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,ESSENTIAL

MATHEMATICAL

SKILLS

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MATHEMATICA SKILLS for engineering. science and applied mathematics Dr Steven Dr Stephen + Ian Barry Alan Davis .

Essential mathematical skills for engineering.com. exercises. 510 Printer BPA . as permitted under the Copyright Act. Stephen.A UNSW Press book Published by University of New South Wales Press Ltd University of New South Wales UNSW Sydney NSW 2052 AUSTRALIA www. Inquiries should be addressed to the publisher.au © Steven Ian Barry and Stephen Alan Davis 2002 First published 2002 This book is copyright. criticism or review. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry: Barry. ISBN 0 86840 565 5. 2. Mathematics. no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. science and applied mathematics. Davis.unswpress. Title. I. Apart from any fair dealing for purposes of private study. Mathematics . 1.Problems. research. etc. Includes index. Steven Ian. II.

9 Circles..CONTENTS Preface 1 . .5. 1.. .5.11 Factorial Notation.8 Surds .3 Straight Lines 2.1 Elementary Notation 1.8.5 Polynomials..14. lX Algebra and Geometry 1. .. 1.13 Combinations 1. 2.1 Rationalising Surd Denominators 1. 1.. 1.12 Permutations 1.3 Modulus.14 Geometry .11 Example Questions 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 2 17 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 ..9 Quadratic Equation 1.5 Expansion and Factorisation 1.6 Partial Fractions ...1 Circles 1. . 1.2 Fractions 1..1 0 Ellipses . .1 The Basic Functions and Curves 2. 2. . 1.7 Exponential and Logarithm Functions 2...2 Function Properties 2. 1..6 Hyperbola. 2.4 Inequalities .7 Polynomial Division .1 Binomial Expansion 1..10 Summation .. 2. .8 Trigonometric Functions 2..15 Example Questions Functions and Graphs 2.. 2. 1.2 Factorising Polynomials 1.4 Quadratics.. ..

5 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 68 70 73 74 74 ...10 Trace ..6 Inverse. .2 3.4 5.. .6. Chain Rule .3 Cofactors Matrix 6.6.4 6. 6.3 6.3 3.6 5. Stationary Points Example Questions 41 41 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 50 5 Integration 5.1 Cofactor Expansion.. Integration by Substitution Integration by Parts Example Questions 51 51 52 53 55 56 57 58 59 59 6 Matrices Addition. .5 3.5 5.10 4. . Determinants 6. 6.7 Exponential Function Index Laws . Implicit Differentiation Parametric Differentiation Second Derivative. 6. Logarithm Rules ..1 4.Vi 3 Transcendental Functions 3.4 4.5. The Definite Integral Areas .1 6..6.8 4. Multiplication Identity .2 6.1 5. Transpose.6 4. .2 5..7 4....7 Matrix Manipulation .11 First Principles Linearity.4 3..9 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.1 Two by Two Matrices..3 5. Simple Derivatives Product Rule Quotient Rule .5 4.7 Antidifferentiation Simple Integrals .... 6. 6.3 4..6 3. .2 Partitioned Matrix 6. Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Identities Hyperbolic Functions Example Questions 31 31 32 33 35 36 38 39 4 Differentiation 4..9 4. ..8 Systems of Equations .. 6. .1 3.2 4.11 Symmetric Matrices.. 6.. 6.. .

8..1.CONTENTS Vll 6.2 Separable .2 7.. 10. 10. 10.2 9.4 Example Questions 97 97 97 98 99 100 100 102 105 107 . . Cross Product . De Moivre's Theorem. Euler's Equation .3 Integrating Factor .1 First Order Differential Equations 10.4 9.13 Example Questions 7 Vectors 7. 77 78 79 80 80 82 83 86 Asymptotics and Approximations 8.7 7..3 9. Asymptotics .1 Integrable . 107 108 111 114 .1.8 8 Addition and Scalar Multiplication Length .6 Addition and Multiplication Complex Conjugate .3 7.2 L'H6pital's Rule.5 Taylor Series .1.3 8.2 Grad.1 Definition.2. ... Example Questions 91 91 92 92 93 94 95 10 Differential Equations 10.6 7.. ...3 Double Integrals.2 Second Order Differential Equations 10. 11. Cartesian Unit Vectors Dot Product . 8.2. Example Questions 87 87 88 88 89 90 9 Complex Numbers 9.1 Vector Notation 7. . .12 Diagonal Matrices.4 7. 9..1 Homogeneous ... . Linear Independence Example Questions .5 7. 6.2 Inhomogeneous. Div and Curl 11.4 8. . .5 9.3 Example Questions 11 Multivariable Calculus 11.1 Limits .1 Partial Differentiation 11. 10.. ... 10... 74 75 77 .

. 12. 12. One .Vlll 12 Numerical Skills 12. 14 Answers 15 Other Essential Skills Index 143 146 .5.6 Example Questions 13 Practice Tests 13.5 Test 5: Second Year 13. One .. ..1 Integration.1 Test 1: First Year 13..2 Differentiation ..5 Fourier Series . Two.4 Test 4: First Year 13.5.2 Test 2: First Year 13. 12.3 Newton's Method 12.2 Odd Fourier Series 12. Two. 12.1 Even Fourier Series. 12.4 Differential Equations.6 Test 6: Second Year 115 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 131 Semester Semester Semester Semester .3 Test 3: First Year 13.

ma. practice tests and also code for the Maple algebraic manipulation package giving solutions for every example and question. If you can then you may need this book to help you revise those skills later on. So what skills do you need to have? This book contains the mathematical skills we think are essential for you to not only know but remember. You may also lose too many marks making 'silly' mistakes in exams. If you are having trouble with a section or chapter then we suggest you consult a more thorough textbook.. It is not a textbook and does not attempt to teach you. Can you do the practice test at the end of these notes? If you can't then perhaps there are some skills you need to do some revision on.aul . Without these necessary skills.sib/EMS. Your lecturer will assume that you know them perfectly . If you are in a first year undergraduate course you may not have covered some of the material included in this book.edu. we expect our students at University College to have mastered (by the start of each semester) the following: • First Year • First Year Semester One: Chapters 1-3. As a guide.adfa. If you want more questions to practice on then see our extensive website: http://www. This book covers the essential mathematics in the first one to two years of a science.not just a vague idea. hence there are no long wordy explanations. fully worked solutions. but that you have completely mastered these skills. We have left a number of blank pages at the back of the book for you to add in skills that you or your lecturers think are important to remember but we did not include.PREFACE lX PREFACE TO THE STUDENT There are certain mathematical skills that are essential for any of your courses that use mathematics. you will find present and later subjects extremely difficult. . engineering or applied mathematics degree.. • Second Year: Chapters 1-10. Semester Two: Chapters 1-7.html It contains extra questions. This book should act as a reminder to you of material you have already learned. • Third Year: Everything in the book! There are practice tests in Chapter 13 based on these divisions.

They are also doing many other courses not involving mathematics and are not constantly using their mathematical skills.barry@adfa. We are not concerned that students may access this database. There is a database of questions in LaTeX and pdf.adfa. ACT. This book represents what we feel is appropriate to our students during their degrees.aul . UNSW Canberra.ma. Naturally both the material and the year in which the students see this material will vary from university to university.html It contains more questions.edu.sib/EMS. Steven Barry and Stephen Davis School of Mathematics and Statistics University College. 2600 email: s. if they can do the questions in the database then they have. This book can then act as guide to what material should realistically be remembered from previous courses. Naturally we would like our students to know more than the bare essentials detailed in this book. which you can use to format your own tests and assignments. most students do not get full marks in their previous courses and a few weeks after the exam will only remember a small fraction of a course. However..x TO THE LECTURER What do you assume your students know? What material do you expect them to have a vague idea about (say the proof of Taylor's Theorem) and what material do you want students to know thoroughly (say the derivative of sin z)? This book is an attempt to define what material students should have completely mastered at each year in an applied mathematics. learned the necessary skills. We invite you to look at our extensive web site: http://www.edu. engineering or science degree. solutions.. in effect.au . practice tests and Maple code. If you have any questions or queries please do not hesitate to email us.

