Fundamental of Metal Casting

Factors in casting operation
(1)Solidification (2)Fluidity of molten metal (3)Heat transfer (4)Mold material

(1)Nucleation -homogeneous -heterogeneous (2)Growth -planar -dendrite

Solidification of metals
(1)Pure metals (fig.10.1-2) -skin , shell , or chill zone of fine equiaxed grains -columnar grains (2)Alloys(fig .10.3-4) -chill zone -columnar dendrites -equiaxed zone (grains )

Cast Structures of Metals
Figure 10.1 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals; (b) solid-solution alloys; and (c) structure obtained by using nucleating agents. Source: G. W. Form, J. F. Wallace, J. L. Walker, and A. Cibula.

Preferred Texture Development

Figure 10.2 Development of a preferred texture at a cool mold wall. Note that only favorably oriented grains grow away from the surface of the mold.

Alloy Solidification Figure 10. .3 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Note the formation of dendrites in the mushy zone.

Bishop and W. .4 (a) Solidification patterns for gray cast iron in a 180-mm (7-in. Source: H.) square casting. It takes about two hours for this casting to solidify completely.Solidification Patterns Figure 10. but the casting is still mushy throughout. (b) Solidification of carbon steels in sand and chill (metal) molds. of cooling. dendrites reach each other. Note that after 11 min. F. S. Note the difference in solidification patterns as the carbon content increases. Pellini.

5 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Apelian. Figure 10. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. . two phase. Source: D. Apelian.6 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. and (b) plane front.Cast Structures Figure 10. Source: D. (b) equiaxed dendritic. single phase.

Effects of cooling rates (1)Slow cooling rates (order of 102K/s ) -coarse dendritic structure (2)Faster cooling rates (order of 104K/s ) -finer with smaller dendrite arm spacing (3)Faster cooling rates (order of 106 to 108K/s ) -amorphous .

Grain size of the cast alloy decreases (1)Strength and ductility increase (2)Microporosity decreases (3)Tendency to crack (hot tearing) decreases .

Fluid flow (1)Bernoulli's theorem (2)Continuity law (3)Flow characteristics -turbulence or laminar flow .

Risers serve as reservoirs. supplying molten metal to the casting as it shrinks during solidification.7 Schematic illustration of a typical riser-gated casting. .4 Source: American Foundrymen’s Society. 11.Riser-Gated Casting Figure 10. See also Fig.

Fluidity of molten metal A .Molten metal (1)Viscosity (2)Surface tension (3)Inclusions (4)Solidification pattern (freezing range ) .

the greater is its fluidity.8 A test method for fluidity using a spiral mold.Fluidity Test Figure 10. The greater the length of the solidified metal. The fluidity index is the length of the solidified metal in the spiral passage. .

9) .Fluidity of molten metal B .10.Casting parameters (1)Mold design (2)Mold material and its surface characteristics (3)Degree of superheat (4)Rate of pouring (5)Heat transfer (fig.

Temperature Distribution Figure 10. .9 Temperature distribution at the interface of the mold wall and the liquid metal during solidification of metals in casting.

Solidification time 2   volume  = C  surface area    .

J. Taylor. and M. which is based on this principle.Solidification Time Figure 10. C. Flemings. Wulff.10 Solidified skin on a steel casting. . Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. Source: H. F. The remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure.

Shrinkage (1)Dimensional changes (2)Cracking .

2 4–5.5 4. A.1 Metal or alloy Aluminum Al–4.5 . Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 6.5 6.8 2.6 6.5–3 4 4.9 Metal or alloy 70%Cu–30%Zn 90%Cu–10%Al Gray iron Magnesium White iron Zinc Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 4.5%Cu Al–12%Si Carbon steel 1% carbon steel Copper Source: After R.5 4 Expansion to 2.Solidification Contraction for Various Cast Metals TABLE 10. Flinn.3 3.

