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com

www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman

and variable speciﬁc heats of working ﬂuid on performance

of air standard Otto cycle

a,* b

Jiann-Chang Lin , Shuhn-Shyurng Hou

a

Department of General Education, Transworld Institute of Technology, Touliu City, Yunlin County 640, Taiwan, ROC

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Yung-Kang City, Tainan County 71003, Taiwan, ROC

Received 30 June 2006; received in revised form 28 January 2007; accepted 9 September 2007

Available online 22 October 2007

Abstract

The objective of this study is to analyze the eﬀects of heat loss characterized by a percentage of the fuel’s energy, friction and variable

speciﬁc heats of working ﬂuid on the performance of an air standard Otto cycle with a restriction of maximum cycle temperature. A more

realistic and precise relationship between the fuel’s chemical energy and the heat leakage that is based on a pair of inequalities is derived

through the resulting temperature. The variations in power output and thermal eﬃciency with compression ratio, and the relations

between the power output and the thermal eﬃciency of the cycle are presented. The results show that the power output as well as

the eﬃciency where maximum power output occurs will increase with increase of the maximum cycle temperature. The temperature

dependent speciﬁc heats of the working ﬂuid have a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the performance. The power output and the working range

of the cycle increase with the increase of speciﬁc heats of the working ﬂuid, while the eﬃciency decreases with the increase of speciﬁc heats

of the working ﬂuid. The friction loss has a negative eﬀect on the performance. Therefore, the power output and eﬃciency of the cycle

decrease with increasing friction loss. It is noteworthy that the eﬀects of heat loss characterized by a percentage of the fuel’s energy, fric-

tion and variable speciﬁc heats of the working ﬂuid on the performance of an Otto cycle engine are signiﬁcant and should be considered

in practical cycle analysis. The results obtained in the present study are of importance to provide good guidance for performance eval-

uation and improvement of practical Otto engines.

2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Otto cycle; Heat leakage; Friction; Irreversible; Variable speciﬁc heat

in internal combustion engines. Air is assumed to behave

Since there are some diﬀerences between real air–fuel as an ideal gas, and all processes are considered to be

cycles and ideal air standard cycles, the results from air reversible [1,2]. In practice, air standard analysis is useful

standard thermodynamic analysis will deviate from actual for illustrating the thermodynamic aspects of an engine

conditions. However, it is very interesting to note that operation cycle. Meanwhile, it can provide approximate

the errors are not great, and the property values of temper- estimates of trends as major engine operating variables

ature and pressure are very representative of actual engine change. Good approximations of power output, thermal

values, depending on the geometry and operating condi- eﬃciency and mep (mean eﬀective pressure) can be

tions of the real engine [1]. Therefore, to make the analysis expected.

of the engine cycle much more manageable, air standard For an ideal engine cycle, heat losses do not occur, how-

ever, for a real engine cycle, heat losses indeed exist and

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +886 5 5370988; fax: +886 5 5370989. should not be neglected. It is recognized that heat loss

E-mail address: jclin6142@ms69.url.com.tw (J.-C. Lin). strongly aﬀects the overall performance of the internal

0196-8904/$ - see front matter 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2007.09.002

J.-C. Lin, S.-S. Hou / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 1218–1227 1219

Nomenclature

bv constant, deﬁned in Eq. (5) R gas constant of working ﬂuid

Cpm molar speciﬁc heat at constant pressure T temperature

Cvm molar speciﬁc heat at constant volume T1, T2, T3, T4 temperatures at state points 1, 2, 3, 4

fl friction force, deﬁned in Eq. (21) V volume

k speciﬁc heat ratio, k = Cpm/Cvm v piston velocity

k1 constant, deﬁned in Eqs. (4) and (5) v piston mean velocity

L stroke of Otto engine x piston displacement

ma mass of air per cycle x1 piston position corresponding to maximum vol-

mf mass of fuel per cycle ume of trapped gases

N cycles per second x2 piston position corresponding to minimum vol-

P net actual power output of cycle, deﬁned in Eq. ume of trapped gases

(25)