EXAMPLES 1. {}: A set of objects. ===}: 5. For example 3. 9. l/x -+ 0 as x -+ 00. For example -1.2.1 ELEMENTARY NOTATION I. 7.3. bE R} means W is the set of all functions f(x) are real numbers (constants). For example 3 E {I. Z: The set of integers. ~: Approximately equal to.~: Less than or equal to.3) means 1 10. 0.. 2.7> :5. For example x E (1. R. greater than or equal to. For example x E [1. >: Less than. For example x .2 = 3 ===} x = 5. This is . 5. For example < x < 3.3. E: A member of a set.3] means 1 :5 x :5 3.J2 4. -+: Tends to.1. Becomes. b]: Bounds of a variable.CHAPTER 1 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. 3}.2x E W. greater than. = a + b» where a. [a. E 3. (0). 6. For example -2. 8. b): Bounds of a variable. For example 5 < 6. 3 E Z. also written as x E [5. (a. 11. 2. W = {f(x) = a + b» : a.02 ~ 3. Hence 1 + 2x E Wand 3 . R: The set of real numbers. 2. b S = {x : x 2: 5. <. x E R} means that S is the set of all numbers bigger than or equal to 5.

x .=. a b a+ b -+-=-c c c (c ~ 0) (b.2)(x (x - + 2) 2)2 = (x2 + 4x + 4) (x2 - (x2 - 4x + 4) =~ x2 - 4) 4 11 1 4. b+d a a a c = ad+bc bel 3.to find y write x y 10 1 Y = = ===> ===> 1 1 1 10 x x -10 Y lOx lOx NOT Y = 10. To rearrange the equation . .= .=c d cd b ab ad x ~ = be 4.2 FRACTIONS A fraction is of the form tor.+.d~O) 2.c.x y = x -10' .+ .=36 66 6 2 x +2 _ x .d ~ 0) (c.2 = (x x . -x-=-=2. x. b+d cad = b (b. 3 2 9 3 8 6 72 1 12 112131 +.d ~ 0) EXAMPLES I.2 +2 + 2)2 (x .= . i where a is called the numerator and b is called the denomina- Rules for operating on fractions 1.2 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1.

If x 2. > v. 1+51 = 5 1-31 = 3 I-xllyl = Ixllyl = IxYI 1.MODULUS 3 1. -x.2 :5 3 write -5x . 2. but ax > y then ax > ay if a is positive. If x 3. . To find x such that -5x . written lxi.5 we write x+1>2x-5 ===> x .3 MODULUS The absolute value or modulus of x.4 INEQUALITIES I. ~fx 2:: 0 lf x < O. EXAMPLES I. EXAMPLES 1. If x >y >y then x + a > y + a for any a. The absolute value is the magnitude of a number and ignores whether it is positive or negative. 3. 2. To find values of x such that x + 1 > 2x < 6. then x + u > y + v. is defined by Ixl = { x.2:5 3 ===> ===> -5x:5 5 x 2:: -1. and u < ay if a is negative.

11 :s 3 write s3 ===} ===} ===} 12x . EXAMPLES I. (x2 . The inequality 2.b > a or (x .4 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY Inequalities with modulus I.5 EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION (a+b)(c+d) (a-b)(a+b) (a±b)2 = = = a(c+d)+b(c+d) a2_b2 a2±2ab+b2 =ac+ad+bc+bd EXAMPLES I.bl < a can be written as -a written as < x . The inequality Ix .::: 3 or 1.b < a.b) < -a.11 -3:S 2x . :s 3 3 2.1 -2:S 2x:S 4 -1:S x S.:::2 write or -- 3x-l <-2 43x S. -7 7 x <-3' x. Ix . 2. To find x such that -4- 1 -11 x .bl > a can be x .3)2 = X4 + 2( -3)x2 + 9 = X4 - 6x2 +9 . To find x such that 12x .

To remember the coefficients of each term use Pascal's triangle where each number is the sum of the two numbers above it.3)(x = (X " 2 - + 3)(x + 5)2 9)(x + lOx + 25) 2 " " " 3. (1 + X)4 = 1 + 4x + 6x2 + 4x3 + X4 + x)5 is 10 X 3.1 BINOMIAL EXPANSION (a + b)n = an + nan-1b +"n(n 2! -1) n 2 2 "a .13). + nabn-1 + bn (See also Section 1. . EXAMPLES 2..3)(x + 5)2(x + 3) = (x .EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION 5 2.. The coefficient of x3 in (2 22 = 40.b + . 1 1 1 1 14 1 5 10 2 1 1 3 6 3 4 10 1 1 5 1 Each term in a row represents the coefficients of the corresponding term in the expansion. s2-4 2+s (s-2)(s+2) = -'-----:-'-'--_-'2+s =s-2 4. (a + 1)3 = (a + l)(a2 + 2a + 1) = a3 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 1. (x .5.

6 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. x2 2.---::-. x2 3.1) 7x 4x2 (3x . x3 5. 3x2 4. 1 Some similar partial fraction expansions are (x (x2 + aF(x + b) + a) = --+ x+a Ax+B x2 + bx ABC (x+aF +-x+b C 1 + bx + c)(x + c + x + a· . (x .. EXAMPLES I.:-:--= (x + a)(x + b) + --B x +a x +b where A and B are constants found by equating the numerators of both sides once the light hand side is written as one fraction: ex + d = A(x + b) + B(x + a)..6 PARTIAL FRACTIONS It is sometimes convenient to write ex+d A .2)(x .<l2) .al)(x .-----.2)2 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 = (a + 1)3 1.. a3 - 1 = (x .5..2 FACTORISING POLYNOMIALS Factorising a polynomial is the opposite of the expansion described above.1)(x 3x + 1) + 2 = (x +2 = + 4x = . that is. splitting the polynomial into its factors: p(x) = (x .l)(x .2) x(x .an).

'T' + 1)(x 1 . Hence 3x+l 2 1 --. equating the coefficients of Ax gives + Bx . Alternatively.-)--. ..-( -x-+-7 + -x---3 . expan d (x + 7)(x 1 3) using partiial fracti ractions wnte (x giving + 7) (x 3x+l A . Setting x = 3 implies B = 1 and setting x = -7 implies A = 2. ( x+l 1 )( x-I .3A + 7B = 3x +1 A+B=3 -3A+ 7B = 1.PARTIAL FRACTIONS 7 EXAMPLES 1. cAB. Wntmg .1) + B(x + 1) = 1.1) ="2 1( 1 x-I and B = 1/2. The constants A and B can be found two simple ways. A(x .3) + B(x + 7) + 1. setting x=1 x=-1 ===} ===} Alternatively the equation could be expanded as Ax and the coefficients of Xl + Bx and xO -A +B =1 equated giving A+B=O -A+B=1. ) m the rorm -- x+l + -x-I implies .-( x-+----.3) = x +7 +x = 3x B -3 A(x .7:-. 10 3x + _ . First. Solving these equations simultaneously gives A = -1/2 (x 2. x-_-3::--c-) = . These simultaneous equations are solved for A and B to give A = 2 and B = 1. Thus -x +1 1) .

.--= 1 (x+l)2(x+2) 1 (x+l)2 ---+-- 1 x+l 1 x+2° 40 The partial fraction for ( 2 x +x+l 3 )( x+2 ) is --.------~------.:---.------~------.--=--+ (x+l)2(x+2) x+l giving (x+l)2 +-x+2 1 = A(x + 1)(x + 2) + B(x + 2) + C(x + 1)2 so that x =-1 x =-2 order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} I=B I=C O=A+C ===} A =-1. (x2 + X 3 + 1)(x + 2) 1 -- x+2 - ----0---- x-I x2 +x+ 1 0 .=2 + -giving 3 (x2+x+l)(x+2) Ax+B x +x+l C x+2 3 = (Ax + B)(x + 2) + C(x2 + Hence X + 1)0 x =-2 x=O order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} C=1 3=2B+C O=A+C ===} ===} B= 1 A= -1..----.--------:::-.-----------::-.8 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 30 The partial fraction for ( x+l )!(x+2 ) is 1 ABC --. --.

