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Factors in casting operation
(1)Solidification (2)Fluidity of molten metal (3)Heat transfer (4)Mold material
(1)Nucleation -homogeneous -heterogeneous (2)Growth -planar -dendrite
Solidification of metals
(1)Pure metals (fig.10.1-2) -skin , shell , or chill zone of fine equiaxed grains -columnar grains (2)Alloys(fig .10.3-4) -chill zone -columnar dendrites -equiaxed zone (grains )
Cast Structures of Metals
Figure 10.1 Schematic illustration of three cast structures of metals solidified in a square mold: (a) pure metals; (b) solid-solution alloys; and (c) structure obtained by using nucleating agents. Source: G. W. Form, J. F. Wallace, J. L. Walker, and A. Cibula.
Preferred Texture Development
Figure 10.2 Development of a preferred texture at a cool mold wall. Note that only favorably oriented grains grow away from the surface of the mold.
Alloy Solidification Figure 10.3 Schematic illustration of alloy solidification and temperature distribution in the solidifying metal. Note the formation of dendrites in the mushy zone. .
F. It takes about two hours for this casting to solidify completely. but the casting is still mushy throughout. S. Source: H.) square casting. . Note the difference in solidification patterns as the carbon content increases. Note that after 11 min. of cooling. Pellini.4 (a) Solidification patterns for gray cast iron in a 180-mm (7-in. dendrites reach each other. Bishop and W. (b) Solidification of carbon steels in sand and chill (metal) molds.Solidification Patterns Figure 10.
two phase. Source: D. (b) equiaxed dendritic. Source: D. and (b) plane front.5 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic. single phase.6 Schematic illustration of cast structures in (a) plane front. and (c) equiaxed nondendritic.Cast Structures Figure 10. Apelian. . Apelian. Figure 10.
Effects of cooling rates (1)Slow cooling rates (order of 102K/s ) -coarse dendritic structure (2)Faster cooling rates (order of 104K/s ) -finer with smaller dendrite arm spacing (3)Faster cooling rates (order of 106 to 108K/s ) -amorphous .
Grain size of the cast alloy decreases (1)Strength and ductility increase (2)Microporosity decreases (3)Tendency to crack (hot tearing) decreases .
Fluid flow (1)Bernoulli's theorem (2)Continuity law (3)Flow characteristics -turbulence or laminar flow .
11. Risers serve as reservoirs. . supplying molten metal to the casting as it shrinks during solidification. See also Fig.4 Source: American Foundrymen’s Society.7 Schematic illustration of a typical riser-gated casting.Riser-Gated Casting Figure 10.
Fluidity of molten metal A .Molten metal (1)Viscosity (2)Surface tension (3)Inclusions (4)Solidification pattern (freezing range ) .
The fluidity index is the length of the solidified metal in the spiral passage.8 A test method for fluidity using a spiral mold. The greater the length of the solidified metal. . the greater is its fluidity.Fluidity Test Figure 10.
9) .Casting parameters (1)Mold design (2)Mold material and its surface characteristics (3)Degree of superheat (4)Rate of pouring (5)Heat transfer (fig.10.Fluidity of molten metal B .
Temperature Distribution Figure 10. .9 Temperature distribution at the interface of the mold wall and the liquid metal during solidification of metals in casting.
Solidification time 2 volume = C surface area .
and M. which is based on this principle.Solidification Time Figure 10. . Taylor. Wulff. C. Hollow ornamental and decorative objects are made by a process called slush casting. The remaining molten metal is poured out at the times indicated in the figure. Source: H. J. F. Flemings.10 Solidified skin on a steel casting.
Shrinkage (1)Dimensional changes (2)Cracking .
A. Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 6.8 2.5 .6 6.2 4–5. Flinn.5–3 4 4.5 4.5 4 Expansion to 2.1 Metal or alloy Aluminum Al–4.3 3.5 6.9 Metal or alloy 70%Cu–30%Zn 90%Cu–10%Al Gray iron Magnesium White iron Zinc Volumetric solidification contraction (%) 4.Solidification Contraction for Various Cast Metals TABLE 10.5%Cu Al–12%Si Carbon steel 1% carbon steel Copper Source: After R.
