Fundamental of Metal Casting

Factors in casting operation
(1)Solidification (2)Fluidity of molten metal (3)Heat transfer (4)Mold material

Solidification
(1)Nucleation -homogeneous -heterogeneous (2)Growth -planar -dendrite

Solidification of metals
(1)Pure metals (fig.10.1-2) -skin , shell , or chill zone of fine equiaxed grains -columnar grains (2)Alloys(fig .10.3-4) -chill zone -columnar dendrites -equiaxed zone (grains )

Cast Structures of Metals
Figure 10.1 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals; (b) solid-solution alloys; and (c) structure obtained by using nucleating agents. Source: G. W. Form, J. F. Wallace, J. L. Walker, and A. Cibula.

Preferred Texture Development

Figure 10.2 Development of a preferred texture at a cool mold wall. Note that only favorably oriented grains grow away from the surface of the mold.

Alloy Solidification Figure 10.3 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Note the formation of dendrites in the mushy zone. .

Solidification Patterns Figure 10. dendrites reach each other. F.) square casting. (b) Solidification of carbon steels in sand and chill (metal) molds. but the casting is still mushy throughout.4 (a) Solidification patterns for gray cast iron in a 180-mm (7-in. Note that after 11 min. of cooling. Pellini. Bishop and W. Source: H. Note the difference in solidification patterns as the carbon content increases. It takes about two hours for this casting to solidify completely. S. .

Source: D. single phase. (b) equiaxed dendritic. . two phase. Source: D.Cast Structures Figure 10. and (b) plane front.6 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. Apelian.5 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Apelian. Figure 10. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic.

Effects of cooling rates (1)Slow cooling rates (order of 102K/s ) -coarse dendritic structure (2)Faster cooling rates (order of 104K/s ) -finer with smaller dendrite arm spacing (3)Faster cooling rates (order of 106 to 108K/s ) -amorphous .

Grain size of the cast alloy decreases (1)Strength and ductility increase (2)Microporosity decreases (3)Tendency to crack (hot tearing) decreases .

Fluid flow (1)Bernoulli's theorem (2)Continuity law (3)Flow characteristics -turbulence or laminar flow .

Riser-Gated Casting Figure 10. . See also Fig. 11. supplying molten metal to the casting as it shrinks during solidification.4 Source: American Foundrymen’s Society. Risers serve as reservoirs.7 Schematic illustration of a typical riser-gated casting.

Fluidity of molten metal A .Molten metal (1)Viscosity (2)Surface tension (3)Inclusions (4)Solidification pattern (freezing range ) .

the greater is its fluidity.8 A test method for fluidity using a spiral mold.Fluidity Test Figure 10. The fluidity index is the length of the solidified metal in the spiral passage. The greater the length of the solidified metal. .

Fluidity of molten metal B .9) .10.Casting parameters (1)Mold design (2)Mold material and its surface characteristics (3)Degree of superheat (4)Rate of pouring (5)Heat transfer (fig.

Temperature Distribution Figure 10. .9 Temperature distribution at the interface of the mold wall and the liquid metal during solidification of metals in casting.

Solidification time 2   volume  = C  surface area    .

J. . Taylor. F. Wulff. The remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure.10 Solidified skin on a steel casting. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. and M. C. Source: H. Flemings.Solidification Time Figure 10. which is based on this principle.

Shrinkage (1)Dimensional changes (2)Cracking .

2 4–5.1 Metal or alloy Aluminum Al–4.5 4. A.5 . Flinn.5%Cu Al–12%Si Carbon steel 1% carbon steel Copper Source: After R.Solidification Contraction for Various Cast Metals TABLE 10.9 Metal or alloy 70%Cu–30%Zn 90%Cu–10%Al Gray iron Magnesium White iron Zinc Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 4. Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 6.8 2.5–3 4 4.5 4 Expansion to 2.3 3.6 6.5 6.

