trees in private lands. banuyo. both planted and naturally grown. tindalo. : This is provided to landowners for the cutting.

the longest time. Now. Therefore. Ferdinand E. less fuel dependent operations and minimal effects on the environment are “Conservation is the foresighted utilization. multiple increases of oil and fuel prices. and capital intensity with high debt-equity ratio.000 metric tons of ore and satisfying the following requisites: 352 . preservaamong the arguments that lend tion and/or renewal of forests. thereby alleviating the living conditions in the rural areas and will contribute additional foreign exchange earnings. Whereas.” — Gifford Pinchot Whereas. incentives and financing are generally addressed to the large-scale sector of the industry.LAND Minerals Small-Scale Mining Program (Presidential Decree No. volatile commodity prices. do hereby decree and order as follows: SECTION 1. I. Whereas. relative flexibility and simplicity of operations. 1899) Whereas. by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution. President of the Republic of the Philippines. the development of these small mineral deposits will generate more employment opportunities. lands and minsupport to the development of erals. for the greatest good of the greatest number for small-scale mining. Marcos. minimum capital requirements. stringent environmental control measures and high cost of capital proved to be most disastrous for Philippine large scale mines. waters. and Whereas. mechanization and heavy energy requirements characterize such type of operations. the advent of inflation. prevailing statutes. abundance of cheap labor in the Philippines. Small-scale mining refers to any single unit mining operation having an annual production of not more than P50. policies. the Philippine mining industry has always been dominated by largescale mining operations. whose main attraction is the attainment of economies of scale through low cost but large tonnage operations. there exist small (Digital Vision) mineral deposits that are being or could be worked profitably at small tonnages requiring minimal capital investments utilizing manual labor.

All laws. or parts thereof. SEC. The small-scale mining permittee/licensee shall. shall be closed to mining location and the permittee/licensee shall have the first option to locate such areas under other mining laws/decrees. are hereby repealed. either open cast or shallow underground mining. 1984. rules and regulations. be exempt from payment of all taxes. decrees. provided they are holders of valid and existing mining rights. The Director of Mines and Geosciences may waive some other requirements from other government agencies. SEC. New mining areas and/or areas covered by existing reservations not covered by valid and existing mining claims at the time of the promulgation of this Decree shall be governed by the implementing rules and regulations that shall be hereinafter promulgated. 5. letter of instructions. 3. 8. 2. except income tax. shall promulgate rules and regulations to properly implement the provisions of this Decree. 3. This Decree shall take effect immediately. and its immediate vicinity. Owned. during the term of the permit or license. amended. 10. administrative orders. this 23rd day of January. and 4. SEC. rules and regulations. The Minister of Natural Resources. The permittee or licensee shall produce within twelve (12) months from the date of the issuance of the permit or license and shall submit verified periodic reports. SEC. Done in the City of Manila. who have subsequently complied with existing mining rights. which shall be exercised within a period of two (2) years from the grant of the permit or license and to cover an area equivalent to but not exceeding one meridonial block. 9. The working is artisanal. which are inconsistent with any provisions of this Decree. executive orders. The holders of mining rights meeting the conditions of the preceding section may apply at any time as small-scale mining permittee/licensee. 7. 353 . SEC. 2. Minimal investment on infrastructures and processing plant. The Bureau of Mines and Geosciences shall provide technical assistance. SEC. without the use of sophisticated mining equipment. rules and regulations before the promulgation of this Decree. upon the recommendation of the Director of Mines and Geosciences. SEC. or modified accordingly. Heavy reliance on manual labor. The permit area falling under this Section. who have subsequently complied with existing mining laws. whenever feasible. SEC. which he may deem unnecessary for the proper implementation of the provisions of this Decree. as determined by the Director of Mines and Geo-Sciences. 4. 6. SEC. A permit or license issued for this purpose shall be valid for two (2) years renewable for another like period. managed or controlled by an individual or entity qualified under existing mining laws.MINERALS 1. Non-compliance with these requirements shall result in the forfeiture of the rights granted under this Decree.

clay and like mineral resources.LAND Be careful of what you take out of the Earth. 2. gravel. 354 . kaolin. Especially those that you cannot put back in.—For purposes of this Act.—This Act shall be known as the “People’s Small-Scale Min- SEC. Mineralized areas refer to areas with naturally occurring mineral deposits of gold. marble. develop. (Digital Vision) People’s Small-Scale Mining (Republic Act No. silver. 3. SEC. Declaration of Policy. giving due regard to existing rights as herein provided.—It is hereby declared the policy of the State to promote. 7076) SECTION 1. silica. the following terms shall be defined as follows: a.” Title. protect and rationalize viable small-scale mining activities in order to generate more employment opportunities and provide an equitable sharing of the nation’s wealth and natural resources. ing Act of 1991. Definitions. chromite.

voluntarily form a cooperative duly licensed by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to engage. and m. k. but in no case to exceed the maximum area allowed by law. Processor refers to a person issued a license to engage in the treatment of minerals or ore-bearing materials such as by gravity concentration. Secretary refers to the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Mining plan refers to a two-year program of activities and methodologies employed in the extraction and production of minerals or ore-bearing materials. leaching benefication. in the extraction or removal of minerals or ore-bearing materials from the ground.—For the purpose of carrying out the declared policy provided in Section 2 hereof. l. cyanidation.PEOPLE’S SMALL-SCALE MINING b. 4. registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission or other appropriate government agency. Director refers to the regional executive director of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. joint venture or mineral production sharing agreement between the State and a small-scale mining contractor for the small-scale utilization of a plot of mineral land. SEC. Claim owner refers to a holder of an existing mining right. Small-scale mining contractor refers to an individual or a cooperative of smallscale miners. h. license or permit covering a mineralized area prior to its declaration as a people’s small-scale mining area. Existing mining right refers to perfected and subsisting claim. License refers to the privilege granted to a person to legitimately pursues his occupation as a small-scale miner or processor under this Act. lease. Small-scale miners refers to Filipino citizens who. e. f. polishing and other similar activities. People’s Small-Scale Mining Program. including the financial plan and other resources in support thereof. Small-scale mining refers to mining activities which rely heavily on manual labor using simple implements and methods and do not use explosives or heavy mining equipment. cutting. individually or in the company of other Filipino citizens. i. d. exploitation or commercial production as determined by the Secretary after the necessary field investigation or verification including contiguous and geologically related areas belonging to the same claim owner and/or under contract with an operator. c. g. Active mining area refers to areas under actual exploration. sizing. j. development. under the terms and conditions of a contract. there is hereby established a People’s 355 . which has entered into an agreement with the State for the small-scale utilization of a plot of mineral land within a people’s small-scale mining area. Small-scale mining contract refers to co-production.

suitable for small-scale mining. and rational scheme for the small-scale development and utilization of mineral resources in certain mineral areas in order to address the social. The regulation of the small-scale mining industry with the view to encourage growth and productivity. in coordination with other concerned government agencies. water reservoir or a separate parcel of land with an area of ten thousand square meters (10. f. Public lands not subject to any existing right. stockyard. systematic. finally. cemetery or burial site. b. 356 . may be declared by the Board as people’s small scale mining areas: a. unless their status as such is withdrawn by competent authority. b. Private lands. and c. segregation. parks and wildlife reservations. That the areas are not covered by existing forest rights or reservations and have not been declared as tourist or marine reserved.—The following lands. The People’s Small-Scale Mining Program shall include the following features: a. or land situated within one hundred meters (100 m. except those with substantial improvements or in bona fide and regular use as a yard. and reservation of certain mineral lands as people’s small-scale mining areas. The efficient collection of government revenue.000 sq. further. plantation. SEC. SEC. and environmental problems connected with small-scale mining activities.) or less. when suitable for small-scale mining.LAND Small-Scale Mining Program to be implemented by the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. hereinafter called the Department. Future People’s Small-Scale Mining Areas. m. d. designed to achieve an orderly.—The Board is hereby authorized to declare and set aside people’s small-scale mining areas in sites onshore. That such areas are not considered as active mining areas: Provided. plant nursery. e. and h.) from such cemetery or burial site. and other social services. That the minerals found therein are technically and commercially suitable for small-scale mining activities: Provided. The encouragement of the formation of cooperatives. economic. c. subject to certain rights and conditions. subject to review by the Secretary. 6. Declaration of People’s Small-Scale Mining Areas. 5. garden. immediately giving priority to areas already occupied and actively mined by small-scale miners before August 1. technical. Public lands covered by existing mining rights which are not active mining areas. The recognition of prior existing rights and productivity. The extension of technical and financial assistance. The identification. 1987: Provided. The extension of assistance in processing and marketing. g. The generation of ancillary livelihood activities.

the Director. Size of mineralized area. port and communication facilities. Quantity of mineral deposits. SEC. subject to payment of reasonable fees to the operator. SEC.—No ancestral land may be declared as a people’s small-scale mining area without the prior consent of the cultural communities concerned: Provided. landowner or lessor. 10. That only one (1) people’s small-scale mining contract may be awarded at any one time to a small-scale mining contractor who shall start mining operations within one (1) year from the date of award: Provided. if ancestral lands are declared as people’s small-scale mining areas. b. Easement Rights. Safety of miners. Environmental impact and other considerations.—A people’s smallscale mining contract may be awarded by the Board to small-scale miners who have voluntarily organized and have duly registered with the appropriate government agency as an individual miner or cooperative. 357 . d. 9. claim-owner.) per contractor and the depth or length of the tunnel or adit not exceeding that recommended by the Director taking into account the following circumstances: a.—All persons undertaking smallscale mining activities shall register as miners with the Board and may organize themselves into cooperatives in order to qualify for the awarding of a people’s small-scale mining contract. shall determine the right of the small-scale miners to existing facilities such as mining and logging roads. as amended. the members of the cultural communities therein shall be given priority in the awarding of small-scale mining contracts. Applications for a contract shall be subject to a reasonable fee to be paid to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources regional office having jurisdiction over the area. That. but in no case shall the area exceed twenty hectares (20 has. further. and Other related circumstances. 11. 463. 8. Ancestral Lands. Size of membership and capitalization of the cooperative. That priority shall be given to small-scale miners residing in the province or city where the small-scale mining area is located.PEOPLE’S SMALL-SCALE MINING SEC. landowner or lessor of an affected area. Registration of Small-Scale Miners.—Upon the declaration of a people’s small-scale mining area. claim-owner. f. otherwise known as the Mineral Resources Development Decree of 1974. Extent of Contract Area. 7. SEC. private roads.—The Board shall determine the reasonable size and shape of the contract area following the meridional block system established under Presidential Decree No. e. SEC. Award of People’s Small-Scale Mining Contracts. processing plants which are necessary for the effective implementation of the People’s Small-Scale Mining Program. in consultation with the operator. c. Provided.

