# MATHEMATICS

UNIT 1: SETS, RELATIONS AND FUNCTIONS: Sets and their representation; Union, intersection and complement of sets and their algebraic properties; Power set; Relation, Types of relations, equivalence relations, functions;. one-one, into and onto functions, composition of functions. UNIT 2: COMPLEX NUMBERS AND QUADRATIC EQUATIONS: Complex numbers as ordered pairs of reals, Representation of complex numbers in the form a+ib and their representation in a plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, square root of a complex number, triangle inequality, Quadratic equations in real and complex number system and their solutions. Relation between roots and co-efficients, nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots. UNIT 3: MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS: Matrices, algebra of matrices, types of matrices, determinants and matrices of order two and three. Properties of determinants, evaluation of determinants, area of triangles using determinants. Adjoint and evaluation of inverse of a square matrix using determinants and elementary transformations, Test of consistency and solution of simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables using determinants and matrices. UNIT 4: PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS:Fundamental principle of counting, permutation as an arrangement and combination as selection, Meaning of P (n,r) and C (n,r), simple applications. UNIT 5: MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION: Principle of Mathematical Induction and its simple applications. UNIT 6:BINOMIAL THEOREM AND ITS SIMPLE APPLICATIONS: Binomial theorem for a positive integral index, general term and middle term, properties of Binomial coefficients and simple applications. UNIT 7: SEQUENCES AND SERIES: Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, insertion of arithmetic, geometric means between two given numbers. Relation between A.M. and G.M. Sum upto n terms of special series: Sn, Sn2, Sn3. Arithmetico – Geometric progression. UNIT 8: LIMIT, CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY: Real – valued functions, algebra of functions, polynomials, rational, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, inverse functions. Graphs of simple functions. Limits, continuity and differentiability. Differentiation of the sum, difference, product and quotient of two functions. Differentiation of trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, logarithmic, exponential, composite and implicit functions; derivatives of order upto two. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems. Applications of derivatives: Rate of change of quantities, monotonic – increasing and decreasing functions, Maxima and minima of functions of one variable, tangents and normals.UNIT 9: INTEGRAL CALCULUS: Integral as an anti – derivative. Fundamental integrals involving algebraic, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Integration by substitution, by parts and by partial fractions. Integration using trigonometric identities. Evaluation of simple integrals of the type Integral as limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Properties of definite integrals. Evaluation of definite integrals, determining areas of the regions bounded by simple curves in standard form. UNIT 10: Differential Equations: Ordinary differential equations, their order and degree. Formation of differential equations. Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solution of homogeneous and linear differential equations of the type: dy – + p (x) y = q (x) dx UNIT 11: CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY: Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates in a plane, distance formula, section formula, locus and its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line on the coordinate axes. Straight lines

Baye’s theorem. conditions for concurrence of three lines. Probability: Probability of an event. condition for y = mx + c to be a tangent and point (s) of tangency. molar mass. probability distribution of a random variate. Understanding of tautology. scalar and vector products. if and only if. compressibility factor. Dalton’s atomic theory. CHEMISTRY SECTION-A PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY UNIT 1: Some Basic conceptS IN CHEMISTRY Matter and its nature. equations of internal and external bisectors of angles between two lines. percentage composition. coordinates of centroid. addition and multiplication theorems of probability. root mean square and most probable velocities. Units. components of a vector in two dimensions and three dimensional space. variance and mean deviation for grouped and ungrouped data. Skew lines. its radius and centre. logical operations and. Concept of average. liquid and gaseous states. Real gases. Chemical equations and stoichiometry. implied by. molecule. equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines. scalar and vector triple product. Ideal gas equation. or. Circles. equations of conic sections (parabola. intersection of lines. precision and accuracy. van der Waals . Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry. Dalton’s law of partial pressure. addition of vectors. UNIT 14: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY: Measures of Dispersion: Calculation of mean. Concept of Absolute scale of temperature. Sections of cones. dimensional analysis. Atomic and molecular masses. Avogadro’s law. Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates). direction ratios and direction cosines. implies. coplanar lines. Graham’s law of diffusion. significant figures. mole concept. equation of the tangent. converse and contrapositive. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution. median. UNIT 12: Three Dimensional Geometry: Coordinates of a point in space. orthocentre and circumcentre of a triangle. section formula. intersection of a line and a plane.UNIT 15: Trigonometry: UNIT 16: MATHEMATICAL REASONING: Statements. angles between two lines. Concept of atom.I. deviation from Ideal behaviour. empirical and molecular formulae. Equations of a line and a plane in different forms. equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given. Laws of chemical combination. conic sections Standard form of equation of a circle. distance between two points. Charle’s law. Gaseous State: Measurable properties of gases. contradiction. Calculation of standard deviation. the shortest distance between them and its equation. Gas laws – Boyle’s law. ellipse and hyperbola) in standard forms.Various forms of equations of a line. angle between two intersecting lines. mode of grouped and ungrouped data. element and compound. S. general form of the equation of a circle. distance of a point from a line. UNIT 13: Vector Algebra: Vectors and scalars. UNIT 2: States of Matter Classification of matter into solid. points of intersection of a line and a circle with the centre at the origin and condition for a line to be tangent to a circle.