1 4x3+6x2+4x+l ------2x + 1 22 = x+ 3256 x+ 7 +--1' . Thus x(x + 1) = x2 + z. Dividing 3x3 + 2X2 + X + 1by x-I 3x+2x+x+l 32 . which is subtracted from x2 + 3x + 4. =x + 2· x+ 1 . The first step is therefore x x + 1 ) x2 + 3x + 4 x2 +x 2x+4 The division is completed by considering that x (the leading order of x times. EXAMPLES 1. x times. x- 3. When dividing x2 + 3x + 4 by x + 1consider only the leading order terms to begin with.7 POLYNOMIAL DIVISION Polynomial division is a type of long division for polynomials best illustrated by the following examples. Subtracting 2(x + 1) from 2x + 4 gives + 1) goes into 2x + 4 two x+2 x+1)x2+3x+4 x2 +x 2x+4 2x+2 2 Thus x2 + 3x+ 4 ---1- X+ = (x+2)+--1' 2 " X+ gives 2.POLYNOMIAL DIVISION 9 1. x. Thus x goes into x2.

jC it may be preferable to have a rational denominator.1 RATIONALISING For an expression of the form a b+ ..jC b-v'c = a(b ..8 SURDS A surd is of the form nJii (= a1/n): I.. bJii ± cVa = (b ± c)Jii EXAMPLES I. 2. A surd denominator is rationalised by multiplying the expression by : a =~ a (= 1): b+ .8. 14 = 3.v'c) 1? . 3v'iO . v'5 x v'2 =v'iO . 2.J7 SURD DENOMINATORS 1.10 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1. v'2 {l4 V2 = . ~=J¥ 3./27 = .jC = --x-- b+v'c b-. Jii x Vb = VQi.. -Vi4...J9X3 = 3V3 .c . .2v'W = v'W 4.

The roots of a quadratic equation (when y = 0) are A quadratic is factorised if it is written in the form EXAMPLES 1. . The quadratic y = x2 +X 6 is factorised into y = (x + 3)(x .(J5)2 5 .5-V5 (-4) 5V5-5 4 6x = = 6x 1.2JX 6x -12xy'x 1-4x 1.QUADRATIC EOUATION II EXAMPLES 1.2y'X x-----=-= 1 + 2JX 1 .9 QUADRATIC EaUATION A quadratic equation is of the form y = ax2 where + bx +c a. --=--x-1+V5 5 5 I-V5 I--V5 1+V5 = = = 2. The solutions to x2 + 3x + 1= 0 are x= -3 +-V5 2 - or -3 --V5 2 2. b. The quadratic y = x2 + 2x + 1 is factorised into y = (x + 1) 2. --= 1 + 2JX 5 . 3.2).5-V5 (1)2 . c are constants.

. 2..12 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 4.8 . n! = n(n .I)! 4.2. EXAMPLES I... EXAMPLE L:i2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 = 30 i=l 4 1.2..1) + f(n).10 SUMMATION The summation sign L is defined n as L:f(i) i=l = f(l) + f(2) + f(3) + . 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120 2.2 . 3.4. 2)(1.11 FACTORIAL NOTATION The factorial notation is defined as follows: n! = n.3 . O! = 1 by definition. n) = 2nn! .(n .2... The solutions to 3x2 + 5x + 1 = x= 0 are 6 -5 ± y'25 -12 so that x= -5+ vTI 6 or -5 -V13 6 1. 2n = (2.2) .(n .1 where n is an integer.6. 3. + f(n ....1).

2. The number of possible groups of 4 delegates chosen from a group of 11 is given by 11 C4 = 4!(11 _ 4)! = 4!7! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 330. The number mutations of r unique objects.PERMUTATIONS 13 1. The number ways of choosing a team of 5 people from 7 is 11! 11! 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 cl = 21. is given by of per- pn= r (n .12 PERMUTATIONS A permutation is a particular ordering of a set of unique objects.r)! n! EXAMPLE The number of ways a batting lineup of 3 can be chosen from a squad of 8 cricket pi ayers is given by 8 8! 8! P3 = (8 _ 3)1 = 5! = 8 x 7 x 6 = 336. . 1.13 COMBINATIONS If order is not important when choosing r things from a group of possible combinations is given by n then the number of cn= r r!(n-r)! n! EXAMPLES 1. chosen from a group of n.

tan 0 = -b = --0· e e cos The longest length. cosine and tangent of the common angles can be related to the following triangles: 1 1 v'2 Jrj4 1 J2 . Pythagoras' Theorem states The sine.14 GEOMETRY The trigonometric ratios can be expressed in terms of the sides of a right-angled triangle: c () a b b a sinO . cosO = -. a sin 0 =-.14 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1. is called the hypotenuse. opposite the right angle.

GEOMETRV 15 EXAMPLE The three common triangles are the I. 2. isosceles: any two sides are of equal length. The area of a circle with diameter d = 6 is 11"32 911". An equilateral triangle must have three identical angles of i. i.14. right angled: one of the angles is i. A right angled triangle has one other angle -i. Hence the third angle is 2. .1 CIRCLES A circle of radius r has 2. = 2. EXAMPLES 1. 1. All triangles have three angles that sum to 1f. The circumference of the circle with diameter d = 7 is 711". equilateral: all three sides of of equal length. 3. circumference = 21fr EXAMPLES I.

Find the zeros of the following quadratics.3) 10. (i) 3 (x .3)(x (ii) + 3) + 3x . Write the following expressions as partial fractions. (i) Y = x2 (ii) Y = x2 . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2x+ 1 (iv) x-4 ----- y'27v'3 v'5 y'45 v'I7 + 5v'I7 2v'I7 2 x2 .4x . (i) (x2 (ii) (x2 (iii) (iii) (x (iv) (3 + x)(3x + 2)(x .5 (v) y = 2X2 +x-l 8.15 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 5.y) 9. Use Pascal's triangle (Binomial theorem) to find (i) the expansion of (2 Find the following.2)(x . Simplify the following.6x (iii) Y = x2 +4x .4 3 (4 . (i) (x .3X)2 + y)2(X . Use polynomial division to calculate the following.(.16 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1.2 (v) y = x2 (vi) y = x2 +x - 3. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1.2)(x + 4) 1 (x + 3)2(X . + 3x + 4)/(x + 2) + 3x + 2)/(x + 2) (x3 + 5x2 + 7x + 2)/(x + 2) 1O! 7! (v) (x . (i) 2d+2:::. (i) Y = x2 +4x+4 (ii) Y = x2 Ix -101 < 5 Iz+31 ~ 8 la+41 > 1 1~-~1<2 + 7x + 6 (iii) Y = x2 +x -12 (iv) y = x2 +x .4d-3 (ii) 3d-2>4d+6 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 7. Expand the following.4) 4x -1 (x .1)(x + 2) 1 x2+5x+6 3x (x . Simplify the following. + ----- 1 5 1 10 5 x+2 2x x-2 x-I x+2 x+ 3 x (ii) x x-3 (iii) ----- x-I x+2 6.4)3 4.2) :2 .5 (iv) y = x2 . (i) + x)4 (ii) p'6 2 (iii) 6 C2 6 (ii) the expansion of (1 + x)8 (iii) the coefficient of x5 in (1 + x)1. Factorise the following quadratic equations.1) 3+v'3 + 6x + 5 +5 2. Find the solution set for the following inequalities.2 (v) --+-x-I x3 _ x2 (vi) x(x2 . (iv) l)i+ i=l 1) .

2. Hyperbola: y = - x 5. Logarithm: y = 7. In x y2 + x2 = r2 y)2 + (X")2 Ellipses: ( a: b = 1. + atX + ao 2. Exponential: y = eo.CHAPTER 2 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . Cosine: y = cos x 9. . Quadratics (parabolas): y = ax2 3. Sine: y = sin x 8. == expx 6. Circles: 11. Tangent: y = tan x 10..1 THE BASIC FUNCTIONS AND CURVES The standard functions and shapes are I. Straight Lines: y = mx +c + bx + c + . Polynomials: y = anxn 1 4..