PR power output without friction losses, deﬁned in Greek letters

Eq. (20) a heat leakage percentage

Pl lost power due to friction, deﬁned in Eq. (22) cc compression ratio, cc = V1/V2

Qfuel total energy of fuel per second input into engine g eﬃciency of cycle

QLHV lower heating value of fuel k excess air coeﬃcient

Qleak heat leakage per second l coeﬃcient of friction

Qin heat input

combustion engine. If it is neglected, the analysis will just ter and the fuel’s energy depend on each other. Their valid

depend on the ideal air standard cycle. Some attention ranges given in the literature aﬀect the feasibility of air

has been paid to analyzing the eﬀects of heat transfer losses standard cycles. If they are selected arbitrarily, they will

on the performance of internal combustion engines [3–7]. present unrealistic results and make the air standard cycles

Klein [3] examined the eﬀect of heat transfer through a cyl- unfeasible [17]. For this reason, a more realistic and precise

inder wall on the work output of Otto and Diesel cycles. relationship between the fuel’s chemical energy and the

Chen et al. [4,5] derived the relations between net power heat leakage needs to be derived through the resulting tem-

output and the eﬃciency of Diesel and Otto cycles with perature [17]. Thereby, the performance analysis of any

considerations of heat loss through the cylinder wall. internal combustion engine can be covered by a more real-

Hou [6] studied the eﬀect of heat transfer through a cylin- istic and valid range of the heat loss parameter and the

der wall on the performance of the dual cycle. fuel’s energy.

In addition to heat loss, friction has a signiﬁcant eﬀect However, Ozsoysal’s study [17] was only focused on the

on the performance, but it is omitted in ideal engine cycles. temperature limitations and no performance analysis was

Taking into account the friction loss of the piston, Angulo- presented. Moreover, his study was done without consider-

Brown et al. [7], Chen et al. [8] and Wang et al. [9] modeled ing the eﬀects of variable speciﬁc heats of the working ﬂuid

Otto, Diesel and dual cycles with friction like loss, respec- and friction. In particular, no performance analysis is

tively. Furthermore, Chen et al. [10,11] and Ge et al. [12] available in the literature with emphasis on the Otto cycle

derived the characteristics of power and eﬃciency for Otto, with considerations of variable speciﬁc heats of the work-

dual and Miller cycles with considerations of heat transfer ing ﬂuid, friction and heat leakage characterized by a per-

and friction like term losses. The above studies [3–12] were centage of the fuel’s energy. This study is aimed at

done without considering the variable speciﬁc heats of the analyzing these eﬀects (i.e. variable speciﬁc heats of work-

working ﬂuid. However, in real engine cycles, the speciﬁc ing ﬂuid, friction and heat loss characterized by a percent-

heat of the working ﬂuid is not a constant and should be age of the fuel’s energy) on the net work output and the

considered in practical cycle analysis [13–16]. indicated thermal eﬃciency of an air standard Otto cycle.

In those studies [3–16], the heat addition process for an In the present study, we relax the assumptions that there

air standard cycle has been widely described as subtraction are no heat losses during combustion, that there are no fric-

of an arbitrary heat loss parameter times the average tem- tion losses of the piston for the cycle, and that speciﬁc heats

perature of the heat addition period from the fuel’s chem- of the working ﬂuid are constant. In other words, heat

ical energy. That is, the heat transfer to the cylinder walls is transfer between the working ﬂuid and the environment

assumed to be a linear function of the diﬀerence between through the cylinder wall is considered and characterized

the average gas and cylinder wall temperatures during the by a percentage of the fuel’s energy; friction loss of the pis-

energy release process. However, the heat leakage parame- ton in all the processes of the cycle on the performance is

1220 J.-C. Lin, S.-S. Hou / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 1218–1227

taken into account. Furthermore, we consider the variable ing that the heat engine is operated at the rate of N cycles

speciﬁc heats of the working ﬂuid that is signiﬁcant in prac- per second, the total energy of the fuel per second input

tical cycle analysis. The results obtained in the study may into the engine can be given by

oﬀer good guidance for design and operation of the Otto Qfuel ¼ Nmf QLHV ; ð1Þ

cycle engine.

