HISTORY OF HANUKKAH 332 alexander conquers Persia—merging of East and West/ culture ethnicity/universal versus particular 300

-200 Judea ruled by Egyptian Ptolemy (who took Jerusalem on shabbat without any resistance) 200 Antiochus III Seleucid Dynasty conquers Judea Hellenistic period is from Alexander the great to Emporer Augustus in 30BCE During this period the challenge was to adapt to “Hellenist” culture while remaining particularistic. This was hard for the Jews: Food, marriage....they were viewed as xenophobic, barbarous Many Jews, particularly the wealthy, educated, upper class demographic became hellenized Aniochus IV (Epiphanes) replaces Onias with Jason and then Menelaus-- a hellenist Jews. These High Priests were the ones who sought royal approval for establishing a Greek community and Gymnasium in Jerusalem. The priests, Jerusalemites, and the wealthy were the first ones to join in Greek sports, casting off priestly garments. Jews wanted to be greek, they tried to undo or mask circumcision. These activities were frought with pagan rituals and symbols so the High Priests and the leaders of the Jewish community had a choice: They could accept western culture with its idolatry and universal thrust freely and relinquish Judaism OR transform Judaism to work within Western culture. THEY WERE THE FIRST REFORM JEWS! The Greek monarchy endorsed this new approach. Diodorus writes that in December of 167 BCE Antiochus entered the Kodesh hakodashim and discovered an image of Moses whom he blamed for creating the misanthropic customs of the Jews so he sacrificed a pig on the altar which had been moved outside and sprinkled blood on holy books. Extinguished the Menorah, Ner Tamid. Forced Jews to eat the meat. The idol of Zeus was placed in the Temple. Antiochus sent soldiers to enforce the abandonment of Toraitic culture and religion. WHY DID HE DO THIS? Victor Tchernikover Wanted to introduce into his realm the worship of himself in the form of Zeus Olympus (Not Zeus, but God of Moses) that was a fusion of Greek and Jewish elements. 166 soldiers enter modiin to enforce civil decrees of Antiochus. Mattathias, a priest, kills him, kills the soldiers, and tears down the altar. Mattathias was not advocating for freedom of religion. Rather he saw a conflict between the law of man and the law of God. Maccabees started as passive resistance. Then became active struggle to return Toraitic law to Jews by force, would kill Jews who were not following the Torah. They travelled through Judea ripping down idols and compelling Toraitic practice. They practiced geurilla warfare Judah takes over from his father who dies in 166 BCE builds army of 3,000 Fall 165, Antiochus rescinds religious persecution at the behest of Menelaus who had asked for it

phil. THIS WAS AN INNOVATIVE STEP COMPLETELY OUT OF LINE WITH ISRAELITE CULT RELIGION. cheese dishes. the 25th of Kislev. suf ganiyot. Architecture. This marked the beginning of a process of making use of Hellenic concepts and notions without sacrificing Judaism.to begin with! This meant that the reform hellenists still controlled Jerusalem in December of 164. not Israelites. text research) talmud Torah comes from Ben Sira (Hellenistic influence) AMBIVALENCE AND HANUKKAH military heroism and sel-sacrifice as the method for achieving national independence miracle martyrdon fanaticism number of hanukkiyot number of candles: 36 (maalin bakodesh) light at sunset—time when people walk by.) Independence versus interdependence abstract intellect versus acknowledgement of bodily needs aural versus visual contributions of Hellenism to Judaism (methods of philosophic study in ancient texts. Judah took Jerusalem—precisely thre years after the reform party of Menelaus and Antiochus has offered a pig on the altar. 162 Judah reaches a peace agreement with Antiochus IV's son in which Jews are required to abide by strict adherence to Jewish law. IT WAS COMPLETELY HELLENISTIC: greeks would had holidays. shamash (can't use cnadles of hanukkah for any purpose) burn for 30 min. fulfill the mitzvah through lighting not placing hanukkiah buying a share of candles Food: latkes. anything fried! . Orthodoxy wins! Menelaus is executed for causing Antiochus to abolish the constitution of the Jews BALANCING ACT BETWEEN HELLENISM AND JUDAISM Steinberg: culture (economics. They had an eight day rededication festival. wine.

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