Y = 1j(x . Y = sin x has range -1 one. Y = x2. :5 y :5 1 since the sine function is always between positive and negative the domain is restricted to x E (0. = x2 is a EXAMPLES I. If f(z) = 3x = Z2 + 1 then - f(2) = 7 and f(a) = 3a = 0.1.3) has range 0 °< x < 3 (so < y < 9. Y = x2 + 4 has domain of all real numbers. For example: f(x) mapping from x to x2 so that f(3) = 32 = 9. + 1. all real numbers except x = 1 can be used in this function. If x = 1 then the function is undefined because of division by zero. EXAMPLES I. That is. 2. Y = x2 has range y ~ 0 since any squared number is positive. 3. < x < 3 so that the The range of a function is the set of all possible output values for that function.2 FUNCTION PROPERTIES A function is a IUle for mapping one number to another. If f(x) 2. 2. . Sometimes the domain is defined as part of the function such as y = x2 for 0 domain is restricted to be in the interval zero to three.1) has domain x t.18 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. EXAMPLES I. 1 then f(l) The domain of a function is the set of all possible input values for that function.

. EXAMPLES 1. The inverse of a function is denoted 1-1(x) and has the property that EXAMPLES 1.FUNCTION PROPERTIES 19 The argument of a function could be the value of another function. If f(x) 2. For example if I(x) = x2 and g(x) = x + 1 then I(g(x)) = (g(X))2 = (x + 1)2. The zeros of a function. f(x) = x2 + 3x + 2 has zeros x = -1. are the values of x when I(x) = O.1 = 3x + 2. If f(x) = 3x . = 2x + 1 and g(x) = cos(x) then f(g(x)) = 2 cos(x) + 1 and g(1(x)) = cos(2x + 1). If J(x) = 3x2 + 1 then the inverse is found by rearrangement: f(x) = = 3x2 x ± ~ +1 ===> ± ~ f-l(X) ==> = .1 then I(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) . . = 2x+3haszerox = --. f(x) . EXAMPLES 1. 2. 1(x) = x2 and g( x) =. -2. 3 2 2.jX are inverses since .jX'i = (vfx)2 = x. I(x).

y 11 to 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 4 X 5 6 A function is even if f(-x) = f(x) and odd if f(-x) = -f(x).0) if shifted to having turning point (3. EXAMPLES I.3)2. Y = f(x) = X4 is even since f( -x) = (_X)4 = X4 = f(x).0) to being centred on (a.a). b) is written y .b = f(x .1)2 + (y .4) has equation (y . 2. 2. A parabola y = x2 with turning point (0. Y = f(x) = x3 is odd since f( -x) = (-x)3 = -x3 =- f(x).2)2 = r2. EXAMPLES I.20 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS A graph y = f(x) in the form shifted from being centred on (0. A circle with centre (1. .4) = (x .2) has form (x .

The line y = 2x + 1 cuts the x axis when y = 0 giving x = .~ as the zero.2. -1) and (3.Xl =--=-.3 STRAIGHT LINES A line has the general form y=mx+a where a and m are real numbers and m is the slope of the line. 3 is found from m= Y2-Yl X2 . EXAMPLES I.6 . Part of the straight line y = 0. The equation of a line that passes through the points (0. 3.0) is y = ~ -1.STRAIGHT LINES 21 ."5' 1 4..0 2.x is drawn in the following diagram: 1. The gradient . The line 5y = x-I has slope m = "5 1 since it can be rewritten as y = x "5 . 0+11 3- ° 3 .0 Y ~--~--~----~--~----~--~x 1.

----.22 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. y = (x .3)2.C2). C!.0 1.5 2.0 +---.--------f------.-------\. C2 then it can also be written as y = a(x . o X 7 ..1)2 are drawn in the following diagram: Y + 1. EXAMPLE Sections of the three quadratic functions y = (x .4 QUADRATICS A quadratic (parabola) has the general form y = ax2 +bx+ c and can have either no real zeros.--------"-f"------.ct}(x .0 . one real zero or two real zeros. If the quadratic has two real zeros.5 .6) 2.5)(x .5 1. Y = (x .

2. I. 4.. 3.5 POLYNOMIALS A polynomial has the general form where ai.4]: y 6 6x2 + llx .6 is plotted below x ·6 .3) = x3 for x E [0. constant term I and leading order term 2x3. The polynomial has degree n if its highest power is xn. 2. i = O . The constant term in the above polynomial is no.2. The third degree polynomial y = (x . A polynomial of degree n has n zeros (some of which may be complex). n. Y = 2x3 + 4x2 + 1 has degree 3. y = x2 + 5x + 6 has two zeros x = -3 and x = -2.2)(x . are real numbers. and has the following properties. EXAMPLES 1.POLVNOMIALS 23 .l)(x . - 3. The leading order term in the above polynomial is anxn since this is the term that dominates as x -+ 00..

0 1.0 0.15 is drawn in the following diagram: x y 1. .5 X 0.6 HYPERBOLA A hyperbola centred on the origin is usually written in the form k y= x although other orientations of hyperbolas can be written as or EXAMPLE The hyperbola y = 0.5 1.24 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.5 The hyperbola above is not defined for x = o.5 1.

2.AND LOGA.EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS 25 . .7 EXPONENTIAL . The general properties of the exponential are listed in the next chapter on transcendental functions.RITHM FUNCTIONS The exponential function is y = e~ == expx with its inverse the logarithm function y = lnx. EXAMPLE The exponential function y = e~ (upper curve) and logarithm function y = In x (lower curve) are drawn in the following diagram: 8 y 6 -4 The logarithm function is not defined for x :5 o.

x 1112 tan x ·6 .------. Sine and Cosine can be defined in terms of angles as discussed in sections 1.4. 27r]. The functions sin x and cos x are plotted below for the first period x E [0.0 sin x Y cos z 6 -rrJ2 . which are cyclic with period 27r thus sin(x + 27r) = sin x.0 1.0 0.------~-=----_. EXAMPLES I.11: /2].26 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. The function y = sin 2x will have a period of 1f.------_. 2. while tan x = sin x/cos x is plotted for x E [-7r /2.14 and 3.8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The main trigonometric functions are sinx and cos z.5 O+----4----~--~~--~x 2~ -1. Y y 1.

y(t) = rsint. t E [0. 3. This is often written in parametric form x(t) = rcost.2)2 y 3 + (y . which is a circle = 2 cost + 1.9 CIRCLES A circle centred on the origin has the general equation x2 + y2 = r2 where r is the radius. . y(t) = 2 sin t . The circles x2 + y2 = 1 and (x .2111 EXAMPLES I.211")is the circle radius 2 . The curve represented by x(t) centred on (1.2.2) with radius I. t E [0.CIRCLES 27 .1. The curve x2 + 2x + y2 + 4y = -4 can be written as (x centred on (-1.5)2 = 1 are drawn in the following diagram: 2 ~----~----~~----~----~ -1 2 3 X 2. -3). + 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 1.3.

28 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. y(t) = bcost.0) with major axis of length 2 in the x direction and minor axis of length ~. If the x and y axes are the axes of the ellipse then it is usually written in the form x2 y2 a2+62=1 where 2a is the length of the ellipse in the x direction and 2b the length of the ellipse in the y direction. x 2 2. EXAMPLES I. An ellipse is often written in parametric form x(t) = asint. .2)2 + 16y2 = 1 is an ellipse centred on (2.2x]. The ellipse (~) 2 + x2 = 1 is drawn in the following diagram: v -2 -. t E [0.10 ELLIPSES An ellipse centred on the origin has the general equation C1X 2 + C2XY + C3y2 = 1. The curve (x .