and then the heat leakage per second is

2. Thermodynamic analysis Qleak ¼ aQfuel ¼ aNmf QLHV ; ð2Þ

Fig. 1 shows the limitation of the maximum cycle tem- where mf is the delivered fuel mass into the cylinder, QLHV

perature due to heat leakage in the temperature-entropy is the lower heating value of the fuel and a is an unknown

diagram of an air standard Otto cycle model. Thermody- percentage parameter having a value between 0 and 1.

namic cycle 1–2–3 0 –4 0 –1 denotes the air standard Otto Since the total energy of the delivered fuel Qfuel is

cycle without heat leakage, while cycle 1–2–3–4–1 desig- assumed to be the sum of the heat added to the working

nates the air standard Otto cycle with heat leakage. Process ﬂuid Qin and the heat leakage Qleak,

1–2 is an isentropic compression from BDC (bottom dead Qin ¼ Qfuel Qleak ¼ ð1 aÞNmf QLHV : ð3Þ

center) to TDC (top dead center). The heat addition takes

In practical internal combustion engine cycles, constant

place in process 2–3, which is isochoric. The isentropic

pressure and constant volume speciﬁc heats of the working

expansion process, 3–4, is the power or expansion stroke.

ﬂuid are variable, and these variations will greatly aﬀect the

The cycle is completed by an isochoric heat rejection pro-

performance of the cycle. According to Ref. [13], it can be

cess, 4–1. The heat added to the working ﬂuid per unit

assumed that the speciﬁc heats of the working ﬂuid are

mass is due to combustion. The temperature at the comple-

functions of temperature alone and have the following lin-

tion of the constant volume combustion (T3) depends on

ear forms:

the heat input due to combustion and the heat leakage

through the cylinder wall. In this study, the amount of heat C pm ¼ ap þ k 1 T ð4Þ

leakage is considered to be a percentage of the delivered and

fuel’s energy [17]. The fuel’s energy then is the sum of the

actual fuel energy transferred to the working ﬂuid and C vm ¼ bv þ k 1 T ð5Þ

the heat leakage through the cylinder walls. If any heat

leakage occurs, the maximum cycle temperature (T3) where Cpm and Cvm are, respectively, the speciﬁc heats with

remains less than that of the no heat leakage case (T3 0 ). respect to constant pressure and volume. ap, bv and k1 are

When the total energy of the fuel is utilized, the maximum constants. Accordingly, the gas constant (R) of the working

cycle temperature reaches undesirably high levels with ﬂuid can be expressed as

regard to structural integrity. Hence, engine designers

intend to restrict the maximum cycle temperature. Assum- R ¼ C pm C vm ¼ ap bv ð6Þ

in the cycle is T3, and the available energy Qin during the

Q fuel

heat addition per second can be written as

Z T3 Z T3

Qin ¼ Nma C vm dT ¼ Nma ðbv þ k 1 T ÞdT

T T2 T2

Q in Q leak 3’

¼ Nma bv ðT 3 T 2 Þ þ 0:5k 1 T 23 T 22 : ð7Þ

3 Combining Eqs. (3) and (7) yields

Nma bv ðT 3 T 2 Þ þ 0:5k 1 T 23 T 22

V= C 4’

¼ ð1 aÞNmf QLHV ð8Þ

2 Q leak Dividing Eq. (8) by the amount of air mass ma, we have

4 kðma =mf Þs

a¼1 bv ðT 3 T 2 Þ þ 0:5k 1 T 23 T 22 ð9Þ

V= C QLHV

1 or

Q out

rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

h iﬃ

2 2 QLHV

bv þ bv þ 2k 1 0:5k 1 T 3 þ bv T 3 ð1 aÞ kðma =mf Þ

s

T2 ¼

s k1

Fig. 1. T–s diagram of an air standard Otto cycle model. ð10Þ

J.-C. Lin, S.-S. Hou / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 1218–1227 1221