Defects (1)Metallic projections (2)Cavities (3)Discontinuities (4)Defective surface (5)Incomplete casting (6)Incorrect dimensions or shape (7)Inclusions (8)Porosity (fig .13-15) .10.
Exothermic (heatproducing) compounds may be used (as exothermic padding) to control cooling at critical sections to avoid hot tearing. .11 Examples of hot tears in castings. owing to constraints in various portions of the molds and cores. These defects occur because the casting cannot shrink freely during cooling.Hot Tears Figure 10.
Casting Defects Figure 10. . These defects can be minimized or eliminated by proper design and preparation of molds and control of pouring procedures.12 Examples of common defects in castings. Source: J. Datsko.
Internal and External Chills Figure 10. as shown in (c). used in castings to eliminate porosity caused by shrinkage. Chills are placed in regions where there is a larger volume of metals.13 Various types of (a) internal and (b) external chills (dark areas at corners). .
Note the sharp decrease in solubility as the molten metal begins to solidify.Solubility of Hydrogen in Aluminum Figure 10. .14 Solubility of hydrogen in aluminum.
Metal-Casting Processes .
Introduction (1)Metal casting processes (2)Principles (3)Advantages (4)Limitations .
Impact on the casting industry (1)Mechanization and automation (2)High quality with close tolerance .
Casting Examples Figure 11. Source: Courtesy of Central Foundry Division of General Motors Corporation.3 A cast transmission housing. .2 Typical grayiron castings used in automobiles. including transmission valve body (left) and hub rotor with disk-brake cylinder (front). Figure 11.
plaster .sand . and similar materials . ceramics .which are generally mixed with various binder.Major classification of casting processes (1)Expendable molds . . bonding agent .
Major classification of casting processes (2)Permanent molds -metals with adequate strength at high temperature (3)Composite molds .
strength .Sand casting (1)Process (2)Sands -silixca(SiO2)：naturally bonded synthetic (preferred ) -grain shape and size affect mold surface . permeability -clay (a cohesive agent) .
5 Outline of production steps in a typical sand-casting operation. 34 .Steps in Sand Casting Figure 11.
and heat treated (when necessary). (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled and the casting is cleaned. (g) The drag half is produced in a similar manner. (l) After the metal solidifies. inspected. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. A bottom board is placed below the drag and aligned with pins. and the pattern is withdrawn.Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting (cont.) Figure 11. which might lift the cope. (i) The pattern. leaving the appropriate imprint.11 (g) The flask is rammed with sand and the plate and inserts are removed. . and bottom board are inverted. with the pattern inserted. the casting is removed from the mold. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top of the drag and buoyant forces in the liquid. flask.
and water skin-dried (baked)-stronger. better dimensional accuracy and surface finish the least expensive . clay.Sand casting (3)Three basic types of sand molds -green sand：a mixture of sand.
Sand casting -cold-box：organic and inorganic binder +sand greater strength more dimensional accuracy more expensive -no-bake mold (cold-setting): a synthetic liquid resin + sand at room temperature .
11. cope .4) -flask . cheeks -pouring basin or cup . sprue -runner system . gates -risers (blind and open) -cores -vents . drag .Sand casting (4)Major component of sand casting(fig.
.4 Schematic illustration of a sand mold.Sand Mold Features Figure 11. showing various features.
plastic .Sand casting (5)Patterns -wood .2) -depends on size and shape of the casting dimensional accuracy quality molding process -parting agent . metal (table 11.
2 Typical materials cast All All Weig ht (kg) Minimum 0. 5 worst.05 50 1-2 1-2 3-4 -5000+ 2-10 1-2 3-4 *Relative rating: 1 best. Note : These ratings are only general. Mg. Ra) 5-25 1-3 Section thic kness (mm) Shape Dimensional Porosity* complexity* accuracy* 4 4 1-2 2-3 3 2 Minimum 3 2 Maximum No limit -- All Nonferrous Plaster (Al. Zn. significant variations can occur.005 0.5 2 12 100 .5 100+ 300 1-3 2-3 3 2-3 1 3-4 1 1 1 2 75 50 <0.05 50+ 1-2 3 1-2 2 1 -- 0. Mg. 1 3 0.General Characteristics of Casting Processes TABLE 11. Die Cu) Centrifugal All 0.) Permanent mold All Nonferrous (Al.05 Process Sand Shell Expendable mold pattern Maximum No limit 100+ Typical surface finish (µm. mold Cu) All (High melting Investment pt.05 No limit 5-20 4 1 2 2 No limit 0.05 0. depending on the methods used. Zn.