10.13-15) .Defects (1)Metallic projections (2)Cavities (3)Discontinuities (4)Defective surface (5)Incomplete casting (6)Incorrect dimensions or shape (7)Inclusions (8)Porosity (fig .

.Hot Tears Figure 10.11 Examples of hot tears in castings. owing to constraints in various portions of the molds and cores. These defects occur because the casting cannot shrink freely during cooling. Exothermic (heatproducing) compounds may be used (as exothermic padding) to control cooling at critical sections to avoid hot tearing.

These defects can be minimized or eliminated by proper design and preparation of molds and control of pouring procedures. Source: J.12 Examples of common defects in castings. Datsko. .Casting Defects Figure 10.

13 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. . as shown in (c).Internal and External Chills Figure 10. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metals.

Solubility of Hydrogen in Aluminum Figure 10.14 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. . Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.

Metal-Casting Processes .

Introduction (1)Metal casting processes (2)Principles (3)Advantages (4)Limitations .

Impact on the casting industry (1)Mechanization and automation (2)High quality with close tolerance .

.Casting Examples Figure 11. Figure 11.2 Typical grayiron castings used in automobiles. including transmission valve body (left) and hub rotor with disk-brake cylinder (front).3 A cast transmission housing. Source: Courtesy of Central Foundry Division of General Motors Corporation.

Major classification of casting processes (1)Expendable molds . . plaster . ceramics . and similar materials .sand . bonding agent .which are generally mixed with various binder.

Major classification of casting processes (2)Permanent molds -metals with adequate strength at high temperature (3)Composite molds .

permeability -clay (a cohesive agent) .Sand casting (1)Process (2)Sands -silixca(SiO2):naturally bonded synthetic (preferred ) -grain shape and size affect mold surface . strength .

5 Outline of production steps in a typical sand-casting operation.Steps in Sand Casting Figure 11. 34 .

(k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and buoyant forces in the liquid. A bottom board is placed below the drag and aligned with pins. with the pattern inserted.11 (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. (g) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. which might lift the cope. flask. (l) After the metal solidifies. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled and the casting is cleaned. and the pattern is withdrawn. inspected. and heat treated (when necessary). leaving the appropriate imprint.) Figure 11. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. and bottom board are inverted.Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting (cont. (i) The pattern. the casting is removed from the mold. .

better dimensional accuracy and surface finish the least expensive .Sand casting (3)Three basic types of sand molds -green sand:a mixture of sand. clay. and water skin-dried (baked)-stronger.

Sand casting -cold-box:organic and inorganic binder +sand greater strength more dimensional accuracy more expensive -no-bake mold (cold-setting): a synthetic liquid resin + sand at room temperature .

drag .4) -flask .Sand casting (4)Major component of sand casting(fig.11. cheeks -pouring basin or cup . gates -risers (blind and open) -cores -vents . cope . sprue -runner system .

. showing various features.Sand Mold Features Figure 11.4 Schematic illustration of a sand mold.

metal (table 11. plastic .2) -depends on size and shape of the casting dimensional accuracy quality molding process -parting agent .Sand casting (5)Patterns -wood .

) Permanent mold All Nonferrous (Al.05 0. depending on the methods used. mold Cu) All (High melting Investment pt. Mg.5 2 12 100 .General Characteristics of Casting Processes TABLE 11.05 Process Sand Shell Expendable mold pattern Maximum No limit 100+ Typical surface finish (µm. 1 3 0. Note : These ratings are only general. Ra) 5-25 1-3 Section thic kness (mm) Shape Dimensional Porosity* complexity* accuracy* 4 4 1-2 2-3 3 2 Minimum 3 2 Maximum No limit -- All Nonferrous Plaster (Al. Mg. Zn. Zn.05 No limit 5-20 4 1 2 2 No limit 0. 5 worst.005 0.2 Typical materials cast All All Weig ht (kg) Minimum 0. Die Cu) Centrifugal All 0. significant variations can occur.05 50 1-2 1-2 3-4 -5000+ 2-10 1-2 3-4 *Relative rating: 1 best.05 50+ 1-2 3 1-2 2 1 -- 0.5 100+ 300 1-3 2-3 3 2-3 1 3-4 1 1 1 2 75 50 <0.