(ma/mf)s, (ma/mf) is the air–fuel ratio and the subscripts a, f, k 1 ðT 3 T 4 Þ þ bv lnðT 3 =T 4 Þ ¼ R ln cc ð19Þ

and s, respectively, denote air, fuel and the stoichiometric

condition. From Eqs. (7) and (14), the power output without friction

The ﬁrst condition for realizing a feasible cycle is losses is given by:

T2 6 T3 (=Tmax), so that P R ¼ Qin Qout

a61 ð11Þ ¼ Nma bv ðT 3 þ T 1 T 2 T 4 Þ þ 0:5k 1 T 23 þ T 21 T 22 T 24

The upper limit for the percentage of heat leakage is then ð20Þ

found as amax = 1. The second condition, T2 P T1(=Tmin),

Every time the piston moves, friction acts to retard the mo-

is utilized to determine the lower limit as follows

tion. Considering the friction eﬀects on the piston in all the

kðma =mf Þs 2 processes of the cycle, we assume a dissipation term repre-

aP1 k 1 T 3 T 21 þ 2bv ðT 3 T 1 Þ ð12Þ

2QLHV sented by a friction force (fl) that is linearly proportional

to the velocity of the piston [7–9], which can be written

Hence, the minimum value of a is expressed as

as follows:

kðma =mf Þs 2

amin ¼ 1 k 1 T 3 T 21 þ 2bv ðT 3 T 1 Þ ð13Þ dx

2QLHV fl ¼ lv ¼ l ð21Þ

dt

The heat rejected per second by the working ﬂuid (Qout) where l is the coeﬃcient of friction, which takes into ac-

during process 4 ! 1 is count the global losses on the power output, x is the pis-

Z T4 Z T4 ton’s displacement and v is the piston’s velocity.

Qout ¼ Nma C vm dT ¼ Nma ðbv þ k 1 T ÞdT Therefore, the power lost due to friction is

T1 T1

2

¼ Nma bv ðT 4 T 1 Þ þ 0:5k 1 T 24 T 21 ð14Þ dx

P l ¼ fl v ¼ l ¼ lv2 ð22Þ

dt

The adiabatic exponent k = Cpm/Cvm will vary with tem-

perature since both Cpm and Cvm are dependent on temper- For a four stroke cycle engine, the total distance the piston

ature. Accordingly, the equation often used in reversible travels per cycle is

adiabatic processes with constant k cannot be used in 4L ¼ 4ðx1 x2 Þ ¼ 4x2 ðx1 =x2 1Þ ¼ 4x2 ðcc 1Þ ð23Þ

reversible adiabatic processes with variable k. According

to Ref. [13], however, a suitable engineering approximation where x1 and x2 are the piston’s position corresponding to

for reversible adiabatic processes with variable k can be the maximum and minimum volume, respectively, and L is

made, i.e. this process can be divided into inﬁnitesimally the stroke of the piston.

small processes, and for each of these processes, the adia- Running at N cycles per second, the mean velocity of the

batic exponent k can be regarded as constant. For instance, piston is

for any reversible adiabatic process between states i and j, v ¼ 4LN ð24Þ

we can regard the process as consist of numerous inﬁnites-

Therefore, the net actual power output of the Otto cycle

imally small processes with constant k. For any of these

engine can be written as

processes, when small changes in temperature dT and vol-

ume dV of the working ﬂuid take place, the equation for a P ¼ P R jP l j

reversible adiabatic process with variable k can be written

¼ Nma bv ðT 3 þ T 1 T 2 T 4 Þ þ 0:5k 1 T 23 þ T 21 T 22 T 24

as follows:

k1 16l½Nx2 ðcc 1Þ2 ;