10.Defects (1)Metallic projections (2)Cavities (3)Discontinuities (4)Defective surface (5)Incomplete casting (6)Incorrect dimensions or shape (7)Inclusions (8)Porosity (fig .13-15) .

Hot Tears Figure 10. These defects occur because the casting cannot shrink freely during cooling. . owing to constraints in various portions of the molds and cores. Exothermic (heatproducing) compounds may be used (as exothermic padding) to control cooling at critical sections to avoid hot tearing.11 Examples of hot tears in castings.

These defects can be minimized or eliminated by proper design and preparation of molds and control of pouring procedures. . Datsko.Casting Defects Figure 10.12 Examples of common defects in castings. Source: J.

. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metals. as shown in (c). used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage.Internal and External Chills Figure 10.13 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners).

Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.Solubility of Hydrogen in Aluminum Figure 10. .14 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum.

Metal-Casting Processes .

Introduction (1)Metal casting processes (2)Principles (3)Advantages (4)Limitations .

Impact on the casting industry (1)Mechanization and automation (2)High quality with close tolerance .

Figure 11. . Source: Courtesy of Central Foundry Division of General Motors Corporation. including transmission valve body (left) and hub rotor with disk-brake cylinder (front).Casting Examples Figure 11.3 A cast transmission housing.2 Typical grayiron castings used in automobiles.

ceramics .which are generally mixed with various binder. .sand . bonding agent . plaster . and similar materials .Major classification of casting processes (1)Expendable molds .

Major classification of casting processes (2)Permanent molds -metals with adequate strength at high temperature (3)Composite molds .

strength .Sand casting (1)Process (2)Sands -silixca(SiO2):naturally bonded synthetic (preferred ) -grain shape and size affect mold surface . permeability -clay (a cohesive agent) .

Steps in Sand Casting Figure 11. 34 .5 Outline of production steps in a typical sand-casting operation.

) Figure 11. and heat treated (when necessary). . with the pattern inserted. (i) The pattern. inspected. leaving the appropriate imprint. (g) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled and the casting is cleaned. A bottom board is placed below the drag and aligned with pins. flask.Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting (cont. the casting is removed from the mold. and bottom board are inverted. and the pattern is withdrawn. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and buoyant forces in the liquid. (l) After the metal solidifies. which might lift the cope.11 (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed.

Sand casting (3)Three basic types of sand molds -green sand:a mixture of sand. and water skin-dried (baked)-stronger. clay. better dimensional accuracy and surface finish the least expensive .

Sand casting -cold-box:organic and inorganic binder +sand greater strength more dimensional accuracy more expensive -no-bake mold (cold-setting): a synthetic liquid resin + sand at room temperature .

sprue -runner system .4) -flask .11. drag . cheeks -pouring basin or cup . cope .Sand casting (4)Major component of sand casting(fig. gates -risers (blind and open) -cores -vents .

Sand Mold Features Figure 11.4 Schematic illustration of a sand mold. showing various features. .

metal (table 11.2) -depends on size and shape of the casting dimensional accuracy quality molding process -parting agent .Sand casting (5)Patterns -wood . plastic .

05 Process Sand Shell Expendable mold pattern Maximum No limit 100+ Typical surface finish (µm. Zn.05 0. Zn. Die Cu) Centrifugal All 0. Mg.2 Typical materials cast All All Weig ht (kg) Minimum 0.5 2 12 100 . mold Cu) All (High melting Investment pt.05 50 1-2 1-2 3-4 -5000+ 2-10 1-2 3-4 *Relative rating: 1 best. depending on the methods used.5 100+ 300 1-3 2-3 3 2-3 1 3-4 1 1 1 2 75 50 <0. significant variations can occur.05 No limit 5-20 4 1 2 2 No limit 0. Mg.005 0. Ra) 5-25 1-3 Section thic kness (mm) Shape Dimensional Porosity* complexity* accuracy* 4 4 1-2 2-3 3 2 Minimum 3 2 Maximum No limit -- All Nonferrous Plaster (Al.General Characteristics of Casting Processes TABLE 11. 5 worst. Note : These ratings are only general.05 50+ 1-2 3 1-2 2 1 -- 0.) Permanent mold All Nonferrous (Al. 1 3 0.