and g. SEC. Comply with pertinent rules and regulations on environmental protection and conservation.—A contract shall have a term of two (2) years. 12. 14. Abide by the Mines and Geosciences Bureau and the Small-Scale Mining Safety Rules and Regulations. Pay all taxes. Rights Under a People’s Small-Scale Mining Contract. Assume responsibility for the safety of persons working in the mines. Lee) f. renewable. Terms and Conditions of the Contract. Comply with his obligations to the holder of an existing mining right. That the holder of a small-scale mining contract shall have the following duties and obligations: a. “I’ve met miners who hate talking about mining because it is so dangerous and hard and they don’t want their wives to know. e.—In case a site declared and set aside as a people’s small-scale mining area is covered by an existing mining right. In no case shall a small-scale mining contract be sub-contracted. Rights of Claim-owners. particularly those on tree-cutting. subject to verification by the Board. 13. assigned or otherwise transferred.—A people’s small-scale mining contract entitles the small-scale mining contractor to the right to mine. d.LAND SEC. b. mineral-processing and pollution control. and confers upon the contractor the right to mine within the contract area: Provided.” — Martin C. Smith (Y. Undertake mining activities only in accordance with a mining plan duly approved by the Board. the claim-owner and the small-scale miners therein are encouraged to enter into a voluntary and acceptable contractual agreement with respect to the small-scale utilization of the mineral 358 . for like periods as long as the contractor complies with the provisions set forth in this Act. File under oath at the end of each month a detailed production and financial report to the Board. royalties or government production share as are now or may hereafter be provided by law. extract and dispose of mineral ores for commercial purposes. c. SEC.

which shall buy it at prices competitive with those prevailing in the world market regardless of volume or weight. the claim-owner shall have a preemptive right to purchase said mill tailings at the prevailing market price. He may sell the tailings or have them processed in any custom mill in the area: Provided. That royalties paid to the owner shall in no case exceed one percent (1%) of the gross value of the minerals recovered as royalty. provided such activities do not unduly interfere with the operations of the small-scale miners. explorations and other activities. the owner and the small-scale mining contractors are encouraged to enter into a voluntary and acceptable contractual agreement for the small-scale utilization of the mineral values from the private land: Provided. SEC.PEOPLE’S SMALL-SCALE MINING values from the area under claim. further.—All gold produced by small-scale miners in any mineral area shall be sold to the Central Bank. 359 . In case of disagreement. Subject to the approval of the Board. That the owner shall in all cases be entitled to the payment of actual damages which he may suffer as a result of such declaration: Provided. SEC. Ownership of Mill Tailings. Sale of Gold. and real property taxes. That. if the small-scale mining contractor decides to sell its mill tailings.—The private landowner or lawful possessor shall be notified of any plan or petition to declare his land as a people’s smallscale mining area. That such rights and privileges shall be available only if he is not delinquent in the performance of his annual work obligations and other requirements for the last two (2) years prior to the effectivity of this Act. the Government shall construct such custom mills upon the recommendation of the Board based on the viability of the project.—The small-scale mining contractor shall be the owner of all mill tailings produced from the contract area. the claim-owner shall be entitled to the following rights and privileges: a. 15. The Central Bank shall establish as many buying stations in gold-rush areas to fully service the requirements of the small-scale minerals thereat. SEC. Rights of Private Landowners. and c. 18. Exemption from the performance of annual work obligations and payment of occupation fees. If a private land is declared as a people’s small-scale mining area. Said landowner may oppose such plan or petition in an appropriate proceeding and hearing conducted before the Board. In mining areas where the private sector is unable to establish custom mills. SEC. or its duly authorized representatives. b. 17. free access to the contract area to conduct metallurgical tests.—The establishment and operation of safe and efficient customs mills to process minerals or ore-bearing materials shall be limited to mineral processing zones duly designated by the local government unit concerned upon recommendation of the Board. 16. Custom Mills. Royalty equivalent to one and one half percent (1 1/2%) of the gross value of the metallic mineral output or one percent (1%) of the gross value of the nonmetallic mineral output to be paid to the claim-owner: Provided. rental.

Non-payment of the fine imposed shall render the small-scale mining contractor ineligible for other small-scale mining contracts. That they comply with the provisions of this Act.—There is hereby created under the direct supervision and control of the Secretary a provincial/city mining regulatory board. SEC. upon recommendation of the Director. Government Share and Allotment.—The revenue to be derived by the government from the operation of the mining program herein established shall be subject to the sharing provided in the Local Government Code. SEC. In addition.—The Secretary. Custom mills shall be constituted as withholding agents for the royalties. The Department shall establish assay laboratories to cross-check the integrity of custom mills and to render metallurgical and laboratory services to mines. SEC. 22. Provincial/City Mining Regulatory Board.00) and not more than one hundred thousand pesos (P100.000. or the like.—Small-scale miners who have been in actual operation of mineral lands on or before August 1.LAND The Board shall issue licenses for the operation of custom mills and other processing plants subject to pollution control and safety standards. health and environmental protection. Actual Occupation by Small-Scale Miners. 20. which shall be the implementing agency of the 360 . 24. herein called the Board. as well as the abandonment of the mining site by the contractor.—The noncompliance with the terms and conditions of the contract or violation of the rules and regulations issued by the Secretary pursuant to this Act. SEC. the Secretary may impose fines against the violator in an amount of not less than twenty thousand pesos (P20.00). 23. tunnel collapse. 1987 as determined by the Board shall not be dispossessed. ejected or removed from said areas: Provided. The fund shall also be made available to address the needs of the small-scale miners brought about by accidents and/or fortuitous events.000. Rescission of Contracts and Administrative Fines. 19. and the establishment of mine rescue and recovery teams including the procurement of rescue equipment necessary in cases of emergencies such as landslides. health.—There is hereby created a People’s Small-Scale Mining Protection Fund which shall be fifteen percent (15%) of the national government‘s share due the government which shall be used primarily for information dissemination and training of small-scale miners on safety. production share or other taxes due the government. shall constitute a ground for the cancellation of the contracts and the ejectment from the people’s small-scale mining area of the contractor. shall withdraw the status of the people’s small-scale mining area when it can no longer feasibly operate on a small-scale mining basis or when the safety. People’s Small-Scale Mining Protection Fund. SEC. 21. and environmental conditions warrant that the same shall revert to the State for proper disposition. SEC. Reversion of People’s Small-Scale Mining Areas.

Settle disputes. and the representative of the governor or city mayor. 1991. Reserve future gold and other mining areas for small-scale mining. The Department shall provide the staff support to the Board. Composition of the Provincial/City Mining Regulatory Board. as members. 29. Priority shall be given to such rules and regulations that will ensure the least disruption in the operations of the small-scale miners. Declare and segregate existing gold-rush areas for small-scale mining. and other issuances. b. The Secretary shall within ninety (90) days from the effectivity of this Act promulgate rules and regulations to effectively implement the provisions of the same. Perform such other functions as may be necessary to achieve the goals and objectives of this Act. executive orders. d. 28. subject to review by the Secretary: a. 25. Administrative Supervision over the People’s Small-Scale Mining Program. Penal Sanctions.—This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in a national newspaper of general circulation. rules and regulations. one (1) big-scale mining representative. SEC.—The Board shall be composed of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources representative as Chairman. 361 . and shall exercise the following powers and functions. Separability Clause.—All laws. one (1) small-scale mining representative. 27. or parts thereof. 30. decrees. SEC.PEOPLE’S SMALL-SCALE MINING Department. SEC. letters of instruction. and f. tools and instruments. Effectivity. SEC. as the case may be. Approved: June 27. 26. Award contracts to small-scale miners. Formulate and implement rules and regulations related to small-scale mining.—Any section or provision of this Act which may be declared unconstitutional shall not affect the other sections or provisions hereof.—The Secretary through his representative shall exercise direct supervision and control over the program and activities of the small-scale miners within the people’s small-scale mining area. e. The representatives from the private sector shall be nominated by their respective organizations and appointed by the Department regional director.—Violations of the provisions of this Act or of the rules and regulations issued pursuant hereto shall be penalized with imprisonment of not less than six (6) months nor more than six (6) years and shall include the confiscation and seizure of equipment. conflicts or litigations over conflicting claims within a people’s small-scale mining area. in conflict or inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. an area that is declared a small-mining area. c. SEC. Repealing Clause. and the representative from a non-government organization who shall come from an environmental group. SEC.

—This Act shall be known as the “Philippine Mining Act of 1995. Lewis (G. 2. the following terms. “What we call Man’s power over Nature turns out to be a power exercised by some men over other men with Nature as its instrument. Title. It shall be the responsibility of the State to promote their rational exploration. Ancestral lands refers to all lands exclusively and actually possessed. 3. shall mean: a. Tapan) SEC. development. utilization and conservation through the combined efforts of government and the private sector in order to enhance national growth in a way that effectively safeguards the environment and protect the rights of affected communities. 362 . or utilized by indigenous cultural communities by themselves or through their ancestors in accordance with their customs and traditions since time immemorial. Declaration of Policy. and as may be defined and delineated by law.” SEC.—All mineral resources in public and private lands within the territory and exclusive economic zone of the Republic of the Philippines are owned by the State. Definition of Terms.S. occupied.” — C.—As used in and for purposes of this Act.LAND Philippine Mining Act (Republic Act 7942) Chapter I Introductory Provisions SECTION 1. whether in singular or plural.

Carrying capacity refers to the capacity of natural and human environments to accommodate and absorb change without experiencing conditions of instability and attendant degradation. Contract area means land or body of water delineated for purposes of exploration. Contractor means a qualified person acting alone or in consortium who is a party to a mineral agreement or to a financial or technical assistance agreement. c.m. Block or meridional block means an area bounded by one-half minute of latitude and one-half minute of longitude. interpret. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is the document which aims to identify. j. predict. Co-production agreement (CA) means an agreement entered into between the government and one or more contractors in accordance with Section 26 (b) hereof. Exclusive economic zone means the water. Director means the Director of the Mines and Geosciences Bureau. Ecological profile or eco-profile refers to geographic-based instruments for planners and decision-makers which presents an evaluation of the environmental quality and carrying capacity of an area. and substratum measured twenty-four nautical miles (24 n. d. f. sea bottom and subsurface measured from the baseline of the Philippine archipelago up to two hundred nautical miles (200 n. development.m.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT b.) offshore. n. or utilization of the minerals found therein. and communicate information regarding changes in environmental quality associated with a proposed project and which examines the range of alternatives for the objectives of the proposal and their impact on the environment. sea bottom. l. m. k. Contiguous zone refers to water. Bureau means the Mines and Geosciences Bureau under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. i. Development means the work undertaken to explore and prepare an ore body or a mineral deposit for mining. o.) seaward from the base line of the Philippine archipelago. Department means the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. h. 363 . containing approximately eighty-one hectares (81 has. including the construction of necessary infrastructure and related facilities. e. g.). Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC) refers to the document issued by the government agency concerned certifying that the project under consideration will not bring about an unacceptable environmental impact and that the proponent has complied with the requirements of the environmental impact statement system.