Where does the ellipse (x . If I(x) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS Circles and ellipses 23. What type of curve has equation 2y2 + (x . .1)2 . . Where are the zeros of the curve + 1 for x E [0.4)? (For more questions on manipulation Chapter 1. = -- x+1 .2 = O? 31.1].---. 2) with radius 2? 29.2]. Draw the circle y2 (Answers are given in Chapter 14) = x3 = x3 = x3 = x3 + 1 what is 1(2)? + 1 what is I(g)? + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 find 1(I(x)). What is the period of y = cos 3x? 22. What is the equation for a circle centred on (1. Draw the quadratic y = x2 . Draw the curve y = cos 2x 20. Where is the zero of the line y = x-I? 13. If I(x) 6. If I(x) 1 = 2" x + 1 find the inverse I lex).1)2 axis? + 2y2 = 1 cut the x = x2 and g(z) = sin z find I(g(a)) = x2 27. What type of curve has equation y2 + (x . What type of curve has equation 2y+(x-1)2-2=0? 33. 32.1)2 . 19. 26. What is the equation for a circle centred on (a. If I(x) 5.2 = O? 10.1)2 and g(x) and g(l(x)). Draw the ellipse y2 1) what is I(g(x))? 1) what is I(g(b))? and g(l(x))._ General 30. 21.0) with x axis twice as long as the y axis? 28.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 29 2. Draw the line y = -2x + 1 for x E [0.x+ 3 = Of or x E [0. = 1. from x = 0 to y :z.+ (x -1) = O? 12. If I(x) 9. If I(x) 2.-------. 4 3 2 y = (x . 2 x = 47r.) of quadratics see 0+-----. 8. If I(x) 1 =- = x2 . What type of curve has equation 2y + (x . What is the period of y = sin(3x x . If I(x) 3.1 find I(g(x)) x .4]. 24. What is the period of y + 1 from x = sin(x + I)? + I)? = 0 to x = 27r. If I(x) 4.3)(x . _ find the mverse I lex). Draw 3y . Lines 11.11 1._ + 1 find the mverse 1 I lex). Where does the line 2y + x-I What is the slope of the line? = 0 cross the y axis? 14. What is the equation for an ellipse centred on (0. What is the equation of the quadratic below: Quadratics 15.2) radius 3? with 7. What type of curve has equation 2 -. y-1 35. What is the equation of the shape below: x Sines and cosines 17.1) = O? 34.1)2 = 1.2x 16. Draw the ellipse + (x + 2x2 4y2 + (x 2)2 = 4. Draw the curve y = cos from x = 0 to x = n.-----. o 234 36. If I(x) = (x . Draw the curve y = 2sin3x 18. 25.

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1 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION An exponential function is defined by I(x) = a.. = x3 then x = 81/3 = 2. where a is the base and x is the index. EXAMPLES I. If 3 = log2 y then y = 23 = 8. .. If y = log2 16 then since 16 = 2 Y = 4.CHAPTER 3 FUNCTIONS TRANSCENDENTAL 3. The most useful exponential function is I(x) = e" == exp e where e = 2.71828 . so that x = log. a> 0. 3. 4. I. 4 . If 8 2.l:. If 2 = 10glO Y then y = 102 = 100.

= am-n an 4.. . 0. 0.. ambm = (ab)m 5.0. a.32 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3. . To simplify y = 3293 write 9 = 32 so that -= soy 4 y 641/3 =4 = 1..__. i times 2. (am)n = amn Power of a Power Rule 8._. :: } Equal Bases Rule = G)m 1 } Equal Indices Rule 6. for i an integer .0 =1 EXAMPLES 3..2 INDEX LAWS I.. a-n =an 7. a/ = . aman = am+n am 3.

a = 1 =x EXAMPLES 3. log2 (~:) The natural logarithm of z. In! = 0 means eC = X == In X z. Inez = x 2.l:) 5. lo~(a. 4. (. y LQg of a Product Log of a Quotient LQg of a Power 2. log b = 9 then log(a2b3) = 210ga = x.1ne=1 4. is loge (also denoted log x): ln z = c Note that: I. x 4. e1nz = x 3. 1 = 0 and log.3 LOGA. x + log. Ifloga = 4. a1og"z=x 6.) = logax -logaY 3.RITHM RULES I. log. . log.LOGARITHM RULES 33 3. the inverse of the exponential function eX. log.Y + 3 log b = 8 + 27 = 35. x·P = p log. lo~(xy) = log.

e". + 2y) write 8. If x = In 3 and y = In 4 then to find exp( x e". 2. 6.-2Iny = _e_ = ~ e21ny y2 4. 3 . If In y = 3In 2x + c then to find y write Iny = In (2x)3 +c + c) where eC = k ===} y = exp(In (2x)3 = k(2x)3.+2y = e"'(ey)2 = 3 x 42 = 48. Ifln X = 2 and In y = 5 then to find In(x3y2) we write In(x3y2) = Inx3 + Iny2 = 3Inx + 2Iny = 3(2) + 2(5) = 16. 5. exp(3In 2) = exp(In 23) = exp(In 8) = 8 = e"'eln2 = 2e'" In". Ify = a'" then In y = x In a ===} y = e'" In a . = kexp(In (2x)3).34 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES 1.+ln2 eln". .

. ? ~. .~_! "4 =-1 n = 0. ±2.±2. ±1.TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 35 3.. sm 6 . 6... (2n+ 1)7r 2 =-(-I). .n=0. tan 4 = -tan 11" .2 37r 3. cos 7r /6 =.51r=.. By symmetry all the other major angles can be found. sinO -1 EXAMPLES 1.J2' 1 11" cos "3 = 2' 1 CQS7r = -1..sm 6 .4 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The unit circle can be used as an aid for finding the sin and cos of common angles. n . From the diagram we see that 11" cosij = 2' va 7r cos "4 = .SlD . . 4.±I. For example. sin(n7r) = 0. ±2. ±1. n = 0. cos(n7r) = (-1)'\ 5../3/2.

cos(-a:) = cos e Sine is an odd function while cosine is an even function.36 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS sin(-a:) = -sin(a:). sm z cot e = --. The Reciprocallligonometric Functions are 1 see a: = --. tan a: 1 3. To prove the identity tan a: + cot a: = sec a:cosec a: consider the left hand side: sin a: cos z tan x + cot a: = -+ -.- 1 ---cosxsinx 2. by simply dividing = sedl x cot x + 1 = cosec2 x sin2 a: + cos2 a: = 1 by either sin2 a: or cos" a:.-. cos a: 1 cosec a: = -. .5 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES A fundamental trigonometric identity is EXAMPLES I. It is easy to prove 1+ tan2 x 2 cose sine 2 Si8 x + cos2 x cos x sin x = see x cosec x.

sin (x + ~) = sin + 11) X cos ~ + cosx sin ~ = cos z 4. cos(a: . Alternatively the following method can be used: sm-=· 12 -.TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES 37 sin(a: + y) cos(a: + y) sin2a: cos2x = sin e cosp + cos e siny a: = CQS cos y . 2 V3j2 . To find sin ~ consider 6.cos x 5.cos2a: sin2a: = 2 1+ cos2x CQS2a: = 2 EXAMPLES 1.sin x sin 11 = .y) = sin x cosy .y) = cos XCQsy + sin a: sin y 3. • 11: . sin(x .cos x siny 2.sin a: sin y 2 sin a:cos a: cos2 x .Jl- Jl- CQs1rj6 .sin2 a: 1. 2 . cos(x = cos x COS1r.

0 .5 -5.6 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES I. sinh x -2.38 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3. 21. The plots of sinh x and cosh x are illustrated below on the interval x E [. It is easy to show that sinh 0 = 0 cosh 0 = 1 and that COSh2 X since - sinh2 x = 1 2.2.

cosh x = _e-x (iv) sinh x (ii) 8-"3 (iii) 210g105 + 10glO 8 - (iv) 3-1og3 p (v) Inx2 + Iny -Inx (vi) e21nx _lny2 2. If In s = 2 and In t = 3 calculate (i) In(st) (ii) In(st2) (iii) In(Vsi) (iv) In~ (v) Int s (ii) (J = 137r_ 6 (iii) (J = 2n 3 (iv) (J = _ 5n 3 (v) (J = 5n 4 11. Use the trigonometric addition of angle formulae to show cos'lr_ = ~(v'6 12 4 + h). Solve for t using natural logarithms: (i) 5t = 7 (ii) 2 = (1.1. Evaluate (i) tan(n) (ii) sm (iii) cos tcr. In an experiment you have to calculate the time to melt a block of ice using the formula t = _l (.02)t (iii) 3t7 = 2t5 (iv) Q = Qoant (v) y=3-2Int (vi) 3y = 1 + cosh x = e" 9. Simplify (i) _1 __ cos2 (J (ii) (sin x (iii) tan(J = x cos X an odd or even function? + COSX)2 (J + (sin x- COSX)2 VI + tan2 .7 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1. A = 3 X 105. ) 6. P = 1 X 103.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 39 3. Use the multiple angle formulae to find cos 'lr_.o. Prove the following identities: 1 + sin(J (i) --. (iv) sec ( 4._) 4.-. C~n) Find t. sin (J. 13. Ta = 20.p_. -(J = (sec (J + tan (J)2 1-sm (ii) 3sin2 (J . To = -20.3cos2 (J (iii) sinh x . (6n) 8 l = 0. Solve the following for values of (J between 0 and 2n (i) cos2 (J + 3sin2 (J = 2 (ii) 2 cos2 (J = 3 sin (J 10glO 2 8.---.2 = 1. tan (J. and sec (J: + 2e4t (i) (J=7r_ 4 3. Is I(x) tan2 (J c = 2 X 103. .--A_:_P_-_c_T. If x t3 = In 3 and y = In 5 then find (i) eXeY (ii) eX+Y (iii) e2x (iv) eX + eY where 5. Simplify as much as possible (i) 6x 3y-2 2 x 1 5y4 24 _x- 7. 10. For the following angles find cos (J. 12 12. h = 10.

