Bhopal disaster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bhopal disaster
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coordinates: 23°16′51″N 77°24′38″E

The Bhopal disaster was the world's worst industrial catastrophe. It occurred on the night of December 2–3, 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plant resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.[1] Other government agencies estimate 15,000 deaths.[2] Others estimate that 3,000 died within weeks and that another 8,000 have since died from gas-related diseases.[3][4] A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partial and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries.[5] UCIL was the Indian subsidiary of Union Carbide Corporation (UCC). Indian Government controlled banks and the Indian public held 49.1 percent ownership share. In 1994, the Supreme Court of India allowed UCC to sell its 50.9 percent share. The Bhopal plant was sold to McLeod Russel (India) Ltd. UCC was purchased by Dow Chemical Company in 2001. Civil and criminal cases are pending in the United States District Court, Manhattan and the District Court of Bhopal, India, involving UCC, UCIL employees, and Warren Anderson, Bhopal memorial for those killed and disabled by UCC CEO at the time of the disaster.[6][7] In June 2010, seven ex-employees, including the 1984 toxic gas release the former UCIL chairman, were convicted in Bhopal of causing death by negligence and sentenced to two years imprisonment and a fine of about $2,000 each, the maximum punishment allowed by law. An eighth former employee was also convicted but died before judgment was passed.[8] On 28th Feb 2011 the Supreme Court of India issued notice to the Union Carbide Corporation, Dow Chemicals and others on the Centre’s extra-ordinary petition seeking an additional compensation of Rs7,844 crore for the victims of 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy. Through its curative petition, the Central Government has requested Supreme Court to take a re-look at the entire evidence and enhance the compensation amount. The bench also decided to hear CBI's curative petition asking the court to restore the stringent charges of culpable homicide not amounting to murder against the accused in the criminal case.[9]

1 Summary of background and causes 1.1 Public information 1.2 Plant production process 2 Contributing factors 2.1 Work conditions 2.2 Equipment and safety regulations 3 Previous warnings and incidents 4 The leakage 4.1 Timeline, summary 5 Health effects 5.1 Short term health effects 5.2 Hydrogen cyanide debate 5.3 Long term health effects 6 Aftermath of the leakage 6.1 Compensation from Union Carbide 6.2 Economic rehabilitation 6.3 Occupational rehabilitation 6.4 Habitation rehabilitation 6.5 Health care 6.6 Environmental rehabilitation 7 Union Carbide's defense 7.1 Investigation into possible sabotage 7.2 Safety and equipment issues 7.3 Response 8 Long-term fallout 8.1 Legal action against Union Carbide 8.1.1 Legal proceedings leading to the settlement 8.1.2 Charges against Warren Anderson and others

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The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) were forbidden to publish their data on health effects until after 1994. UCIL's investigation team found no evidence of the necessary connection.2 Journal articles and academic papers 9 Changes in corporate identity 9.6 Mixed 12. water entered a tank containing 42 tons of MIC. the investigation was totally controlled by the government denying UCC investigators access to the tank or interviews with the operators. although they differ in details. it was possible for the water to leak into the tank. this water entry route could not be reproduced. Early the next morning.wikipedia.1 Sale of Union Carbide India Limited 9.[3][4][19] Public information Much speculation arose in the aftermath.2 Films 13. A MIC production plant was added in 1979. but instead alleges water was introduced directly into the tank as an act of sabotage by a disgruntled worker via a connection to a missing pressure gauge on the top of the tank.[4] Plant production process 2 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM .[14] UCC also maintains that this route was not possible.Wikipedia. The resulting exothermic reaction increased the temperature inside the tank to over 200 °C (392 °F) and raised the pressure. Theories differ as to how the water entered the tank.1 Books and reports 12. The tank vented releasing toxic gases into the atmosphere. The initial investigation was conducted entirely by CSIR and the Central Bureau of Investigation.Bhopal disaster . The closing of the plant to outsiders (including UCC) by the Indian government and the failure to make data public contributed to the confusion. however.3 Governmental institutions 12.2 Acquisition of Union Carbide by Dow Chemical Company 10 Ongoing contamination 10.3 Musical tributes 13. a UCIL manager asked the instrument engineer to replace the gauge.4 Union Carbide Corporation 12. non-existent catastrophe plans.1 News 13.[15][16] The 1985 reports give a picture of what led to the disaster and how it developed. workers were cleaning out a clogged pipe with water about 400 feet from the tank. and shortcomings in health care and socio-economic rehabilitation.4 Photos Summary of background and causes The UCIL factory was built in 1969 to produce the pesticide Sevin (UCC's brand name for carbaryl) using methyl isocyanate (MIC) as an intermediate.1 2010 update 12 References and additional resources 12. The operators assumed that owing to bad maintenance and leaking valves.1 Criticisms of clean-up operations 11 Settlement fund hoax 11.7 Presentations 13 External and Wikipedia links 13.[10][11][12] During the night of December 2–3.5 Dow Chemical 12.[16][17][18] Factors leading to the magnitude of the gas leak include: Storing MIC in large tanks and filling beyond recommended levels Poor maintenance after the plant ceased MIC production at the end of 1984 Failure of several safety systems (due to poor maintenance) Safety systems being switched off to save money—including the MIC tank refrigeration system which could have mitigated the disaster severity The problem was made worse by the mushrooming of slums in the vicinity of the plant.[13] However. the free encyclopedia http://en. At the time. The gases were blown by northwesterly winds over Bhopal. 1984.