Sand casting -one-piece patterns simple shape and low quality production wood -split patterns (two-piece) cavity -match-plate pattern (fig .6) a popular type each half of one or more split patterns large production .11.
.Patterns for Sand Casting Figure 11.7 Taper on patterns for ease of removal from the sand mold.6 A typical metal match-plate pattern used in sand casting. Figure 11.
no-bake .Sand casting (6)Cores -shell . or cold-box processes -core prints (fig.11.8) -chaplets：metal supports for shifting -core blowers .
.Examples of Sand Cores and Chaplets Figure 11.8 Examples of sand cores showing core prints and chaplets to support cores.
11.9) -impact molding -vacuum molding (V process ) .7-8) -vertical flask less molding (fig .11. squeezing .Sand casting (7)Sand-molding machines -jolting . compacting(fig.
(c) equalizing squeeze pistons.9 Various designs of squeeze heads for mold making: (a) conventional flat head. (b) profile head. . Used with permission. and (d) flexible diaphragm. Source: © Institute of British Foundrymen.Squeeze Heads Figure 11.
10 Vertical flaskless molding.Vertical Flaskless Molding Figure 11. . (a) Sand is squeezed between two halves of the pattern. (b) Assembled molds pass along an assembly line for pouring.
Sand casting (8)Sand-casting operation(fig. -solidification -surface of casting -heat treatment -finishing operations . risers.10) -molds -gating system .11.
The cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). (continued) . (b-c) Patterns have been mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. Note the presence of core prints designed to hold the core in place. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves.Sequence of Operations for Sand Casting Figure 11. Considerations such as part shrinkage and draft must be built into the drawing. (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins.11 Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations for sand casting. and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part is used to generate a design for the pattern. which are pasted together.
(1)Close tolerance and good surface finishing Suited for nearly any metal More economical Casting with sharper corners , thinner section , smaller projection High quality and complex shapes Typical parts : gear housings , cylinder head , connecting rods ,high-precision molding cores
Surface Roughness for Various Metalworking Processes
Figure 11.12 Surface roughness in casting and other metalworking processes. See also Figs. 22.14 and 26.4 for comparison with other manufacturing processes.
Figure 11.13 A common method of making shell molds. Called dump-box technique, the limitations are the formation of voids in the shell and peelback (when sections of the shell fall off as the pattern is raised). Source: ASM International.
5th ed. Steel Founders' Society of America.Composite Molds Figure 11.14 (a) Schematic illustration of a semipermanent composite mold. This part was previously cast in an all-plaster mold. 5. vol. Source: Metals Handbook. 8th ed. . 1980. Source: Steel Castings Handbook. (b) A composite mold used in casting an aluminum-alloy torque converter.
Shell Molding (2)Process -a mounted pat tern of a ferrous or aluminum at 175-370℃ -coated with a parting agent (silicone ) -sand + 2.0 % thermosetting resin binder -sand mixture is blown over the heated pattern -shell hardens around the pattern and is removed from the pat tern -assemble of the shell .5-4.
Shell Molding (3)Characteristics of shell -thickness depend on time . 5-l0mm -a much lower permeability produce a high volume of gas .
Shell Molding (4)Composite molds -two or more different materials and used in shell molding and other casting processes -complex shapes ex . impellers -increase the strength of mold improve the dimensional accuracy and finish reduce overall costs and processing time .
5-6 % sodium silicate (waterglass) + CO2 gas -used as cores .Sodium Silicate Process (CO2 Process) -sand + 1.
dried . and placed in a flask -sand + pattern .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (1)Process -polystryrene + 5-8 % pentane or PMMA. polyalkylene carbonate placed at a preheated AL die -pattern coated with a water-base refractory slurry.
also known as lost foam or evaporative casting.Expendable Pattern Casting Figure 11.15 Schematic illustration of the expendable pattern casting process. .