11.6) a popular type each half of one or more split patterns large production .Sand casting -one-piece patterns simple shape and low quality production wood -split patterns (two-piece) cavity -match-plate pattern (fig .

Patterns for Sand Casting Figure 11. .7 Taper on patterns for ease of removal from the sand mold. Figure 11.6 A typical metal match-plate pattern used in sand casting.

or cold-box processes -core prints (fig.Sand casting (6)Cores -shell .11.8) -chaplets:metal supports for shifting -core blowers . no-bake .

Examples of Sand Cores and Chaplets Figure 11.8 Examples of sand cores showing core prints and chaplets to support cores. .

9) -impact molding -vacuum molding (V process ) .7-8) -vertical flask less molding (fig . squeezing .11. compacting(fig.Sand casting (7)Sand-molding machines -jolting .11.

. Source: © Institute of British Foundrymen.9 Various designs of squeeze heads for mold making: (a) conventional flat head. (b) profile head. and (d) flexible diaphragm. Used with permission. (c) equalizing squeeze pistons.Squeeze Heads Figure 11.

10 Vertical flaskless molding. (a) Sand is squeezed between two halves of the pattern. (b) Assembled molds pass along an assembly line for pouring. .Vertical Flaskless Molding Figure 11.

-solidification -surface of casting -heat treatment -finishing operations .10) -molds -gating system . risers.11.Sand casting (8)Sand-casting operation(fig.

Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting Figure 11. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. (continued) . (b-c) Patterns have been mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part is used to generate a design for the pattern. Considerations such as part shrinkage and draft must be built into the drawing. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. which are pasted together. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.11 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations for sand casting. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers.

Shell Molding
(1)Close tolerance and good surface finishing Suited for nearly any metal More economical Casting with sharper corners , thinner section , smaller projection High quality and complex shapes Typical parts : gear housings , cylinder head , connecting rods ,high-precision molding cores

Surface Roughness for Various Metalworking Processes

Figure 11.12 Surface roughness in casting and other metalworking processes. See also Figs. 22.14 and 26.4 for comparison with other manufacturing processes.

Dump-Box Technique
Figure 11.13 A common method of making shell molds. Called dump-box technique, the limitations are the formation of voids in the shell and peelback (when sections of the shell fall off as the pattern is raised). Source: ASM International.

Steel Founders' Society of America.Composite Molds Figure 11. Source: Steel Castings Handbook. Source: Metals Handbook. 5th ed. .14 (a) Schematic illustration of a semipermanent composite mold. 1980. (b) A composite mold used in casting an aluminum-alloy torque converter. 8th ed. vol. 5. This part was previously cast in an all-plaster mold.

Shell Molding (2)Process -a mounted pat tern of a ferrous or aluminum at 175-370℃ -coated with a parting agent (silicone ) -sand + 2.0 % thermosetting resin binder -sand mixture is blown over the heated pattern -shell hardens around the pattern and is removed from the pat tern -assemble of the shell .5-4.

5-l0mm -a much lower permeability produce a high volume of gas .Shell Molding (3)Characteristics of shell -thickness depend on time .

Shell Molding (4)Composite molds -two or more different materials and used in shell molding and other casting processes -complex shapes ex . impellers -increase the strength of mold improve the dimensional accuracy and finish reduce overall costs and processing time .

5-6 % sodium silicate (waterglass) + CO2 gas -used as cores .Sodium Silicate Process (CO2 Process) -sand + 1.

dried . polyalkylene carbonate placed at a preheated AL die -pattern coated with a water-base refractory slurry. and placed in a flask -sand + pattern .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (1)Process -polystryrene + 5-8 % pentane or PMMA.