Sand casting -one-piece patterns simple shape and low quality production wood -split patterns (two-piece) cavity -match-plate pattern (fig .6) a popular type each half of one or more split patterns large production .11.

Patterns for Sand Casting Figure 11.6 A typical metal match-plate pattern used in sand casting. Figure 11. .7 Taper on patterns for ease of removal from the sand mold.

11.8) -chaplets:metal supports for shifting -core blowers . no-bake .Sand casting (6)Cores -shell . or cold-box processes -core prints (fig.

.Examples of Sand Cores and Chaplets Figure 11.8 Examples of sand cores showing core prints and chaplets to support cores.

7-8) -vertical flask less molding (fig .11.11. squeezing .9) -impact molding -vacuum molding (V process ) .Sand casting (7)Sand-molding machines -jolting . compacting(fig.

and (d) flexible diaphragm. Source: © Institute of British Foundrymen. Used with permission. (b) profile head.9 Various designs of squeeze heads for mold making: (a) conventional flat head. .Squeeze Heads Figure 11. (c) equalizing squeeze pistons.

10 Vertical flaskless molding. (a) Sand is squeezed between two halves of the pattern. .Vertical Flaskless Molding Figure 11. (b) Assembled molds pass along an assembly line for pouring.

-solidification -surface of casting -heat treatment -finishing operations .Sand casting (8)Sand-casting operation(fig.10) -molds -gating system . risers.11.

The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. which are pasted together. (continued) .Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting Figure 11. (b-c) Patterns have been mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. Considerations such as part shrinkage and draft must be built into the drawing. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves.11 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations for sand casting. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part is used to generate a design for the pattern. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins.

Shell Molding
(1)Close tolerance and good surface finishing Suited for nearly any metal More economical Casting with sharper corners , thinner section , smaller projection High quality and complex shapes Typical parts : gear housings , cylinder head , connecting rods ,high-precision molding cores

Surface Roughness for Various Metalworking Processes

Figure 11.12 Surface roughness in casting and other metalworking processes. See also Figs. 22.14 and 26.4 for comparison with other manufacturing processes.

Dump-Box Technique
Figure 11.13 A common method of making shell molds. Called dump-box technique, the limitations are the formation of voids in the shell and peelback (when sections of the shell fall off as the pattern is raised). Source: ASM International.

(b) A composite mold used in casting an aluminum-alloy torque converter. 1980. Source: Metals Handbook. vol. 8th ed.14 (a) Schematic illustration of a semipermanent composite mold. 5. . 5th ed. Source: Steel Castings Handbook.Composite Molds Figure 11. This part was previously cast in an all-plaster mold. Steel Founders' Society of America.

5-4.Shell Molding (2)Process -a mounted pat tern of a ferrous or aluminum at 175-370℃ -coated with a parting agent (silicone ) -sand + 2.0 % thermosetting resin binder -sand mixture is blown over the heated pattern -shell hardens around the pattern and is removed from the pat tern -assemble of the shell .

5-l0mm -a much lower permeability produce a high volume of gas .Shell Molding (3)Characteristics of shell -thickness depend on time .

impellers -increase the strength of mold improve the dimensional accuracy and finish reduce overall costs and processing time .Shell Molding (4)Composite molds -two or more different materials and used in shell molding and other casting processes -complex shapes ex .

5-6 % sodium silicate (waterglass) + CO2 gas -used as cores .Sodium Silicate Process (CO2 Process) -sand + 1.

Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (1)Process -polystryrene + 5-8 % pentane or PMMA. polyalkylene carbonate placed at a preheated AL die -pattern coated with a water-base refractory slurry. and placed in a flask -sand + pattern . dried .

.Expendable Pattern Casting Figure 11.15 Schematic illustration of the expendable pattern casting process. also known as lost foam or evaporative casting.

Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (2)Velocity of molten metal:0.1-1 m/s (3)Advantages -relatively simple process -inexpensive flasks .

Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) -complex shapes . and fine surface detail of inexpensive polystyrene pattern -minimum finishing and cleaning operation -economical for long production runs -automation . various sizes .

manifolds for automobiles -machine bases . brake components . crankshafts .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (4)Typical parts -cylinder heads .

Plastor-Mold Casting (1)Process -plaster + talc /silica flour + water placed at patter within 15 min -plaster mold dried at 120-260℃ -mold assembled and preheated to about 120℃ -pouring -shakeout .

Plastor-Mold Casting (2)Pattern for plaster molding : Al alloys. then dehydrated in air for 14 hrs -foamed plaster . thermosetting plastic . or zinc alloys (3)Increasing permeability -Antioch process : -dehydrated in a pressurized oven for 6-12 hrs. brass .

temperature:about 1200℃ -used only for Al . Zn .Plastor-Mold Casting (4)Characteristics -Max. and some Cu-base alloys casting . Mg .

investment casting) -high dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -weight less than 10 kg .Plastor-Mold Casting -precision casting (Ceramic-mold . typical range of 125-250 g .

Plastor-Mold Casting (5)Typical parts -lock component -gears -valves -fitting -tooling -ornaments .

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (1)Process -slurry of fine-grained zircon . burned off -ceramic facings assembled into a complete mold -pouring -shakeout . aluminum oxide . fused silica . and bonding agent poured into pattern -green mold dried .

. vol.17 A typical ceramic mold (Shaw process) for casting steel dies used in hot forging.16 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. vol. 5. 8th ed. 5. 8th ed. Source: Metals Handbook.Ceramic Molds Figure 11. Figure 11. Source: Metals Handbook.

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (2)Casting materials -ferrous and other high-temperature alloys -stainless steels -tool steels .

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (3)Characteristics -good dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -intricate shapes -expensive -weight up to 700 kg .

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (4)Typical parts -impellers -cutters for machining -dies for metalworking -molds .

Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (1)Process -mold to make pattern -wax pattern -pattern assembly (tree) -slurry and stucco coating -completed mold -pattern melt out -pouring molten metal -shakeout -casting .

Investment Casting Figure 11. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. (lostwax process).18 Schematic illustration of investment casting. .

ferrous and nonferrous metals -good surface finish -close tolerance -little or no finishing operations -intricate shapes .Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (2)Characteristics -casting high melting point a1loys ex .

Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (3)Typical parts -gears -cams -valves -ratchets .

Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (1)Process -wax or plaster pattern -pattern dipped in ethyl silicate gel -pattern dipped in a fluidized bed of fine grained fused silica or zircon flour -pattern dipped in coarser grain silica to withdraw the thermal shock of pouring -the rest of the procedure is similar to lost-wax process .

19 Investment casting of an integrally cast rotor for a gas turbine. (b) Ceramic shell around wax pattern. Source: Howmet Corporation. (a) Wax pattern assembly. (d) The cast rotor. with molten superalloy.Investment Casting of a Rotor Figure 11. (c) Wax is melted out and the mold is filled. under a vacuum. produced to net or near-net shape. .

(bottom) conventionally cast. 25 ASM International .Investment and Conventionally Cast Rotors Figure 11. p. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. October 1990.20 Crosssection and microstructure of two rotors: (top) investment-cast.

Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (2)Economical process (3)Precision casting of steels and hightemperature alloy .

vacuum .Vacuum Casting (1)Process .drawing the molten metal into the mold cavity .sand + urethane molded .