liquefaction of gases. calculation of lattice enthalpy. state functions. its important features. limitations of Bohr’s model. Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular. extensive and intensive properties. UNIT 3: Atomic Structure Discovery of sub-atomic particles (electron. Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory – Its important features. atomization. ionic. molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules. Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity. p and d – orbitals. Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics. Variation of * and * 2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals.equation. types of processes. sigma and pi-bonds. Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates. voids. * and *2. viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only). covalent and metallic solids. LCAOs. magnetic and dielectric properties. bcc and hcp lattices). molar heat capacity. Dual nature of matter. ionization and solution. quantum mechanical model of atom. concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions. formation. electronic configuration of elements. Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule. Elementary idea of metallic bonding. UNIT 5: CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings. dipole moment. imperfection in solids. Resonance. Enthalpies of bond dissociation. angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance. shapes of s. . Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle. concept of hybridization involving s. Liquid State: Properties of liquids – vapour pressure. Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds. Unit cell and lattices. First law of thermodynamics – Concept of work. Hydrogen bonding and its applications. Bragg’s Law and its applications. DS of the universe and DG of the system as criteria for spontaneity. Heisenberg uncertainty principle. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). antibonding). DGo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant. heat capacity. derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits. Hess’s law of constant heat summation. Nature of electromagnetic radiation. calculations involving unit cell parameters. factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds. p and d orbitals. Second law of thermodynamics. concept of ionic and covalent bonds. packing in solids (fcc. combustion. bond length and bond energy. electron spin and spin quantum number. Electrical. hydration. photoelectric effect. Fajan’s rule. Molecular Orbital Theory – Its important features. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules. various quantum numbers (principal. proton and neutron). sublimation. UNIT 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation. critical constants. concept of bond order. de-Broglie’s relationship. Spectrum of hydrogen atom. heat internal energy and enthalpy. Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations. phase transition. extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals. types of molecular orbitals (bonding.Spontaneity of processes.

Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium. Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells. ionization of water. rules for assigning oxidation number. concept of dynamic equilibrium. UNIT 10: SURFACE CHEMISTRY Adsorption. Henry’s law. . factors affecting equilibrium concentration. electrode potentials including standard electrode potential. order and molecularity of reactions. activation energy and its calculation. redox reactions. Colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure. mole fraction. molarity. equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance. conductance in electrolytic solutions. Eectrolytic and metallic conduction. effect of catalyst. acid – base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants. pH scale. UNIT 9: CHEMICAL KINETICS Rate of a chemical reaction. Fuel cells. rate constant and its units. vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions. half – cell and cell reactions. factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration. temperature. elementary and complex reactions. hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions. solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products. general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes. emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement. rate law. percentage (by volume and mass both). temperature.UNIT 6: SOLUTIONS Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality. adsorption from solutions. plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions. Le Chatelier’s principle. elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure. ionization of electrolytes. UNIT 8: REDOX REACTIONS AND ELECTROCHEMISTRY Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction. oxidation number. their characteristics and half – lives. van’t Hoff factor and its significance. common ion effect. various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius. differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions. UNIT 7: EQUILIBRIUM Meaning of equilibrium. buffer solutions. Br?nsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization. pressure and catalyst. effect of temperature on rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory. different types of electrodes. Abnormal value of molar mass. Nernst equation and its applications. specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications. Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid. pressure. depression of freezing point. collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation). Dry cell and lead accumulator. Corrosion and its prevention. Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties. liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria. balancing of redox reactions.Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics. Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change. Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms. vapour pressure – composition. significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibria.

