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**DERIVATIVES AND TOTAL DERIVATIVES.
**

DOA: DOP: DOS:

Submitted to: MISS.CHEENA GUPTA Dept. Of Mathematics

Submitted by: Mr. Rahul baweja Roll.No. R245A23 Reg.No 10803795 B.TECH.MBA (CSE)

At last it acknowledges all the members who are involved in the preparation of this project.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS It acknowledges all the contributors involved in the preparation of this project. Help of original creativity and illustration had taken and I have explained each and every aspect of the project precisely. there is a hand of my teachers. who guided me in the right direction. some books and internet. . The books and websites I consulted helped me to describe each and every point mentioned in this project. I express most gratitude to my subject teacher. The guidelines provided by her helped me a lot in completing the assignment. Including me.

Total Differential equation. 5. Example to show partial differentiation. 9. 7.Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS: 1. Definition. 6. Total differentiation. Notation of Partial differentiation. Application of total diffferention equation. Properties. Partial Differntiation 2. 8. . Introduction. 3. 4.

A graph of z = x2 + xy + y2.Partial derivative In mathematics. a partial derivative of a function of several variables is its derivative with respect to one of those variables with the others held constant (as opposed to the total derivative. distinguished from the straight d of total-derivative notation. We want to find the partial derivative at (1. 3) that leaves y constant. The notation was introduced by Adrien-Marie Legendre and gained general acceptance after its reintroduction by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi. The partial-derivative symbol ∂ is a rounded letter. Partial derivatives are useful in vector calculus and differential geometry. For instance. the corresponding tangent line is parallel to the x-axis.[citation needed] Introduction Suppose that ƒ is a function of more than one variable. or ∂f/∂x. 1. The partial derivative of a function f with respect to the variable x is written as fx. in which all variables are allowed to vary). ∂xf. .

and those that are parallel to the y-axis. 1. For example. 1. 1. we discover that the slope of the tangent line of ƒ at (1. On the left. or as "The partial derivative of z with respect to x at (1. 3) is 3. we see the way the function looks on the plane y = 1. 1. Usually. 3). the lines of most interest are those that are parallel to the x-axis. The graph and this plane are shown on the right. to find the tangent line of the above function at (1. we treat y as a constant one. Partial differentiation is the act of choosing one of these lines and finding its slope. A good way to find these parallel lines is to treat the other variable as a constant.It is difficult to describe the derivative of such a function. This is a slice of the graph at the right at y = 1. 3) that is parallel to the x axis is three. 3) that is parallel to the x-axis." Definition The function f can be reinterpreted as a family of functions of one variable indexed by the other variables: . By finding the tangent line on this graph. We write this in notation as At the point (1. as there are an infinite number of tangent lines to every point on this surface.

[1] That is. then f(x. and by definition. that being y. assembling the derivatives together into a function gives a function which describes the variation of f in the y direction: This is the partial derivative of f with respect to y. In general.. a is a constant. "dah". . not a variable. which is a function of one real number. Consequently the definition of the derivative for a function of one variable applies: The above procedure can be performed for any choice of a. That choice of fixed values determines a function of one variable . or "partial" instead of "dee". Once a value of x is chosen.y) determines a function fa which sends y to a2 + ay + y2: In this expression. ∂ is sometimes pronounced "der". the partial derivative of a function f(x1. To distinguish it from the letter d.In other words. so fa is a function of only one real variable.. every value of x defines a function. all the variables except xi are held fixed.. say a. denoted FX. "del".an) is defined to be: In the above difference quotient.. Here ∂ is a rounded d called the partial derivative symbol.xn) in the direction xi at the point (a1.

. then the gradient is a vector-valued function ∇f which takes the point a to the vector ∇f(a). these partial derivatives define the vector This vector is called the gradient of f at a.. Consequently the gradient determines a vector field.In other words. the different choices of a index a family of one-variable functions just as in the example above. In this case f has a partial derivative ∂f/∂xj with respect to each variable xj. on R2 or R3).g. it depends on the cone's height h and its radius r according to the formula . At the point a.xn) on a domain in Euclidean space Rn (e. An important example of a function of several variables is the case of a scalar-valued function f(x1. This expression also shows that the computation of partial derivatives reduces to the computation of onevariable derivatives. If f is differentiable at every point in some domain. Examples The volume of a cone depends on height and radius Consider the volume V of a cone..

and the height and radius are in a fixed ratio k: This gives the total derivative: . The partial derivative with respect to h is And represents the rate with which the volume changes if its height is varied and its radius is kept constant. Now consider by contrast the total derivative of V with respect to r and h.The partial derivative of V with respect to r is It describes the rate with which a cone's volume changes if its radius is varied and its height is kept constant. Now suppose that. for some reason. the cone's proportions have to stay the same. They are. respectively And We see that the difference between the total and partial derivative is the elimination of indirect dependencies between variables in the latter.

y and z. and other sciences and applied disciplines. engineering. In fields such as statistical mechanics. some of these variables may be related to each other. Notation For the following examples. the partial derivative of f with respect to x.Equations involving an unknown function's partial derivatives are called partial differential equations and are common in physics. First-order partial derivatives: Second-order partial derivatives: Second-order mixed derivatives: Higher-order partial and mixed derivatives: When dealing with functions of multiple variables. is often expressed as . holding y and z constant. and it may be necessary to specify explicitly which variables are being held constant. let f be a function in x.