Vacuum-Casting Process Figure 11. p.21 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process." Advanced Materials and Processes. Source: From R. ASM International. . Note that the mold has a bottom gate. February 1990. 18. Blackburn. "Vacuum Casting Goes Commercial. (a) Before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal.

Vacuum Casting (2)Characteristics -temperature of molten metal:liquids temp.+ 55℃ -suitab1e for thin wall(1.75mm)complex shapes .

Vacuum Casting -casting of carbon and low.and highalloys steel part -weight up to 70kg -inexpensive production costs (similar to green sand casting) .

gray iron. low-carbon steel (3)Mo Id preheated to 150-200 ℃ .plaster . refractory metal alloys (2)Core material :oil -bonded or resinbonded sand .Permanent-Mold Casting (1)Mold material:cast iron. bronze. stee1. graphite . graphite.

Permanent-Mold Casting (4)Casting material :A1 . Cu alloys . close tolerance . Mg . steel (5)Good surface finish . Uniform and good mechanical properties High production rates . gray iron .

gear blanks . cylinder head connecting rods .Permanent-Mold Casting (6)Typi calparts:automobile piston .

Slush Casting (1)Process -pour molten metal into mold -mold inverted -remaining liquid metal is poured out -hollow casting with thin walls .

Pb alloys .Sn .Slush Casting (2)Small production runs (3)Typical parts:ornamental and decorative objects and toys (4)Casting material :Zn .

Pressure Casting (1)Process -molten metal forced upward by gas pres sure or vacuum into a graphite or metal mold .

Source: The Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.22 (a) The bottom-pressure casting process utilizes graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. .Pressure Casting Figure 11. (b) Gravity-pouring method of casting a railroad wheel. Railroad wheels can also be manufactured by forging. Note that the pouring basin also serves as a riser.

Die Casting-two basic types A.35MPa average 15MPa (2)Dies cooled by circulating water or oil (3)Casting low-melting-point alloys: Zn . Sn . Pb . Hot-chamber process (1)Pressure: max.

Die-Casting Examples (a) (b) Figure 11 (a) The Polaroid PDC-2000 digital camera with a AZ91D die-cast. (b) Two-piece Polaroid camera case made by the hot-chamber die casting process. Inc. high purity magnesium case. Source: Courtesy of Polaroid Corporation and Chicago White Metal Casting. .

Mg . max.Cu alloys .150MPa (2)Casting high-melting-point alloys:A1.Die Casting-two basic types B .Cold-chamber process (1)Pressure: 20-70 MPa.

Hot.and Cold-Chamber DieCasting (a) (b) Figure 11. (b) Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process.23 (a) Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process. . Source: Courtesy of Foundry Management and Technology.

.Cold-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (a) Figure 11. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting because large forces are required to keep the two halves of the dies closed.24 (a) Schematic illustration of a cold-chamber die-casting machine.

DAM 8005 (made in Germany in 1998).24 (b) 800-ton hot-chamber die-casting machine.Hot-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (b) Figure 11.25 million. . This is the largest hot-chamber machine in the world and costs about $1.

Die Casting-two basic types C.hand tools . motors.toys (2)Die casting dies . Characteristics (1)Typical parts : carburetors. business machine .

(b) Grooved threaded rod. Figure 11. (a) Knurled bushings.Die-Casting Die Cavities Figure 11.place inserts in die casting.26 Examples of cast-in. . Source: Courtesy of American Die Casting Institute.25 Various types of cavities in a die-casting die.

dimensional accuracy and surface finish Complex shapes (wall thickness as small as 0.Die Casting-two basic types (3)High production rates Good strength.5mIm) Little or no finishing operations .

graphite coated with a refractory lining (2)Pressure: max. True centrifugal casting (1)Mold material: steel. iron.Centrifugal Casting-three types A.150g .

cylinder liners. . and similarly shaped parts can be cast with this process. Pipes.27 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process.Centrifugal Casting Process Figure 11.