TV k1 ¼ ðT þ dT ÞðV þ dV Þ : ð15Þ

ð25Þ

Re-arranging Eqs. (4)–(6) and (15), we get the following

equation The eﬃciency of the Otto cycle engine is expressed by

P n

dT =T þ ½R=ðbv þ k 1 T ÞðdV =V Þ ¼ 0: ð16Þ g¼ ¼ ma ½bv ðT 3 þ T 1 T 2 T 4 Þ þ 0:5k 1

Qin

2 o

Integrating Eq. (16) from state i to state j, we obtain T 3 þ T 21 T 22 T 24 16lN ½x2 ðcc 1Þ

2

1

k 1 ðT j T i Þ þ bv lnðT j =T i Þ ¼ R lnðV j =V i Þ: ð17Þ ma bv ðT 3 T 2 Þ þ 0:5k 1 T 23 T 22 : ð26Þ

The compression ratio (cc) is deﬁned as cc = V1/V2. There- When T1, T3 and cc are given, T2 can be obtained from Eq.

fore, the equations for processes 1 ! 2 and 3 ! 4 are (18) and T4 can be found from Eq. (19). Finally, by substi-

shown, respectively, by the following equations: tuting T1, T2, T3 and T4 into Eqs. (25) and (26), respec-

tively, the power output and the eﬃciency of the Otto

k 1 ðT 2 T 1 Þ þ bv lnðT 2 =T 1 Þ ¼ R ln cc ð18Þ

cycle engine can be obtained. Therefore, the relations

1222 J.-C. Lin, S.-S. Hou / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 1218–1227

between the power output, the eﬃciency and the compres- 100

sion ratio can be derived. T1=350 K

T3=1900 K

bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K

3. Results and discussion k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2

80 x2=0.01 m

According to Refs. [13,16,18], the following constants μ=0.0129 kN-s/m

and ranges of parameters are used in the calculations: λ

α (1.1)

bv = 0.6858–0.8239 kJ/kg K, ma = 1.26 · 103 kg, T1 = α (1.2)

α (1.3)

300–400 K, k1 = 0.000133–0.00034 kJ/kg K2, x2 = 0.01 m, 60

N = 30, QLHV = 44,000 kJ/kg and l = 0.0129–0.0169

kN s/m. This study focuses on the limitation of the maxi- λ

α min (1.1)

mum cycle temperature T3 instead of T3 0 due to the varying

α min (1.2)

heat leakage conditions. Numerical examples are shown as 40 α min (1.3)

follows.

Fig. 2 shows the variation of the heat leakage percentage

(a) with respect to the maximum cycle temperature (T3)

and the volumetric compression ratio (cc). It is found

20

that the maximum cycle temperature plays a dominant role

on the quantity of heat leakage. For a ﬁxed compression 0 10 20 30

ratio, the larger maximum cycle temperature can be γc

obtained as the heat leakage percentage parameter is smal-

Fig. 3. The variation of the heat leakage percentage (a) with respect to the

ler. For a ﬁxed cycle maximum temperature, the heat air–fuel ratio (ma/mf) or the excess air coeﬃcient (k) and the volumetric

leakage percentage parameter increases with the increase compression ratio (cc).

of compression ratio. The most important point here is that

some values of the heat leakage percentage might be

insuﬃcient for a feasible Otto cycle. Therefore, acceptable cient also plays an important role on the quantity of heat

values for a could only be achieved from the deﬁnition of leakage. For a ﬁxed maximum cycle temperature

amin given by Eq. (13). (T3 = 1900 K), the heat leakage percentage parameter

Fig. 3 illustrates the variation of the heat leakage per- increases with the increase of compression ratio. For ﬁxed

centage (a) with respect to the air–fuel ratio (ma/mf) or maximum cycle temperature and compression ratio, the

the excess air coeﬃcient (k) and the volumetric compres- heat leakage percentage parameter decreases with increas-

sion ratio (cc). The results show that the excess air coeﬃ- ing excess air coeﬃcient. Similar to Fig. 2, suitable values

for a could only be achieved from the deﬁnition of amin

given by Eq. (13).

