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Factors in casting operation
(1)Solidification (2)Fluidity of molten metal (3)Heat transfer (4)Mold material
(1)Nucleation -homogeneous -heterogeneous (2)Growth -planar -dendrite
Solidification of metals
(1)Pure metals (fig.10.1-2) -skin , shell , or chill zone of fine equiaxed grains -columnar grains (2)Alloys(fig .10.3-4) -chill zone -columnar dendrites -equiaxed zone (grains )
Cast Structures of Metals
Figure 10.1 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals; (b) solid-solution alloys; and (c) structure obtained by using nucleating agents. Source: G. W. Form, J. F. Wallace, J. L. Walker, and A. Cibula.
Preferred Texture Development
Figure 10.2 Development of a preferred texture at a cool mold wall. Note that only favorably oriented grains grow away from the surface of the mold.
Note the formation of dendrites in the mushy zone.Alloy Solidification Figure 10.3 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. .
4 (a) Solidification patterns for gray cast iron in a 180-mm (7-in. S. Source: H. F. . of cooling. dendrites reach each other. Bishop and W. but the casting is still mushy throughout. Pellini. It takes about two hours for this casting to solidify completely. (b) Solidification of carbon steels in sand and chill (metal) molds. Note that after 11 min. Note the difference in solidification patterns as the carbon content increases.Solidification Patterns Figure 10.) square casting.
Apelian.6 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Figure 10. two phase.5 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. Source: D. (b) equiaxed dendritic. and (b) plane front.Cast Structures Figure 10. single phase. Source: D. Apelian. .
Effects of cooling rates (1)Slow cooling rates (order of 102K/s ) -coarse dendritic structure (2)Faster cooling rates (order of 104K/s ) -finer with smaller dendrite arm spacing (3)Faster cooling rates (order of 106 to 108K/s ) -amorphous .
Grain size of the cast alloy decreases (1)Strength and ductility increase (2)Microporosity decreases (3)Tendency to crack (hot tearing) decreases .
Fluid flow (1)Bernoulli's theorem (2)Continuity law (3)Flow characteristics -turbulence or laminar flow .
Riser-Gated Casting Figure 10.7 Schematic illustration of a typical riser-gated casting. . Risers serve as reservoirs. supplying molten metal to the casting as it shrinks during solidification.4 Source: American Foundrymen’s Society. 11. See also Fig.
Fluidity of molten metal A .Molten metal (1)Viscosity (2)Surface tension (3)Inclusions (4)Solidification pattern (freezing range ) .
the greater is its fluidity. .Fluidity Test Figure 10. The greater the length of the solidified metal. The fluidity index is the length of the solidified metal in the spiral passage.8 A test method for fluidity using a spiral mold.
10.Fluidity of molten metal B .9) .Casting parameters (1)Mold design (2)Mold material and its surface characteristics (3)Degree of superheat (4)Rate of pouring (5)Heat transfer (fig.
Temperature Distribution Figure 10.9 Temperature distribution at the interface of the mold wall and the liquid metal during solidification of metals in casting. .
Solidification time 2 volume = C surface area .
Solidification Time Figure 10. Source: H.10 Solidified skin on a steel casting. Taylor. C. J. F. which is based on this principle. . The remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. and M. Flemings. Wulff. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting.
Shrinkage (1)Dimensional changes (2)Cracking .
5 .5 4 Expansion to 2. Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 6.9 Metal or alloy 70%Cu–30%Zn 90%Cu–10%Al Gray iron Magnesium White iron Zinc Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 4.2 4–5. Flinn.5–3 4 4.3 3.6 6.5%Cu Al–12%Si Carbon steel 1% carbon steel Copper Source: After R. A.1 Metal or alloy Aluminum Al–4.5 4.5 6.8 2.Solidification Contraction for Various Cast Metals TABLE 10.