Joint Venture Agreement (JVA) means an agreement entered into between the government and one or more contractors in accordance with Section 26 (c) hereof. and geothermal energy. or any intermediate state excluding energy materials such as coal. test pitting. maintaining. w. earthquake. Mine wastes and tailings shall mean soil and rock materials from surface or underground mining and milling operations with no economic value to the generator of the same. Gross output means the actual market value of minerals or mineral products from its mining area as defined in the National Internal Revenue Code. rebellion. storm. gas. insurrection. explosion. beneficiation or upgrading of ores or minerals and rocks or by similar means to convert the same into marketable products. epidemic. partnership. Existing mining/quarrying right means a valid and subsisting mining claim or permit or quarry permit or any mining lease contract or agreement covering a mineralized area granted/issued under pertinent mining laws. and as may be defined and delineated by law. geochemical or geophysical surveys.LAND p. sabotage. and sharing common bonds of languages. x. Foreign-owned corporation means any corporation. strike. petroleum. association. Exploration means the searching or prospecting for mineral resources by geological. and other distinctive cultural traits. traditions. flood or other adverse weather conditions. q. aa. s. Force majeure means acts or circumstances beyond the reasonable control of the contractor including. radioactive materials. liquid. y. z. remote sensing. Indigenous cultural community means a group or tribe of indigenous Filipinos who have continuously lived as communities on communally-bounded and defined land since time immemorial and have succeeded in preserving. Minerals refers to all naturally occurring inorganic substance in solid. development. act of God or any public enemy and any cause herein described over which the affected party has no reasonable control. drilling. shaft sinking. war. or cooperative duly registered in accordance with law in which less than fifty percent (50%) of the capital is owned by Filipino citizens. blockade. and utilization of mineral resources. natural gas. civil disturbance. t. Mineral processing means the milling. quantity and quality thereof and the feasibility of mining them for profit. adverse action by government or by any instrumentality or subdivision thereof. customs. but not limited to. Government means the government of the Republic of the Philippines. u. or any other means for the purpose of determining the existence. fire. trending. any dispute with surface owners and other labor disputes. riots. extent. r. tunneling. 364 . lockout. embargo. Financial or technical assistance agreement means a contract involving financial or technical assistance for large-scale exploration. v.

m.) exclusive economic zone including the archipelagic sea and contiguous zone.” — Ralph Waldo Emerson (G. af. Mining area means a portion of the contract area identified by the contractor for purposes of development. ad. development. Net assets refers to the property. mining. Mining operation means mining activities involving exploration. Mineral resource means any concentration of minerals/rocks with potential economic value. utilization. feasibility. Offshore means the water. involving mineral production-sharing agreement. ag.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT ab. as computed for tax purposes. Everything is made of one hidden stuff. ac. non-profit organizations involved in activities dealing with resource and environmental conservation. Mineral land means any area where mineral resources are found. utilization. Non Governmental Organization (NGO) includes non-stock. and subsurface from the shore or coastline reckoned from the mean low tide level up to the two hundred nautical miles (200 n. management and protection. Tapan) ah. ae. “Everything in nature contains all the power of nature. plant and equipment as reflected in the audited financial statement of the contractor net of depreciation. or jointventure agreement. sea bottom. Mineral agreement means a contract between the government and a contractor. and its sites for support facilities or in the immediate vicinity of the mining operations. co-production agreement. ai. and processing. 365 . excluding appraisal increase and construction in progress.

granite. Public land refers to lands of the public domain which have been classified as agricultural lands and subject to management and disposition or concession under existing laws. conveying and cleansing mine industrial waste and tailings as well as eliminating or reducing hazardous effects of solid particles. and volcanic glass: Provided. tuff. machinery. diorite. or a corporation. barite. That such quarry resources do not contain metals or metallic constituents and/or other valuable minerals in economically workable quantities: Provided. aq. Quarry resources refers to any common rock or other mineral substances as the Director of Mines and Geosciences Bureau may declare to be quarry resources such as. basalt. association. ar. rock phosphate. gabbro. Qualified person means any citizen of the Philippines with capacity to contract. That a legally organized foreign-owned corporation shall be deemed a qualified person for purposes of granting an exploration permit. ao. talc. rhyolite. with technical and financial capability to undertake mineral resources development and duly registered in accordance with law at least sixty percent (60%) of the capital of which is owned by citizens of the Philippines: Provided. feldspar. although the corresponding certificate or evidence of title or patent has not been actually issued. or cooperative organized or authorized for the purpose of engaging in mining. coral sand. conglomerate. claimant. treating or neutralizing. volcanic cinders. filtering. financial or technical assistance agreement or mineral processing permit. equipment and/or improvements used for impounding. precipitating. marl. Pollution control and infrastructure devices refers to infrastructure. rivers and creeks. al. andesite. asbestos. am. Ore means a naturally occurring substance or material from which a mineral or element can be mined and/or processed for profit. an. bull quartz. red burning clays for potteries and bricks. removing and disposing quarry resources found on or underneath the surface of private or public land. including submerged lands in lakes. Quarrying means the process of extracting. Onshore means the landward side from the mean tide elevation. That non-metallic minerals such as kaolin. President means the President of the Republic of the Philippines. sand and pebbles. Private land refers to any land belonging to any private person which includes alienable and disposable land being claimed by a holder. bentonite. sandstone. but not limited to. marble. af. Quarry permit means a document granted to a qualified person for the extraction and utilization of quarry resources on public or private lands. serpentine. 366 . shale. Permittee means the holder of an exploration permit. liquids or other harmful byproducts and gases emitted from any facility utilized in mining operations for their disposal. or occupant who has already acquired a vested right thereto under the law. quartz or silica. partnership. as. ak. limestone. decorative stones. ap. chemicals. diatomaceous earth. further.LAND aj.

cultural or ecological value. the President may establish mineral reservations upon the recommendation of the Director through the Secretary. Regional director means the regional director of any mines regional office under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. and other nonmetallic minerals that may later be discovered and which the Director declares the same to be of economically workable quantities. Special allowance refers to payment to the claim-owners or surface right owners particularly during the transition period from Presidential Decree No. development. shall be undertaken by the Department or through a contractor: Provided. Chapter II Government Management SEC. All submerged lands within the contiguous zone and in the exclusive economic zone of the Philippines are hereby declared to be mineral reservations. 7076 shall be given preferential right to apply for a smallscale mining agreement for a maximum aggregate area of twenty-five percent (25%) of such mineral reservation.—When the national interest so requires. az. Mineral Reservations. magnesite. SEC. au. 5. subject to valid existing mining/quarrying rights as provided under Section 112. bauxite. 279. or certain minerals for scientific. ax. Utilization means the extraction or disposition of minerals. Ownership of Mineral Resources. State means the Republic of the Philippines. A ten percent (10%) share of all royalties and revenues to be derived by the government from the development and utilization of the mineral resources within reserva367 . Chapter XX hereof. series of 1987. shall not be classified under the category of quarry resources. Regional office means any of the mines regional offices of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.—Mineral resources are owned by the State and the exploration. aw. Secretary means the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. av. ay. precious and semi-precious stones. Mining operations in existing mineral reservations and such other reservations as may thereafter be established. The State may directly undertake such activities or it may enter into mineral agreements with contractors. mica. such as when there is a need to preserve strategic raw materials for industries critical to national development. utilization. That a small-scale mining cooperative covered by Republic Act No. 4.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT gypsum. The State shall recognize and protect the rights of the indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral lands as provided for by the Constitution. dolomite. 463 and Executive Order No. and processing thereof shall be under its full control and supervision.

mining.—The Department shall be the primary government agency responsible for the conservation.—The system of processing applications for mining rights shall be prescribed in the rules and regulations of this Act. Periodic Review of Existing Mineral Reservations. 11. watershed areas.—There shall be as many regional offices in the country as may be established by the Secretary. any member or unit of the Philippine National Police. SEC. Processing of Applications. performance and guaranty bonds posted through an order to be promulgated by the Director. and upon his recommendation. SEC. upon the recommendation of the Director. development. 6. The Director may deputize. they may be undertaken by a qualified person in accordance with the rules and regulations promulgated by the Secretary. That the right of the lessee of a valid mining contract existing within the reservation at the time of its establishment shall not be prejudiced or impaired. [and] promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to implement the intent and provisions of this Act. metallurgical. 7. 9. That the party who undertook the exploration of said reservation shall be given priority. when necessary. Authority of the Bureau. Regional Offices. by proclamation. SEC. chemical. SEC. 8. Other Reservations. 10. and proper use of the State’s mineral resources including those in reservations. management.—The Bureau shall have direct charge in the administration and disposition of mineral lands and mineral resources and shall undertake geological. and other researches as well as geological and mineral exploration surveys. In the event that the Department cannot undertake such activities. Authority of the Department. The right to develop and utilize the minerals found therein shall be awarded by the President under such terms and conditions as recommended by the Director and approved by the Secretary: Provided. barangay. The mineral land so awarded shall be automatically excluded from the reservation during the agreement: Provided. The Director shall recommend to the Secretary the granting of mineral agreements to duly qualified persons and shall monitor the compliance by the contractor of the terms and conditions of the mineral agreements. SEC. The Bureau may confiscate surety. further.—The Secretary shall periodically review existing mineral reservations for the purpose of determining whether their continued existence is consistent with the national interest. the President may. SEC. 368 . alter or modify the boundaries thereof or revert the same to the public domain without prejudice to prior existing rights.LAND tions as provided under this Act shall accrue to the Mines and Geosciences Bureau to be allotted for special projects and other administrative expenses related to the exploration and development of other mineral reservations mentioned in Section 6 hereof. duly registered nongovernmental organization (NGO) or any qualified person to police all mining activities. The Secretary shall have the authority to enter into mineral agreements on behalf of the government upon the recommendation of the Director. and lands of the public domain.—Mining operations in reserved lands other than mineral reservations may be undertaken by the Department. subject to limitations as herein provided.

Scope of Application. Areas Open to Mining Operations. Royalty Payments for Indigenous Cultural Communities. a mineral rights management system. 18. 12. 15. development. including timber or forestlands as defined in existing laws. a mineral gazette of nationwide circulation containing among others. Chapter III Scope of Application SEC. the contract or mining area shall be surveyed and monumented by a deputized geodetic engineer and the survey plan shall be approved by the Director before the approval of the mining feasibility. 13. SEC.—For purposes of the delineation of the contract or mining areas under this Act. Charting and Delineation of Mining Areas. The said royalty shall form part of a trust fund for the socio-economic wellbeing of the indigenous cultural community. The Bureau shall publish at least annually. 14.—Mineral agreement or financial or technical assistance agreement applications shall not be allowed: 369 . SEC. a current list of mineral rights. Areas Closed to Mining Applications. all mineral resources in public or private lands. other official acts affecting mining.—In the event of an agreement with an indigenous cultural community pursuant to the preceding section.—A sketch plan or map of the contract or mining area prepared by a deputized geodetic engineer suitable for publications purposes shall be required during the filing of a mineral agreement or financial or technical assistance agreement application. A system and publication fund shall be included in the regular budget of the Bureau. 17. 19. mining rules and regulations. among others. Opening of Ancestral Lands for Mining Operations.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT SEC.—There shall be established a national and regional filing and recording system.—No ancestral land shall be opened for mining operations without the prior consent of the indigenous cultural community concerned. SEC. Survey. SEC. Recording System. Meridional Blocks. their location in the map. SEC. SEC. 16. Any conflict that may arise under this provision shall be heard and resolved by the panel of arbitrators. Thereafter.—This Act shall govern the exploration. the Philippine territory and its exclusive economic zone shall be divided into meridional blocks of one-half minute of latitude and one-half minute of longitude. shall be open to mineral agreements or financial or technical assistance agreement applications. upon utilization of the minerals shall be agreed upon by the parties. A mineral resource database system shall be set up in the Bureau which shall include.— Subject to any existing rights or reservations and prior agreements of all parties. the royalty payment. and other information relevant to mineral resources development. utilization and processing of all mineral resources.