[25] The maximum pressure the scrubber could handle. which might have brought the concentration down to a safe level. used in the Bhopal plant reacted methylamine with phosgene to form MIC (methyl isocyanate). or "route".[3][4][13][26] To reduce energy costs. was only a quarter of the pressure during the leak. rather than the previous and required one-hour readings.[13][23] By 1984. the demand for pesticides had fallen. not the 4. 70% of the plant's employees were fined before the disaster for refusing to deviate from the proper safety regulations under pressure from management.[4] After the Bhopal plant was UCC produced carbaryl using MIC as an intermediate. the refrigeration system was idle. carbaryl. though at a greater manufacturing cost. have pointed to "serious communication problems and management gaps between Union Carbide and its Indian operation".[13][22] In addition. The build-up in temperature and pressure is believed to have affected the magnitude of the gas release. Other tanks were used rather than repairing the gauge. seriously affecting employee morale and driving some of the most skilled . Promotions were halted. and the dependence on manual operations..[22] Workers were forced to use English manuals.[3][4][13][25] Slip-blind plates that would have prevented water from pipes being cleaned from leaking into the MIC tanks through faulty valves were not installed. other manufacturers including Bayer produced carbaryl without MIC. leading to buildup of stores of unused MIC.Bhopal disaster .. The flare tower could only hold a quarter of the gas that leaked in 1984... even though only a few had a grasp of the language. A pipe leaked? Don't replace it.Wikipedia. only six of the original twelve operators were still working with MIC and the number of supervisory personnel was also cut in half.[24] The personnel management policy led to an exodus of skilled personnel to better and safer jobs. reduction of safety management. employees said they were told .[3][4] [13][25] UCC investigation studies have disputed this hypothesis. undersized safety devices. No action plans had been established to cope with incidents of this magnitude.[20] However. [3][4][13][25] The steam boiler.[4] Methylamine (1) reacts with phosgene (2) producing methyl isocyanate (3) which reacts with 1-naphthol (4) to yield carbaryl (5) Plant management deficiencies were also identified – lack of skilled operators.[4][21] The chemical process. Kurzman argues that "cuts. Equipment and safety regulations It emerged in 1998. during civil action suits in India. such as those writing in the Trade Environmental Database (TED) Case Studies as part of the Mandala Project from American University. Bayer also uses the UCC process at the chemical plant once owned by UCC at Institute. which was then reacted with 1-naphthol to form the final product.[3][4][13][25] The flare tower and the vent gas scrubber had been out of service for five months before the disaster.meant less stringent quality control and thus looser safety rules.5 degrees advised by the manual.[4][20] See also: Carbaryl#Production Work conditions Attempts to reduce expenses affected the factory's employees and their conditions.. elsewhere". insufficient maintenance. was out of action for unknown reasons. West Virginia. This included not informing local authorities of the quantities or dangers of chemicals used and manufactured at Bhopal. compared to a four-stage system used in the US. One employee was fired after going on a 15-day hunger strike.[3][4][13][25] According to the operators the MIC tank pressure gauge had been malfunctioning for roughly a week. but production continued. that the plant was not prepared for problems. some observers. USA. large-scale MIC storage.wikipedia. The gas scrubber therefore did not treat escaping gases with sodium hydroxide Union Carbide MIC plant (caustic soda). in which the same raw materials are combined in a different manufacturing order. which is then reacted with methyl amine. Their installation had been omitted from the cleaning checklist.[3][4][13][20] The MIC tank alarms had not worked for four years. intended to clean the pipes.[13][22] Workers made complaints about the cuts through their union but were ignored. plant location close to a densely populated area.[3][4][13] The water pressure was too weak to spray the escaping gases from the stack. They could not spray high enough to reduce the concentration of escaping gas. characterized by "the parent companies [sic] hands-off approach to its overseas operation" and "cross-cultural barriers".. with phosgene first reacted with the naphthol to form a chloroformate ester.[3][4][13][25] There was only one manual back-up system. even though they corrode when exposed to acid. the free encyclopedia http://en. In the early 1980s.[20] 3 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . The MIC was kept at 20 degrees Celsius. This route differed from MIC-free routes used elsewhere. No maintenance supervisor was placed on the night shift and instrument readings were taken every two hours. Contributing factors Other factors identified by the inquiry included: use of a more dangerous pesticide manufacturing method. provided it had been operating. and inadequate emergency action plans. MIC workers needed more training? They could do with less. Carbon steel valves were used at the factory.

chloroform and hydrochloric acid. he died 72 hours later. 22:00 Water enters tank 610. Residents of the area evacuate. was "Indianized" by UCIL engineers to maximize the use of indigenous materials and products. The reaction generated a major increase in the temperature inside the tank to over 200 °C (400 °F). chlorine.[4][21] In August 1982. Tank 610 contained 42 tons of MIC. [27] Previous warnings and incidents A series of prior warnings and MIC-related accidents had occurred: In 1976.[4][21] During 1983 and 1984. In February 1982.Bhopal disaster . In attempting to stop the leak. thus inhaling a large amount of phosgene gas. most of the safety systems were not functioning. and Taylor of India Ltd. frothing at the mouth. following government guidelines. Many valves and lines were in poor condition. Ltd. Because of this. provided the instrumentation. resulting in burns over 30 percent of his body. cough. were the main consultants. and carbon tetrachloride. Mumbai based Humphreys and Glasgow Consultants PVT. summary At the plant[4] 21:00 Water cleaning of pipes starts. Symptoms include visual impairment and blindness. Health effects Short term health effects 4 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . Larsen and Toubro fabricated the MIC storage tanks. reaction starts. and vomiting. 2:00 The first people reached Hamidia Hospital.[4][21] In 1981. when 24 workers were exposed and had to be admitted to hospital. the two trade unions reacted because of pollution within the plant. None of the workers had been ordered to wear protective masks. there was a phosgene leak. high temperatures and other factors. phosgene.[4] During the nights of 2–3 December. the workers consider it possible for water to have accidentally entered the MIC tank. 00:50 The siren is heard within the plant area. This forced the emergency venting of pressure from the MIC holding tank. 22:30 Gases are emitted from the vent gas scrubber tower. a worker was splashed with phosgene. 7:00 A police loudspeaker broadcasts: "Everything is normal".[4][13] UCC maintains that a "disgruntled worker" deliberately connected a hose to a pressure gauge. methylcarbaryl chloride. burning eyes and vomiting. 00:30 The large siren sounds and is turned off. much more than safety rules allowed. [4][20] The leakage In November 1984. an MIC leak affected 18 workers.[4] It is known that workers cleaned pipelines with water. They were not told by the supervisor to add a slip-blind water isolation plate. there was a leak of MIC. The reaction was sped up by the presence of iron from corroding non-stainless steel pipelines. 1:00 Police are alerted. which was accelerated by contaminants.[4][15] Timeline. releasing a large volume of toxic gases. and the bad maintenance. the MIC supervisor suffered intensive chemical burns and two other workers were severely exposed to the gases. The reports never reached UCC's senior management.wikipedia. In panic he ripped off his mask. 2:10 The alarm is heard outside the UCC admitted in their own investigation report that most of the safety systems were not functioning on the night of December 3.[4][21] Reports issued months before the incident by UCC engineers warned of the possibility of an accident almost identical to that which occurred in Bhopal. Local Indian authorities warned the company of problems on several occasions from 1979 onwards. 4:00 The gases are brought under control.[4][21] In October 1982.[4][21] In January 1982. A runaway reaction started. monomethylamine. 1984.[4][20] UCC was warned by American experts who visited the plant after 1981 of the potential of a "runaway reaction" in the MIC storage tank. sometimes in combination.[17] The design of the MIC plant. Outside[4] 22:30 First sensations due to the gases are felt—suffocation. The workers escape. respiratory difficulties.Wikipedia. a large amount of water entered tank 610. Union Carbide director denies any leak. the free encyclopedia http://en. leaks of the following substances regularly took place in the MIC plant: MIC. a chemical engineer came into contact with liquid MIC.