13-15) .10.Defects (1)Metallic projections (2)Cavities (3)Discontinuities (4)Defective surface (5)Incomplete casting (6)Incorrect dimensions or shape (7)Inclusions (8)Porosity (fig .
.Hot Tears Figure 10. Exothermic (heatproducing) compounds may be used (as exothermic padding) to control cooling at critical sections to avoid hot tearing.11 Examples of hot tears in castings. owing to constraints in various portions of the molds and cores. These defects occur because the casting cannot shrink freely during cooling.
.Casting Defects Figure 10. Source: J.12 Examples of common defects in castings. These defects can be minimized or eliminated by proper design and preparation of molds and control of pouring procedures. Datsko.
Internal and External Chills Figure 10. as shown in (c). used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metals.13 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). .
Solubility of Hydrogen in Aluminum Figure 10. Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.14 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum. .
Metal-Casting Processes .
Introduction (1)Metal casting processes (2)Principles (3)Advantages (4)Limitations .
Impact on the casting industry (1)Mechanization and automation (2)High quality with close tolerance .
Casting Examples Figure 11. including transmission valve body (left) and hub rotor with disk-brake cylinder (front).2 Typical grayiron castings used in automobiles. Source: Courtesy of Central Foundry Division of General Motors Corporation.3 A cast transmission housing. Figure 11. .
which are generally mixed with various binder.Major classification of casting processes (1)Expendable molds . bonding agent . ceramics .sand . . and similar materials . plaster .
Major classification of casting processes (2)Permanent molds -metals with adequate strength at high temperature (3)Composite molds .
strength . permeability -clay (a cohesive agent) .Sand casting (1)Process (2)Sands -silixca(SiO2)：naturally bonded synthetic (preferred ) -grain shape and size affect mold surface .
5 Outline of production steps in a typical sand-casting operation. 34 .Steps in Sand Casting Figure 11.
) Figure 11. with the pattern inserted. flask. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. leaving the appropriate imprint. and bottom board are inverted. the casting is removed from the mold. inspected. (g) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. A bottom board is placed below the drag and aligned with pins.Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting (cont. . which might lift the cope.11 (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. and the pattern is withdrawn. and heat treated (when necessary). (i) The pattern. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled and the casting is cleaned. (l) After the metal solidifies. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and buoyant forces in the liquid.
and water skin-dried (baked)-stronger.Sand casting (3)Three basic types of sand molds -green sand：a mixture of sand. better dimensional accuracy and surface finish the least expensive . clay.
Sand casting -cold-box：organic and inorganic binder +sand greater strength more dimensional accuracy more expensive -no-bake mold (cold-setting): a synthetic liquid resin + sand at room temperature .
Sand casting (4)Major component of sand casting(fig.11. gates -risers (blind and open) -cores -vents . cheeks -pouring basin or cup . cope . drag . sprue -runner system .4) -flask .
.4 Schematic illustration of a sand mold.Sand Mold Features Figure 11. showing various features.
2) -depends on size and shape of the casting dimensional accuracy quality molding process -parting agent .Sand casting (5)Patterns -wood . metal (table 11. plastic .
5 100+ 300 1-3 2-3 3 2-3 1 3-4 1 1 1 2 75 50 <0.2 Typical materials cast All All Weig ht (kg) Minimum 0.5 2 12 100 . Zn. Mg. significant variations can occur. Zn.05 50+ 1-2 3 1-2 2 1 -- 0.) Permanent mold All Nonferrous (Al.05 Process Sand Shell Expendable mold pattern Maximum No limit 100+ Typical surface finish (µm. Ra) 5-25 1-3 Section thic kness (mm) Shape Dimensional Porosity* complexity* accuracy* 4 4 1-2 2-3 3 2 Minimum 3 2 Maximum No limit -- All Nonferrous Plaster (Al. 1 3 0. depending on the methods used.General Characteristics of Casting Processes TABLE 11.05 50 1-2 1-2 3-4 -5000+ 2-10 1-2 3-4 *Relative rating: 1 best. mold Cu) All (High melting Investment pt. Note : These ratings are only general. Mg.05 0. 5 worst. Die Cu) Centrifugal All 0.005 0.05 No limit 5-20 4 1 2 2 No limit 0.
