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A product or service to which human beings attach a bundle of tangible (functional

product and service characteristics) and intangible (emotional and/or symbolic) meanings
that add value. A brand has one strategic purpose and that is to differentiate itself from

Brand Awareness
A measure or indication of the readiness with which a brand springs to mind.

Brand Equity
A term developed to describe the financial value of a brand to the bottom line profit of a

Brand Essence
The set of core values that define a brand. These values remain constant over time even
though the executional characteristics of packaging, advertising (and other marketing
variables) may change. By defining the brand essence with clarity, a brand owner creates
a template against which all marketing and NPD activity can be developed and

Brand Image
The total impression created in the mind of a potential consumer by a brand and all its
functional and emotional associations. The total image can be seen as the sum of several
images such as the product, user, occasion, service and personality images.

Has two meanings:

• The process, which may take decades, by which a brand comes to have added
values and involves long-term support by communications either above or below
the line.

• The associative strength between an advertisement (usually) and a brand

expressed as a positive or negative relationship, ie "well branded" or "poorly

Brand Loyalty
A general term used to describe the extent to which consumers buy or use a brand in
preference to other brands. In practice consumers often buy or use several brands,
therefore brand loyalty is a relative measure.

Brand Personality
An expression of the fundamental core values and characteristics of a brand, described
and experienced as human personality traits, eg friendly, intelligent, innovative etc. It is
an expression of the relationship between the consumer and the brand.
Brand Positioning
The location of a brand in relation to its competitors in some pre-defined space. The
space may be defined by criteria used by consumers, such as "value for money" or "age
of consumer" etc.

Brand Proposition
A sentence or phrase that encapsulates the brand benefits, e.g. a brand with technical
superiority or a brand that guarantees next-day delivery. Often a brand benefit is
translated into an end-line that becomes part of the brand communication on advertising,
packaging or promotions, e.g. "the world's favourite airline".

Brand Share
The percentage of sales of a specific product category that are accounted for by one
brand. Brand shares can be expressed in terms of the sales value or the volume of units