Fundamental of Metal Casting

Factors in casting operation
(1)Solidification (2)Fluidity of molten metal (3)Heat transfer (4)Mold material

(1)Nucleation -homogeneous -heterogeneous (2)Growth -planar -dendrite

Solidification of metals
(1)Pure metals (fig.10.1-2) -skin , shell , or chill zone of fine equiaxed grains -columnar grains (2)Alloys(fig .10.3-4) -chill zone -columnar dendrites -equiaxed zone (grains )

Cast Structures of Metals
Figure 10.1 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals; (b) solid-solution alloys; and (c) structure obtained by using nucleating agents. Source: G. W. Form, J. F. Wallace, J. L. Walker, and A. Cibula.

Preferred Texture Development

Figure 10.2 Development of a preferred texture at a cool mold wall. Note that only favorably oriented grains grow away from the surface of the mold.

3 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal.Alloy Solidification Figure 10. . Note the formation of dendrites in the mushy zone.

Solidification Patterns Figure 10. . It takes about two hours for this casting to solidify completely. Pellini. S. Bishop and W. Note the difference in solidification patterns as the carbon content increases. Note that after 11 min. but the casting is still mushy throughout.) square casting. of cooling. dendrites reach each other. Source: H.4 (a) Solidification patterns for gray cast iron in a 180-mm (7-in. F. (b) Solidification of carbon steels in sand and chill (metal) molds.

and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Apelian. Apelian. two phase. . Source: D. (b) equiaxed dendritic. and (b) plane front.Cast Structures Figure 10.5 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic.6 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. Source: D. Figure 10. single phase.

Effects of cooling rates (1)Slow cooling rates (order of 102K/s ) -coarse dendritic structure (2)Faster cooling rates (order of 104K/s ) -finer with smaller dendrite arm spacing (3)Faster cooling rates (order of 106 to 108K/s ) -amorphous .

Grain size of the cast alloy decreases (1)Strength and ductility increase (2)Microporosity decreases (3)Tendency to crack (hot tearing) decreases .

Fluid flow (1)Bernoulli's theorem (2)Continuity law (3)Flow characteristics -turbulence or laminar flow .

. supplying molten metal to the casting as it shrinks during solidification. See also Fig. 11. Risers serve as reservoirs.Riser-Gated Casting Figure 10.4 Source: American Foundrymen’s Society.7 Schematic illustration of a typical riser-gated casting.

Fluidity of molten metal A .Molten metal (1)Viscosity (2)Surface tension (3)Inclusions (4)Solidification pattern (freezing range ) .

The fluidity index is the length of the solidified metal in the spiral passage. The greater the length of the solidified metal.Fluidity Test Figure 10. .8 A test method for fluidity using a spiral mold. the greater is its fluidity.

10.Casting parameters (1)Mold design (2)Mold material and its surface characteristics (3)Degree of superheat (4)Rate of pouring (5)Heat transfer (fig.Fluidity of molten metal B .9) .

Temperature Distribution Figure 10.9 Temperature distribution at the interface of the mold wall and the liquid metal during solidification of metals in casting. .

Solidification time 2   volume  = C  surface area    .

Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. The remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. Source: H.10 Solidified skin on a steel casting. Wulff. . Taylor. Flemings. J. which is based on this principle. F. and M.Solidification Time Figure 10. C.

Shrinkage (1)Dimensional changes (2)Cracking .

Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 6. Flinn.5–3 4 4.5 6.5 4 Expansion to 2.8 2.6 6. A.9 Metal or alloy 70%Cu–30%Zn 90%Cu–10%Al Gray iron Magnesium White iron Zinc Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 4.3 3.2 4–5.5 .5 4.1 Metal or alloy Aluminum Al–4.5%Cu Al–12%Si Carbon steel 1% carbon steel Copper Source: After R.Solidification Contraction for Various Cast Metals TABLE 10.