These concepts are all named after the mathematician Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi. The term "Jacobian" is normally pronounced /jəˈkoʊbiən/. We can use this fact to generalize for vector valued functions (f: U → R'm) by carefully using a componentwise argument. we call f a C2 function at that point (or on that set). We define the partial derivative of f at the point a = (a1. In algebraic geometry the Jacobian of a curve means the Jacobian variety: a group variety associated to the curve. then f is totally differentiable in that neighborhood and the total derivative is continuous. the Jacobian determinant. in which the curve can be embedded. an) ∈ U with respect to the i-th variable xi as Even if all partial derivatives ∂f/∂xi(a) exist at a given point a. the Jacobian is shorthand for either the Jacobian matrix or its determinant.properties Like ordinary derivatives. However. The partial derivative can be seen as another function defined on U and can again be partially differentiated. In this case. if all partial derivatives exist in a neighborhood of a and are continuous there. the partial derivatives can be exchanged by Clairaut's theorem: APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DERIVATIVES: n vector calculus. the function need not be continuous there. Jacobian matrix . but sometimes also /dʒəˈkoʊbiən/. in this case. we say that f is a C1 function.. If all mixed second order partial derivatives are continuous at a point (or on a set). Let U be an open subset of Rn and f: U → R a function.. the partial derivative is defined as a limit.

. m) of this matrix is the gradient of the ith component function yi: ... The partial derivatives of all these functions (if they exist) can be organized in an m-by-n matrix. If p is a point in Rn and F is differentiable at p. ym(x1. the derivative of a numerical function must be matrix-valued. . as follows: This matrix is also denoted by .xn). or a partial derivative.The Jacobian matrix is the matrix of all first-order partial derivatives of a vector-valued function.. Suppose F : Rn → Rm is a function from Euclidean n-space to Euclidean m-space. Such a function is given by m realvalued component functions.. If a function is differentiable at a point.. its derivative is given in coordinates by the Jacobian.. then its derivative is given by JF (p). y1(x1.. the linear map described by JF (p) is the best linear approximation of F near the point p.. and The i Th row (i = 1. the Jacobian is the derivative of a multivariate function. In this case..xn). For a function of n variables. the Jacobian matrix J of F. In this sense. in the sense that .. Its importance lies in the fact that it represents the best linear approximation to a differentiable function near a given point. but a function doesn't need to be differentiable for the Jacobian to be defined.. n > 1. since only the partial derivatives are required to exist..

known as the Jacobian determinant. The Jacobian of the gradient is the Hessian matrix. Examples Example 1.2π) → R3 with components: The Jacobian matrix for this coordinate change is Jacobian determinant If m = n.π) × [0. φ. then F is a function from n-space to n-space and the Jacobian matrix is a square matrix. We can then form its determinant. x3) is given by the function F : R+ × [0. The transformation from spherical coordinates (r. The .For x close to p and where o is the little o-notation. x2. θ) to Cartesian coordinates (x1.

e. with respect to one of its input variables. However.Jacobian determinant is also called the "Jacobian" in some sources. if it is negative.g.y) with respect to t is Consider multiplying both sides of the equation by the differential . e. Because f depends on t. of several variables. x.. then F preserves orientation near p.. etc. t. The Jacobian determinant at a given point gives important information about the behavior of F near that point. the total derivative of f(t. the continuously differentiable function F is invertible near a pointp ∈ Rn if the Jacobian determinant at p is non-zero.. some of that change will also be due to the partial derivatives of f with respect to the variables . this is why it occurs in the general substitution rule. For instance. some of that change will be due to the partial derivative of f with respect to t. y. Calculation of the total derivative of f with respect to t does not assume that the other arguments are constant while t varies. The total derivative of a function. This is the inverse function theorem. f. For example. the term total derivative has a number of closely related meanings. F reverses orientation. instead. Furthermore. it allows the other arguments to depend on t. The result will be the differential change in the function f.x.g. t. if the Jacobian determinant at p is positive. The total derivative adds in these indirect dependencies to find the overall dependency of f on t. Total derivative In the mathematical field of differential calculus. The absolute value of the Jacobian determinant at p gives us the factor by which the function F expands or shrinks volumes near p. is different from the partial derivative.

which can then be used to find It refers to a differential operator such as Which computes the total derivative of a function (with respect to x in this case)? It refers to the (total) differential DF of a function. A differential of the form is called a total differential or an exact differential if it is the differential of a function.e. if f is a differentiable function from Rn to Rm. Again this can be interpreted infinitesimally. then the (total) derivative (or differential) of f at x∈Rn is the linear map from Rn to Rm whose matrix is the Jacobian matrix of f at x. Since the exterior derivative is a natural operator. in a sense that can be given a technical meaning.x and y. is applied to the total derivatives of x and . It is a synonym for the gradient. Total differential equation Total differential equation is a differential equation expressed in terms of total derivatives. So. which is essentially the derivative of a function from Rn to R. the differential and y to find differentials the contribution to .. such equations are intrinsic and geometric Application of the total differential to error estimation . or by using differential forms and the exterior derivative. It is another name for the derivative as a linear map. i. either in the traditional language of infinitesimals or the modern language of differential forms.

the analysis describes the worstcase scenario. Δy.g. dividing by f. because after simple computation. . are derived. which is a × b Δf/f = Δa/a + Δb/b That is to say.In measurement. y.: Let f (a. the total relative error is the sum of the relative errors of the parameters. b) = a × b. Assuming that ΔF(x) = f'(x) × Δx And that all variables are independent. e. As they are assumed to be independent.. of the parameters x. in multiplication. the total differential is used in estimating the error Δf of a function f based on the errors Δx. ΔF = fx Δx+ fy Δy +. This is because the derivative fx with respect to the particular parameter x gives the sensitivity of the function f to a change in x. ΔF = faΔa + fbΔb. From this principle the error rules of summation. in particular the error Δx. the derivative may have a negative sign.. The absolute values of the component errors are used. then for all variables. multiplication etc. evaluating the derivatives ΔF = bΔa + aΔb.

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