11.Sand casting -one-piece patterns simple shape and low quality production wood -split patterns (two-piece) cavity -match-plate pattern (fig .6) a popular type each half of one or more split patterns large production .
.6 A typical metal match-plate pattern used in sand casting. Figure 11.Patterns for Sand Casting Figure 11.7 Taper on patterns for ease of removal from the sand mold.
no-bake .11.8) -chaplets：metal supports for shifting -core blowers .Sand casting (6)Cores -shell . or cold-box processes -core prints (fig.
Examples of Sand Cores and Chaplets Figure 11. .8 Examples of sand cores showing core prints and chaplets to support cores.
7-8) -vertical flask less molding (fig . squeezing .11. compacting(fig.9) -impact molding -vacuum molding (V process ) .Sand casting (7)Sand-molding machines -jolting .11.
Used with permission. (c) equalizing squeeze pistons.Squeeze Heads Figure 11. and (d) flexible diaphragm. (b) profile head.9 Various designs of squeeze heads for mold making: (a) conventional flat head. Source: © Institute of British Foundrymen. .
10 Vertical flaskless molding. (b) Assembled molds pass along an assembly line for pouring.Vertical Flaskless Molding Figure 11. . (a) Sand is squeezed between two halves of the pattern.
10) -molds -gating system .Sand casting (8)Sand-casting operation(fig. -solidification -surface of casting -heat treatment -finishing operations .11. risers.
(d-e) Core boxes produce core halves. (b-c) Patterns have been mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. which are pasted together. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins. (continued) . Considerations such as part shrinkage and draft must be built into the drawing.11 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations for sand casting. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). (a) A mechanical drawing of the part is used to generate a design for the pattern.Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting Figure 11.
(1)Close tolerance and good surface finishing Suited for nearly any metal More economical Casting with sharper corners , thinner section , smaller projection High quality and complex shapes Typical parts : gear housings , cylinder head , connecting rods ,high-precision molding cores
Surface Roughness for Various Metalworking Processes
Figure 11.12 Surface roughness in casting and other metalworking processes. See also Figs. 22.14 and 26.4 for comparison with other manufacturing processes.
Figure 11.13 A common method of making shell molds. Called dump-box technique, the limitations are the formation of voids in the shell and peelback (when sections of the shell fall off as the pattern is raised). Source: ASM International.
1980. This part was previously cast in an all-plaster mold.14 (a) Schematic illustration of a semipermanent composite mold. Steel Founders' Society of America. 5th ed. Source: Metals Handbook. vol. 5. 8th ed. (b) A composite mold used in casting an aluminum-alloy torque converter.Composite Molds Figure 11. . Source: Steel Castings Handbook.
0 % thermosetting resin binder -sand mixture is blown over the heated pattern -shell hardens around the pattern and is removed from the pat tern -assemble of the shell .5-4.Shell Molding (2)Process -a mounted pat tern of a ferrous or aluminum at 175-370℃ -coated with a parting agent (silicone ) -sand + 2.
Shell Molding (3)Characteristics of shell -thickness depend on time . 5-l0mm -a much lower permeability produce a high volume of gas .
impellers -increase the strength of mold improve the dimensional accuracy and finish reduce overall costs and processing time .Shell Molding (4)Composite molds -two or more different materials and used in shell molding and other casting processes -complex shapes ex .