15 Schematic illustration of the expendable pattern casting process. also known as lost foam or evaporative casting. .Expendable Pattern Casting Figure 11.

Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (2)Velocity of molten metal:0.1-1 m/s (3)Advantages -relatively simple process -inexpensive flasks .

and fine surface detail of inexpensive polystyrene pattern -minimum finishing and cleaning operation -economical for long production runs -automation .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) -complex shapes . various sizes .

brake components . crankshafts .manifolds for automobiles -machine bases .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (4)Typical parts -cylinder heads .

Plastor-Mold Casting (1)Process -plaster + talc /silica flour + water placed at patter within 15 min -plaster mold dried at 120-260℃ -mold assembled and preheated to about 120℃ -pouring -shakeout .

then dehydrated in air for 14 hrs -foamed plaster . or zinc alloys (3)Increasing permeability -Antioch process : -dehydrated in a pressurized oven for 6-12 hrs. brass .Plastor-Mold Casting (2)Pattern for plaster molding : Al alloys. thermosetting plastic .

Mg . and some Cu-base alloys casting . Zn . temperature:about 1200℃ -used only for Al .Plastor-Mold Casting (4)Characteristics -Max.

Plastor-Mold Casting -precision casting (Ceramic-mold . investment casting) -high dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -weight less than 10 kg . typical range of 125-250 g .

Plastor-Mold Casting (5)Typical parts -lock component -gears -valves -fitting -tooling -ornaments .

burned off -ceramic facings assembled into a complete mold -pouring -shakeout .Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (1)Process -slurry of fine-grained zircon . aluminum oxide . and bonding agent poured into pattern -green mold dried . fused silica .

5.16 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. vol. Source: Metals Handbook. 8th ed.Ceramic Molds Figure 11. Figure 11. 8th ed. vol.17 A typical ceramic mold (Shaw process) for casting steel dies used in hot forging. Source: Metals Handbook. 5. .

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (2)Casting materials -ferrous and other high-temperature alloys -stainless steels -tool steels .

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (3)Characteristics -good dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -intricate shapes -expensive -weight up to 700 kg .

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (4)Typical parts -impellers -cutters for machining -dies for metalworking -molds .

Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (1)Process -mold to make pattern -wax pattern -pattern assembly (tree) -slurry and stucco coating -completed mold -pattern melt out -pouring molten metal -shakeout -casting .

Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. (lostwax process).18 Schematic illustration of investment casting. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals.Investment Casting Figure 11. .

ferrous and nonferrous metals -good surface finish -close tolerance -little or no finishing operations -intricate shapes .Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (2)Characteristics -casting high melting point a1loys ex .

Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (3)Typical parts -gears -cams -valves -ratchets .

Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (1)Process -wax or plaster pattern -pattern dipped in ethyl silicate gel -pattern dipped in a fluidized bed of fine grained fused silica or zircon flour -pattern dipped in coarser grain silica to withdraw the thermal shock of pouring -the rest of the procedure is similar to lost-wax process .

Source: Howmet Corporation.Investment Casting of a Rotor Figure 11.19 Investment casting of an integrally cast rotor for a gas turbine. under a vacuum. with molten superalloy. (c) Wax is melted out and the mold is filled. . (b) Ceramic shell around wax pattern. (a) Wax pattern assembly. produced to net or near-net shape. (d) The cast rotor.

Investment and Conventionally Cast Rotors Figure 11. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes.20 Crosssection and microstructure of two rotors: (top) investment-cast. October 1990. (bottom) conventionally cast. p. 25 ASM International .

Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (2)Economical process (3)Precision casting of steels and hightemperature alloy .

vacuum .Vacuum Casting (1)Process .sand + urethane molded .drawing the molten metal into the mold cavity .