Mg and Ca. Classification of hydrides – ionic. reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide. oxidation states and chemical reactivity. electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements. Hydrogen as a fuel. dialysis. electrophoresis. covalent and interstitial. multi molecular. d and f block elements. preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect. electron gain enthalpy. SECTION-B INORGANIC CHEMISTRY UNIT 11: CLASSIFICATON OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table. Industrial uses of lime. Emulsions and their characteristics. UNIT 15: P – BLOCK ELEMENTS Group – 13 to Group 18 Elements General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties . periodic trends in properties of elementsatomic and ionic radii. sodium chloride. diagonal relationships. Cu.Catalysis – Homogeneous and heterogeneous. Zn and Fe. Brownian movement. lyophobic. reduction (chemical. Colloidal state – distinction among true solutions. ionization enthalpy. and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al. activity and selectivity of solid catalysts. Structure. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. UNIT 14: S – BLOCK ELEMENTS (ALKALI AND ALKALINE EARTH METALS) Group – 1 and 2 Elements General introduction. colloids and suspensions. Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals. limestone. properties and uses of hydrogen. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. UNIT 13: HYDROGEN Position of hydrogen in periodic table. Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate. K. valence. Plaster of Paris and cement. isotopes. macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles). classification of colloids – lyophilic. UNIT 12: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES OF ISOLATION OF METALS Modes of occurrence of elements in nature. coagulation and flocculation. Biological significance of Na. ores. p. s. enzyme catalysis and its mechanism. Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water. steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration. preparation. minerals. preparation.

sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation). properties. Werner’s theory. occurrence and characteristics. Inner Transition Elements Lanthanoids . Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens. unique behaviour of the first element in each group. PCl5). interstitial compounds. Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon. co-ordination number. chelation. Group – 15 Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus. structures and uses of dioxygen and ozone. Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states. structures and uses of sulphur dioxide. oxidation states. properties. silicates. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. denticity. Preparation. phosphine and phosphorus halides. properties and uses of K2Cr2O7and KMnO4. zeolites and silicones. oxidation states.Electronic configuration. Structure. magnetic properties. Groupwise study of the p – block elements Group – 13 Preparation. alloy formation. Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides. boron trifluoride. general trends in properties of the first row transition elements – physical properties. ligands. (PCl3. diborane. nitric acid. aluminium chloride and alums. ionization enthalpy. UNIT 17: CO-ORDINATION COMPOUNDS Introduction to co-ordination compounds. Allotrophic forms of phosphorus. colour. Group – 17 Preparation. catalytic behaviour. atomic radii. UNIT 16: d – and f – BLOCK ELEMENTS Transition Elements General introduction. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction. electronic configuration. structure and uses of ammonia. boric acid. Structure. Group -18 Occurrence and uses of noble gases. Group – 16 Preparation. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination .of elements across the periods and down the groups. properties and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon. Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus. properties and uses of boron and aluminium. properties. Allotropic forms of sulphur. properties and uses of borax. Preparation. silicon tetrachloride. complex formation. Structures of oxoacids of sulphur. Group – 14 Tendency for catenation. Preparation.