Sodium Silicate Process (CO2 Process) -sand + 1.5-6 % sodium silicate (waterglass) + CO2 gas -used as cores .
dried .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (1)Process -polystryrene + 5-8 % pentane or PMMA. and placed in a flask -sand + pattern . polyalkylene carbonate placed at a preheated AL die -pattern coated with a water-base refractory slurry.
also known as lost foam or evaporative casting. .Expendable Pattern Casting Figure 11.15 Schematic illustration of the expendable pattern casting process.
Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (2)Velocity of molten metal：0.1-1 m/s (3)Advantages -relatively simple process -inexpensive flasks .
various sizes . and fine surface detail of inexpensive polystyrene pattern -minimum finishing and cleaning operation -economical for long production runs -automation .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) -complex shapes .
crankshafts . brake components .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (4)Typical parts -cylinder heads .manifolds for automobiles -machine bases .
Plastor-Mold Casting (1)Process -plaster + talc /silica flour + water placed at patter within 15 min -plaster mold dried at 120-260℃ -mold assembled and preheated to about 120℃ -pouring -shakeout .
Plastor-Mold Casting (2)Pattern for plaster molding : Al alloys. thermosetting plastic . brass . then dehydrated in air for 14 hrs -foamed plaster . or zinc alloys (3)Increasing permeability -Antioch process : -dehydrated in a pressurized oven for 6-12 hrs.
Plastor-Mold Casting (4)Characteristics -Max. temperature：about 1200℃ -used only for Al . and some Cu-base alloys casting . Mg . Zn .
Plastor-Mold Casting -precision casting (Ceramic-mold . typical range of 125-250 g . investment casting) -high dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -weight less than 10 kg .
Plastor-Mold Casting (5)Typical parts -lock component -gears -valves -fitting -tooling -ornaments .
and bonding agent poured into pattern -green mold dried .Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (1)Process -slurry of fine-grained zircon . fused silica . aluminum oxide . burned off -ceramic facings assembled into a complete mold -pouring -shakeout .
vol. Source: Metals Handbook. vol. . Source: Metals Handbook. 5.Ceramic Molds Figure 11.17 A typical ceramic mold (Shaw process) for casting steel dies used in hot forging. 8th ed. Figure 11. 5. 8th ed.16 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold.
Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (2)Casting materials -ferrous and other high-temperature alloys -stainless steels -tool steels .
Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (3)Characteristics -good dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -intricate shapes -expensive -weight up to 700 kg .
Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (4)Typical parts -impellers -cutters for machining -dies for metalworking -molds .
Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (1)Process -mold to make pattern -wax pattern -pattern assembly (tree) -slurry and stucco coating -completed mold -pattern melt out -pouring molten metal -shakeout -casting .
Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals. .18 Schematic illustration of investment casting. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America.Investment Casting Figure 11. (lostwax process).
Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (2)Characteristics -casting high melting point a1loys ex .ferrous and nonferrous metals -good surface finish -close tolerance -little or no finishing operations -intricate shapes .
Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (3)Typical parts -gears -cams -valves -ratchets .
Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (1)Process -wax or plaster pattern -pattern dipped in ethyl silicate gel -pattern dipped in a fluidized bed of fine grained fused silica or zircon flour -pattern dipped in coarser grain silica to withdraw the thermal shock of pouring -the rest of the procedure is similar to lost-wax process .
under a vacuum.Investment Casting of a Rotor Figure 11. (d) The cast rotor. Source: Howmet Corporation. (b) Ceramic shell around wax pattern. (a) Wax pattern assembly. produced to net or near-net shape. . with molten superalloy. (c) Wax is melted out and the mold is filled.19 Investment casting of an integrally cast rotor for a gas turbine.
25 ASM International . October 1990.Investment and Conventionally Cast Rotors Figure 11. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. p.20 Crosssection and microstructure of two rotors: (top) investment-cast. (bottom) conventionally cast.
Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (2)Economical process (3)Precision casting of steels and hightemperature alloy .
Vacuum Casting (1)Process .vacuum .drawing the molten metal into the mold cavity .sand + urethane molded .