mangrove forests. game refuge and bird sanctuaries as “Today the network of relationships linking the human defined by law and in areas race to itself and to the rest of the biosphere is so complex that all aspects affect all others to an extraordinary degree. mossy forests. Old growth or virgin forests. series of 1992 and other laws. SEC. SEC. c. In military and other government reservations. good idea of the behavior of the whole. d. b. except upon prior written clearance by the government agency concerned. because no gluing together of tected Areas System (NIPAS) partial studies of a complex nonlinear system can give a under Republic Act No. Terms and Conditions of the Exploration Permit.”—Murray GelDepartment Administrative Mann Order No. provincial/municipal forests. In areas expressly prohibited by law. national parks.—An exploration permit shall be for a period of two (2) years. 20. The Bureau shall have the authority to grant an exploration permit to a qualified person. e. 25. expressly prohibited under Someone should be studying the whole system. or associations. however. reservoirs. For individuals. said royalty forming a trust fund for the socioeconomic development of the community concerned. and 2. the National Integrated Procrudely that has to be done.—An exploration permit grants the right to conduct exploration for all minerals in specified areas. in which case a royalty payment upon the utilization of minerals shall be agreed upon by the parties. In areas covered by small-scale miners as defined by law unless with prior consent of the small-scale miners. archeological and historic sites. 22. 370 .LAND a. Onshore. Exploration Permit. Maximum Areas for Exploration Permit. bridges. greenbelts. 7586. 21. highways. subject to annual review and relinquishment or renewal upon the recommendation of the Director. For partnerships. In areas covered by valid and existing mining rights.—The maximum area that a qualified person may hold at any one time shall be: a. cemeteries. except upon written consent of the government agency or private entity concerned. waterways. dams or other infrastructure projects. Near or under public or private buildings. corporations. and f. railroads. twenty (20) blocks. wilderness areas. parks. proclaimed watershed forest reserves. Chapter IV Exploration Permit SEC. two hundred (200) blocks. public or private works including plantations or valuable crops. in any one province— 1. cooperatives.

For partnerships. the permittee shall first discuss with the said parties the extent. a panel of arbitrators shall resolve the conflict or disagreement. through the Director. That if private or other parties are affected. 371 . For individuals. within the term of the permit. the right to enter. That the exploration period covered by the exploration permit shall be included as part of the exploration period of the mineral agreement or financial or technical assistance agreement. or associations. SEC. cooperatives. Declaration of Mining Project Feasibility. four hundred (400) blocks. shall promulgate rules and regulations governing the terms and conditions of the permit. or associations. Offshore. 25. 23. occupation and exploration and in case of disagreement. occupy and explore the area: Provided. For individuals. his heirs or successors-in-interest. and 2. SEC. and 2.—An exploration permit may be transferred or assigned to a qualified person subject to the approval of the Secretary upon the recommendation of the Director. The permittee shall undertake an exploration work on the area as specified by its permit based on an approved work program.—A holder of an exploration permit who determines the commercial viability of a project covering a mining area may. and manner of his entry. one hundred (100) blocks. The Secretary. necessity. which application shall be granted if the permittee meets the necessary qualifications and the terms and conditions of any such agreement: Provided. one thousand (1. c. joint venture agreement. Rights and Obligations of the Permittee. in the entire Philippines— 1. file with the Bureau a declaration of mining project feasibility accompanied by a work program for development. forty (40) blocks. Any expenditure in excess of the yearly budget of the approved work program may be carried forward and credited to the succeeding years covering the duration of the permit. beyond five hundred (500) m from the mean low tide level 1. 24. cooperatives.—An exploration permit shall grant to the permittee. Transfer or Assignment. corporations. Onshore. The approval of the mining project feasibility and compliance with other requirements provided in this Act shall entitle the holder to an exclusive right to a mineral production sharing agreement or other mineral agreements or financial or technical assistance agreement. co-production agreement or financial or technical assistance agreement over the permit area. corporations. For partnerships. SEC. The permittee may apply for a mineral production sharing agreement.000) blocks.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT b.

associations. Onshore. In addition. technology. That in case the applicant has been in the mining industry for any length of time. associations. the government shall be entitled to a share in the gross output. 28. SEC.—A qualified person may enter into any of the three (3) modes of mineral agreement with the government for the exploration. For individuals. Eligibility. For partnership. he should possess a satisfactory environmental track record as determined by the Mines and Geo-sciences Bureau and in consultation with the Environmental Management Bureau of the Department. or corporations. Aside from earnings in equity. c. ten (10) blocks. 27. 372 . 26.—The maximum area that a qualified person may hold at any time under a mineral agreement shall be: a. Co-production agreement — is an agreement between the government and the contractor wherein the government shall provide inputs to the mining operations other than the mineral resource.—For purposes of mining operations. cooperatives. Mineral production sharing agreement — is an agreement where the government grants to the contractor the exclusive right to conduct mining operations within a contract area and shares in the gross output. Modes of Mineral Agreement. b. a mineral agreement may take the following forms as herein defined: a. Onshore. SEC. associations. cooperatives.LAND Chapter V Mineral Agreements SEC. twenty (20) blocks. and 2. For partnerships. b. the contractor may be allowed to convert his agreement into any of the modes of mineral agreements or financial or technical assistance agreement covering the remaining period of the original agreement subject to the approval of the Secretary. and 2. A mineral agreement shall grant to the contractor the exclusive right to conduct mining operations and to extract all mineral resources found in the contract area. in any one province— 1. one hundred (100) blocks. or corporations. For individuals. development and utilization of mineral resources: Provided. in the entire Philippines— 1. two hundred (200) blocks. management and personnel necessary for the implementation of this agreement. Joint venture agreement — is an agreement where a joint-venture company is organized by the government and the contractor with both parties having equity shares. The contractor shall provide the financing. Maximum Areas for Mineral Agreement.

Individuals.—Mineral agreements shall have a term not exceeding twentyfive (25) years to start from the date of execution thereof.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT c. 32. fifty (50) blocks. SEC. 31. For partnerships. by giving due notice at any time during the term of the agreement. Such assignment or transfer shall be deemed automatically approved if not acted upon by the Secretary within thirty (30) working days from official receipt thereof. the operation of the mine may be undertaken by the government or through a contractor. fiscal and legal obligations. 2. SEC. That the contractor shall have the right to equal the highest bid upon reimbursement of all reasonable expenses of the highest bidder. in the entire Philippines— 1. or corporations. without prejudice to changes mutually agreed upon by the parties. Offshore. The maximum areas mentioned above that a contractor may hold under a mineral agreement shall not include mining/quarry area under operating agreements between the contractor and a claim-owner/lessee/permittee/licensee entered into under Presiden84 tial Decree No. the President shall provide a list to Congress of every approved mineral agreement thirty (30) days from its approval by the Secretary. a larger area to be determined by the Secretary. and renewable for another term not exceeding twenty-five (25) years under the same terms and conditions thereof. cooperatives. Thereafter. unless patently unconstitutional or illegal. For the exclusive economic zone. five hundred (500) blocks. associations. After the renewal period. SEC. 29. except in mineral reservations which shall be filed with the Bureau. apply for the cancellation of the mineral agreement due to causes which. The Secretary shall consider the notice and issue its decision within a period of thirty (30) days: Provided. The filing of a proposal for a mineral agreement shall give the proponent the prior right to areas covered by the same. 373 . That the contractor has met all its financial. The proposed mineral agreement will be approved by the Secretary and copies thereof shall be submitted to the President. Assignment/Transfer. and d.—All proposed mineral agreements shall be filed in the region where the areas of interest are located. in the opinion of the contractor. The contract for the operation of a mine shall be awarded to the highest bidder in a public bidding after due publication of the notice thereof: Provided. 30. SEC. 463. _______________________ 84 Mineral Resources Development Decree of 1976. Withdrawal from Mineral agreements.—Any assignment or transfer of rights and obligations under any mineral agreement except a financial or technical assistance agreement shall be subject to the prior approval of the Secretary.—The contractor may. make continued mining operations no longer feasible or viable. Terms. Filing and Approval of Mineral Agreements.

LAND Chapter VI Financial or Technical Assistance Agreement SEC. Maximum Contract Area. 33.000 meridional blocks offshore. subject to relinquishment shall be: a. A financial guarantee bond shall be posted in favor of the government in an amount equivalent to the expenditure obligation of the applicant for any year. 34. its track record in mineral resource exploration.—The maximum contract area that may be granted per qualified person. 374 . to wit: a. 1.000 meridional blocks onshore. Combinations of (a) and (b) provided that it shall not exceed the maximum limits for onshore and offshore areas. and utilization of mineral resources in the Philippines may enter into a financial or technical assistance agreement directly with the government through the Department. development.—Any qualified person with technical and financial capability to undertake large-scale exploration. and warranties shall be incorporated in the financial or technical assistance agreement. of an amount corresponding to the expenditure obligation that will be invested in the contract area: Provided. and utilization. c. details of technology to be employed in the proposed operation.” — Edmund Burke (G. Submission of proof of technical competence. That such amount shall be subject to changes as may be provided for in the rules and regulations of this Act. SEC. Eligibility. development. 35. “All that is necessary for evil to triumph is for good men to do nothing. A firm commitment in the form of a sworn statement.—The following terms. SEC. or c. Tapan) b. b. but not limited to. such as. and details of technical personnel to undertake the operation. 4. Terms and Conditions. conditions.

providing an exploration period up to two (2) years. extendible for another two (2) years but subject to annual review by the Secretary in accordance with the implementing rules and regulations of this Act. accounting. Representations and warranties that the contractor has. l. 375 . Work programs and minimum expenditures commitments. for conducting its mining operations for and in the contract area. and local supplier’s credits and such other generally accepted and permissible financial schemes for raising funds for valid business purposes. g. foreign investments in local enterprises which are qualified for repatriation. or has access to all the financing. the contractor shall not raise any form of financing from domestic sources of funds. m. h. and other relevant data for its mining operations. and o. and that book of accounts and records shall be open for inspection by the government. Requiring the proponent to dispose of the minerals and byproducts produced under a financial or technical assistance agreement at the highest price and more advantageous terms and conditions as provided for under the rules and regulations of this Act. if circumstances demand. Such other terms and conditions consistent with the Constitution and with this Act as the Secretary may deem to be for the best interest of the State and the welfare of the Filipino people. Representations and warranties that. except for payments for dispositions for its equity. the technology required to promptly and effectively carry out the objectives of the agreement with the understanding to timely deploy these resources under its supervision pursuant to the periodic work programs and related budgets. subject to the relinquishment obligations. k. and further. managerial and technical expertise and. f. Requiring the proponent to effectively use appropriate anti-pollution technology and facilities to protect the environment and to restore or rehabilitate mined out areas and other areas affected by mine tailing and other forms of pollution or destruction. e. whether in Philippine or foreign currency.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT d. Preferential use of local goods and services to the maximum extent practicable. A stipulation that the contractors are obliged to give preference to Filipinos in all types of mining employment for which they are qualified and that technology shall be transferred to the same. when proper. Provide for consultation and arbitration with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the terms and conditions of the agreements. The mining operations shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Act and its implementing rules and regulations. j. i. n. Representations and warranties that the applicant has all the qualifications and none of the disqualifications for entering into the agreement. The contractors shall furnish the government records of geologic.