1-1 m/s (3)Advantages -relatively simple process -inexpensive flasks .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (2)Velocity of molten metal：0.
and fine surface detail of inexpensive polystyrene pattern -minimum finishing and cleaning operation -economical for long production runs -automation .Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) -complex shapes . various sizes .
Evaporative Pat tern Casting (Lost Foam) (4)Typical parts -cylinder heads . brake components . crankshafts .manifolds for automobiles -machine bases .
Plastor-Mold Casting (1)Process -plaster + talc /silica flour + water placed at patter within 15 min -plaster mold dried at 120-260℃ -mold assembled and preheated to about 120℃ -pouring -shakeout .
Plastor-Mold Casting (2)Pattern for plaster molding : Al alloys. brass . or zinc alloys (3)Increasing permeability -Antioch process : -dehydrated in a pressurized oven for 6-12 hrs. then dehydrated in air for 14 hrs -foamed plaster . thermosetting plastic .
and some Cu-base alloys casting .Plastor-Mold Casting (4)Characteristics -Max. Mg . temperature：about 1200℃ -used only for Al . Zn .
Plastor-Mold Casting -precision casting (Ceramic-mold . investment casting) -high dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -weight less than 10 kg . typical range of 125-250 g .
Plastor-Mold Casting (5)Typical parts -lock component -gears -valves -fitting -tooling -ornaments .
aluminum oxide .Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (1)Process -slurry of fine-grained zircon . fused silica . burned off -ceramic facings assembled into a complete mold -pouring -shakeout . and bonding agent poured into pattern -green mold dried .
5. Source: Metals Handbook. 8th ed.16 Sequence of operations in making a ceramic mold. Figure 11. 5. vol. . 8th ed. Source: Metals Handbook.17 A typical ceramic mold (Shaw process) for casting steel dies used in hot forging.Ceramic Molds Figure 11. vol.
Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (2)Casting materials -ferrous and other high-temperature alloys -stainless steels -tool steels .
Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (3)Characteristics -good dimensional accuracy -good surface finish -intricate shapes -expensive -weight up to 700 kg .
Ceramic-Mold Casting (cope-and-drag casting) (4)Typical parts -impellers -cutters for machining -dies for metalworking -molds .
Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (1)Process -mold to make pattern -wax pattern -pattern assembly (tree) -slurry and stucco coating -completed mold -pattern melt out -pouring molten metal -shakeout -casting .
18 Schematic illustration of investment casting.Investment Casting Figure 11. . (lostwax process). Source: Steel Founders' Society of America. Castings by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals.
Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (2)Characteristics -casting high melting point a1loys ex .ferrous and nonferrous metals -good surface finish -close tolerance -little or no finishing operations -intricate shapes .
Investment Casting (lost-wax process) (3)Typical parts -gears -cams -valves -ratchets .
Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (1)Process -wax or plaster pattern -pattern dipped in ethyl silicate gel -pattern dipped in a fluidized bed of fine grained fused silica or zircon flour -pattern dipped in coarser grain silica to withdraw the thermal shock of pouring -the rest of the procedure is similar to lost-wax process .
19 Investment casting of an integrally cast rotor for a gas turbine. . (d) The cast rotor. (a) Wax pattern assembly. produced to net or near-net shape.Investment Casting of a Rotor Figure 11. Source: Howmet Corporation. with molten superalloy. (c) Wax is melted out and the mold is filled. (b) Ceramic shell around wax pattern. under a vacuum.
p.20 Crosssection and microstructure of two rotors: (top) investment-cast. (bottom) conventionally cast.Investment and Conventionally Cast Rotors Figure 11. October 1990. Source: Advanced Materials and Processes. 25 ASM International .
Ceramic-Shell Investment Casting (2)Economical process (3)Precision casting of steels and hightemperature alloy .
vacuum .Vacuum Casting (1)Process .sand + urethane molded .drawing the molten metal into the mold cavity .
ASM International. "Vacuum Casting Goes Commercial. Note that the mold has a bottom gate. February 1990. (a) Before and (b) after immersion of the mold into the molten metal. 18. p." Advanced Materials and Processes.21 Schematic illustration of the vacuum-casting process. Blackburn. Source: From R.Vacuum-Casting Process Figure 11. .