and methylamine (also produced in tank 610 during the vigorous reaction with water and chloroform) and also with itself under acidic conditions to form trimers of HCN called triazenes.[4] The acute symptoms were burning in the respiratory tract and eyes.928 deaths had been certified.Wikipedia.[4] Hydrogen cyanide debate Whether hydrogen cyanide was present in the gas mixture is still a controversy. oxides of nitrogen. Owing to their height. According to Kulling and Lorin.[32] HCN is also known to react with hydrochloric acid.000 were pregnant women. Treatment was suggested early.000 were below 15 years of age.[31] MIC when heated in the gas-phase starts to break down to hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and other products above 400 °C. The causes of deaths were choking. the free encyclopedia http://en. 170. monomethyl amine (MMA) and carbon dioxide. Findings during autopsies revealed changes not only in the lungs but also cerebral oedema. In 1991. fatty degeneration of the liver and necrotising enteritis. 3% of the gas is HCN.[4] Reversible reaction of glutathione (top) with methyl isocyanate (MIC. hydrogen cyanide. None of the HCN-derived side products were detected in the tank residue. Chemically. either produced in the storage tank or in the atmosphere. Those who ran inhaled more than those who had a vehicle to ride. hydrogen chloride.[28] The stillbirth rate increased by up to 300% and neonatal mortality rate by 200%.000 dead in the first days. reflexogenic circulatory collapse and pulmonary oedema. 3. vomiting.000.000 buffalo. 2. goats. Laboratory replication studies by CSIR and UCC scientists failed to detect any HCN or HCN-derived side products. including food. at +200 °C.Bhopal disaster .000 and 30. became scarce owing to suppliers' safety fears. carbon monoxide. ammonia.[4] Thousands of people had succumbed by the morning hours. Many people were trampled trying to escape. HCN is known to be very reactive with MIC. People awakened by these symptoms fled away from the plant. Apart from MIC.000 people are estimated to have permanent injuries of different degrees. but because of confusion within the medical The leakage caused many short term health effects in the surrounding areas. blepharospasm. Of these. the gas cloud may have contained phosgene. it was not used on larger scale until June 1985.000. Another 100. severe eye irritation and a feeling of suffocation. tubular necrosis of the kidneys.wikipedia. leaves on trees yellowed and fell off. stomach pains and vomiting. Within a few days. according to another scientific publication.[30] However. middle) allows the MIC to be transported into the body A total of 36 wards were marked by the authorities as being "gas affected".000 to 200. 200. Other estimations vary between 10. Supplies.[28][29] Exposed to high temperatures. The initial effects of exposure were coughing. There were mass funerals and mass cremations as well as disposal of bodies in the Narmada river. breathlessness. and 3.[33] The non-toxic antidote sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) in intravenous injections increases the rate of conversion from cyanide to non-toxic thiocyanate. which caused further supply shortages. MIC breaks down to hydrogen cyanide (HCN). stayed close to the ground and spread outwards through the surrounding community.[4] Long term health effects 5 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . children and other people of shorter stature inhaled higher concentrations. Concentrations of 300 ppm can lead to immediate collapse. affecting a population of 520.[4] The gas cloud was composed mainly of materials denser than the surrounding air.000 people were treated at hospitals and temporary dispensaries. and other animals were collected and buried. Fishing was prohibited as well. Independent organizations recorded 8.

female reproductive difficulties and birth defects among children born to affected women.000 persons need alternative jobs.[4] Doctors and hospitals were not informed of proper treatment methods for MIC gas inhalation. This led to a second mass evacuation from Bhopal.[35] Occupational rehabilitation 33 of the 50 planned work-sheds for gas victims started. 16 were partially functioning.[4] Economic rehabilitation After the accident.[4] Compensation from Union Carbide The Government of India passed the Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster Act that gave the government rights to represent all victims in or outside India. vegetation and foodstuffs were safe within the city. it was directed by the Supreme Court to finance a 500-bed hospital for the medical care of the survivors. Formal statements were issued that air. The water did not reach the upper floors. water. respiratory difficulties. At the same time.213. Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre (BMHRC) was inaugurated in 1998. An Indian Victims of Bhopal disaster asking for Government spokesman said that "Carbide is more interested in getting information from us [4] Warren Anderson's extradition from than in helping our relief work.000 (US$ 830).[4] Widow pension of the rate of Rs 200/per month (later Rs 750) was provided.546.000. the average sum paid out was Rs 62.[4] UCC offered US $350 million. Number of awarded cases were 574.[4] Immediate relief was decided two days after the tragedy. The Bhopal plant medical doctor did not have proper information about the properties of the gases. more money spent on treatment. Reported symptoms are eye problems.304 and number of rejected cases 455.and four-story buildings were constructed in the "Widows colony" outside Bhopal.000 people have permanent injuries.[4] "Operation Faith": On December 16. immune and neurological disorders. The number of children exposed to the gases was at least 200.[4] In 1989. all the leaves fell off. UCC had not released information about the possible composition of the cloud.47 crores.Wikipedia. people were informed that poultry was unaffected. In 1992.[4] Each claimant was to be categorised by a It is estimated 100. 1. [4] The Indian Government and UCC deny permanent injuries were caused by MIC or the other gases. schools.000 to 200. It was obliged to give free care for survivors for eight years. cardiac failure secondary to lung injury. and that less than 100 gas victims have found regular employment under the government's scheme.[4] Relief measures commenced in 1985 when food was distributed for a short period and ration cards were distributed.[4] The Government of India claimed US$ 3.029. the insurance sum.wikipedia.[4] Effects of interim relief were more children sent to school. but were warned not to consume fish.[4] Complaints of a lack of information or misinformation were widespread.[4] The gases immediately caused visible damage to the trees.[4] Habitation rehabilitation 2.517 cases were registered and decided.500 to families with monthly income Rs 500 or less was decided. Aftermath of the leakage Medical staff were unprepared for the thousands of casualties. All except one was closed down by 1992. Infrastructure like buses.[34] In 2007. the MP government invested in the Special Industrial Area Bhopal.[4] One-time ex-gratia payment of Rs 1. Within a few days.Bhopal disaster .[4] When UCC wanted to sell its shares in UCIL." the USA [4] As of 2008.058). In court. more money spent on food.000 bloated animal carcasses had to be disposed of. no one under the age of 18 was registered.[4] The final compensation (including interim relief) for personal injury was for the majority Rs 25.[4] It is estimated that 50. plus interest) in a full and final settlement of its civil and criminal liability.[4] The management of registration and distribution of relief showed many shortcomings.000 (US$ 2. It was not possible to keep cattle. the tanks 611 and 619 were emptied of the remaining MIC. were missing for at least a decade. For death claim.3 billion from UCC. improvement of housing conditions. 44 percent of the claimants still had to be medically examined. 152 of the planned 200 work-sheds were built.[4] From 1990 interim relief of Rs 200 was paid to everyone in the family who was born before the disaster. They were told to simply give cough medicine and eye drops to their patients. the claimants were expected to prove "beyond reasonable doubt" that death or injury in each case was attributable to exposure. Total compensation awarded was Rs.486 flats in two. etc.[4] 6 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . the free encyclopedia http://en.[4] 2. a settlement was reached under which UCC agreed to pay US$470 million (the insurance sum.[4] 1986. In 2000.1.