February 1990. 18. ASM International.21 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. Source: From R.Vacuum-Casting Process Figure 11. . Note that the mold has a bottom gate. p. Blackburn. "Vacuum Casting Goes Commercial. (a) Before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal." Advanced Materials and Processes.
75mm)complex shapes .+ 55℃ -suitab1e for thin wall(1.Vacuum Casting (2)Characteristics -temperature of molten metal：liquids temp.
and highalloys steel part -weight up to 70kg -inexpensive production costs (similar to green sand casting) .Vacuum Casting -casting of carbon and low.
refractory metal alloys (2)Core material ：oil -bonded or resinbonded sand . stee1. graphite. low-carbon steel (3)Mo Id preheated to 150-200 ℃ . gray iron.plaster .Permanent-Mold Casting (1)Mold material：cast iron. graphite . bronze.
Cu alloys . Mg . steel (5)Good surface finish . close tolerance . Uniform and good mechanical properties High production rates . gray iron .Permanent-Mold Casting (4)Casting material ：A1 .
cylinder head connecting rods .Permanent-Mold Casting (6)Typi calparts：automobile piston . gear blanks .
Slush Casting (1)Process -pour molten metal into mold -mold inverted -remaining liquid metal is poured out -hollow casting with thin walls .
Slush Casting (2)Small production runs (3)Typical parts：ornamental and decorative objects and toys (4)Casting material :Zn .Sn .Pb alloys .
Pressure Casting (1)Process -molten metal forced upward by gas pres sure or vacuum into a graphite or metal mold .
Source: The Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated.22 (a) The bottom-pressure casting process utilizes graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. Railroad wheels can also be manufactured by forging. Note that the pouring basin also serves as a riser. .Pressure Casting Figure 11. (b) Gravity-pouring method of casting a railroad wheel.
Die Casting-two basic types A. Hot-chamber process (1)Pressure: max. Sn . Pb .35MPa average 15MPa (2)Dies cooled by circulating water or oil (3)Casting low-melting-point alloys: Zn .
Inc. (b) Two-piece Polaroid camera case made by the hot-chamber die casting process. high purity magnesium case. . Source: Courtesy of Polaroid Corporation and Chicago White Metal Casting.Die-Casting Examples (a) (b) Figure 11 (a) The Polaroid PDC-2000 digital camera with a AZ91D die-cast.
Cu alloys . max.150MPa (2)Casting high-melting-point alloys:A1.Cold-chamber process (1)Pressure: 20-70 MPa.Die Casting-two basic types B .Mg .
23 (a) Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process. (b) Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process.and Cold-Chamber DieCasting (a) (b) Figure 11. Source: Courtesy of Foundry Management and Technology.Hot. .
Cold-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (a) Figure 11. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting because large forces are required to keep the two halves of the dies closed.24 (a) Schematic illustration of a cold-chamber die-casting machine. .
24 (b) 800-ton hot-chamber die-casting machine. This is the largest hot-chamber machine in the world and costs about $1. .25 million. DAM 8005 (made in Germany in 1998).Hot-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (b) Figure 11.
toys (2)Die casting dies .Die Casting-two basic types C. business machine . Characteristics (1)Typical parts : carburetors.hand tools . motors.
(a) Knurled bushings.place inserts in die casting.25 Various types of cavities in a die-casting die.26 Examples of cast-in. Figure 11. . Source: Courtesy of American Die Casting Institute.Die-Casting Die Cavities Figure 11. (b) Grooved threaded rod.
5mIm) Little or no finishing operations .Die Casting-two basic types (3)High production rates Good strength. dimensional accuracy and surface finish Complex shapes (wall thickness as small as 0.
150g . graphite coated with a refractory lining (2)Pressure: max. iron. True centrifugal casting (1)Mold material: steel.Centrifugal Casting-three types A.
Centrifugal Casting Process Figure 11. . and similarly shaped parts can be cast with this process. cylinder liners.27 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. Pipes.