Vacuum Casting (2)Characteristics -temperature of molten metal：liquids temp.+ 55℃ -suitab1e for thin wall(1.75mm)complex shapes .
and highalloys steel part -weight up to 70kg -inexpensive production costs (similar to green sand casting) .Vacuum Casting -casting of carbon and low.
gray iron.Permanent-Mold Casting (1)Mold material：cast iron. graphite . refractory metal alloys (2)Core material ：oil -bonded or resinbonded sand .plaster . stee1. bronze. low-carbon steel (3)Mo Id preheated to 150-200 ℃ . graphite.
steel (5)Good surface finish . Mg . close tolerance . Cu alloys . Uniform and good mechanical properties High production rates .Permanent-Mold Casting (4)Casting material ：A1 . gray iron .
gear blanks .Permanent-Mold Casting (6)Typi calparts：automobile piston . cylinder head connecting rods .
Slush Casting (1)Process -pour molten metal into mold -mold inverted -remaining liquid metal is poured out -hollow casting with thin walls .
Pb alloys .Sn .Slush Casting (2)Small production runs (3)Typical parts：ornamental and decorative objects and toys (4)Casting material :Zn .
Pressure Casting (1)Process -molten metal forced upward by gas pres sure or vacuum into a graphite or metal mold .
Pressure Casting Figure 11. Note that the pouring basin also serves as a riser.22 (a) The bottom-pressure casting process utilizes graphite molds for the production of steel railroad wheels. (b) Gravity-pouring method of casting a railroad wheel. Railroad wheels can also be manufactured by forging. Source: The Griffin Wheel Division of Amsted Industries Incorporated. .
Hot-chamber process (1)Pressure: max.35MPa average 15MPa (2)Dies cooled by circulating water or oil (3)Casting low-melting-point alloys: Zn . Sn . Pb .Die Casting-two basic types A.
. (b) Two-piece Polaroid camera case made by the hot-chamber die casting process. high purity magnesium case. Inc.Die-Casting Examples (a) (b) Figure 11 (a) The Polaroid PDC-2000 digital camera with a AZ91D die-cast. Source: Courtesy of Polaroid Corporation and Chicago White Metal Casting.
Cu alloys .Cold-chamber process (1)Pressure: 20-70 MPa.150MPa (2)Casting high-melting-point alloys:A1. max.Die Casting-two basic types B .Mg .
Source: Courtesy of Foundry Management and Technology.Hot.and Cold-Chamber DieCasting (a) (b) Figure 11.23 (a) Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process. . (b) Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process.
24 (a) Schematic illustration of a cold-chamber die-casting machine.Cold-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (a) Figure 11. These machines are large compared to the size of the casting because large forces are required to keep the two halves of the dies closed. .
24 (b) 800-ton hot-chamber die-casting machine.25 million.Hot-Chamber Die-Casting Machine (b) Figure 11. This is the largest hot-chamber machine in the world and costs about $1. . DAM 8005 (made in Germany in 1998).
motors.toys (2)Die casting dies . Characteristics (1)Typical parts : carburetors.hand tools .Die Casting-two basic types C. business machine .
26 Examples of cast-in. Figure 11. . (a) Knurled bushings.place inserts in die casting.25 Various types of cavities in a die-casting die. Source: Courtesy of American Die Casting Institute. (b) Grooved threaded rod.Die-Casting Die Cavities Figure 11.
Die Casting-two basic types (3)High production rates Good strength.5mIm) Little or no finishing operations . dimensional accuracy and surface finish Complex shapes (wall thickness as small as 0.
graphite coated with a refractory lining (2)Pressure: max.Centrifugal Casting-three types A. iron.150g . True centrifugal casting (1)Mold material: steel.
Pipes.Centrifugal Casting Process Figure 11. cylinder liners.27 Schematic illustration of the centrifugal casting process. and similarly shaped parts can be cast with this process. .