halogens. Acid rain. distillation. Section-C Organic Chemistry UNIT 19: Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds Purification – Crystallization. hydrogen. stability of carbocations and free radicals. – C ? C – and those containing halogens. Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism. elimination and rearrangement. Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: – C = C – . sulphur. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect. their sources. electrophiles and nucleophiles. Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) – Estimation of carbon. Particulate pollutants: Smoke. Green house effect and Global warming. differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications. Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae. oxygen. mist. water and soil. phosphorus. harmful effects and prevention. pathogens. isomerism. Homologous series. addition. Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p). Common types of organic reactions – Substitution. Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides.Major pollutants such as. Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and stratospheric Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon. Stratospheric pollution. extraction of metals and in biological systems).Formation and breakdown of ozone. harmful effects and prevention. Strategies to control environmental pollution. electromeric effect. phosphorus and halogens. smog. dust. their sources.compounds. Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis. Water Pollution . resonance and hyperconjugation. UNIT 21: . Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen. organic wastes and chemical pollutants. nitrogen and sulphur. Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. their harmful effects and prevention. depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects. their harmful effects and prevention. sublimation. fumes. hydrocarbons. colour and magnetic properties. herbicides and fungicides). sulphur. Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory. UNIT 18: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Environmental pollution – Atmospheric. Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC) Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals. nitrogen and sulphur. carbocations and carbanions. nitrogen. UNIT 20: SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Tetravalency of carbon..

Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism. properties. Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN. directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene. Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. CARBOXYLIC ACIDS Acidic strength and factors affecting it. Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen. secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character. . Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group. Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry. general methods of preparation. Cannizzaro reaction. NH3 and its derivatives). Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation. UNIT 23: Organic compounds containing Oxygen General methods of preparation. Aldehyde and Ketones: Nature of carbonyl group. Mechanisms of substitution reactions. nitration and sulphonation. basic character and identification of primary. Environmental effects of chloroform. Ethers: Structure. mechanism of dehydration. properties. Addition of hydrogen. reactions and uses. aldol condensation. relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones. electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation. isomerism. Alkynes – Acidic character. water and hydrogen halides. benzene – structure and aromaticity. UNIT 24: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen General methods of preparation. IUPAC nomenclature. reactions and uses. ALCOHOLS. Reimer – Tiemann reaction. Uses. Nature of C-X bond. PHENOLS AND ETHERS Alcohols: Identification of primary. Amines: Nomenclature. Polymerization. nitration. classification. and polymerization. Ozonolysis. freons and DDT. Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation. acidity of ? – hydrogen. secondary and tertiary alcohols. properties and reactions. Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane). reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen). oxidation. iodoform. UNIT 22: Organic Compounds Containing Halogens General methods of preparation. halogens. Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones. halogens. structure. Phenols: Acidic nature. hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect). oxidation.Hydrocarbons Classification. Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes. properties and reactions. water. Haloform reaction. Grignard reagent.

Chemicals in food – Preservatives. Mohr’s salt vs KMnO4. nylon. constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose. monosaccharides (glucose and fructose). Anions. tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only). general methods of polymerization – addition and condensation. Kinetic study of reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature. Proteins: primary. CARBOHYDRATES – Classification: aldoses and ketoses. Preparation of lyophilic and lyophobic sols. • Chemistry involved in the titrimetric excercises – Acids bases and the use of indicators. some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene. • Chemical principles involved in the following experiments: 1. NUCLEIC ACIDS – Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. UNIT 28: principles related to practical Chemistry • Detection of extra elements (N. S2-. antimicrobials. disinfectants. 3.CO32-. antiseptics. 4. Fe3+. SO42-. • Chemistry involved in the preparation of the following: Inorganic compounds: Mohr’s salt. Zn2+. carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone). antifertility drugs. NO2-. iodoform. denaturation of proteins. Ba2+.UNIT 25: Polymers General introduction and classification of polymers. Organic compounds: Acetanilide. aniline yellow. antacids. UNIT 26: Bio Molecules General introduction and importance of biomolecules. lactose. peptide bond. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid and strong base. Ca2+. polyester and bakelite. carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds. potash alum. AI3+. Mg2+. . copolymerization. NO3-. cellulose. NH4+. tranquilizers. cleansing action. Enthalpy of solution of CuSO4 2. glycogen). enzymes. halogens) in organic compounds. UNIT 27: Chemistry in everyday life Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics. antihistamins – their meaning and common examples. I. VITAMINS – Classification and functions. Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization. Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents. Br. Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic). (Insoluble salts excluded). • Chemical principles involved in the qualitative salt analysis: Cations – Pb2+ . PROTEINS – Elementary Idea of ? – amino acids. Ni2+.S. polypeptides. . CI-. p-nitroacetanilide. secondary. maltose) and polysaccharides (starch. antibiotics. Biological functions of nucleic acids. oxalic-acid vs KMnO4. artificial sweetening agents – common examples. Cu2+.