association. 38. renewable for not more than twenty-five (25) years under such terms and conditions as may be provided by law. That existing mineral agreements. Withdrawal from Financial or Technical Assistance Agreement. after proper notice to the Secretary as provided for under the implementing rules and regulations: Provided. Assignment/Transfer. SEC. The Secretary may accept the withdrawal: Provided. That the President shall notify Congress of every financial or technical assistance agreement assigned or converted in accordance with this provision within thirty (30) days from the sate of the approval thereof.—The contractor has the option to convert the financial or technical assistance agreement to a mineral agreement at any time during the term of the agreement. Option to Convert into a Mineral Agreement. fiscal or legal obligations. SEC. 37. Negotiations. If the proposal is found to be sufficient and meritorious in form and substance after evaluation. it shall be recorded with the appropriate government agency to give the proponent the prior right to the area covered by such proposal: Provided. Term of Financial or Technical Assistance Agreement. The Secretary shall recommend its approval to the President. 36. 376 . SEC. if the economic viability of the contract area is found to be inadequate to justify large-scale mining operations. even after he has exerted reasonable diligence to remedy the cause or the situation. the Secretary shall approve the conversion and execute the mineral production-sharing agreement. to a qualified person subject to the prior approval of the President: Provided. partnership. Upon compliance with this requirement by the contractor. financial or technical assistance agreements and other mining rights are not impaired or prejudiced thereby. if in his judgment the mining project is no longer economically feasible. in whole or in part. That the contractor has complied or satisfied all his financial.—The contractor shall manifest in writing to the Secretary his intention to withdraw from the agreement. Filing and Evaluation of Financial or Technical Assistance Agreement Proposals. SEC. or cooperative.—A financial or technical assistance agreement shall be negotiated by the Department and executed and approved by the President. In the case of a foreign contractor. 39. That the mineral agreement shall only be for the remaining period of the original agreement.LAND SEC. 40. 41.—All financial or technical assistance agreement proposals shall be filed with the Bureau after payment of the required processing fees.—A financial or technical assistance agreement shall have a term not exceeding twenty-five (25) years to start from the execution thereof.—A financial or technical assistance agreement may be assigned or transferred. The President shall notify Congress of all financial or technical assistance agreements within thirty (30) days from execution and approval thereof. it shall reduce its equity to forty percent (40%) in the corporation. SEC.

377 .—Any qualified person may apply to the provincial/city mining regulatory board for a quarry permit on privately-owned lands and/or public lands for building and construction materials such as marble. inset filling materials. serpentine. clay for ceramic tiles and building bricks. the holder thereof shall be given the opportunity to be heard in an investigation conducted for the purpose. Commercial Sand and Gravel Permit. SEC. conglomerate.—Any qualified person may be granted an industrial sand and gravel permit by the Bureau for the extraction of sand and gravel and other loose or unconsolidated materials that necessitate the use of mechanical processing covering an area of more than five hectares (5 has.—A quarry permit may be cancelled by the provincial governor for violations of the provisions of this Act or its implementing rules and regulations or the terms and conditions of said permit: Provided. SEC. Quarry Permit. Quarry Fee and Taxes. perlite and other similar materials that are extracted by quarrying from the ground. SEC.—Small-scale mining shall continue to be gov85 erned by Republic Act No.—Any qualified person may be granted a permit by the provincial governor to extract and remove sand and gravel or other loose or unconsolidated materials which are used in their natural state. a qualified person and the government may enter into a mineral agreement as defined herein. 45.) and in such quantities as may be specified in the permit. without undergoing processing from an area of not more than five hectares (5 has. gabbro. tuff. The provincial governor shall grant the permit after the applicant has complied with all the requirements as prescribed by the rules and regulations. The permittee shall also pay the excise tax as provided by pertinent laws. andesite. adobe. granite. Chapter VIII Quarry Resources SEC. That in large-scale quarry operations involving cement raw materials. _______________________ 85 People’s Small-Scale Mining Act. The maximum area which a qualified person may hold at any one time shall be five hectares (5 has. basalt. 43.—A permittee shall. pay a quarry fee as provided for under the implementing rules and regulations. 44. 42. Industrial Sand and Gravel Permit. 7076 and other pertinent laws. Small-Scale Mining.) at any one time. That before the cancellation of such permit. during the term of his permit. 47. pumice. 46. marble. SEC. sand and gravel construction aggregates. granite. Cancellation of Quarry Permit.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT Chapter VII Small-Scale Mining SEC.): Provided.

and Processing of Minerals SEC. Transport permits shall be issued by the mines regional director who has jurisdiction over the area where the ores were extracted. The permit shall be for specific caves and/or for confined sites with locations verified by the Department’s field officer in accordance with existing rules and regulations. Ore Transport Permit. Gemstone Gathering Permit. SEC. Private Gratuitous Permit. Government Gratuitous Permit. quarry or loose unconsolidated materials needed in the construction of building and/or infrastructure for public use or other purposes over an area of not more than two hectares (2 has. In the case of mineral ores or minerals being trans- 378 .—Any qualified person may be granted a non-exclusive gemstone gathering permit by the provincial governor to gather loose stones useful as gemstones in rivers and other locations. 51. 48. SEC.—Any government entity or instrumentality may be granted a gratuitous permit by the provincial governor to extract sand and gravel. That monthly reports of the quantity of materials extracted therefrom shall be submitted to the mines regional office concerned: Provided. A mineral agreement or a financial technical assistance agreement contractor shall. SEC.—A permit specifying the origin and quantity of non-processed mineral ores or minerals shall be required for their transport. 49. 53.LAND The permit shall have a term of five (5) years. SEC. That said right shall be co-terminous with the expiration of the agreement. Holders of existing mining leases shall likewise have the same rights as that of a contractor: Provided. have the right to extract and remove sand and gravel and other loose unconsolidated materials without need of a permit within the area covered by the mining agreement for the exclusive use in the mining operations: Provided. 52.—Any qualified person may be granted an exclusive sand and gravel permit by the provincial governor to quarry and utilize sand and gravel or other loose or unconsolidated materials from public lands for his own use.—Any qualified person may be granted a guano permit by the provincial governor to extract and utilize loose unconsolidated guano and other organic fertilizer materials in any portion of a municipality where he has established domicile. SEC. renewable for a like period but not to exceed a total term of twenty-five (25) years. further. Sale. however. Guano Permit. Chapter IX Transport. That said right shall be co-terminous with the expiry days of the lease.—Any owner of land may be granted a private gratuitous permit by the provincial governor. 50. provided that there will be no commercial disposition thereof.) for a period co-terminous with said construction. Exclusive Sand and Gravel Permit.

379 . and the development of science and mining technology. Eligibility of Foreign-Owned/Controlled Corporations. and b.—No person shall engage in the processing of minerals without first securing a minerals processing permit from the Secretary. Ore samples not exceeding two metric tons (2 m. more simple or more direct than does Nashall engage in the trading of ture. the Provincial Mining Regulatory Board (PMRB) concerned shall formulate their own policies to govern such transport of ores produced by small-scale miners. or processing plants shall continue to be governed by the provisions of Republic Act No. SEC. Chapter X Development of Mining Communities and Science and Mining Technology SEC. unless registered with the Department of Trade and Industry and accredited by the Department. the tools and equipment utilized.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT ported from the small-scale mining areas to the custom mills or processing plants.—Activities that may be credited as expenditures for development of mining communities. either locally nothing is superfluous. the promotion of the general welfare of its inhabitants. 56. Any activity or expenditure intended to enhance the development of the mining and neighboring communities of a mining operation other than those required or provided for under existing laws. Minerals Processing Permit.”—Leonardo da Vinci or internationally. SEC. or collective bargaining agreements.—A foreignowned/controlled corporation may be granted a mineral processing permit.) to be used exclusively for assay or pilot test purposes shall be exempted from such requirement. 54. 55. but not limited to. and the like. Minerals processing permit shall be for a period of five (5) years renewable for like periods but not to exceed a total term of twenty-five (25) years. Appropriate supervision and control mechanisms shall be prescribed in the implementing rules and regulations of this Act. 57. because in her inventions.t. SEC. 58.—No person beautiful. Credited Activities. Mineral Trad“Human subtlety will never devise an invention more ing Registration. SEC. nothing is lacking and mineral products.—A contractor shall assist in the development of its mining community. The absence of a permit shall be considered as prima facie evidence of illegal mining and shall be sufficient cause for the government to confiscate the ores or minerals being transported. and the vehicle containing the same. the processing thereof as well as the licensing of their custom mills. and science and mining technology are the following: a. institutional and manpower development. Expenditure for Community Development and Science and Mining Technology. In the case of mineral ores or minerals produced by the small-scale miners. 7076. with a copy of said registration submitted to the Bureau. Any activity or expenditure directed towards the development of geosciences and mining technology such as. and basic and applied researches.

Training and Development. national or local. 524. however. in his judgment and with the approval of the Director. the latter shall have a period of one (1) year therefrom within which to remove his improvements. milling. That in no case shall each employment exceed five (5) years or the payback period as represented in original project study.—A contractor shall give preference to the use of local goods. Present evidence of his qualification and work experience.—Prior to cessation of mining operations occasioned by abandonment or withdrawal of operations. SEC. further. 61. development or utilization of mineral resources: Provided. Employment of Filipinos.LAND SEC. for technical and specialized work which. That if reciprocal privileges are extended to Filipino nationals in the country of domicile. may be permitted to work by the Director for a period not exceeding one (1) year: Provided.—A contractor shall maintain an effective program of manpower training and development throughout the term of the mineral agreement and shall encourage and train Filipinos to participate in all aspects of the mining operations. otherwise. SEC. to ensure that said infrastructure and facilities are continuously maintained and utilized by the host and neighboring communities. In special cases. 118. quarrying or drilling operation shall: a. For highly-technical and specialized mining operations. including the management thereof. where the same are of equivalent quality. on public lands by the contractor. 4376. 135. shall not be hindered from hiring employees of his own selection. services and scientific and technical resources in the mining operations. as amended by R. employ qualified foreigners. 613. or b. and are available on equivalent terms as their imported counterparts. subject to the necessary government clearance. Donations/Turnover of Facilities. The contractor. subject to the provisions of Com86 monwealth Act No. 59. 5701 and P. all the social infrastructure and facilities shall be turned over or donated tax-free to the proper government authorities. the Director may grant waivers or exemptions. whichever is longer: Provided. Nos.A. No. 749. 1901. 62. vice-president for operations or in an equivalent managerial position in charge of mining. 86 380 . requires highly specialized training or long experience in exploration. Use of Indigenous Goods. 60. and Technologies. 144.—A contractor shall give preference to Filipino citizens in all types of mining employment within the country insofar as such citizens are qualified to perform the corresponding work with reasonable efficiency and without hazard to the safety of the operations. or c. _______________________ Philippine Immigration Act of 1940. 5171. the contractor may. That each foreigner employed as mine manager. SEC. however. as amended.D. Services. Shall pass the appropriate government licensure examination. 503. 287.