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f(x). at the point x. The following diagram This is the slope of the tangent to the function iIIustra tes: f (x) y= f(x} tangent f(x + h} f(x) x x+h .1 FIRST PRINCIPLES The definition of a derivative of a function f(x) is: f(x) = df = lim f(x dx h-+O + h) h .CHAPTER 4 DIFFERENTIATION 4.

2. = lim (x h-->O + h)2 h -x 2 . h-->O + h) h . If f(x) sin x then f'(x) . + 2hx + h2 . If lex) = x2 then f'(x) .2 LINEARITY ! where c is a constant. = lim sin(a. 4.sin x h = lim----------~--------h-->O h = lim sinx(cos h -1) + cos x sin h h-->O h = CQSX since lim CQsh-1 h-+O h =0 ' (see the Asymptotics chapter for how to evaluate these limits).x2 = h-->O hm------~----h = lim 2hx+ h h-->O 2 x2 = = h-->O h lim 2x+ h = 2x. (f(x) + g(x)) ~(c!(x)) dx .42 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I..sin x sin x CQS + cos x sin h .

-d.4 PRODUCT RULE dx[f(x)g(x)] d df = dx g(x) + f(x) dx dg . If f(x) = sin x + e~ then !. (41nx) d x . ~SinX 2. 4. = 1 4x 2. dx (3smx) = d. 4.(x) = +~ e~ = cosx + eX.SIMPLE DERIVATIVES 43 EXAMPLES d. 1. xn sin x cos x e1: ln z sinh x cosh x x eosh z sinh x - 1 EXAMPLES 1.3 SIMPLE DERIVATIVES The following derivatives of elementary functions are standard: f(x) c -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ f'(x) 0 nxn-1 cos x -sinx e1: where c is a constant. If J(x) = 5x2 + sinh x then J'(x) = lOx + cosh x. 3 dx sm z = 3 cosx.

!!_ [f(X)] dx = jI(x)g(x) g(x) . -.!:. If f(x) sin x = -then cos x f (x) = Thus I. cos X CQS X - cos2 X sin x( . If !(x) 2.sin x) = cos2 x' 1 3. = lnx cos x then P(x) = .x] (x2 + 2) .1)(x + 2) .(x2 .5 QUOTIENT RULE .x 2 CQSx.2 (x2 + 2)2 + 2)2 - x) 2x . sin z.x) ~[X2 + 2] (x2 2 (2x . j_ 4. (Sinx) dx" x2 = CQs(x)x2 X4 2xsinx !!_ (x2 . If f(x) = X2 sin x then f(x) = 2x sinx + x2 coax. CQSX-lnx x 4.f(X)gl(X) (g(x))2 EXAMPLES I. = li[x 2 . If f(x) = -. then smx f'(x) x2 = 2' x smx. .x) dxx2 + 2. sm2x 2.(x2 = ~--~~~~~--~(x2 + 2)2 x2 +4x.44 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I.

(g(x))g'(x) df dg Differentiate the outer function first then multiply by the derivative of the inner function.CHAIN RULE 45 4. . EXAMPLES 1. +x 2 ] 1+2x 3.sin x and dx ' ! x5 = 5x4 then ~ [CQS«X2+ 3X)5)] = .6 CHAIN RULE d dx [f(g(x))] = dg dx = /. Since ~ x3 = 3x2 and ~ sin x ![sin3x] = = cos x then 3sin2x cos z.sin«x2 + 3X)5) ~ [(x2 dx + 3X)5] = . Since ~ sin x = cos x then d d 2 2 dx [sin(x )] = cos(x ) dx = cos(x2)2x. Since ! ln x = ~ then d dx [In(x +x 2' )] = x + x2 1 dx [x d. Since ! cos x = .sin«x2 + 3x)5)5(x2 + 3X)4(2x + 3) = -5(2x + 3)(x2 + 3X)4 sin«x2 + 3X)5).sin«x2 + 3X)5)5(x2 + 3X)4 d~ [(x2 + 3x)] = . 4. [x2] 2.

+ dx = 3x 2 dy 3x2 .CQsy =---. dx 1. if given f(y) = g(x) then differentiating gives f'(y): = g'(x) ===} dy dx g'(x) f'(y) where the chain rule has been used to obtain the left hand side.xsm(y) which can be rearranged to give dY) dy dx .:!y = ±-v'f="X4. EXAMPLES I. differentiate normally but treat each y as an unknown function of x.7 IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION To find y'(x) where y(x) is given implicitly.xsiny . xcosy+y = x3 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives • ( cosy .. For example... Differentiating siny = x2 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives dy cosy dx = 2x or dy dx since CQsy = 2.46 DIFFERENTIATION 4.:. Differentiating 2x 2x CQsy ±Vl- X4 ±y'l- sin'.

51 2. (t) = 2e2t is the velocity and .!I(t)' EXAMPLES 1. EXAMPLES 1.9 SECOND DERIVATIVE The second (or double) derivative is the derivative of the derivative: f'(x) = ~.sint = _ cott .(t) . If J(x) = X4 then /. If 5(t) = e2t is the position of a particle with time t. If y(t) = t2 and x(t) = sin t then dy = dyjdt dxjdt = 2t cos dx 2.(x) = 4x3and r(x) = 12x2.dxjdt _ /. 4.8 PA.PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION 47 4.RAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION Given y = f(t) and x = g(t). dyjdx dy _ dy/dt may be calculated as dx . = ~ (!). Ify(t) t = sin r and x(t) = cost then dy = dyjdt dx dxjdt = cost . then 5"(t) = 4e2t is the acceleration. Higher derivatives are found by repeated differentiation.

The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary dy =2x+2=O dx point when x = -1. A local minimum is lower than the surrounding points. Y : o :"J minimum r>. y) where f'(x) graph is flat. At this point the tangent to the EXAMPLES I.. 2. = O. ~n . 5 6 2 3 4 maximum 0+----..-- . The function y = xe-z has a maximum when x = 1..---. x ---. An inflection point is where the graph is flat but neither a maximum nor minimum. 3..2. The function y = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary + 12 = 0 points when dy = 6x2 _ 18x dx x= 1.48 DIFFERENTIATION 4.---.10 STATIONARY POINTS A stationary point is a point (x. A local maximum is when the function at the stationary point is higher than the surrounding points.----..

if f'(a) > 0 then x = a is a local < 0 then x minimum. The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary point at x = -1. The double derivative is so x = -1 is a minimum. 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 X 3.1)3 + 3 has derivatives ' dx which are both zero at x dy = 3(x _1)2 -= ~2 ~y 6(x -1) " = 1. EXAMPLES 1. 2. Note that x = a is a stationary point so f(a) = O. if f'(a) = a is a local maximum. if f'(a) 3. The double derivative ~ dx which is positive at x ~y = 12x-18 = y 2 (a minimum) and negative at x = 1 (a maximum). = 0 then x = a is an inflection point. The function y is = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary points at x = 1 and x = 2. The function y = (x . 2.STATIONARV POINTS 49 At a stationary point x = a the second derivative indicates the type of stationary point I. which is therefore an inflection point. .