10.Defects (1)Metallic projections (2)Cavities (3)Discontinuities (4)Defective surface (5)Incomplete casting (6)Incorrect dimensions or shape (7)Inclusions (8)Porosity (fig .13-15) .

owing to constraints in various portions of the molds and cores.11 Examples of hot tears in castings. Exothermic (heatproducing) compounds may be used (as exothermic padding) to control cooling at critical sections to avoid hot tearing.Hot Tears Figure 10. . These defects occur because the casting cannot shrink freely during cooling.

. These defects can be minimized or eliminated by proper design and preparation of molds and control of pouring procedures.Casting Defects Figure 10. Source: J.12 Examples of common defects in castings. Datsko.

Internal and External Chills Figure 10. .13 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metals. used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. as shown in (c).

.Solubility of Hydrogen in Aluminum Figure 10. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.14 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum.

Metal-Casting Processes .

Introduction (1)Metal casting processes (2)Principles (3)Advantages (4)Limitations .

Impact on the casting industry (1)Mechanization and automation (2)High quality with close tolerance .

2 Typical grayiron castings used in automobiles. Source: Courtesy of Central Foundry Division of General Motors Corporation. Figure 11. .3 A cast transmission housing.Casting Examples Figure 11. including transmission valve body (left) and hub rotor with disk-brake cylinder (front).

. plaster . ceramics . and similar materials . bonding agent .Major classification of casting processes (1)Expendable molds .sand .which are generally mixed with various binder.

Major classification of casting processes (2)Permanent molds -metals with adequate strength at high temperature (3)Composite molds .

Sand casting (1)Process (2)Sands -silixca(SiO2):naturally bonded synthetic (preferred ) -grain shape and size affect mold surface . strength . permeability -clay (a cohesive agent) .

34 .5 Outline of production steps in a typical sand-casting operation.Steps in Sand Casting Figure 11.

.Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting (cont. A bottom board is placed below the drag and aligned with pins. flask.) Figure 11. with the pattern inserted.11 (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. which might lift the cope. leaving the appropriate imprint. and the pattern is withdrawn. inspected. (l) After the metal solidifies. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled and the casting is cleaned. and heat treated (when necessary). (g) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and buoyant forces in the liquid. and bottom board are inverted. (i) The pattern. the casting is removed from the mold. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity.

clay.Sand casting (3)Three basic types of sand molds -green sand:a mixture of sand. and water skin-dried (baked)-stronger. better dimensional accuracy and surface finish the least expensive .

Sand casting -cold-box:organic and inorganic binder +sand greater strength more dimensional accuracy more expensive -no-bake mold (cold-setting): a synthetic liquid resin + sand at room temperature .

Sand casting (4)Major component of sand casting(fig. gates -risers (blind and open) -cores -vents . cope .4) -flask .11. sprue -runner system . cheeks -pouring basin or cup . drag .

showing various features.4 Schematic illustration of a sand mold. .Sand Mold Features Figure 11.

plastic . metal (table 11.Sand casting (5)Patterns -wood .2) -depends on size and shape of the casting dimensional accuracy quality molding process -parting agent .

5 100+ 300 1-3 2-3 3 2-3 1 3-4 1 1 1 2 75 50 <0. Die Cu) Centrifugal All 0.05 No limit 5-20 4 1 2 2 No limit 0.General Characteristics of Casting Processes TABLE 11.2 Typical materials cast All All Weig ht (kg) Minimum 0. mold Cu) All (High melting Investment pt. 5 worst.) Permanent mold All Nonferrous (Al.05 Process Sand Shell Expendable mold pattern Maximum No limit 100+ Typical surface finish (µm.5 2 12 100 .005 0. Ra) 5-25 1-3 Section thic kness (mm) Shape Dimensional Porosity* complexity* accuracy* 4 4 1-2 2-3 3 2 Minimum 3 2 Maximum No limit -- All Nonferrous Plaster (Al. significant variations can occur. Mg.05 50+ 1-2 3 1-2 2 1 -- 0. 1 3 0. Note : These ratings are only general.05 0. depending on the methods used. Zn. Zn. Mg.05 50 1-2 1-2 3-4 -5000+ 2-10 1-2 3-4 *Relative rating: 1 best.