February 1990. Source: From R. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. ASM International. "Vacuum Casting Goes Commercial. (a) Before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. Blackburn." Advanced Materials and Processes. 18.Vacuum-Casting Process Figure 11.21 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. . p.

Vacuum Casting (2)Characteristics -temperature of molten metal:liquids temp.+ 55℃ -suitab1e for thin wall(1.75mm)complex shapes .

Vacuum Casting -casting of carbon and low.and highalloys steel part -weight up to 70kg -inexpensive production costs (similar to green sand casting) .

low-carbon steel (3)Mo Id preheated to 150-200 ℃ .Permanent-Mold Casting (1)Mold material:cast iron. graphite.plaster . graphite . refractory metal alloys (2)Core material :oil -bonded or resinbonded sand . gray iron. stee1. bronze.

Cu alloys .Permanent-Mold Casting (4)Casting material :A1 . close tolerance . steel (5)Good surface finish . Uniform and good mechanical properties High production rates . gray iron . Mg .

cylinder head connecting rods .Permanent-Mold Casting (6)Typi calparts:automobile piston . gear blanks .

Slush Casting (1)Process -pour molten metal into mold -mold inverted -remaining liquid metal is poured out -hollow casting with thin walls .

Slush Casting (2)Small production runs (3)Typical parts:ornamental and decorative objects and toys (4)Casting material :Zn .Pb alloys .Sn .

Pressure Casting (1)Process -molten metal forced upward by gas pres sure or vacuum into a graphite or metal mold .

(b) Gravity-pouring method of casting a railroad wheel. . Source: The Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.Pressure Casting Figure 11. Railroad wheels can also be manufactured by forging. Note that the pouring basin also serves as a riser.22 (a) The bottom-pressure casting process utilizes graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels.

Sn .35MPa average 15MPa (2)Dies cooled by circulating water or oil (3)Casting low-melting-point alloys: Zn . Pb . Hot-chamber process (1)Pressure: max.Die Casting-two basic types A.

high purity magnesium case. .Die-Casting Examples (a) (b) Figure 11 (a) The Polaroid PDC-2000 digital camera with a AZ91D die-cast. Source: Courtesy of Polaroid Corporation and Chicago White Metal Casting. (b) Two-piece Polaroid camera case made by the hot-chamber die casting process. Inc.

Cu alloys .Mg .150MPa (2)Casting high-melting-point alloys:A1. max.Cold-chamber process (1)Pressure: 20-70 MPa.Die Casting-two basic types B .

(b) Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process.23 (a) Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process. .and Cold-Chamber DieCasting (a) (b) Figure 11.Hot. Source: Courtesy of Foundry Management and Technology.

24 (a) Schematic illustration of a cold-chamber die-casting machine. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting because large forces are required to keep the two halves of the dies closed.Cold-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (a) Figure 11. .

.Hot-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (b) Figure 11. This is the largest hot-chamber machine in the world and costs about $1.24 (b) 800-ton hot-chamber die-casting machine.25 million. DAM 8005 (made in Germany in 1998).

toys (2)Die casting dies . motors. business machine . Characteristics (1)Typical parts : carburetors.hand tools .Die Casting-two basic types C.

place inserts in die casting. (a) Knurled bushings.Die-Casting Die Cavities Figure 11. . (b) Grooved threaded rod. Source: Courtesy of American Die Casting Institute.25 Various types of cavities in a die-casting die. Figure 11.26 Examples of cast-in.

dimensional accuracy and surface finish Complex shapes (wall thickness as small as 0.Die Casting-two basic types (3)High production rates Good strength.5mIm) Little or no finishing operations .

graphite coated with a refractory lining (2)Pressure: max.150g . iron.Centrifugal Casting-three types A. True centrifugal casting (1)Mold material: steel.

and similarly shaped parts can be cast with this process. . cylinder liners. Pipes.Centrifugal Casting Process Figure 11.27 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process.