8x3 + 6x2 (vii) y = x2sinx (viii) y = cosh x sinh x (ix) y=- ell'" x 4. Use linearity to find dy / dx: (i) y = 3sinx . x(t) = sin t 7. Use the chain rule to find dy / dx: (i) y = sin(2x) (ii) y = sin(x + x3) + y3 = x2 (vi) y2 + siny = sinx (vii) y(x + 1) .1)2e'" 9. Roughly sketch x2 (iii) Y = e"'sinx (iv) y=lnx x4 lnx e'" (v) Y = sinx cos x (vi) y=- + 9x + 1 (iii) Y = 3x4 .forxE[-1.6x2 (iv) y = xe-'" (v) y = x2In(x) (vi) y=sinx+(1-x)cosx. (v) y (ii) Y = 3e'" .y2 = x 6. x(t) = sin(t2) (ii) yet) = et. Use the product rule or the quotient rule to find dy / dx: (i) y= xe'" cos x (ii) y=-- (i) yet) = cos t. Use implicit differentiation to find dy/dx: (i) y2 = sin(x . x(t) = t2 (iii) yet) = t2.3coshx (iv) eY = e3".x2 (iii) Y = 3lnx (iv) y = 2sinhx +5 2. Find dy / dx for these more difficult problems: (i) y = exp(x cos x2) (ii) Y = e'" cos((2x (iii) (iv) 1 + 1)2) 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 y X 5 Y = . is drawn below.1) (ii) cos(2y) = (1 _ X2)1/2 (iii) In(y) = xe'" .2)2 (ii) Y = x3 . Use parametric differentiation to find dy / dx: (iii) Y = (x + 4)3 (iv) Y = (x + sinx)5 (v) y = sin(lnx2) (vi) y = exp(cos2 x) (vii) y = cosh(2x2) 3. 8. Find the derivative dT / dt: T=texp(~) where a is a constant.j2+x2 sinx y= (x+1)2 expx2 (v) Y = sin(x2 + exp(x3 + x)) (vi) y=-- x2 . The function y = f(x) the function fl(x). For the following functions find the stationary points and classify them.50 DIFFERENTIATION 4.11 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1. (i) Y = (x .2] (vii) y = (x .5cosx 5.

. 3. If d~ sin x = cos z d.. 4. then dx = In Ixl + c. If ~ In x = _!_ x then !~. + c. If dx sinh x = cosh x then ! I cos x dx = sin x . 2.. EXAMPLES 1. + c.CHAPTER INTEGRATION 5 5.cosh x dx = sinh x . If ! dx x2 = 2x then !2X dx = x2 + c.1 ANTIDIFFERENTIATION The indefinite integral (antiderivative) of ! f with respect to x is f(x) dx = F(x) +c where F1(x) = f(x) and c is known as the constant of integration.

c / f(x) dx.cos x + e" + c 5 cos x da: = 5 sin x + c 3.2 SIMPLE INTEGRALS The following integrals of elementary functions are standard: / / xndx = __ 1 xn+l +c n+l where n f:.52 INTEGRATION 5. . 2. EXAMPLES I. where cis a constant. ! ! (sin x + eX) dx = .cosx + c / sinxdx / eXdx = e" +c In [z] + c = = cosh z + c sinh x + c /1 / . -1 cosxdx = sin x + c . dx sinhxdx / coshxdx Integration is linear so that /U(x) +g(x))dx / cf(x) dx = / f(x) dx +/ g(x) dx.. Simple application of the Chain Rule in differentiation gives coskx dx = / Ii sin kx 1 + c.

3sin(2x)dx = -~COS(2X) +C 5. f f 6x dx = 3 f 2x dx = 3x 2 +C 6.THE DEFINITE INTEGFIAL 53 4.4: = 20 81 1 4.3 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL The definite integral with respect to lb x over the interval [a. 1 o sin 7rxdx = -.F(a) where F' (x) = f (z). 1-1 r sinh x dx = coshj l). b] is written as: [F(x)]! f(x) da: = = F(b) .cos 7rX 7r 1 [1] 1 0 = --(COS7r 7r 1 - cos O) = - 2 7r 3. This is the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. . EXAMPLES 2.cosh( -1) = 0 since cosh(x) is even. 11 x dx = [3 3 [X4]3 '4 1= '4 .

. If f(x) is odd then fa {o (a i-a f(x) dx = }_a f(x) dx + 10 f(x) dx = O.54 INTEGRATION la lb lb (assuming f(x) EXAMPLES I.~] + [2 . If f(x) = {!: : ~~' then 3. f(x)dx=O f(x) dx = f(x) dx + l -i c a f(x) dx f(x) dx = lC f(x) dx can be integrated over the required intervals).0] = ~ 2. }_1 r [z] dx r Ixl dx + 10 [z] dx r = r -xdx + (2 z d» }_1 10 = 1-1 ==- [~2[1+ [~2J: [0 .

24 = (x .AREAS 55 5.25+0.9x2 + 26x . The area between the curve and the z-axis between x = 2 and x = 4 is given by: y 0. EXAMPLES 1.5.(area below the z-axis) :5 x :5 b.25 =0. Consider the curve given by f(x) = x3 .O) is the same as for x E [0.5 1 2.4). is an even function (so f( -x) f(x)) then f c f(x) dx = 2 -c 10 r l(x) dx since the area for x E [-c.2)(x .3)(x .4 A. If /(x) 411(X)1x = d 1 = 3 f(x) dx - fs4 /(x) dx = 0. .REAS If f is an integrable function then fal:> f(x) in the region a dx = (area above the z-axis) . c).

] 1 - sin(O) 5 0 1 =-.. To find! h l-x2 l f S iU (.-/2) u4du= [1£5. For definite integrals the limits of the integration are also trans- EXAMPLES I.cos(x2 + 2. To evaluate f 2x sin( x2 + 1) dx 2x sin(x2 let u = x2 + 1 then = ~: = 2x so that f vx+ 1 r::-71 + 1) dx f sin udu = -cosu+c = .5 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION Integrals that can be written in the form f f(g(x))g'(x) dx are solved by the substitution f u = g(x). f 1 dx let u = x 1 + 1 then f ---== "'. To find 1 0 . 3.x + 1 dx = f du -d = 1 so that x u-! du = 2u! +c = 2". upon which the integral becomes f(u) du = F(u) + c = F(g(x)) + c. = f(x)..56 INTEGRATION 5.x2 = cos u and dx = cos 1£du so that 1 --===dx = ~ f cos -cos 1£ 1£ d1£= U • = arcsmx+c. where F'(x) formed..1 .x + 1 +c. To evaluate 1) + c. . 5 dx let x = sin 1£ since "../2 sin" x cos x d$ let 1£ = sin x so that the integral becomes 4.

INTEGRATION BV PARTS 57 5. 2. / xcosxdx = xsinx .6 INTEGRATION BY PA.cosx + cd + cosx + C2. dV dx dx = uv . Integrating by parts twice we can evaluate / e2:t:sin xdx = _e2o. To evaluate / x cos x dx let u = x and d$ = cos x then dx = 1and v = sm z. cos x +2 (e 2 :t:sin x- 21 e 2 :t:sin x dx) so by rearranging ! e2:t:sinxdx = 5 (2sinx e2:t: . UOl' UOl' 2 3. The integral Then we have J0 t' xe :t: dx is performed 2 by setting u = x.IdUdx dx uvu dv = uv - 1 1 v duo EXAMPLES 1. ~~ = e2:t: so that ~~ = 1and v = !e2:t:.cosx) + C. so that dv du . ./ sinxdx = xsinx = z sin z . cos x + 2 / e2:t:cosxdx = _e2o.RTS Integration of a product of two functions can sometimes be solved by integration by parts: I or in short hand.(.