Union Carbide denies allegations against it on its website dedicated to the tragedy.[41] Investigation into possible sabotage Theories differ as to how the water entered the tank. Alternatively. may have built up in the pipe. Little. nickel. the downstream bleeder lines were partially clogged. the free encyclopedia http://en. The company cites an investigation conducted by the engineering consulting firm Arthur D. clinics and mobile units in the gas-affected area. At the time. Sevin. Furthermore. naphthalene.[4] The management has faced problems with strikes. claiming that "documented evidence gathered after the incident showed that the valve close to the plant's water-washing operation was closed and leak-tight. Once water had accumulated to a height of 6 meters (20 feet).[4] Reported polluting compounds include (BMHRC) is a 350-bedded super speciality hospital. UCC claims the plant staff falsified numerous records to distance themselves from the incident. The MIC and the Sevin plants are still there. stating that safety systems were in place and operative. and the tank was not pressurized.[4][38] Environmental rehabilitation When the factory was closed in 1985–1986. workers were cleaning out pipes with water. lead.000. Heart surgery and hemodialysis are done. In 1982 tubewells in the vicinity of the UCC factory had to be abandoned.[4] Since the leak. which concluded that a single employee secretly and deliberately introduced a large amount of water into the MIC tank by removing a meter and connecting a water hose directly to the tank through the metering port. tarry residue. it could drain by gravity flow back into the system. the health care system became tremendously overloaded.[4] The area around the plant was used as a dumping area for hazardous chemicals. In the severely affected areas.[42] Safety and equipment issues The corporation denies the claim that the valves on the tank were malfunctioning.[4] UCC's laboratory tests in 1989 revealed that soil and water samples collected from near the factory and inside the plant were toxic to fish. volatile organochlorine compounds.[36][37] Sambhavna Trust is a charitable trust that registered in 1995. nearly 70 percent do not appear to be professionally qualified.0 beds per 1. hexachlorobutadiene.000 in developing countries. Documents cited in the Arthur D. mercury.[4] In order to provide safe drinking water to the population around the UCC factory. none of these postulated routes of entry could be duplicated when tested by the Central Bureau of Investigators (CBI) and UCIL engineers.[4] Radical health groups set up JSK (the People's Health Centre) that was working a few years from 1985. chromium. Eight mini-units (outreach health centers) were started.[4] The Government of India has focused primarily on increasing the hospital-based services for gas victims. compared to the recommendation from the World bank of 1. rising high enough to pour back down through another series of lines in the MIC storage tank. Little Report state that the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) along with UCIL engineers tried to simulate the water-washing hypothesis as a route of the entry of water into the tank. The corporation believes that the accident was the result of sabotage. there is a scheme for improvement of water supply. toxic organochlorines.25 beds per 1. process safety systems—in place and operational—would have prevented water from entering the tank by accident". copper. Within weeks. 7 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . drums and tanks were cleaned and sold. free of charge. The water. and safety systems were not designed to deal with intentional sabotage.[4][13] However.[39] Several other studies have shown polluted soil and groundwater in the area. It also stresses that it did all it could to alleviate human suffering following the disaster.[4] The Bhopal Memorial Hospital and Research Centre (http://bmhrc. Indian scientists suggested that additional water might have been introduced as a "back-flow" from the defectively designed vent-gas scrubber. Major specialities missing are gynecology. and the pesticide HCH.[15] Carbide claims such a large amount of water could not have found its way into the tank by accident. the State Government established a number of hospitals. Free health care for gas victims should be offered until 2006. and the quality of the health care is Health care In the immediate aftermath of the disaster. a very large number of private practitioners have opened in Bhopal. the Madhya Pradesh High Court decided that the toxic waste should be incinerated at Ankleshwar in Gujarat.Wikipedia. In 1994. the water may have been routed through another standby "jumper line" that had only recently been connected to the system. Isolation material is falling down and spreading.[35] In December 2008.[40] Union Carbide's defense Now owned by Dow Chemical Company. and that the Indian Government impeded its investigation and declined to prosecute the employee responsible. Carbide states that the safety concerns identified in 1982 were all allayed before 1984 and "none of them had anything to do with the incident". presumably because that would weaken its allegations of negligence by Union Carbide.Bhopal disaster . pipes. there were approximately 1. Several hospitals have been built after the disaster. hexachloroethane. The workers maintain that entry of water through the plant's piping system during the washing of lines was possible because a slip-blind was not used. as are storages of different residues. The clinic gives modern and Ayurvedic treatments to gas victims.[43] The company admits that "the safety systems in place could not have prevented a chemical reaction of this magnitude from causing a leak". obstetrics and pediatrics. This all-important test failed to support this as a route of water entry. many valves were leaking.wikipedia. which was not draining properly through the bleeder valves.

In October 1991. Warren Anderson. local Bhopal authorities.[45] Donating $5 million to the Indian Red Cross.[44] Union Carbide states that it also undertook several steps to provide continuing aid to the victims of the Bhopal disaster after the court ruling. the company had to submit to Indian jurisdiction. they claim that "employee sabotage—not faulty design or operation—was the cause of the tragedy". The sale was finalized in November 1994. in August 1987. addressed the US Congress. managed and operated exclusively by Indian citizens in India".[43] Response The company stresses the "immediate action" taken after the disaster and their continued commitment to helping the victims. and the disaster victims started immediately after the catastrophe. The hospital caters for the treatment of heart. the trust had amounted approximately $100 million. "generate a fund for Bhopal victims of between $500–600 million over 20 years". in an out-of-court settlement reached in 1989. lung and eye problems. 15% of the original $3 billion claimed in the lawsuit. the free encyclopedia http://en. a chemical reaction of this magnitude was not factored in" because "the tank's gas storage system was designed to automatically prevent such a large amount of water from being inadvertently introduced into the system" and "process safety systems—in place and operational—would have prevented water from entering the tank by accident". In 1991.[45] Developing the Responsible Care system with other members of the chemical industry as a response to the Bhopal crisis. called for a US government inquiry into the Bhopal disaster.[4] The Indian Supreme Court told both sides to come to an agreement and "start with a clean slate" in November 1988. including: The sale of its 50. However. These include the problems of ongoing contamination. emergency preparedness and process safety standards". which was constructed and opened. In 1985.[43] The corporation established the Employees' Bhopal Relief Fund in February 1985. the Indian Government passed the Bhopal Gas Leak Act in March 1985.[44] The judge in the US granted UCC's forum request.Bhopal disaster . but was later closed and leveled by the government". The average amount to families of the dead was $2. the Indian Supreme Court heard appeals against the settlement from "activist petitions".wikipedia. This meant that. "in designing the plant's safety systems.[44] leading to the beginning of legal wrangling. litigation was transferred from the US to Indian courts by US District Court Judge. Instead.6 million in humanitarian interim relief available.[43] Union Carbide states on its website that it put $2 million into the Indian Prime Minister's immediate disaster relief fund on 11 December 1984.9 percent interest in UCIL in April 1992 and establishment of a charitable trust to contribute to the building of a local hospital.[47] Throughout 1990. the day following the leak.[41] Providing "a $2. in January 1987. judging.2 million grant to Arizona State University to establish a vocational-technical center in Bhopal. Following an appeal of this decision. The Court ordered the 8 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . according to the company. endorsed by plaintiffs' US attorneys. On December 4. allowing the Government of India to act as the legal representative for victims of the disaster. and a 2004 hoax.200. the United States and Indian governments.[44] According to Union Carbide.[44] Long-term fallout Legal action against Union Carbide has dominated the aftermath of the disaster. However. according to the Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department.[46] March 1986 saw Union Carbide propose a settlement figure. owned. Legal action against Union Carbide Legal proceedings involving UCC. compensation had been awarded to 554. which is designed "to help prevent such an event in the future by improving community awareness. Legal proceedings leading to the settlement On 14 December 1984. criticisms of the clean-up operation undertaken by Union Carbide.Wikipedia. dismissing any other outstanding petitions that challenged the original decision.[44] According to Carbide. of $350 million that would. which resulted in US legislation regarding the accidental release of toxic chemicals in the United States. The hospital was begun in October 1995 and was opened in 2001. they made an additional $4.310 survivors of those killed. stressing the company's "commitment to safety" and promising to ensure that a similar accident "cannot happen again". which raised more than $5 million for immediate relief. that UCIL was a "separate entity. Union Carbide sent material aid and several international medical experts to assist the medical facilities in Bhopal. The Government of India claimed US$ 350 million from UCC. Union Carbide agreed to pay US$ 470 million for damages caused in the Bhopal disaster.895 people for injuries received and 15. thus moving the case to India. the US Court of Appeals affirmed the transfer.[4] By the end of October 2003. under US federal law. In May. other issues have also continued to develop. Litigation continued in India during 1988. the Chairman and CEO of Union Carbide. Henry Waxman. The company provided a fund with around $90 million from sale of its UCIL stock. the Supreme Court upheld the original $470 million. a Californian Democrat.