100 Fig. 4 depicts the inﬂuence of maximum cycle tempera-

T1=350 K ture (T3) on the cycle performance. The power output given

bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K by Eq. (25) is a convex function with a single maximum for

k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2

the optimum compression ratio, as shown in Fig. 4a. An

Heat Leakage Percentage (%)

x2=0.01 m

μ=0.0129 kN-s/m increase in compression ratio ﬁrst leads to an increase in

λ=1.2 power output, and after reaching a peak, the net power

80

T3 output decreases dramatically with further increase in com-

α (1700 K) pression ratio. As shown in Fig. 4b, the behavior of the eﬃ-

α (1800 K) ciency versus compression ratio plot is similar to that for

α (1900 K) the power output. Additionally, Fig. 4 illustrates that

increasing T3 corresponds to increasing the amount of heat

60 added to the engine due to combustion, and therefore, T3

T3 has a positive eﬀect on the P–cc and g–cc characteristic

αmin (1700 K) curves. In other words, for a given cc, the power output

αmin (1800 K) and eﬃciency increase with the increase of T3, and the max-

αmin (1900 K) imum power output and its corresponding eﬃciency

40 increase with increasing T3. Furthermore, it is found that

the values of cc at maximum power output or at maximum

0 10 20 30 eﬃciency increase with increasing T3.

γc It has been reported that for a real heat engine, the max-

Fig. 2. The variation of the heat leakage percentage (a) with respect to the imum power and maximum eﬃciency operating points are

maximum cycle temperature (T3) and the volumetric compression ratio usually relatively close [18]. This is reﬂected through loop

(cc). shaped power versus eﬃciency plots. As is shown in

J.-C. Lin, S.-S. Hou / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 1218–1227 1223

30 24

a T1=350 K T1=350 K

bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K

k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2 k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2 T3 (K)

x2=0.01 m x2=0.01 m 1900

20 μ=0.0129 kN-s/m μ =0.0129 kN-s/m

1800

λ=1.2 λ =1.2

16

P (kW)

T3 (K)

1700

1900

P (kW)

1800

10

1700

0

b

0.6

0

T3 (K)

1900 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

0.4 1800

η

η

1700 Fig. 5. The inﬂuence of maximum cycle temperature (T3) on the power

output (P) versus eﬃciency (g) characteristic curves.

0.2

32

a T1=350 K

0.0 T3=1900 K

0 10 20 30 40 k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2

γc 24 x2=0.01 m

μ =0.0129 kN-s/m

Fig. 4. (a) The inﬂuence of maximum cycle temperature (T3) on the

λ =1.2

P (kW)

bv (kJ/kg-K)

variation of power output (P) with compression ratio (cc); (b) The 16 0.8239

inﬂuence of maximum cycle temperature (T3) on the variation of eﬃciency

(g) with compression ratio (cc). 0.7548

0.6858

8

Fig. 5, we also obtain the loop shaped power output versus

eﬃciency curves, which reﬂect the performance characteris-

tics of a real irreversible Otto cycle engine. It is depicted 0

that the maximum power output, the maximum eﬃciency, b

the power at maximum eﬃciency and the eﬃciency at max-

imum power will increase with the increase of T3.

Figs. 6 and 7 show the inﬂuence of the parameter bv 0.6

related to the variable speciﬁc heats of the working ﬂuid

bv (kJ/kg-K)

on the performance of the Otto cycle. For a ﬁxed k1, a lar-

0.8239

0.4

η

0.7548

with constant volume (Cvm) or the speciﬁc heat with con-

stant pressure (Cpm). Fig. 6a demonstrates that for a given 0.6858

cc in a feasible range, the maximum power output of the 0.2

cycle increase with the increase of bv, nevertheless,

Fig. 6b shows that the maximum eﬃciency decreases with

the increase of bv. It is noted that the parameter bv has 0.0

an important inﬂuence on the compression ratio where

the maximum power or eﬃciency occurs. The values of cc 0 10 20 30 40

at the maximum power output or at the maximum eﬃ- γc

ciency increase with the increase of bv, as shown in Fig. 6. (a) The inﬂuence of bv on the variation of power output (P) with

Fig. 6. As can be found in Fig. 7, the curves of power out- compression ratio (cc); (b) The inﬂuence of bv on the variation of eﬃciency

put versus eﬃciency are also loop shaped. It shows that, (g) with compression ratio (cc).