6) a popular type each half of one or more split patterns large production .Sand casting -one-piece patterns simple shape and low quality production wood -split patterns (two-piece) cavity -match-plate pattern (fig .11.

6 A typical metal match-plate pattern used in sand casting.Patterns for Sand Casting Figure 11. . Figure 11.7 Taper on patterns for ease of removal from the sand mold.

or cold-box processes -core prints (fig.Sand casting (6)Cores -shell .11. no-bake .8) -chaplets:metal supports for shifting -core blowers .

8 Examples of sand cores showing core prints and chaplets to support cores. .Examples of Sand Cores and Chaplets Figure 11.

7-8) -vertical flask less molding (fig . compacting(fig.9) -impact molding -vacuum molding (V process ) .11.11. squeezing .Sand casting (7)Sand-molding machines -jolting .

Used with permission. and (d) flexible diaphragm. (b) profile head. Source: © Institute of British Foundrymen.9 Various designs of squeeze heads for mold making: (a) conventional flat head.Squeeze Heads Figure 11. . (c) equalizing squeeze pistons.

(b) Assembled molds pass along an assembly line for pouring.10 Vertical flaskless molding.Vertical Flaskless Molding Figure 11. . (a) Sand is squeezed between two halves of the pattern.

11. -solidification -surface of casting -heat treatment -finishing operations .10) -molds -gating system . risers.Sand casting (8)Sand-casting operation(fig.

Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting Figure 11. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). which are pasted together. (continued) . Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. (b-c) Patterns have been mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. Considerations such as part shrinkage and draft must be built into the drawing. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part is used to generate a design for the pattern.11 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations for sand casting. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place.

Shell Molding
(1)Close tolerance and good surface finishing Suited for nearly any metal More economical Casting with sharper corners , thinner section , smaller projection High quality and complex shapes Typical parts : gear housings , cylinder head , connecting rods ,high-precision molding cores

Surface Roughness for Various Metalworking Processes

Figure 11.12 Surface roughness in casting and other metalworking processes. See also Figs. 22.14 and 26.4 for comparison with other manufacturing processes.

Dump-Box Technique
Figure 11.13 A common method of making shell molds. Called dump-box technique, the limitations are the formation of voids in the shell and peelback (when sections of the shell fall off as the pattern is raised). Source: ASM International.

vol. 8th ed. (b) A composite mold used in casting an aluminum-alloy torque converter. Source: Steel Castings Handbook. This part was previously cast in an all-plaster mold.14 (a) Schematic illustration of a semipermanent composite mold. Source: Metals Handbook. . 5th ed. 1980.Composite Molds Figure 11. Steel Founders' Society of America. 5.

Shell Molding (2)Process -a mounted pat tern of a ferrous or aluminum at 175-370℃ -coated with a parting agent (silicone ) -sand + 2.0 % thermosetting resin binder -sand mixture is blown over the heated pattern -shell hardens around the pattern and is removed from the pat tern -assemble of the shell .5-4.

5-l0mm -a much lower permeability produce a high volume of gas .Shell Molding (3)Characteristics of shell -thickness depend on time .

Shell Molding (4)Composite molds -two or more different materials and used in shell molding and other casting processes -complex shapes ex . impellers -increase the strength of mold improve the dimensional accuracy and finish reduce overall costs and processing time .

Sodium Silicate Process (CO2 Process) -sand + 1.5-6 % sodium silicate (waterglass) + CO2 gas -used as cores .

and placed in a flask -sand + pattern . polyalkylene carbonate placed at a preheated AL die -pattern coated with a water-base refractory slurry.Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (1)Process -polystryrene + 5-8 % pentane or PMMA. dried .