in mining operations at reasonable hours of the day or night and as much as possible in a manner that will not impede or obstruct work in progress of a contractor or permittee. SEC.—All mining and quarrying operations that employ more than fifty (50) workers shall have at least one (1) licensed mining engineer with at least five (5) years of experience in mining operations. In case of imminent danger to life or property. SEC. Power to Issue Orders. 63. health and environmental 87 rules and regulations shall be covered under Republic Act No. Mine Inspection. surface or underground. Mine Labor. Such environmental program shall be incorporated in the work program which the contractor or permittee shall submit as an accompanying document to the application for a mineral agreement or permit.—The mines regional director shall. causing or creating the danger of loss of life or serious physical injuries. 68. 64. The work program shall include not only plans relative to mining operations but also to rehabilitation.—All contractors and permittees shall strictly comply with all the mines safety rules and regulations as may be promulgated by the Secretary concerning the safe and sanitary upkeep of the mining operations and achieve waste-free and efficient mine development. Environmental Protection. Report of Accidents —In case of any incident or accident. which is not in accordance with safety and antipollution laws and regulations. 67. Mine Supervision. the mines regional director may summarily suspend the mining or quarrying operations until the danger is removed.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT Chapter XI Safety and Environment Protection SEC. regeneration. slope stabilization of mined-out and _______________________ 87 The Magna Carta for Public Health Workers (26 May 1992). SEC. or appropriate measures are taken by the contractor or permittee. SEC. SEC. forthwith or within such time as specified in his order. 381 . in consultation with the Environmental Management Bureau.—The regional director shall have exclusive jurisdiction over the safety inspection of all installations. 66. require the contractor to remedy any practice connected with mining or quarrying operations. Personnel of the Department involved in the implementation of mines safety.—Every contractor shall undertake an environmental protection and enhancement program covering the period of the mineral agreement or permit. revegetation and reforestation of mineralized areas. 7305. SEC. the person in charge of operations shall immediately report the same to the regional office where the operations are situated. Failure to report the same without justifiable reason shall be a cause for the imposition of administrative sanctions prescribed in the rules and regulations implementing this Act.—No person under sixteen (16) years of age shall be employed in any phase of mining operations and no person under eighteen (18) years of age shall be employed underground in a mine. Mines Safety and Environment Protection. 69. 65. and one (1) registered foreman.

what is profitable. Rehabilitation. nongovernmental and people’s organizations and other concerned sectors of the community: Provided. tailings covered and disturbed areas to the condition of environmental safety. and prior consultation with the local government units. and disemboweled for a useless piece of vernmental organizations shall be shiny metal called gold. This priceless landscape will be scraped off the face People’s organizations and nongoof the earth. 71. Oshima) to fulfill the above obligation shall mean immediate suspension or closure of the mining activities of the contractor/permittee concerned. watershed development and water conservation. Is this moral? allowed and encouraged to participate in ensuring that contractors/permittees shall observe all the requirements of environmental protection.LAND tailings covered areas. mined-out.— Contractors and permittees shall technically and biologically rehabilitate the excavated.—Except during the exploration period of a mineral agreement or financial or technical assistance agreement or an exploration permit. and shall be deposited as a trust fund in a government depository bank and used for physical and social rehabilitation of areas and communities affected by mining activities and for research on the social. based on the contractor’s approved work program. A mine rehabilitation fund shall be created. technical and preventive “The superior man seeks what is right. an environmental clearance certificate shall be required based on an environmental impact assessment and procedures under the Philippine Environment Impact Assessment System including Sections 26 and 27 of the Local Government Code of 1991 which require national government agencies to maintain ecological balance. aquaculture. That a completed ecological profile of the proposed mining area shall also constitute part of the environmental impact assessment. the inferior aspects of rehabilitation. 382 . as may be provided in the implementing rules and regulations of this Act. SEC. and socioeconomic development. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). SEC.” — Confucius (N. Failure one. 70.

Water Rights.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT Chapter XII Auxiliary Mining Rights SEC.—When mining areas are so situated that for purposes of more convenient mining operations it is necessary to build. flumes. That the government reserves the right to regulate water rights and the reasonable and equitable distribution of water supply so as to prevent the monopoly of the use thereof. occupants. runways. electric transmission. SEC. rules and regulations promulgated thereunder: Provided. 75. 72.—Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding. That if the land covered by the mining area is already covered by existing timber concessions. SEC. The contractor shall perform reforestation work within his mining area in accordance with forestry laws. the volume of timber needed and the manner of cutting and removal thereof shall be determined by the mines regional director. canals. Easement Rights. or mills. new river beds. tramways. airports. Entry into Private Lands and Concession Areas.—Subject to prior notification. rules and regulations promulgated thereunder: Provided. the timber concessionaire/permittee and the Forest Management Bureau of the Department: Provided. such infrastructure as roads. That in case of disagreement between the contractor and the timber concessionaire. a contractor may be granted a right to cut trees or timber within his mining area as may be necessary for his mining operations subject to forestry laws. waste dump sites. rules and regulations: Provided. upon payment of just compensation. warehouses. tailing ponds. Right to Possess Explosives. 76.—A contractor/exploration permittee shall have the right to possess and use explosives within his contract/permit area as may be necessary for his mining operations upon approval of an application with the appropriate government agency in accordance with existing laws. further. 74. the contractor. Timber Rights. That the government reserves the right to regulate and control the explosive accessories to ensure safe mining operations. 73.—A contractor shall have water rights for mining operations upon approval of application with the appropriate government agency in accordance with existing water laws. mills. telephone or telegraph lines. railroads. pipelines. occupied or leased by other persons. That any damage done to the property of the sur- 383 . sites for water wells. construct or install on the mining areas or lands owned. upon consultation with the contractor. recognized and acknowledged by local customs. SEC. shafts. dams and their normal flood and catchment areas. or concessionaires when conducting mining operations therein: Provided. That water rights already granted or vested through long use. staging or storage areas and port facilities. rules and regulations. SEC. holders of mining rights shall not be prevented from entry into private lands and concession areas by surface owners. cuts. shall be entitled to enter and occupy said mining areas or lands. further. laws. tunnels. and decisions of courts shall not thereby be impaired: Provided. the matter shall be submitted to the Secretary whose decision shall be final. ditches.

—The decision or order of the panel of arbitrators may be appealed by the party not satisfied thereto to the Mines Adjudication Board within fifteen (15) days from receipt thereof which must decide the case within thirty (30) days from submission thereof for decision. Mines Adjudication Board. b. SEC. and duly designated by the Secretary as recommended by the Mines and Geosciences Bureau Director. c. the prevailing prices in and around the area where the mining operations are to be conducted. occupants and claimholders/ concessionaires. Disputes pending before the Bureau and the Department at the date of the effectivity of this Act. or concessionaire as a consequence of such operations shall be properly compensated as may be provided for in the implementing rules and regulations: Provided. 77. The Board shall have the following powers and functions: 384 . Disputes involving rights to mining areas. Disputes involving surface owners. That to guarantee such compensation. 79. Appellate Jurisdiction. The Secretary shall be the chairman with the Director of the Mines and Geosciences Bureau and the Undersecretary for Operations of the Department as members thereof. Panel of Arbitrators.—There shall be a panel of arbitrators in the regional office of the Department composed of three (3) members. Chapter XIII Settlement of Conflicts SEC. Those designated as members of the panel shall serve as such in addition to their work in the Department without receiving any additional compensation. occupant. further. Disputes involving mineral agreements or permits. The members of the panel shall perform their duties and obligations in hearing and deciding cases until their designation is withdrawn or revoked by the Secretary. post a bond with the regional director based on the type of properties. Within thirty (30) working days. The presiding officer thereof shall be selected by the drawing of lots. SEC. said members shall come from the different bureaus of the Department in the region. with surety or sureties satisfactory to the regional director. As much as practicable. and d.—The Mines Adjudication Board shall be composed of three (3) members. 78. His tenure as presiding officer shall be on a yearly basis. two (2) of whom must be members of the Philippine Bar in good standing and one a licensed mining engineer or a professional in a related field. prior thereto. the panel shall have exclusive and original jurisdiction to hear and decide on the following: a. after the submission of the case by the parties for decision. the person authorized to conduct mining operation shall.LAND face owner.

In any proceeding before the Board. all in the interest of due process. give all such directions as it may deem necessary or expedient in the determination of the dispute before it. where it is trivial or where further proceedings by the Board are not necessary or desirable: 1. correct. amend. issue subpoenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses or the production of such books. The Board shall use every and all reasonable means to ascertain the facts in each case speedily and objectively and without regard to technicalities of law or procedure. To enjoin any or all acts involving or arising from any case pending before it which. 80. To conduct hearings on all matters within its jurisdiction. or waive any error. The findings of fact of the Board shall be conclusive and binding on the parties and its decision or order shall be final and executory. c. To administer oaths. In any proceeding before the Board. conduct its proceedings or any part thereof in public or in private. agreements. papers. b. statement of accounts. directly or indirectly. To hold any person in contempt. A petition for review by certiorari and question of law may be filed by the aggrieved party with the Supreme Court within thirty (30) days from receipt of the order or decision of the Board. To promulgate rules and regulations governing the hearing and disposition of cases before it. and 2. contracts. records. whether in substance or in form. defect or irregularity. summon the parties to a controversy. and such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out its functions. adjourn its hearing at any time and place.—The total government share in a mineral production sharing agreement shall be the excise tax 385 . as well as those pertaining to its internal functions. proceed to hear and determine the disputes in the absence of any party thereto who has been summoned or served with notice to appear. Chapter XIV Government Share SEC. refer technical matters or accounts to an expert and to accept his report as evidence after hearing of the parties upon due notice. and impose appropriate penalties therefore.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT a. the parties may be represented by legal counsel. and dismiss the mining dispute as part thereof. the rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law or equity shall not be controlling and it is the spirit and intention of this Act that shall govern. if not restrained forthwith. and to testify in any investigation or hearing conducted in pursuance of this Act. Government Share in Mineral Production Sharing Agreement. direct parties to be joined in or excluded from the proceedings. and other documents as may be material to a just determination of the matter under investigation. may cause grave or irreparable damage to any of the parties to the case or seriously affect social and economic stability.

Allocation of Government Share. capital investment of the project. exploration. as amended. in case of a foreign national. among other things. excise tax. 82.—The share of the government in co-production and joint venture agreements shall be negotiated by the Government and the contractor taking into consideration the: a. withholding tax due from the contractor’s foreign stockholders arising from dividend or interest payments to the said foreign stockholders. special allowance. special allowance. SEC. the sharing and allocation shall be in accordance with Sections 291 and 292 of the said Code.—The government share as referred to in the preceding sections shall be shared and allocated in accordance with Sections 290 and 292 of Republic Act No. and shall consist [of].—After the lapse of the income tax holiday as provided for in the Omnibus Investments Code. 88 386 . The government share in financial or technical assistance agreement shall consist of. duties and fees as provided for under existing laws. In case the development and utilization of mineral resources is undertaken by a government-owned or controlled corporation. the contractor shall be liable to pay income tax as provided in the National Internal Revenue Code. SEC.LAND on mineral products as provided in Republic Act No. duties and fees as provided for under existing laws. and d. 7729. 7160 otherwise known as the Local Government Code of 1991. Income Taxes. b. The collection of government share in financial or technical assistance agreement shall commence after the financial or technical assistance agreement contractor has fully recovered its pre-operating expenses. amending Section 151(a) of the National Internal Revenue Code. other factors that will provide for a fair and equitable sharing between the government and the contractor. and development expenditures. among other things. and all such other taxes. Government Share in Other Mineral Agreements. the contractor’s corporate income tax. contribution of the project to the economy. _______________________ 88 An Act reducing the Excise Tax Rates on Metallic and Nonmetallic Minerals and Quarry Resources (2 June 1994). the contractor’s income tax. The government shall also be entitled to compensation for its other contributions which shall be agreed upon by the parties. c. excise tax. withholding tax due from the contractor’s foreign stockholders arising from dividend or interest payments to the said foreign stockholder in case of a foreign national and all such other taxes. as amended. Chapter XV Taxes and Fees SEC. 83. risks involved. 81. inclusive.