P.[54][55][56] Whether the chemicals pose a health hazard is disputed.[50] The litigation seeks damages for personal injury. which took place at the airport.[57][58][59][60][61] 9 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . In 1991 the municipal authorities declared water from over 100 tubewells to be unfit for drinking. It also requested UCC and its subsidiary "voluntarily" fund a hospital in Bhopal.[44] Charges against Warren Anderson and others UCC Chairman and CEO Warren Anderson was arrested and released on bail by the Madhya Pradesh Police in Bhopal on December 7. who had retired in 1986. Federal class action litigation. Changes in corporate identity Sale of Union Carbide India Limited Union Carbide sold its Indian subsidiary. In June 2010. Dow contends the UCC settlement payment fulfilled Dow's financial responsibility for the disaster.[49] All were released on bail shortly after the verdict. J. In 1994 it was reported that 21% of the factory premises were seriously contaminated with chemicals. Union Carbide et al.[44] In 2006. to Eveready Industries India Limited. Indian government "to purchase. He was declared a fugitive from justice by the Chief Judicial Magistrate of Bhopal on February 1.[4] UCC's laboratory tests in 1989 revealed that soil and water samples collected from near the factory were toxic to fish. Acquisition of Union Carbide by Dow Chemical Company Dow Chemical Company purchased UCC in 2001 for $10. Sahu v. Gokhale.[39][57][58] Studies made by Greenpeace and others from soil. Shetty. with manslaughter. The U. at an estimated $17 million. wellwater and vegetables from the residential areas around UCIL and from the UCIL factory area show contamination with a range of toxic heavy metals and chemical compounds. the free encyclopedia http://en. which had operated the Bhopal plant.[44] In 2004. saying the company is not under Indian jurisdiction.3 billion in stock and debt. Union Carbide Corporation. to specifically treat victims of the Bhopal disaster. out of settlement fund. in 1994. "the ruling reaffirms UCC's long-held positions and finally puts to rest—both procedurally and substantively—the issues raised in the class action complaint first filed against Union Carbide in 1999 by Haseena Bi and several organizations representing the residents of Bhopal". K. 1984.[2] Contamination at the site and surrounding area was not caused by the gas leakage.Wikipedia. Qureshi. all Indian nationals and many in their 70s. The area around the plant was used as a dumping ground for hazardous chemicals. vice-president. seven former employees of the Union Carbide subsidiary. S.100 bail and flown out on a government plane. local Bhopal authorities charged Anderson. Supreme Court refused to hear an appeal of the decision of the lower federal courts in October 1993. The company agreed to this. former non-executive chairman of Union Carbide India Limited. production assistant. Anderson was taken to UCC's house after which he was released six hours later on $2. Orders were passed to the Government of India to press for an extradition from the United States. a group medical insurance policy to cover 100. the Welfare Commission for Bhopal Gas Victims announced that all original compensation claims and revised petitions had been "cleared".[48] In 1991. works manager.1 lakh (US$2. In September 2006. groundwater. This move blocked plaintiffs' motions for class certification and claims for property damages and remediation. the Indian Supreme Court ordered the Indian government to release any remaining settlement funds to victims. 1992. ensured Anderson would meet no harm by the Bhopal community. In the view of UCC.S.I.124). plant superintendent. and S.V. Mukund. Kishore Kamdar. Ongoing contamination Chemicals abandoned at the plant continue to leak and pollute the groundwater.000 persons who may later develop symptoms" and cover any shortfall in the settlement fund. were convicted of causing death by negligence and each sentenced to two years imprisonment and fined Rs. eight other executives and two company affiliates with homicide charges to appear in Indian court.wikipedia. By 1982 tubewells in the vicinity of the UCC factory had to be abandoned. The arrest. A related complaint seeking similar relief for property damage claimants is stayed pending the outcome of the Sahu appeal before the federal district court in the Southern District of New York. is presently pending on appeal before the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in New York. V.[48] Union Carbide balked.Bhopal disaster .P. meaning that victims of the Bhopal disaster could not seek damages in a US court. the Indian government summoned Anderson. In 1987. for failing to appear at the court hearings in a culpable homicide case in which he was named the chief defendant. The names of those convicted are: Keshub Mahindra. the Second Circuit Court of Appeals in New York City upheld the dismissal of remaining claims in the case of Bano v. production manager. a crime that carries a maximum penalty of 10 years in prison. managing director. Twenty-one areas inside the plant were reported to be highly polluted. medical monitoring[51] and injunctive relief in the form of cleanup[52] of the drinking water supplies[53] for residential areas near the Bhopal plant.

naphthalene. a member of the activist prankster group The Yes Men.-trained site manager. the free encyclopedia http://en. which evidenced "severe contamination". designed to look like the real Dow website but with what they felt was a more accurate cast on the events. ended its 99-year lease in 1998 and turned over control of the site to the state government of Madhya Pradesh. copper. held in open containers or loose on the ground. even after the sale of its UCIL stock. according to the reports. hexachlorethane. Studies will also be conducted to see if the toxic gases caused genetic disorders. heavy metals and organochlorines were present in the soil. were not made public.[69] Immediately afterward. in nursing women's breast milk.[44] Critics of the clean-up undertaken by Carbide. Sevin. Eveready Industries. a day before the 25th anniversary of the disaster. Eveready Industries. He claimed that the company had agreed to clean up the site and compensate those harmed in the incident. a Delhi based pollution monitoring lab. for a loss of $2 billion in market value. The successor. lead.[68] Settlement fund hoax On December 3.[citation needed] The successor. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE). liver and kidneys in humans. He used this approach to garner major media attention showing how 10 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . Chemicals that have been linked to various forms of cancer were also discovered. organochlorines. at "DowEthics. the Madhya Pradesh Government is trying to force Dow and EIIL to finance clean-up operations. alpha naphthol.[67] Activists have demanded that Dow clean up this toxic waste.[64] In 2009. low birth weight. and that his claims were a hoax.[41] Currently.[63] it was reported that the site is still contaminated with 'thousands' of metric tons of toxic chemicals. On 7 March 2009. lead. such as the International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal. which was continued after 1994 by the successor to UCIL. and have pressed the government of India to demand more money from Dow. Limited (EIIL). tested in UK.Wikipedia. The sample.wikipedia. Hexachlorobutadiene. pesticide HCH (BHC).com/) ". a carcinogenic toxin. 2004. The BBC broadcast a correction and an apology. growth and development disorders. Bichlbaum explains how his fake name was derived: "Jude is the patron saint of impossible causes and Finisterra means the end of the Earth". Dow quickly issued a statement saying that they had no employee by that name—that he was an impostor. Criticisms of clean-up operations Environmentalists have warned that the contamination may lead to decades of slow poisoning. an inquiry found a number of ( Substances found. 2004. by liquidating Union Carbide for $12 billion USD. Dow's share price fell 4. mercury. dichloromethane and chloroform. when it was placed under the authority of the Madhya Pradesh Government. Indian scientists of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) have decided to investigate the long term health effects of the disaster.5 trichlorobenzene. The Madhya Pradesh authorities have announced that they will "pursue both Dow and Eveready" to conduct the clean-up as joint tortfeasors. They believe that Union Carbide "continued directing operations" in Bhopal until "at least 1995" through Hayaran.3. According to activists. the Indian authorities were also refused access. located just north of the plant. not affiliated with Dow. Many of these contaminants were also found in breast milk. tarry residues.000 and 6 million times" higher than expected levels. [65] The BBC took a water sample from a frequently used hand pump. a producer for the BBC emailed them through the website requesting an interview. A sample of drinking water from a well near the site had levels of contamination 500 times higher than the maximum limits recommended by the World Health Organization. The statement was widely carried. In 2002. which they gladly obliged. until 1998. including benzene hexachloride and mercury. was found to contain 1000 times the World Health Organization's recommended maximum amount of carbon tetrachloride. volatile organic compounds and halo-organics. UCIL began clean-up work at the site under the direction of Indian central and state government authorities". the twentieth anniversary of the disaster. are naphthol. abruptly relinquished the site lease to one department of the State Government while being supervised by another department on an extensive clean up program. nickel. a man claiming to be a Dow representative named Jude Finisterra was interviewed on BBC World News. chromium.[71] Taking credit for the prank in an interview on Democracy Now!. In 2004. claim that "several internal studies" by the corporation. In 2002.2% in 23 minutes. including mercury. as well as trichloroethylene. Eveready Industries India. The Yes Men issued a fake press release explaining why Dow refused to take responsibility for the disaster and started up a website.[66] This shows that the ground water has been contaminated due to toxins leaking from the factory site. known to impair fetal development.6 times more pesticides than Indian standards. UCC states that "after the incident. Well water and groundwater tests conducted in the surrounding areas in 1999 showed mercury levels to be at "20.[70] Bichlbaum as Finisterra on BBC World News "Jude Finisterra" was actually Andy Bichlbaum. at 50 times above safety limits specified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). released latest tests from a study showing that groundwater in areas even three km from the factory up to 38. 1. there are studies showing that the rates of cancer and other ailments are high in the region. the U. and diseases affecting the nervous system.Bhopal disaster .[62] In an investigation broadcast on BBC Radio 5 on November 14. congenital malformation and biological markers of MIC/toxic gas exposure.