. also known as lost foam or evaporative casting.15 Schematic illustration of the expendable pattern casting process.Expendable Pattern Casting Figure 11.

Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (2)Velocity of molten metal:0.1-1 m/s (3)Advantages -relatively simple process -inexpensive flasks .

various sizes . and fine surface detail of inexpensive polystyrene pattern -minimum finishing and cleaning operation -economical for long production runs -automation .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) -complex shapes .

manifolds for automobiles -machine bases . crankshafts .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (4)Typical parts -cylinder heads . brake components .

Plastor-Mold Casting (1)Process -plaster + talc /silica flour + water placed at patter within 15 min -plaster mold dried at 120-260℃ -mold assembled and preheated to about 120℃ -pouring -shakeout .

brass . or zinc alloys (3)Increasing permeability -Antioch process : -dehydrated in a pressurized oven for 6-12 hrs. then dehydrated in air for 14 hrs -foamed plaster .Plastor-Mold Casting (2)Pattern for plaster molding : Al alloys. thermosetting plastic .

Mg . and some Cu-base alloys casting .Plastor-Mold Casting (4)Characteristics -Max. Zn . temperature:about 1200℃ -used only for Al .

typical range of 125-250 g .Plastor-Mold Casting -precision casting (Ceramic-mold . investment casting) -high dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -weight less than 10 kg .

Plastor-Mold Casting (5)Typical parts -lock component -gears -valves -fitting -tooling -ornaments .

burned off -ceramic facings assembled into a complete mold -pouring -shakeout . aluminum oxide . and bonding agent poured into pattern -green mold dried .Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (1)Process -slurry of fine-grained zircon . fused silica .

17 A typical ceramic mold (Shaw process) for casting steel dies used in hot forging. 8th ed. vol. Source: Metals Handbook. 5. .Ceramic Molds Figure 11. 5. Figure 11. vol.16 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. Source: Metals Handbook. 8th ed.

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (2)Casting materials -ferrous and other high-temperature alloys -stainless steels -tool steels .

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (3)Characteristics -good dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -intricate shapes -expensive -weight up to 700 kg .

Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (4)Typical parts -impellers -cutters for machining -dies for metalworking -molds .

Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (1)Process -mold to make pattern -wax pattern -pattern assembly (tree) -slurry and stucco coating -completed mold -pattern melt out -pouring molten metal -shakeout -casting .

Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. .Investment Casting Figure 11.18 Schematic illustration of investment casting. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. (lostwax process).

ferrous and nonferrous metals -good surface finish -close tolerance -little or no finishing operations -intricate shapes .Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (2)Characteristics -casting high melting point a1loys ex .

Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (3)Typical parts -gears -cams -valves -ratchets .

Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (1)Process -wax or plaster pattern -pattern dipped in ethyl silicate gel -pattern dipped in a fluidized bed of fine grained fused silica or zircon flour -pattern dipped in coarser grain silica to withdraw the thermal shock of pouring -the rest of the procedure is similar to lost-wax process .

19 Investment casting of an integrally cast rotor for a gas turbine. under a vacuum. (c) Wax is melted out and the mold is filled. Source: Howmet Corporation.Investment Casting of a Rotor Figure 11. (d) The cast rotor. (b) Ceramic shell around wax pattern. (a) Wax pattern assembly. . with molten superalloy. produced to net or near-net shape.

25 ASM International . (bottom) conventionally cast. p.Investment and Conventionally Cast Rotors Figure 11. October 1990.20 Crosssection and microstructure of two rotors: (top) investment-cast. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes.

Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (2)Economical process (3)Precision casting of steels and hightemperature alloy .

vacuum .sand + urethane molded .drawing the molten metal into the mold cavity .Vacuum Casting (1)Process .