For mineral agreements and financial or technical assistance agreements. an annual occupation fee in accordance with the following schedule: a. Lands. It shall be paid to the treasurer of the municipality or city where the onshore mining areas are located. it shall be increased by twenty-five percent (25%).— Fifty pesos (P50. or to the Director in case of offshore mining areas. For exploration permit—Five pesos (P5. and c. Occupation Fees.00) per hectare or fraction thereof per annum.—A semi-annual fee to be known as mine wastes and tailings fee is hereby imposed on all operating mining companies in accordance with the implementing rules and regulations. location. however.—One hundred pesos (P100. upon the recommendation of the Director. 387 . For this purpose.—The contractor shall be liable to pay the excise tax on mineral products as provided for under Section 151 of the National Internal Revenue Code: Provided. 87. and c. marine life and aquatic resources. Mine Wastes and Tailings Fees.—There shall be collected from any holder of a mineral agreement. The Secretary is authorized to increase mine wastes and tailings fees. That with respect to a mineral production sharing agreement. 85. the appropriate officer shall submit to the treasurer of the municipality or city where the onshore mining area is located. If the fee is not paid on the date specified. b. and date registered. The mine wastes and tailings fee shall accrue to a reserve fund to be used exclusively for payment for damages to: a. Lives and personal safety. a complete list of all onshore mining rights registered with his office. when public interest so requires. For mineral reservation.—The fees shall be paid on the date the mining agreement is registered with the appropriate office and on the same date every year thereafter.00) per hectare or fraction thereof per annum. financial or technical assistance agreement or exploration permit on public or private lands. This is in addition to the suspension or closure of the activities of the contractor at any time and the penal sanctions imposed upon the same. The Secretary is authorized to increase the occupation fees provided herein when the public interest so requires. Infrastructure and the revegetation and rehabilitation of silted farm lands and other areas devoted to agriculture and fishing caused by mining pollution. the excise tax on mineral products shall be the government share under said agreement. area in hectares. 84. Excise Tax on Mineral Products. upon recommendation of the Bureau Director. b. SEC.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT SEC. SEC. SEC. indicating therein the names of the holders. 86. agricultural crops and forest products. Manner of Payment of Fees. cultural resources.00) per hectare or fraction thereof per annum.

Income Tax-Carry Forward of Losses. constructed or installed by contractors shall not be considered as improvements on the land or building where they are placed.—Fixed assets may be depreciated as follows: a. and the depreciation thereon allowed as deduction from taxable income: Provided. That mining activities shall always be included in the investment priorities plan. 90. 91. That the contractor notifies the Bureau of 388 .—Pollution control devices acquired. That payment of mine wastes and tailings fees is not exempted. 88. That holders of exploration permits may register with the Board of Investments and be entitled to the fiscal incentives granted under the said Code for the duration of the permits or extensions thereof: Provided. and shall not be subject to real property and other taxes or assessments: Provided. otherwise known as the Omnibus Investments Code of 1987: Provided. however. In a chartered city. To the extent of not more than twice as fast as the normal rate of depreciation or depreciated at normal rate of depreciation if the expected life is ten (10) years or less. The entire amount of the loss shall be carried over to the first of the five (5) taxable years following the loss.LAND SEC. 89.—The Secretary is authorized to charge reasonable filing fees and other charges as he may prescribe in accordance with the implementing rules and regulations.—A net operating loss without the benefit of incentives incurred in any of the first ten (10) years of operations may be carried over as a deduction from taxable income for the next five (5) years immediately following the year of such loss.—Thirty percent (30%) of all occupational fees collected from holders of mining rights in onshore mining areas shall accrue to the province and seventy percent (70%) to the municipality in which the onshore mining areas are located. or b. SEC. SEC. and financial or technical assistance agreements shall be entitled to the applicable fiscal and non-fiscal incentives as provided for under Executive Order No. Allocation of Occupation Fees. 93. the full amount shall accrue to the city concerned. Incentives. Chapter XVI Incentives SEC. Income Tax-Accelerated Depreciation. Incentives for Pollution Control Devices. Filing Fees and Other Charges. Depreciated over any number of years between five (5) years and the expected life if the latter is more than ten (10) years. and any portion of such loss which exceeds the taxable income of such first year shall be deducted in like manner from the taxable income of the next remaining four (4) years. further.—The contractors in mineral agreements. SEC. 92. SEC. 226.

PHILIPPINE MINING ACT Internal Revenue at the beginning of the depreciation period which depreciation rate allowed by this section will be used. Requisition of investment. deduct exploration and development expenditures accumulated at cost as of the date of the prospecting or exploration and development expenditures paid or incurred during the taxable year: Provided. milling and marketing expenses. The actual exploration and development expenditures minus the twenty-five percent (25%) net income from mining shall be carried forward to the succeeding years until fully deducted. In computing for taxable income. d.—The right to repatriate the entire proceeds of the liquidation of the foreign investment in the currency in which the investment was originally made and at the exchange rate prevailing at the time of repatriation. depreciation of properties directly used in the mining operations. at his option. e. the contractor may. Repatriation of investments.—The contractor shall be entitled to the basic rights and guarantees provided in the Constitution and such other rights recognized by the government as enumerated hereunder: a. This paragraph shall not apply to expenditures for the acquisition or improvement of property of a character which is subject to the allowances for depreciation. Investment Guarantees.—The right to be free from requisition of the property represented by the investment or of the property of the enterprises except in case of war or national emergency and only for the duration thereof. Freedom from expropriation. Remittance of earnings. or of the property of the enterprise except for public use or in the interest of national welfare or defense and upon payment of just compensation. Foreign loans and contracts. Net income from mining operation is defined as gross income from operations less allowable deductions which are necessary or related to mining operations. c.—The right to remit at the exchange rate prevailing at the time of remittance such sums as may be necessary to meet the payments of interest and principal on foreign loans and foreign obligations arising from financial or technical assistance contracts. b. That the total amount deductible for exploration and development expenditures shall not exceed twenty-five percent (25%) of the net income from mining operations. Allowable deductions shall include mining. SEC.—The right to remit earnings from the investment in the currency in which the foreign investment was originally made and at the exchange rate prevailing at the time of remittance. In such cases. 94. foreign investors or enterprises shall have the right to remit sums received as compensation for the expropriated property in the currency in which the investment was originally made and at the exchange rate prevailing at the time of remittance. unless otherwise provided in this Act. Just compensation shall be determined and paid either at the time or immediately after cessation of the state of 389 .—The right to be free from expropriation by the government of the property represented by investments or loans.

—Failure to abide by the terms and conditions of tax incentives and credits shall cause the suspension or cancellation of said incentives and credits. Non-payment of Taxes and Fees. and during the term of the project to which it relates. Chapter XVIII Organizational and Institutional Arrangements SEC. mining agreement and financial or technical assistance agreement shall be considered as conditions and essential parts thereof and any falsehood in said statements or omission of facts therein which may alter.LAND war or national emergency.— Violation of the terms and conditions of the permits or agreements shall be a sufficient ground for cancellation of the same. Confidentiality. shall be sufficient ground for the suspension of any permit or agreement provided under this Act. 96.—Failure of the permittee or contractor to comply with any of the requirements provided in this Act or in its implementing rules and regulations. mining agreement and financial or technical assistance agreement.—The Mines and Geosciences Bureau is hereby transformed into a line bureau consistent with Section 9 of this Act: Provided. 97. financial or technical assistance agreement and other agreements and the reopening of the area subject thereof to new applicants. Suspension or Cancellation of Tax Incentives and Credits. SEC. 98. Chapter XVII Ground for Cancellation. Payments received as compensation for the requisitioned property may be remitted in the currency in which the investments were originally made and at the exchange rate prevailing at the time of remittance. Violation of the Terms and Conditions of Permit or Agreements. 99. Falsehood or Omission of Facts in the Statement. Revocation. without a valid reason. From Staff Bureau to Line Bureau. district and other pertinent offices—the number and specific functions of which shall be provided in the implementing rules and regulations of this Act. change or affect substantially the facts set forth in said statements may cause the revocation and termination of the exploration permit. SEC. SEC. and Termination SEC. mineral agreement.—Failure to pay taxes and fees due the government for two (2) consecutive years shall cause the cancellation of the exploration permit. SEC. Late or Non-filing of Requirements.—All statements made in the exploration permit.—Any confidential information supplied by the contractor pursuant to this Act and its implementing rules and regulations shall be treated as such by the Department and the government. 95. That under the Mines and Geosciences Bureau shall be the necessary mines regional. f. 390 . 100.

upon conviction. mine or workings. or corporations. Illegal Exploration. appliance.—Any person extracting minerals and disposing the same without a mining agreement. or steals minerals or ores or the products thereof from mines or mills or processing plants shall. Destruction of Mining Structures. prevents or obstructs the holder of any permit. SEC. shall be guilty of arson and shall be punished. SEC.00) to Twenty Thousand Pesos (P20. in addition. apparatus. 105. by the appropriate court in accordance with the provisions of the Revised Penal Code and shall. extracted. the president and each of the directors thereof shall be responsible for the acts committed by such association.—Any person who willfully damages a mine. upon conviction. SEC. by the appropriate court.000. pay compensation for the damages caused thereby. or evidence to the government or publishes or causes to be published any prospectus or other information containing any false statement relating to mines. upon conviction by the 391 . declaration.—Any person who willfully destroys or damages structures in or on the mining area or on the mill sites shall. pay compensation for the damages which may have been caused thereby.00). Illegal Obstruction to Permittees or Contractors.—Any person who knowingly presents any false application. by imprisonment not exceeding a period of five (5) years and shall. tackle. 103. 102. financial or technical assistance agreements and permits shall. corporation. chain. SEC. pay compensation for the damages caused thereby.00). be imprisoned for a period not to exceed five (5) years and shall.—Any person who.000.00). without justifiable cause. be penalized by a fine not exceeding ten thousand pesos (P10. False Statements. 106. agreement or lease from undertaking his mining operations shall be punished. rope.000.000. 107. license. 104. and disposed of. permit. SEC. unlawfully causes water to run into a mine. SEC. or any other things used in a mine.—Any person who wilfully sets fire to any mineral stockpile. he shall be liable to pay damages and compensation for the minerals removed.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT Chapter XIX Penal Provisions SEC. Mines Arson. In the case of associations. in addition. In addition.—Any person undertaking exploration work without the necessary exploration permit shall. or partnership. fittings or a mine. upon conviction. be imprisoned from six (6) months to six (6) years or pay a fine from Ten Thousand Pesos (P10. mining operations or mineral agreements. Willful Damage to a Mine. or renders useless. partnerships. shall be punished. damages or destroys any machine. or both. at the discretion of the appropriate court. Theft of Minerals. 101. upon conviction. upon conviction. be penalized by a fine not exceeding fifty thousand pesos (P50. upon conviction. lease. in addition. or obstructs any shaft or passage to a mine.