bbc. 18. 44.bhopal. 11.htm) . Retrieved 26 June 39. 8. Each time.bhopal. the free encyclopedia http://en. Eckerman (2004) (see "References" below).mp.htm. "there were many people in tears" upon having learned of the ^ UCC manual (1976).co.stm.3. http://www. ^ Singh (2008). ^ a b c d e f g Lepowski (1994). 5. 16 December 2008. Bhopal Information Center. ^ Steven .mp. 10. 30.[75] On August 19. ^ Weir (1987). 2009. The Times Of India. http://www.pdf) (2001). http://www. 2010 update On June 7. 41. ^ a b c d e f Kovel (2002). 17. Bhopal and the humble Indian brinjal" (http://www. ^ "Company Defends Chief in Bhopal Disaster" (http://dealbook. Kreutzberger. vol. ^ a b Sriramachari (2004). Archived from the original (http://www. (2004).nytimes. ^ a b c Kurzman (1987). CBS News. Dhara VR. 15. http://www. UCC. UCC. 2009. 35.1031. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions" (http://www. 76: 5646–5650.G. http://www. Bhopal Information Center. ^ Varadarajan (1985).htm. 22. ^ a b "Industrial Disaster Still Haunts India – South and Central Asia – /5qmWBEWcb. According to the interviewer.cbsnews. 13. ^ UCC manual (1978).hindustantimes. (2005).htm) . US deputy National Security Advisor Michael Froman said pursuing the Bhopal case might have a chilling effect on US investment. Retrieved December 3. Bichlbaum said that. 36. ^ a b UCC Investigation Report (1985). "The Indian authorities are well aware of the identity of the employee [who sabotaged the plant] and the nature of the evidence against him. 19. 23. BBC News. 7. ^ D'Silva. ^ http://www. ^ TED case 233 (1997). http://news. ^ a b UCC (1989)." ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions" (http://www. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 20. First14 /irs. .bhopal. 1.Wikipedia.indiatimes. 6. ^ Eckerman (2005) (see "References" below). ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Eckerman (2001) (see "References" below).com /faq.[73] During the interview he was repeatedly asked if he had considered the emotions and reaction of the people of Bhopal when producing the hoax. Retrieved 2010-04-26. eight UCIL executives including former chairman Keshub Mahindra were convicted of criminal negligence and sentenced to two years in jail. Chem.1021/ja01651a013 (http://dx. Exec Arrest Sought in Bhopal Disaster" (http://www.msnbc. (1982).bhopal.htm) .org. 33. 32.1021%2Fja01651a013) Sambhavna Trust. as litigants.stm) . the Union Cabinet of the Government of India approved a Rs1265cr aid package. ^ a b Trade Union Report (1985).com" (http://www. 14. Christoph. November 2006.bhopal. IX. "Bhopal a Year Later: An Eerie Silence". ^ "The Bhopal Medical appeal" (http://www.hindustantimes. Bhopal Information Center. In the 2009 film The Yes Men Fix the World. Union Carbide Corporation. /irs. ^ "U. 37. .indiatimes. Dow could help. [77][78] /articleshow/3847412. ^ a b "Incident Response and Settlement" (http://www.msnbc. 24. 2008-12-05. ^ "Carbide waste to go: HC" (http://timesofindia.bhopal. 3. bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by 34. November 2009. International Journal of Chemical Kinetics. Alfred (1954). The sentences are under appeal. Berichte.msn. ^ http://www.htm.hindu. 40. p.htm.htm) /ns/world_news-south_and_central_asia/page/2/) . ^ Dipankar De Sarkar (22 June 2010). 11 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM .bhopal. ^ Kulling and Lorin (1987). ^ K.bhopal. The New York Times. "Triazines. ^ P. in comparison. ^ Cassels (1983). 46. J. "BP. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Chronology" (http://www.5-Triazine and its Formation from Hydrocyanic Acid".com/stories/2009/07/31/world / /8725140. Slotta. UCC. 25. Bhopal Information Center. were not interested in proving that anyone other than Union Carbide was to blame for the tragedy.bhopal.blogs. . pp.first14. Am.cbsnews. http://www. http://www. Bhopal Information Kinetics and Mechanism of Thermal Decomposition of Methyl Isocyanate.nytimes.htm) .wikipedia. 945–952. December 2.[74] On June http://dealbook. vol.Bhopal disaster . ^ Gassert TH. ^ Grundmann.S. The Black Box of Bhopal (2006). It will be funded by Indian taxpayers through the The Hindu 4. 21. 38. what distress he had caused the people was minimal to that for which Dow was responsible.60.bhopal. ^ a b c d e f g Eckerman (2006) (see "References" below).htm) . Ijadi-Maghsoodi. ^ Bhopal Memorial Hospital Trust (http://www. 45. the United States State Department said the Bhopal gas tragedy case is legally closed. Retrieved 2009-01-07. Soc. ^ AK Dubey (21 June 2010). 29. and are surprised to find that the residents applaud their efforts to bring responsibility to the corporate world. http://www. Indian authorities refused to pursue this individual because they. http://www. ^ a b "Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief and Rehabilitation Department" (http://www. Bichlbaum appeared in a follow-up interview on the United Kingdom's Channel 4 News. ^ a b c Kalelkar (1988). the Yes Men travel to Bhopal to assess public opinion on their prank. ^ a b c "Statement of Union Carbide Corporation Regarding the Bhopal Tragedy" ( UCC. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj /main5201155.[76] On August 20. ^ "Bhopal trial: Eight convicted over India gas disaster" (http://news. Retrieved 4 April ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Chouhan et al. 2010-06-07. ^ UCC manual (1979). 4.shtml) . 16. http://www.shtml. /India/Carbide_waste_to_go_HC/articleshow/3847412. ^ Bhopal Memorial Hospital closed indefinitely (http://www. Weisman.H.bhopal. Hindustan Times.[72] After the original interview was revealed as a /faq. doi:10. New York Times.htm 2. R. Tschesche.webcitation. Blake and S.html) on 26 June 2010.