"Vacuum Casting Goes Commercial. February 1990.21 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. (a) Before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. ASM International.Vacuum-Casting Process Figure 11. Blackburn. ." Advanced Materials and Processes. p. Source: From R. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. 18.

Vacuum Casting (2)Characteristics -temperature of molten metal:liquids temp.75mm)complex shapes .+ 55℃ -suitab1e for thin wall(1.

Vacuum Casting -casting of carbon and low.and highalloys steel part -weight up to 70kg -inexpensive production costs (similar to green sand casting) .

graphite . refractory metal alloys (2)Core material :oil -bonded or resinbonded sand . stee1. gray iron. low-carbon steel (3)Mo Id preheated to 150-200 ℃ .plaster . bronze.Permanent-Mold Casting (1)Mold material:cast iron. graphite.

gray iron . Cu alloys . close tolerance . Uniform and good mechanical properties High production rates .Permanent-Mold Casting (4)Casting material :A1 . Mg . steel (5)Good surface finish .

cylinder head connecting rods .Permanent-Mold Casting (6)Typi calparts:automobile piston . gear blanks .

Slush Casting (1)Process -pour molten metal into mold -mold inverted -remaining liquid metal is poured out -hollow casting with thin walls .

Pb alloys .Slush Casting (2)Small production runs (3)Typical parts:ornamental and decorative objects and toys (4)Casting material :Zn .Sn .

Pressure Casting (1)Process -molten metal forced upward by gas pres sure or vacuum into a graphite or metal mold .

Note that the pouring basin also serves as a riser. Railroad wheels can also be manufactured by forging.22 (a) The bottom-pressure casting process utilizes graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels.Pressure Casting Figure 11. (b) Gravity-pouring method of casting a railroad wheel. . Source: The Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.

Hot-chamber process (1)Pressure: max.Die Casting-two basic types A. Pb .35MPa average 15MPa (2)Dies cooled by circulating water or oil (3)Casting low-melting-point alloys: Zn . Sn .

Die-Casting Examples (a) (b) Figure 11 (a) The Polaroid PDC-2000 digital camera with a AZ91D die-cast. Source: Courtesy of Polaroid Corporation and Chicago White Metal Casting. . Inc. high purity magnesium case. (b) Two-piece Polaroid camera case made by the hot-chamber die casting process.

Cold-chamber process (1)Pressure: 20-70 MPa.150MPa (2)Casting high-melting-point alloys:A1.Die Casting-two basic types B .Mg .Cu alloys . max.

23 (a) Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process.Hot.and Cold-Chamber DieCasting (a) (b) Figure 11. Source: Courtesy of Foundry Management and Technology. . (b) Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process.

Cold-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (a) Figure 11. .24 (a) Schematic illustration of a cold-chamber die-casting machine. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting because large forces are required to keep the two halves of the dies closed.

24 (b) 800-ton hot-chamber die-casting machine. . This is the largest hot-chamber machine in the world and costs about $1.25 million. DAM 8005 (made in Germany in 1998).Hot-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (b) Figure 11.

business machine .toys (2)Die casting dies . Characteristics (1)Typical parts : carburetors. motors.hand tools .Die Casting-two basic types C.

place inserts in die casting. Figure 11. (a) Knurled bushings. Source: Courtesy of American Die Casting Institute.26 Examples of cast-in.Die-Casting Die Cavities Figure 11.25 Various types of cavities in a die-casting die. (b) Grooved threaded rod. .

Die Casting-two basic types (3)High production rates Good strength. dimensional accuracy and surface finish Complex shapes (wall thickness as small as 0.5mIm) Little or no finishing operations .