1224 J.-C. Lin, S.-S. Hou / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 1218–1227

30 24

T1=350 K T1=350 K

T3=1900 K T3=1900 K

k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2 bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K

x2=0.01 m x2=0.01 m

μ =0.0129 kN-s/m μ =0.0129 kN-s/m

λ =1.2 λ =1.2

20 16

P (kW)

P (kW)

k1 (kJ/kg-K2)

bv (kJ/kg-K) 0.000133

10 0.6858 8

0.000202

0.7548

0.000340

0.8239

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

η η

Fig. 7. The inﬂuence of bv on the power output (P) versus eﬃciency (g) Fig. 9. The inﬂuence of k1 on the power output (P) versus eﬃciency (g)

characteristic curves. characteristic curves.

with the increase of bv, the maximum power output and the

power at maximum eﬃciency increase, while the maximum

36

a T1=350 K eﬃciency and the eﬃciency at maximum power output

T3=1900 K decrease.

bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K Figs. 8 and 9 represent the inﬂuence of the parameter k1

x2=0.01 m

related to the variable speciﬁc heats of the working ﬂuid on

μ =0.0129 kN-s/m

24 the performance of the Otto cycle. For a given bv, a larger

λ =1.2

k1 corresponds to a greater value of the speciﬁc heats with

P (kW)

k1 (kJ/kg-K2)

0.000340

constant volume (Cvm) or the speciﬁc heat with constant

pressure (Cpm). Fig. 8 shows that k1 has the same inﬂuence

0.000202

12 as bv (shown in Fig. 6) on the performance of the cycle.

0.000133

That is, for a given cc in a feasible range, the power output

of the cycle increase with increasing k1, as shown in Fig. 8a,

while the eﬃciency decreases with the increase of k1, as

depicted in Fig. 8b. It is also found that the parameter k1

0

has a signiﬁcant inﬂuence on the loop shaped curves for

b the power output versus eﬃciency plots. With the increase

of k1, the maximum power output and the power at maxi-

0.6 mum eﬃciency increase, while the maximum eﬃciency and

the eﬃciency at maximum power output decrease, as

k1 (kJ/kg-K2)

0.000340

shown in Fig. 9.

0.4

η

0.000202

term loss (l) on the performance of the Otto cycle. It is

0.000133 clear that the parameter l has a negative eﬀect on the per-

0.2 formance. As is seen in Fig. 10, the maximum power out-

put, the maximum eﬃciency and the value of the

compression ratio at maximum power output or at maxi-

0.0 mum eﬃciency will decrease with increasing l. Moreover,

Fig. 11 shows that the maximum power output, the maxi-

0 10 20 30 40 mum eﬃciency, the power at maximum eﬃciency and the

γc eﬃciency at maximum power will decrease with the

Fig. 8. (a) The inﬂuence of k1 on the variation of power output (P) with increase of l.

compression ratio (cc); (b) The inﬂuence of k1 on the variation of eﬃciency Figs. 12 and 13 depict the inﬂuence of intake tempera-

(g) with compression ratio (cc). ture (T1) on the performance of the Otto cycle. As is seen

J.-C. Lin, S.-S. Hou / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 1218–1227 1225

30 30

a T1=350 K a T3=1900 K

T3=1900 K bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K

bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2

k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2 x2=0.01 m

x2=0.01 m 20 μ=0.0129 kN-s/m

20

λ=1.2 λ=1.2

P (kW)

P (kW)

T1 (K)

μ (kN-s/m)

300

0.0129

350

0.0149

10 10

400

0.0169

0 0

b b

0.6 0.6

T1 (K)

μ (kN-s/m)

300

0.0129

350

0.0149 0.4

η

0.4

η

400

0.0169

0.2 0.2

0.0 0.0

0 10 20 30 40 0 10 20 30 40

γc γc

Fig. 10. (a) The inﬂuence of l on the variation of power output (P) with Fig. 12. (a) The inﬂuence of intake temperature (T1) on the variation of

compression ratio (cc); (b) The inﬂuence of l on the variation of eﬃciency power output (P) with compression ratio (cc); (b) The inﬂuence of intake

(g) with compression ratio (cc). temperature (T1) on the variation of eﬃciency (g) with compression ratio

(cc).