5 Cu-8. business equipment Brass 858 (60 Cu) Magnesium AZ91 B (9 Al-0.5 Si) Yield strength (MPa) 160 150 Elongation in 50 mm (%) 2. bushings. office equipment. automotive components. lock hardware.7 Zn) Zinc No. electrical motor frames and housings Complex shapes with thin walls. household utensils. sporting goods Automotive parts. parts requiring strength at elevated temperatures Plumbing fiztures.Properties and Typical Applications of Common Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 11. 3 (4 Al) 380 230 280 200 160 -- 15 3 10 5 (4 Al-1 Cu) Source : Data from American Die Casting Institute 320 -- 7 . automotive parts. toys Appliances. building hardware. ornamental castings Power tools. automotive parts.4 Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) 320 300 13 (12 Si) Alloy Aluminum 380 (3.5 Applications Appliances.5 2. building hardware.
gun barrels . enginecylinder liners bearing rings. bushing.Centrifugal Casting-three types (3)Cylindrical parts: diameter: 13mm-3m length: 16m wall thickness :6-125mm (4)Typical parts: pipes.
Centrifugal Casting-three types B .Semi centrifugal casting (1)Casting parts with rotational symmetry C .Centrifuging .
Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal force. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. . (b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging.28 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process.Semicentrifugal Casting Figure 11.
mortar bodies .Squeeze Casting (1)Combination of casting and forging (2)Fine microstructure Good mechanical proper ties (3)Typical parts: automotive whee1.
. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.Squeeze-Casting Figure 11.29 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process.
10.1c) poor resistant to creep and cracking .Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (1)Convent ional casting of turbine blades -ceramic casting: polycrystalline structure (fig.
Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (2)Directionally solidified blades -columnar grains -better resistant to creep (3)Single-crystal blades -best resistant to creep and thermal shock .
50-150 mm length 1m -floating zone method .Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (4)Single-crystal growing -crystal pulling (Czochralski process ) Si. Ge ingots: dia.
29. (c) Advanced Materials and Processes. (c) . Source: (a) and (b) B. H. Scientific American. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. ASM International.Single Crystal Casting of Turbine Blades Figure 11. October 1990. p. Kear. October 1986.30 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification.
Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry.. Source: L. Van Vlack..31 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) the floating-zone method. H. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Materials for Engineering.Single Crystal Casting Figure 11. 1982. . Inc.
.32 Schematic illustration of melt-spinning to produce thin strips of amorphous metal.Melt Spinning Figure 11.
Types of Melting Furnaces Figure 11. and (b) cupola.33 Two types of melting furnaces used in foundries: (a) crucible. .
Inspection of Castings (1)Destructive tests (2)Nondestructive tests .
good surface finish. Equipment is expensive. good dimensional accu. molds. complex shapes Intricate shapes. Limited size. high production rate. long lead time. excellent surface finish and accuracy. expensive patterns and equipment required. high production rate. close tolerance parts. low porosity. somewhat coarse finish. high production rate. part shape limited. not suitable for high-melting-point metals. and labor. Part size limited.1 Process Sand Advantages Almost any metal cast. Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish. wide tolerances. low tooling cost. mold making time relatively long. expensive patterns. Die Centrifugal Large cylindrical parts with good quality. part size limited. Shell mold Expendable pattern Summary of Casting Processes Plaster mold Ceramic mold Intricate shapes. limited size and volume of production. Permanent mold High mold cost.racy and finish.TABLE 11. Investment Part size limited. Intricate shapes. shape or weight. Limitations Some finishing required. Patterns have low strength and can be costly for low quantities Limited to nonferrous metals. no limit to size. Most metals cast with no limit to size. usually limited to nonferrous metals. 118 . high production rate. almost any metal cast. Good surface finish and dimensional accuracy. Excellent dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Die cost is high. low porosity. limited shape and intricacy.
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