Centrifugal Casting-three types A.150g . True centrifugal casting (1)Mold material: steel. iron. graphite coated with a refractory lining (2)Pressure: max.

cylinder liners. and similarly shaped parts can be cast with this process. Pipes.Centrifugal Casting Process Figure 11.27 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. .

bushings. automotive parts. automotive components. automotive parts. 3 (4 Al) 380 230 280 200 160 -- 15 3 10 5 (4 Al-1 Cu) Source : Data from American Die Casting Institute 320 -- 7 .5 Si) Yield strength (MPa) 160 150 Elongation in 50 mm (%) 2. building hardware. business equipment Brass 858 (60 Cu) Magnesium AZ91 B (9 Al-0. ornamental castings Power tools. office equipment. household utensils. electrical motor frames and housings Complex shapes with thin walls. sporting goods Automotive parts. parts requiring strength at elevated temperatures Plumbing fiztures.5 Cu-8.5 Applications Appliances.4 Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) 320 300 13 (12 Si) Alloy Aluminum 380 (3.Properties and Typical Applications of Common Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 11. toys Appliances.5 2. lock hardware.7 Zn) Zinc No. building hardware.

Centrifugal Casting-three types (3)Cylindrical parts: diameter: 13mm-3m length: 16m wall thickness :6-125mm (4)Typical parts: pipes. gun barrels . bushing. enginecylinder liners bearing rings.

Semi centrifugal casting (1)Casting parts with rotational symmetry C .Centrifuging .Centrifugal Casting-three types B .

(b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging.28 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process.Semicentrifugal Casting Figure 11. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. . and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal force.

Squeeze Casting (1)Combination of casting and forging (2)Fine microstructure Good mechanical proper ties (3)Typical parts: automotive whee1. mortar bodies .

.29 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.Squeeze-Casting Figure 11.

Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (1)Convent ional casting of turbine blades -ceramic casting: polycrystalline structure (fig.1c) poor resistant to creep and cracking .10.

Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (2)Directionally solidified blades -columnar grains -better resistant to creep (3)Single-crystal blades -best resistant to creep and thermal shock .

Ge ingots: dia.Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (4)Single-crystal growing -crystal pulling (Czochralski process ) Si.50-150 mm length 1m -floating zone method .

Scientific American. Kear. p. H. (c) . (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. 29. ASM International.30 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. Source: (a) and (b) B. (c) Advanced Materials and Processes. October 1990. October 1986.Single Crystal Casting of Turbine Blades Figure 11. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached.

Source: L. 1982.. Inc. . Materials for Engineering.Single Crystal Casting Figure 11.31 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) the floating-zone method.. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry. Van Vlack. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. H.

Melt Spinning Figure 11.32 Schematic illustration of melt-spinning to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. .

Types of Melting Furnaces Figure 11. .33 Two types of melting furnaces used in foundries: (a) crucible. and (b) cupola.

Inspection of Castings (1)Destructive tests (2)Nondestructive tests .

not suitable for high-melting-point metals. somewhat coarse finish. expensive patterns. high production rate. part shape limited. Shell mold Expendable pattern Summary of Casting Processes Plaster mold Ceramic mold Intricate shapes. Limitations Some finishing required. complex shapes Intricate shapes. no limit to size.1 Process Sand Advantages Almost any metal cast. high production rate. good dimensional accu. usually limited to nonferrous metals. low porosity. Good surface finish and dimensional accuracy. high production rate. high production rate. Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Most metals cast with no limit to size. 118 . close tolerance parts. limited size and volume of production. low tooling cost. Equipment is expensive. wide tolerances. expensive patterns and equipment required.TABLE 11. Investment Part size limited. shape or weight. Die Centrifugal Large cylindrical parts with good quality. good surface finish. Intricate shapes. molds.racy and finish. Part size limited. limited shape and intricacy. Excellent dimensional accuracy and surface finish. mold making time relatively long. low porosity. Permanent mold High mold cost. and labor. part size limited. Die cost is high. excellent surface finish and accuracy. almost any metal cast. Patterns have low strength and can be costly for low quantities Limited to nonferrous metals. long lead time. Limited size.

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