5 Si) Yield strength (MPa) 160 150 Elongation in 50 mm (%) 2.4 Ultimate tensile strength (MPa) 320 300 13 (12 Si) Alloy Aluminum 380 (3. office equipment.5 Cu-8. lock hardware.5 2. toys Appliances. building hardware. automotive parts.7 Zn) Zinc No. automotive parts. 3 (4 Al) 380 230 280 200 160 -- 15 3 10 5 (4 Al-1 Cu) Source : Data from American Die Casting Institute 320 -- 7 . sporting goods Automotive parts. bushings. ornamental castings Power tools. electrical motor frames and housings Complex shapes with thin walls. automotive components. parts requiring strength at elevated temperatures Plumbing fiztures.5 Applications Appliances. business equipment Brass 858 (60 Cu) Magnesium AZ91 B (9 Al-0.Properties and Typical Applications of Common Die-Casting Alloys TABLE 11. building hardware. household utensils.
enginecylinder liners bearing rings. bushing.Centrifugal Casting-three types (3)Cylindrical parts: diameter: 13mm-3m length: 16m wall thickness :6-125mm (4)Typical parts: pipes. gun barrels .
Centrifugal Casting-three types B .Semi centrifugal casting (1)Casting parts with rotational symmetry C .Centrifuging .
(b) Schematic illustration of casting by centrifuging. and the molten metal is forced into the molds by centrifugal force. Wheels with spokes can be cast by this process.28 (a) Schematic illustration of the semicentrifugal casting process.Semicentrifugal Casting Figure 11. The molds are placed at the periphery of the machine. .
Squeeze Casting (1)Combination of casting and forging (2)Fine microstructure Good mechanical proper ties (3)Typical parts: automotive whee1. mortar bodies .
Squeeze-Casting Figure 11. This process combines the advantages of casting and forging.29 Sequence of operations in the squeeze-casting process. .
Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (1)Convent ional casting of turbine blades -ceramic casting: polycrystalline structure (fig.1c) poor resistant to creep and cracking .10.
Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (2)Directionally solidified blades -columnar grains -better resistant to creep (3)Single-crystal blades -best resistant to creep and thermal shock .
Casting Techniques for Single-Crystal Components (4)Single-crystal growing -crystal pulling (Czochralski process ) Si. Ge ingots: dia.50-150 mm length 1m -floating zone method .
Kear. Source: (a) and (b) B. October 1986. H. (c) . p. October 1990. 29. (b) method to produce a single-crystal blade.30 Methods of casting turbine blades: (a) directional solidification. (c) Advanced Materials and Processes. ASM International. and (c) a single-crystal blade with the constriction portion still attached. Scientific American.Single Crystal Casting of Turbine Blades Figure 11.
Source: L. Inc.Single Crystal Casting Figure 11.. H. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.. Materials for Engineering. 1982. Crystal growing is especially important in the semiconductor industry.31 Two methods of crystal growing: (a) crystal pulling (Czochralski process) and (b) the floating-zone method. Van Vlack. .
Melt Spinning Figure 11.32 Schematic illustration of melt-spinning to produce thin strips of amorphous metal. .
Types of Melting Furnaces Figure 11. and (b) cupola. .33 Two types of melting furnaces used in foundries: (a) crucible.
Inspection of Castings (1)Destructive tests (2)Nondestructive tests .
part shape limited. Patterns have low strength and can be costly for low quantities Limited to nonferrous metals. high production rate. limited size and volume of production. usually limited to nonferrous metals. Excellent dimensional accuracy and surface finish. Intricate shapes. wide tolerances. Most metals cast with no limit to size. high production rate. good surface finish. high production rate. not suitable for high-melting-point metals. Limited size. good dimensional accu. low porosity.racy and finish. no limit to size. Equipment is expensive. molds. almost any metal cast.1 Process Sand Advantages Almost any metal cast. Die cost is high. Limitations Some finishing required. mold making time relatively long. close tolerance parts. high production rate. expensive patterns and equipment required. low tooling cost. 118 . shape or weight. Investment Part size limited. somewhat coarse finish. and labor. long lead time. low porosity. complex shapes Intricate shapes.TABLE 11. Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish. expensive patterns. Shell mold Expendable pattern Summary of Casting Processes Plaster mold Ceramic mold Intricate shapes. Die Centrifugal Large cylindrical parts with good quality. excellent surface finish and accuracy. Good surface finish and dimensional accuracy. Part size limited. Permanent mold High mold cost. limited shape and intricacy. part size limited.
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