T1=350 K

T3 = 1900 K, the maximum power output, the maximum

T3=1900 K

bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K eﬃciency, the compression ratio at maximum power output

k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2 and the compression ratio at maximum eﬃciency of the

x2=0.01 m Otto cycle decrease with the increase of T1. Loop shaped

λ=1.2 curves of power versus eﬃciency plots are also shown in

16 μ (kN-s/m)

0.0129 Fig. 13. It is also found that as T1 increases, the maximum

power output, the maximum eﬃciency, the eﬃciency at

P (kW)

mum eﬃciency decrease.

0.0169

8 4. Conclusions

energy, friction and variable speciﬁc heats of the working

ﬂuid on the performance of an Otto engine under the

0 restriction of maximum cycle temperature are presented

in this study. The results are summarized as follows.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6

η (1) The maximum power output, the maximum eﬃ-

Fig. 11. The inﬂuence of l on the power output (P) versus eﬃciency (g) ciency, the power at maximum eﬃciency, the eﬃ-

characteristic curves. ciency at maximum power and the value of the

1226 J.-C. Lin, S.-S. Hou / Energy Conversion and Management 49 (2008) 1218–1227

T3=1900 K analysis. The results obtained in the present study are

bv=0.6858 kJ/kg-K of importance to provide good guidance for perfor-

k1=0.000202 kJ/kg-K2

x2=0.01 m

mance evaluation and improvement of practical Otto

μ =0.0129 kN-s/m T1 (K) engines.

λ =1.2 300

20 In view of the analytical results from this work, we

350

realize that the understanding and development of

400

P (kW)

considering a more realistic model with advanced theo-

retical and numerical techniques. For instance, in air

10 standard analysis, the constant volume heat input process

replaces the combustion of the real engine cycle, which

takes place at close to constant volume conditions, and

exhaust blowdown in a real engine is almost, but not

quite, constant volume. As expected, the maximum tem-

perature in the cycle will depend on the crank angle at

0

which the exhaust valve opens. Hence, a new type of

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 cycle analysis is needed. In other words, conceiving a

η new model as a function of crank angle to help under-

stand, correlate, and analyze the relation between the

Fig. 13. The inﬂuence of intake temperature (T1) on the power output (P)

versus eﬃciency (g) characteristic curves.

maximum temperature and the crank angle at which

the exhaust valve opens in the cycle. Additionally, con-

sidering the combined eﬀects of heat loss and friction

compression ratio when the power output or the eﬃ- on the performance of engine cycles, detailed compari-

ciency is maximum increase with the increase of max- sons between this work and numerical analysis (or exper-

imum cycle temperature T3. iments) are worthy of further study.

(2) The parameters bv and k1 related to the variable spe-

ciﬁc heats of the working ﬂuid have a signiﬁcant

inﬂuence on the performance of the Otto cycle. For Acknowledgements

a ﬁxed k1 (or bv), a larger bv (or k1) corresponds to

a greater value of the speciﬁc heats with constant vol- This work was supported by the National Science Coun-

ume (Cvm). For a given compression ratio cc in a fea- cil, Taiwan, ROC, under contract NSC95-2221-E-265-002.

sible range, the power output of the cycle increase The authors would like to thank the reviewers and Dr.

with the increase of the parameter bv or k1, neverthe- Denton for their valuable comments and helpful

less, the eﬃciency decreases with the increase of bv or suggestions.

k1. Furthermore, with the increase of bv, the maxi-

mum power output and the power at maximum eﬃ-

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