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REVISION 2 – MATERIAL SCIENCE

Contents

Contents...........................................................................................................1

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (10)..................................................................2

Isotopes : Chapter 2- page 6,7.........................................................................3

Chapter 4- page 4,7.........................................................................................5

Chapter 5- page 1,4.........................................................................................5

Chapter 11- page 1,3.......................................................................................5

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS............................................................................5

Chapter 9.1- page 5 (Alloy formation)..............................................................5

Chapter 9.2- page 4,5,6...................................................................................5

Chapter 10- page 2,3.......................................................................................5

Chapter 11- page 3,4.......................................................................................5

Chapter 12- page 2,4,6....................................................................................5

Chapter 13- page 1 (composite) ; page 2 (Formulae)......................................5

Chapter 14- page 4..........................................................................................5

Chapter 15- page 3..........................................................................................5


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (10)

The Structure of atoms

Protons(+) + neutrons = Mass number

NEUTRAL

Protons(+) = electrons(-) = Atomic number

Gain/lose electron(S)

ISOTOPES ION(s) (CATIONS OR ANIONS)


(different numbers of neutrons)

CHARGE +1,+2,+3 OR -1,-2,-3

The model of the atom used today is the Rutherford Bohr model in which a central nucleus
made up of positively charged protons and neutrons which have no charge is orbited at high
speed by much smaller negatively charged electrons. Protons and neutrons have the same
mass, while electrons have about 1/200th the mass of protons and neutrons. Though the
proton(+) and electrons(-) have opposite charges, the size of the charge is the same for each.
An atom has an equal number of protons and electrons, so the positive and negative charges
balance each other to produce a neutral atom. The simplest atom is hydrogen, whose nucleus
contains only a single proton(p+), orbited by a long electron(e-) Scientists use two special
numbers to describe atoms. The atomic number of atom is the number of protons and the
mass number is the number of particles in an atom’s nucleus. K 39 19
Potassium has an atomic number of 19 and a mass number of 39. This means there are
twenty neutrons in the nucleus. Because the number of electon is the same as the number of
protons, there must be 19 electrons whizzing around the outside of the atom. The mass
number of 39( ) tell us there are 29 particles in the nucleus but since we know 19 of these are
protons, the other 10 must be neutrons. K 39 19
Isotopes : Chapter 2- page 6,7
All atoms of a particular element contain the same number of protons. However atoms

of the same element can contain different numbers of neutrons, and these atoms are

called isotopes.

1. Valence – electrons/ shells (outermost shell) Chapter 3- page 1,2

Electron Shells One of the improvements Bohr made to Rutherford’s model of the atom
was to explain how electrons orbited in special region, or shells. Electrons may be
visualised as moving within a region of space surrounding the nucleus. The regions are
called electron shells, labelled K, L, M, N, and numbered 1, 2, 3, 4. A definite energy level
is associated with each shell, the one closest to the nucleus, K, being the lowest energy
level. So an electron has to gain energy to move further away from the nucleus. If it gains
enough energy to completely leave the atom, the particle that is left is no longer neutral and
is called a positive ion. Potassium, K, has 19 protons and 19 electrons. It is loses an
electron it becomes the positive ion K+ as it now has 19 protons and only 18 electrons.
Only two electrons may fit in the inner most shell(K) of any atom, then up to 8 in each of
the next two shells(L, M) for elements up to atomic number 20. The inner most shells are
‘filled first’. This may be compared to filling space on a bookshell, where we fill the bottom
shelf first, then only move up if each lower shift is filled.

2. Ions +, - : e- , p+

Electron configuration The arrangement of electrons in the shells is called the atom’s electron
configuration. The electron capacity of each shell is limited. The maximum number of electron
s that each shell hold is 2n2 where n is the shell number or energy level. Electron shells are
filled in order from the nucleus, starting with the K shell, so that the electrons are in their lowest
possible energy levels (or ground state) The one electron of a hydrogen (H) atom would be in
the first shell, and the electron configuration is written as 1. Sodium( ) has 11 electrons, so 2
will go in the first shell, 8 in the second shell and last electron in the third shell. The electron
configuration of sodium is written as 2, 8, 1. Chlorine( ) has 17 electrons and an electron
configuration of 2, 8, 7. Note that for the first 20 elements the outer shell never has more than
8 electrons. Potassium( ) has 19 electrons and an electron configuration of 2, 8, 8, 1 rather
than 2, 8, 9. This means the fourth shell is the outer shell for potassium electrons, rather than
the third. e.g. Na 11 Cl 17 K 9
Chapter 4- page 4,7

Chapter 5- page 1,4

Chapter 11- page 1,3

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

Chapter 9.1- page 5 (Alloy formation)

Chapter 9.2- page 4,5,6

Chapter 10- page 2,3

Chapter 11- page 3,4

Chapter 12- page 2,4,6

Chapter 13- page 1 (composite) ; page 2 (Formulae)

Chapter 14- page 4

Chapter 15- page 3