com/india/report_bhopal-gas-tragedy-extraaid-to-help-just-42000-victims_1400833 ^ The Times Of q=bhopal+faces+risk+of+%27poisoning%27&x=0&y=0. May /vdhara/www.emory. safety and environmental programs tells how he dealt with the catastrophe from a PR point of view. http://economictimes. Dhara VR (2000).timesofindia. BBC Radio 5. Environmental Health 4 (6): 6. 1988. Bhopal: the Inside Story—Carbide Workers Speak Out on the World's Worst Industrial Disaster. 56. The Bhopal Medical / 54. India" ( Jack (2004). ^ The Truth About Dow: Decades PMC 1142333 ( Int J Occup Environ Health 7 (1): 72–3. Doctoral http://www. "Union Carbide's former vice-president of health. Paul (2004-11-14).nlm.mp4) ^ http://www. ^ /bhopalgas_judgement.pdf) ^ . /pubmed/15882472) . Jackson (1993). US: Univ. ^ Broughton.html?res=940DE0D71F3CF934A25756C0A96E948260 ) . 66.bhopal. ISBN ItemID=6795) ZNet ^ The Yes Men (http://www.php?id=945) . 72. 50. 71. The New York Times.theyesmen.hindustantimes. study on Bhopal gas leak effects (http://epaper.stm) / .ncbi. of Massachusetts 12 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . Dow Chemical & The Toxic Century (http://www. ^ "Bhopal gas leak survivors still being poisoned: Study" (http://www.php?id=920) . 466 pages. "No takers for Bhopal toxic waste" (http://news. Retrieved 2010-01-01. ^ The Truth About Dow: 25 years on. The Scotsman. The Hindu (Chennai. 2004).08. Contains many technical details. ^ "What Happened in Bhopal?" (http://www.BhopalPublications/Health%20Effects%20&%20Epidemiology /Dhara%20Disseration%20Bhopal%20Disaster. ^ Broughton (2005). The Bhopal Gas Leak: Lessons from studying the impact of a disaster in a developing nation. ISBN /pdfs/browning. ^ http://www. Retrieved 2010-01-01.php?id=1038) .service. A story of how one company's chemical prducts and byproducts have damaged public health and the environment. 5 December 1 December 2009. PMID 15882472 (http://www. 2004-11-14. http://webdrive. /Channel4news. D'Silva.nlm. 68. "Water contamination: a legacy of the union carbide disaster in Bhopal. ^ video ( /gst/fullpage. 69. Detroit.bhopal. November /gst/fullpage.bhopal. 2007. 64.trespassagainstus. ^ a b Labunska et al.html) .theistimes.php. q=bhopal+faces+risk+of+%27poisoning%27&x=0&y=0) /10.htm) . Published by ( http://books. Themistocles (2006). "Bhopal 'faces risk of poisoning'" ( /pubmed/11210017) .net/pdfs/Sahu%20Opinion%2011.ncbi.nih. ^ 25 years on. ^ Corporate Responsibility. 51. ^ Srishti (2002). http://news. University Of Toronto /AboutUs/press_releases/press-20091201.stm. J. Crisis Response: Inside Stories on Managing Image Under Siege. http://www. ^ "Bhopal gas tragedy is a closed case now: (http://dx. BBC News. 77. /article. (2002). "The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review" (http://www.nlm. http://www. http://search.stm) . India).grazian-archive.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez& artid=1142333) .nytimes.pdf ^ The Truth About Dow: Govt handling of Bhopal: Blot on Indian Democracy. ^ "Bhopal marks 25 years since gas leak devastation" ( /news/politics/nation/Bhopal-case-US-Deputy-NSA-warns-of-chillin-investment/articleshow/6333951.xml&CollName=TOI_MUMBAI_DAILY_2006& DOCID=746143&Keyword=(%3Cmany%3E%3Cstem%3Ebhopal)& skin=TOI&AppName=1&PageLabel=13%20& ViewMode=HTML&GZ=T)" /archives/2007/11/indias_betrayal. ^ /pdfs/ The Uncertain Promise Of Law: Lessons From Bhopal.grazian-archive. Toxic Sludge Torments Bhopal (http://www. 75. Case No.htm) .theyesmen. ^ "Bhopal faces risk of 'poisoning'" ( 57.nytimes. 49. 60. ^ India's betrayal of Bhopal (http://www.thetruthaboutdow.bhopal. Victoria.nih. Union Carbide: Disaster at Bhopal (http://www. 61. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 55.html) – Pamela Timms and Prabal KR Das. (1993). Govt wakes up to Bhopal waste but can't find any one to clean it up (http://www. BBC Radio 5 website. (2001). ^ Peoples' Science Institute (2001).uk/2/hi/south_asia /8392206. 76. http://www.pdf) . 59.asp?From=Search&Source=Find&Key=TOIM/2009/03 /07/13/Ar01302. 21 August .org/article. http://www. Gottschalk. the free encyclopedia http://en.emory. PMID 11210017 (http://www. US: The Apex Press. Retrieved 2010-01-01.Bhopal disaster .com/tag/ucil/ ^ http://www. A Cloud over Bhopal. ISBN 1-56751-268-2. 52. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. 224 Indian groups tell PM (http://www. .com/Default/Scripting /ArticleWin. ed (PDF) ^ video (http://www.pubmedcentral.bhopal.thetruthaboutdow. The Black Box of Bhopal: A Closer Look at the World's Deadliest Industrial Disaster ( /search/ .org/hijinks/dow/) ^ Democracy Now! ( .trespassagainstus. Trespass Against Us. 8460/1996 (http://www.: Jack A. December q&f=false) .php) .com/2010/08/21/stories/2010082164370100.pdf. 63. http://news. ^ Stringer et al. ^ 58. B. India: Other India Press ISBN 81-85569-65-7 Main author Chouhan was an operator at the plant. ^ 8 Cr.S" (http://www.htm.nlm.3. ChouhanTR and others (1994. 67. KS (2008-09-30). http://news. 73.pdf) . De Grazia A (1985).com/article/world/bhopal-gas-tragedy-is-a-closedcase-now-us-45797 References and additional resources Books and reports .com/governing/bhopal/index. ^ a b Down to Earth (2003). http://query. (2003).stm. Edward (2005). US: Common Courage Press. ^ a b "India Acts in Carbide Case" (http://query. 2009. J. (http://www. http://www. (http://webdrive. 65.htm. D15.