—Any person who illegally prevents or obstructs the Secretary. at the discretion of the court. finally. Violation of the Terms and Conditions of the Environmental Compliance Certificate. Other Violations. Non-Impairment of Existing Mining/Quarrying Rights. SEC. That no renewal of mining lease contracts shall be made after the expiration of its term: Provided. or both. at the date of effectivity of this Act. 279. 109. 25 July 1987).000.000. or both. at the discretion of the court.—All valid and existing mining lease contracts. upon conviction. and prescribing the guidelines for such agreements and those agreements involving technical and financial assistance by foreign-owned corporations for large-scale operation. further.00). in writing.00) to Two Hundred Thousand Pesos (P200. 108. shall not be impaired.00) or imprisonment not exceeding one (1) year. development and utilization of mineral resources. shall remain valid. the Director or any of their representatives in the performance of their duties under the provisions of this Act and of the regulations promulgated hereunder shall be punished. mineral 89 production-sharing agreements granted under Executive Order No.000.000. SEC. 110.—Any other violation of this Act and its implementing rules and regulations shall constitute an offense punishable with a fine not exceeding Five Thousand Pesos (P5. SEC. leases pending renewal.LAND appropriate court. 111.00) or by imprisonment not exceeding one (1) year. production_______________________ Authorizing the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources to negotiate and conclude joint venture. (E. by a fine not exceeding Five Thousand Pesos (P5. 89 392 . and shall be recognized by the government: Provided. not to avail of said provisions: Provided.000. at the discretion of the court. by a fine not exceeding Five Thousand Pesos (P5. permits/licenses. by the appropriate court.—Any person who wilfully violates or grossly neglects to abide by the terms and conditions of the environmental compliance certificate issued to said person and which causes environmental damage through pollution shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment of six (6) months to six (6) years or a fine of Fifty Thousand Pesos (P50. 279. SEC. development and utilization of minerals.O.—The Secretary is authorized to charge fines for late or nonsubmission of reports in accordance with the implementing rules and regulations of this Act.00). Illegal Obstruction to Government Officials. 112. or both. or production sharing agreements for the exploration. co-production. That the provisions of Chapter XIV on government share in mineral production-sharing agreement and of Chapter XVI on incentives of this Act shall immediately govern and apply to a mining lessee or contractor unless the mining lessee or contractor indicates his intention to the Secretary. Chapter XX Transitory and Miscellaneous Provisions SEC. That such leases. Fines.

and utilization of mineral resources. lease/quarry applications shall be given preferential rights to enter into any mode of mineral agreement with the government within two (2) years from the promulgation of the rules and regulations implementing this Act. Approved: March 3.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT sharing agreements. former President Corazon Aquino’s Executive Order Nos. The Miners Association of the Philippines (MAP). 1995.—All laws. Article XII of the 1987 Constitution. 57 declares “all existing mining leases or agreements which were granted after the effectivity of the 1987 Constitution…shall be converted into production-sharing agreements within one (1) year from the effectivity of these guidelines. rules. 113. 57 shall cause the abandonment of mining. 211 prescribes the interim procedures in the processing and approval of applications for the exploration. 279 authorizes the DENR Secretary to negotiate and conclude joint-venture. and regulations or parts thereof which are inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Act are hereby repealed or amended accordingly. Separability Clause. an organization composed of mining prospectors and claim owners or claimholders. Executive Order No.—This Act shall take effect thirty (30) days following its complete publication in two (2) newspapers of general circulation in the Philippines. executive orders. SEC. Repealing and Amending Clause. SEC. presidential decrees. financial or technical assistance agreements shall comply with the applicable provisions of this Act and its implementing rules and regulations.” Related thereto. co-production. Executive Order No. 114. Mining Agreements May be Changed Facts: In the exercise of her interim legislative powers. Effectivity Clause. development. 393 . 82 provides that a failure to submit Letter of Intent (LOI) and Mineral Production-Sharing Agreement (MPSA) within 2 years from the effectivity of Department Administrative Order No. and sand and gravel claims.—If any of the provision of this Act is held or declared to be unconstitutional or invalid by a competent court. Department Administrative Order No. development and utilization of minerals pursuant to Section 2.—Holders of valid and existing mining claims. Department Administrative Orders No. pursuant to those two executive orders. or production-sharing agreements for the exploration. Recognition of Valid and Existing Mining Claims and Lease/Quarry Application. 115. SEC. the other provisions hereof shall continue to be in force as if the provision so annulled or voided had never been incorporated in this Act. assails the constitutionality of two department administrative orders (DAOs) issued by then Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources Fulgencio Factoran Jr. SEC. 211 and 279. quarry. 116.

being co-extensive with the necessities of the case and the demands of public interest. Moreover. 463 and other existing mining laws are deemed repealed.” “Accordingly. pursuant to Executive Order No. 463. as amended. such as those granted pursuant to Executive Order No. No. Moreover. Police power. R. An Extractive Industry • Mining is essentially an extractive industry resulting in the depletion of nonrenewable resources. At the very least.” Miners Association of the Philippines v. G. Executive Order No. revenues derived from this industry must not be treated as revenue but as a cost to the country’s natural capital. 279. “Petitioner’s insistence on the application of Presidential Decree No. the revenue must be discounted by the social and environmental cost of mining to arrive at a more realistic picture of the benefit derived from the mining industry. development. By virtue of the new constitutional mandate and its implementing law. 463 pertains to the old system of exploration. 98332. the State. it claims that Department Administrative Order No. concession. or lease’ of mineral resources under Presidential Decree No. and utilization of mineral resources is erroneous. in the exercise of its police power in this regard. Thus. Article XII of the 1987 Constitution. January 16. are subject to alterations through a reasonable exercise of the police power of the State. as the governing law for the exploration. extends to all the vital public needs. the provisions for the ‘license. as amended. 1995 Mining. 394 . Issue: Are the two department administrative orders valid? Held: Yes.LAND Aside from being unconstitutional. 57 violates the non-impairment of contract clause in the Constitution for unduly pre-terminating existing mining leases and other mining agreements and automatically converting them into production -sharing agreements within one (1) year from its effectivity. 463. the Court said that notwithstanding the absence of any reservation clause or any law amending a private contract. may not be precluded by the constitutional restriction on non-impairment of contract from altering. “mining leases or agreements granted by the State. Factoran 240 SCRA 100. concession or lease’ which has already been disallowed by Section 2. MAP alleges that the department administrative orders are issued in excess of jurisdiction and are inconsistent with the executive orders. modifying and amending the mining leases or agreements granted under Presidential Decree No. 211 referred to in this petition. Presidential Decree No. Basic and simple accounting principles demands no less. 211. development and utilization of natural resources through ‘license.

though permitted under the 1973 Constitution. On January 27. nearly unfettered control over the disposition and sale of the products discovered/extracted. Thus. to extract these mineral resources. The Decision struck down the subject FTAA for being similar to service contracts. executed by the government with Western Mining Corporation (Philippines). [DAO] 96-40). (Editor’s Note: Below is the Court’s summary of a very extensive decision which reversed its original decision by 180 degrees. to the prejudice of the Filipino nation. (WMCP). including operation of the field in the event petroleum was discovered. mainly on the finding that FTAAs are service contracts prohibited by the 1987 Constitution. were subsequently denounced for being antithetical to the principle of sovereignty over our natural resources. control of production. According to the Decision. Subsequently. the Court en banc promulgated its Decision granting the Petition and declaring the unconstitutionality of certain provisions of RA 7942. inter alia. the 1987 Constitution (Section 2 of Article XII) effectively banned such service contracts. because they allowed foreign control over the exploitation of our natural resources.PHILIPPINE MINING ACT • If extraction must be done. 2004. Also. effective ownership of the natural resource at the point of extraction. [RA] 7942 (The Philippine Mining Act of 1995). The Decision quoted several legal scholars and authors who had criticized service contracts for. its naturally polluting tendency must be controlled very strictly. (2) its Implementing Rules and Regulations (DENR Administrative Order No. Inc. as well as of the entire FTAA executed between the government and WMCP. expansion and development. and beneficial ownership of our economic resources. and (3) the FTAA dated March 30. respondents filed separate Motions for Reconsideration. 1995. even encouraged. which. It is even worse if foreigners are allowed. DAO 96-40. it must be with utmost and deliberate care to ensure its long-term availability. • THE FINANCIAL AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AGREEMENT (IN MINING) IS CONSTITUTIONAL Facts: The Petition for Prohibition and Mandamus before the Court challenges the constitutionality of (1) Republic Act No.) 395 . the policy of incentives to extract mineral resources must be removed and the policy to encourage indiscriminate and hastened extraction of the natural capital reversed. vesting in the foreign contractor exclusive management and control of the enterprise.

The drafters avoided the use of restrictive and stringent phraseology. but with safety measures to prevent abuses. Furthermore. That change requires a much more definite and irrefutable basis than mere omission of the words “service contract” from the new Constitution. Also.LAND The Meaning of “Agreements Involving Either Technical or Financial Assistance” Applying familiar principles of constitutional construction to the phrase agreements involving either technical or financial assistance. A constitutional provision specifically allowing foreign-owned corporations to render financial or technical assistance in respect of mining or any other commercial activity was clearly unnecessary. development and utilization of minerals. there would be no point in requiring that they be “based on real contributions to the economic growth and general welfare of the country. foreign investment in and management of an enterprise for large-scale exploration. It is obvious from their discussions that they did not intend to ban or eradicate service contracts. the provision was meant to refer to more than mere financial or technical assistance. Resort to the deliberations of the Constitutional Commission is therefore unavoidable. the absence of any transitory provisions to govern the termination and closing-out of the then existing service contracts strongly militates against the theory that the mere omission of “service contracts” signaled their prohibition by the new Constitution. rather. if paragraph 4 permits only agreements for financial or technical assistance. In brief. Instead. a verba legis scrutiny of Section 2 of Article XII of the Constitution discloses not even a hint of a desire to prohibit foreign involvement in the management or operation of mining activities. they were going to permit service contracts with foreign corporations as contractors. and a careful scrutiny thereof conclusively shows that the ConCom members discussed agreements involving either technical or financial assistance in the same sense as service contracts and used the terms interchangeably. or to eradicate service contracts. The drafters in fact knew that the agreements with foreign corporations were going to entail not mere technical or financial assistance but. a literal and restrictive interpretation of this paragraph leads to logical inconsistencies. The framers spoke about service contracts as the concept was understood in the 1973 Constitution. as an exception to the general norm 396 . the framers’ choice of words does not indicate the intent to exclude other modes of assistance.” And considering that there were various long-term service contracts still in force and effect at the time the new Charter was being drafted. but rather implies that there are other things being included or possibly being made part of the agree