Properties and Typical Applications of Common Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 11. 3 (4 Al) 380 230 280 200 160 -- 15 3 10 5 (4 Al-1 Cu) Source : Data from American Die Casting Institute 320 -- 7 . automotive parts. electrical motor frames and housings Complex shapes with thin walls. ornamental castings Power tools. lock hardware.5 Cu-8. household utensils. automotive parts. sporting goods Automotive parts.4 Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) 320 300 13 (12 Si) Alloy Aluminum 380 (3. bushings.7 Zn) Zinc No. parts requiring strength at elevated temperatures Plumbing fiztures. building hardware. building hardware. toys Appliances.5 Si) Yield strength (MPa) 160 150 Elongation in 50 mm (%) 2.5 Applications Appliances.5 2. office equipment. business equipment Brass 858 (60 Cu) Magnesium AZ91 B (9 Al-0. automotive components.

Centrifugal Casting-three types (3)Cylindrical parts: diameter: 13mm-3m length: 16m wall thickness :6-125mm (4)Typical parts: pipes. gun barrels . bushing. enginecylinder liners bearing rings.

Semi centrifugal casting (1)Casting parts with rotational symmetry C .Centrifugal Casting-three types B .Centrifuging .

The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process.28 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. . (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging.Semicentrifugal Casting Figure 11. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal force.

mortar bodies .Squeeze Casting (1)Combination of casting and forging (2)Fine microstructure Good mechanical proper ties (3)Typical parts: automotive whee1.

Squeeze-Casting Figure 11. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.29 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. .

Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (1)Convent ional casting of turbine blades -ceramic casting: polycrystalline structure (fig.10.1c) poor resistant to creep and cracking .

Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (2)Directionally solidified blades -columnar grains -better resistant to creep (3)Single-crystal blades -best resistant to creep and thermal shock .

50-150 mm length 1m -floating zone method . Ge ingots: dia.Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (4)Single-crystal growing -crystal pulling (Czochralski process ) Si.

Scientific American. Kear. ASM International. October 1990. 29. October 1986. p. (c) . and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. (c) Advanced Materials and Processes.Single Crystal Casting of Turbine Blades Figure 11. Source: (a) and (b) B. H.30 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade.

Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.. Inc. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. Van Vlack. Source: L. H.. 1982.Single Crystal Casting Figure 11.31 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) the floating-zone method. . Materials for Engineering.

.Melt Spinning Figure 11.32 Schematic illustration of melt-spinning to produce thin strips of amorphous metal.

and (b) cupola.33 Two types of melting furnaces used in foundries: (a) crucible.Types of Melting Furnaces Figure 11. .

Inspection of Castings (1)Destructive tests (2)Nondestructive tests .

low porosity. excellent surface finish and accuracy. Excellent dimensional accuracy and surface finish.racy and finish. Limited size. Part size limited. Equipment is expensive. Most metals cast with no limit to size. expensive patterns. low tooling cost. Permanent mold High mold cost. almost any metal cast. wide tolerances. complex shapes Intricate shapes. somewhat coarse finish. no limit to size. Good surface finish and dimensional accuracy. shape or weight. molds. part shape limited. expensive patterns and equipment required. high production rate. close tolerance parts. Die cost is high.TABLE 11. high production rate. mold making time relatively long. and labor. not suitable for high-melting-point metals. good surface finish. part size limited. limited size and volume of production. usually limited to nonferrous metals. Die Centrifugal Large cylindrical parts with good quality. 118 . Limitations Some finishing required. high production rate. high production rate.1 Process Sand Advantages Almost any metal cast. limited shape and intricacy. Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Intricate shapes. low porosity. good dimensional accu. Patterns have low strength and can be costly for low quantities Limited to nonferrous metals. long lead time. Shell mold Expendable pattern Summary of Casting Processes Plaster mold Ceramic mold Intricate shapes. Investment Part size limited.

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