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sg /books?id=f0a_zfxmSbEC&lpg=PA113&ots=zm5HW8Qz--& dq=The%20Indian%20government%20had%20its%20heavy%20hand%20on%20every%20aspect%20of%20the%20Bhopal%20plant .org/images/stories/dokument /2009/epidemiology_lkarstmman_2007_engelska.studentsforbhopal.pdf) .org /images/stories/LfM_blandat/Bhopal_Bangalore_2010.%20Initially %2C%20the%20facility%20merely%20imported%20raw%20pesticides%2C%20such%20as%20one%20called%20Sevin %2C%20and%20then%20diluted /indhaz/ .pdf. Chingari Trust works with disabled children. http://www.Bhopal disaster .com." ( Greenpeace.%20Initially %2C%20the%20facility%20merely%20imported%20raw%20pesticides%2C%20such%20as%20one%20called%20Sevin %2C%20and%20then%20diluted Bhopal Medical Appeal and Sambhavna Trust Clinic (http://www.pan-uk.greenpeace. Technical note. Bhopal disaster 20 years" (http://www. Power point presentation (2010) Eckerman.greenpeace.lakareformiljon. US "Unproven technology" (http://www.dow. Poster presentation (2007) External and Wikipedia links The Bhopal Post ( . "Clouds of injustice.pdf.pdf) on 2007-10-15.Wikipedia.archive. http://www. Union Carbide Statement of The Dow Chemical Company Regarding the Bhopal Tragedy (http://www. "No more Bhopals" (http://old.php) A website edited by Raajkumar Keswani. the free encyclopedia http://en. Power point presentation in easy English (2008) /international/press/reports/ (14 Nov 2002).bhopal. One page. adopted after the session in . New York International Campaign For Justice in Bhopal (http://www. Bhopal: Chingari trust. 2008. Students for Bhopal Lesson of Bhopal ( .lakareformiljon. "The Bhopal Saga—Causes and Consequences of the World's Largest Industrial Disaster. Preview Google books (http://books.& f=false) "Chemical Stockpiles at Union Carbide India Limited in Bhopal: an investigation" (http://www.alyssaalappen. http://web. http://www. Canada: John Wiley & Sons.html) .amnesty." ( .lakareformiljon.& pg=PA113#v=onepage& q=The%20Indian%20government%20had%20its%20heavy%20hand%20on%20every%20aspect%20of%20the%20Bhopal%20plant Permanent Peoples' Tribunal on Industrial Hazards and Human 2003 Bhopal Gas Tragedy Relief & Rehabilitation Department (http://www. Fighting for Our Right to 1984.pdf. http://old. 1996.studentsforbhopal. Industrial Hygien Programs at Foreign /index. Amnesty International. 12/2002 Presentations Eckerman. October–November 2009 End 25 years of injustice ( Bhopal Information Center (http://www. Greenpeace Research Laboratories. http://www. Garett JT. Contains original documents and categorizes resources by /oldsite/unproventechnology.bhopalbus.alyssaalappen.studentsforbhopal. "The Bhopal Gas Leak—too late for good epidemiology. the trade union and other original material has been scanned and can be found here.pdf) (PDF).bhopal. 16 October 2009 The Bhopal Library (http://www. A condensed list of books.greenpeace.pdf) (PDF). Bhopal. .bhopal. Ingrid. Craley LV." ( /2009/ The official website of the Government of Madhya Pradesh 16 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . Archived from the original (http://www.html) "Bibliography on Bhopal disaster" ( "The Bhopal Gas Disaster 1984 – Children's Acute and Chronic Exposure to Toxic Substances" ( Students for Bhopal (http://www. The Bhopal Memory Project (http://bhopal.bhopal. Cralley Material from UCC. http://www. Saint Louis University School of Public Health.wikipedia. the journalist who warned what was going to happen The Bhopal Europe Bus Tour (http://www. London (2004) Report (pdf).pdf) (PDF) and articles on the Bhopal disaster and related / . The Apex Press. "Charter on Industrial Hazards and Human Rights" (http://web. http://www.pdf) (PDF).htm) 2005 Toxic Hotspots (http://www.htm. ed (1988). "Chemical Terrorism Fact Sheet: Methyl Isocyanate. where the role of the Government of India is (PDF). CSB& http://www.slu. Amnesty International.bhopal.cipa-apex.

com/) Provides medical care for children being born in Bhopal with malformations and brain damages. 1984 Pablo Bartholomew ( /8/hundreds_of_survivors_of_bhopal_disaster) . The Boston Globe Retrieved from " Search "Bhopal" Union Carbide rejects Bhopal court's verdict ( August 31. It Happened in Bhopal (http://www. August 2008 The Bhopal Chemical Disaster. a documentary feature ( /index. 2010 film based on the disaster. Stephane Bouillet Bhopal Gas Tragedy – 25 Years On | 26 Photos (http://in. Common Language Project Child killed by the poisonous gas leak in the Union Carbide chemical plant disaster ( plant to be open to public (http://www. Indian-Express newspaper Bhopal court to pronounce historic judgment in gas leak case on Monday (http://beta. 2002 Films . documentary which includes discussion of the Directed by Van Maximilian Carlson Twenty Years Without Justice: The Bhopal Chemical Disaster ( parody website by The Yes Men Bhopal: 25 years on (http://news. Dolan "Bhopal (Driftnet Plan)" by Bob . Bhopal gas victims still suffering (http://www.htm) Rediff News June 7.Bhopal disaster . 1984 The Ghosts of Bhopal (http://www. ReMedAct. BBC News.stm) .StoryDetail_VPage&pid=2TYRYDDG70XJ) . 2008 Bhopal XXV (http://www. DNA India newspaper 25 years after Bhopal gas from his 1989 album "In Her Dream: Bob Wiseman Sings Wrench Tuttle". by .com/en/project/bhopal_xxv_25_years_disaster) .stm. Musical tributes "No Thunder.htm) A railway officer describes how he received victims coming by train. presents a lyrical narrative of the disaster.html) .youtube.html) .org/web/20080113184610/ 2009-12-02.stephanebouillet. 2010 India reopens Bhopal toxic gas leak case ( Retrieved 2010-01-01.irastimes. from the 1986 album Big Canoe. Micha Patault Raghu Rai ( report by Democracy Now! Bhopal: Prayer for Rain. No Rain" by Tim Finn. the free encyclopedia /2/hi/programmes/bhopal/ 17 of 18 3/23/2011 10:34 PM . The Yes Men Fix the .ece) The Hindu June 6. Reuters India 25th anniversary of the Bhopal disaster (http://www. Guardian. documentary film (http://kleck-rochs. 14 Nov 2004 25 years .aspx?VP=XSpecific_MAG. The Bhopal disaster is referenced in the song International Campaign for Justice for Bhopal video "One Night in Bhopal" ( BBC News 26 March 2009 "Bhopal faces risk of 'poisoning'" (http://news.stm) BBC News' website on the Bhopal disaster Chingari Trust (http://www. 2010 Times of India (http://timesofindia.P. 27 Aug 2007 Shrouds of Silence (http://www.stm) /avarija_v_bkhopale_indija_dokumentalnyj_film/59-1-0-330) Hundreds of Survivors of Bhopal Disaster Protest President Obama's 2010 India Visit (http://www.indianexpress.dnaindia. explores who is to blame for the Dow Ethics (http://www. BBC . "Close My Eyes" from the 1987 album Exorcise This Wasteland by Single Gun Theory Photos No More Bhopals (http://www.indiatimes. No .php?option=com_photogallery&task=view&id=180&Itemid=115&bandwidth=high) .org/wiki/Bhopal_disaster" Categories: Bhopal disaster | Man-made disasters This page was last modified on 23 March 2011 at World Press Photo of the Year. International Medical Commission on Bhopal News Bhopal's health effects probed ( 1984 Poison in Bhopal (http://www.ucoz. 2010 Bhopal Gas Tragedy (http://web.html) .youtube.

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