office equipment. business equipment Brass 858 (60 Cu) Magnesium AZ91 B (9 Al-0.4 Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) 320 300 13 (12 Si) Alloy Aluminum 380 (3.7 Zn) Zinc No. 3 (4 Al) 380 230 280 200 160 -- 15 3 10 5 (4 Al-1 Cu) Source : Data from American Die Casting Institute 320 -- 7 . building hardware. lock hardware. electrical motor frames and housings Complex shapes with thin walls. bushings.5 Cu-8. sporting goods Automotive parts. automotive parts. automotive parts. ornamental castings Power tools.5 2. building hardware.5 Si) Yield strength (MPa) 160 150 Elongation in 50 mm (%) 2.5 Applications Appliances.Properties and Typical Applications of Common Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 11. automotive components. toys Appliances. parts requiring strength at elevated temperatures Plumbing fiztures. household utensils.

bushing.Centrifugal Casting-three types (3)Cylindrical parts: diameter: 13mm-3m length: 16m wall thickness :6-125mm (4)Typical parts: pipes. gun barrels . enginecylinder liners bearing rings.

Semi centrifugal casting (1)Casting parts with rotational symmetry C .Centrifuging .Centrifugal Casting-three types B .

.Semicentrifugal Casting Figure 11.28 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal force.

mortar bodies .Squeeze Casting (1)Combination of casting and forging (2)Fine microstructure Good mechanical proper ties (3)Typical parts: automotive whee1.

This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.29 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process.Squeeze-Casting Figure 11. .

10.Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (1)Convent ional casting of turbine blades -ceramic casting: polycrystalline structure (fig.1c) poor resistant to creep and cracking .

Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (2)Directionally solidified blades -columnar grains -better resistant to creep (3)Single-crystal blades -best resistant to creep and thermal shock .

Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (4)Single-crystal growing -crystal pulling (Czochralski process ) Si. Ge ingots: dia.50-150 mm length 1m -floating zone method .

(c) Advanced Materials and Processes. 29.30 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. Kear. ASM International. p. Source: (a) and (b) B. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. October 1990. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. H. October 1986. Scientific American. (c) .Single Crystal Casting of Turbine Blades Figure 11.

.. H. 1982. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry.31 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) the floating-zone method. Van Vlack..Single Crystal Casting Figure 11. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Source: L. Inc. Materials for Engineering.

.32 Schematic illustration of melt-spinning to produce thin strips of amorphous metal.Melt Spinning Figure 11.

Types of Melting Furnaces Figure 11. . and (b) cupola.33 Two types of melting furnaces used in foundries: (a) crucible.

Inspection of Castings (1)Destructive tests (2)Nondestructive tests .

shape or weight. long lead time. Investment Part size limited.1 Process Sand Advantages Almost any metal cast. Die Centrifugal Large cylindrical parts with good quality. expensive patterns and equipment required. Part size limited. high production rate. good dimensional accu. and labor. Permanent mold High mold cost. Limited size. mold making time relatively long. Excellent dimensional accuracy and surface finish. expensive patterns. low porosity. 118 . no limit to size.TABLE 11. Limitations Some finishing required. Most metals cast with no limit to size. complex shapes Intricate shapes. almost any metal cast. excellent surface finish and accuracy.racy and finish. Die cost is high. Shell mold Expendable pattern Summary of Casting Processes Plaster mold Ceramic mold Intricate shapes. limited shape and intricacy. wide tolerances. limited size and volume of production. Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish. part size limited. not suitable for high-melting-point metals. high production rate. usually limited to nonferrous metals. good surface finish. Patterns have low strength and can be costly for low quantities Limited to nonferrous metals. high production rate. high production rate. part shape limited. low tooling cost. Good surface finish and dimensional accuracy. close tolerance parts. molds. Intricate shapes. low porosity. somewhat coarse finish. Equipment is expensive.

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