x < 1. Find EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 4. I(x) = { x3 . 6.ffj 5.7 1.. (iii) 10 I I l="» cosz sinz dz x2 sinxdx 00 I(x) dx where I(x) = { x~. Find te= dx 2 I(x) dx where I(x) = { 1. .1 dx +5 d x z cos ( _z2) dz 4cosh(x) .2 dx x+2 x2 +4x --dy 1 ylny 2x3y'7x4 . 2: o. (iv) 1v'U(U+1)dU (v) I ~+ 1 x2 dx (let x = sinhu).y --dy 2.) dx x10 + Xll + X12) dx dx I I I I I i4 xe-".58 INTEGRATION 5. sin x dx (integrate twice). x < 1. Evaluate the following integrals using integration by parts.3 e2". (x + 1) sinxdx x2e'" dx In x dx by using u = In x and dv = 1.dx x3 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 2. (i) 12. Evaluate (i) (i) I (~ l-: + I+ I I (x9 sinh(2x) +X5) dx (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) e-14". Find the following integrals using any method. x2:1.e'" dx (vi) lev's -ds (vii) 10 5 e= dz VB fo7r xsin(x2) 9 dx (ii) (iii) (iv) 137r/2 sinxdx 7r/2 11/2 -dx 16 1/4 (viii) e-.. 1. (iii) X x < 0. 10 10 10 7r x (i) (ii) fo7r x cos 12 xdx sin(3x) dx (--) X 3 (v) 57r 4 1/ 7r/4 3 -sin dx (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3. (iv) j_11 I(x) dx where I(x) = Ix31. (i) (ii) j_11 I(x) dx where (ii) _x2. Evaluate the following integrals using a substitution. x..2x . x2:1. (vi) (i) I I I I 1 dx o x2 .

h21 [ bml then A+B = [ :~ :~~ . i~ 1 [~~ + [-~ 379 3 -14 -~ -~ 1 1 = [-~ 6 -7 ~ 10 ~ 1 2.CHAPTER MATRICES 6 6. EXAMPLES 1. .DDITION If A and Bare m x n matrices such that A= [ au au .1 A. amI bu and B= . 1 . + bmi amn+ bmn Addition of matrices of different sizes is not defined. U22 amI au + bu + h22 ai n a2n + bIn + h2n . [~ ~] + [ ~] cannot be done.

.60 MATRICES 6. . . In general AB ai2 b2j + . [1 2] 3412 [1 -1] = [3 75 3] 2 [1 -1] [1 2] [-2 -2] . . 10 -9 . 1234 = 710 3..... .ll A= [ <l2l . . . #. .BA. 1 and B= [ bu ~1 b..] [ -q = [ -i and B= -4 -1 2 then 2 -1 12 -~ 3 0 -4 -1 = [ -8+0+27 6+0+3 -4+ 0+6 -28 -4 8+0-36 -6+ 0-4 4+0-8 -16+ 2-9] 12 -1-1 -8+ 1-2 =[ 1: -10 2 -23] . . . . airbrj.1m <l2m . . EXAMPLES I . where Gij = ail b1j + Gij is the dot product of row i of A and column j of B. . + That is. a22 . . . that is. If A = [ -~ 4 2 9] -~ ~ AB [-~3 ~ -~] .12 ~2 . matrices are noncommutative. . arl ar2 arm bnl bn2 then AB = C is an m x n matrix... al2 .2 MULTIPLICATION AB is defined if A is size m x rand B size r x n. If a.. . . a. . . . . ..

IA=AI= EXAMPLE The 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 identity matrices are .IDENTITY 61 while BA = = = [ -2 0 3 2 -4] 0 1 -4 -1 [ 4 2 9] -3 -1 1 2 12 -8 .4 -18 + 2 . A. 4. defined only for square matrices (n x n).8] 0+0+2 0+0+1 0+0+2 [ 12+ 12.6 .2 -22 -10 -24 ] 2 2 1 [ 22 9 21 f: AB. is and is defined such that.1 27 .2 6+ 4.4 .8 -4 . 6. for all n x n matrices A.2 .3 IDENTITY The identity matrix.

(cA)t = cAt 4.62 MATRICES 6. if A= [ U2l an aml al2 a22 a. aln au a22 aml a 7. that is. then I.] am2 a2n amn EXAMPLES I. If A and Bare matrices and c is a scalar. The transpose of an m x n matrix A is an n x m matrix denoted by At. (At)t = A 2. (AB)t = Bt At EXAMPLE . If A ~ [~ _~ 1 men A' ~ [~ ~ _:].4 TRANSPOSE The transpose of a matrix is formed by writing its columns as rows." ] U2n amn then At = [ au an . (A + B)t = At + Bt 3.

5 DETERMINANTS The determinant of a 2 x 2 matrix A = [~ :] is det(A) = IAI = ad .be. .DETERMINANTS 63 6. 4. 34 1 2 1 -1 2 1= -1- 4 = -5. 2 -3 1 = -3(5 = -75 + ~1 18) .: I (-12 -10) 3.21 . 2. -3 21 4 5 6 = -31 5 -3 ~ 1. 75 026 003 1 _112 0 ~I+o+o =lx2x3=6 is not possible. EXAMPLES 1. I~ :1 7 2 . all The determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix A= [ an a:n (expanding by the first row).6 = -2.2(4 -12) + + 11 . 2 1= 4.

(cofactor expansion along the det(A) = <lilCi1 ph column) + <li2Ci2 + .. 1 10 = -21 1 1 21 = -2(11 2) = 2 by expanding along the second row. multiplied by (-1) i+J.5. EXAMPLES I..1 COFACTOR EXPANSION The determinant of an n x n matrix may be found by choosing a row (or column) and summing the products of the entries of the chosen row (or column) and their cofactors: det(A) = o.64 MATRICES 6. 3.. ~~.39] + 2[-45 .15) + 2(20 . (cofactor expansion along the ith row) where Cij is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted. + <linCin. + tlnjCnj. The matrix of elements Cij is called the cofactors matrix.) = (O)Cn + (I)C23 + (O)C33 + (-2)C43 1 3 2 = (1)(-1)5 = . The full cofactors matrix for the previous question is found by crossing out each row and column .[1(-28 -4 4 5 -5 3 -7 + (-2)(-1)7 1 3 2 4 -4 -3 9 43 + 15) - 3(28 .ljC1j + a2jC2j + .12)] = -[13 . + 2[1(-9 2.20)] ..3(12 + 36) + 2(16 . 1 5 3 -5 4 -3 4 -4 2 0 1 9 0 3 -2 -7 (Expansion is along the 3rd column since it has two zeros.144 + 8] = -310.36) .

INVERSE

65

in tum remembering to multiply by (-l)i+j:

**Cll = +11 ~ ~ 1= -2 C12=<-I)1 ~ ~ 1=2 C13 = +11 ~ ~ 1=
**

and so one, giving 0

6.6

INVERSE

A square matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists B such that

AB=BA=I.

B is denoted A-I and is unique.

If det(A) = 0 then a matrix is not invertible.

EXAMPLE

The matrix B = [~

~] is the inverse of A =

AB =

and

[31 5] [ -12 2

3

[-i -!] -5] = [1 0] = I 1

since

3

0

BA =

[ -12 -5] [3 5] = [1 0]

12

0

1

=

I.

66

MATRICES

6.6.1

TWO BY TWO MATRICES

For 2 x 2 matrices, if A = [~

~]

then

A

If det(A)=

-1 _

- ad _ be

1 [d -ab]

-e

providing ad - be

f- O.

ad - be = 0 then A -1 does not exist.

EXAMPLES I.IfA=[!

~

2. If A = [ ~

] ;]

then

A -1

= __!_ [

-2

4 -3

-2 ]

1 .

.

then

A -1 = ~ [ 3 30

-2 ]

1

6.6.2

PARTITIONED MATRIX

Inverses can also be found by considering the partitioned matrix

then performing row operations until the final partitioned matrix is of the form

EXAMPLE The inverse of 121 010 [1 1 0

1

can be calculated using row reductions where R3 --t R3 - Rl means that Row 3 becomes the old

INVERSE

67

Row 3 minus Row I.

[ [ [ [ [

hence

2 110 10 0 1 ~ 10 0 0

~

2 1 10 1 0 01 -1 -1 -1 0

1

n n n

J] j]

R3-t R3 -Rl

~0

2 1

1

1

R3-t R3+ R2

0

-1

10 01 -1 1

1 1 -2 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

0

1

Rl-t Rl- 2R2

R3-t -R3

0 0 0 -1 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

1

Rl-t Rl- R3

[

6.6.3

2 1 ~1

~r[

=

~

-1 1 ~ -1 -1

]

COFACTORS MATRIX

The inverse of a n x n matrix A can be found by considering the transpose of the cofactors matrix divided by the determinant:

A-I = _1_Ct

IAI

where Gil is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted., multiplied by (-1 )i+l. The matrix C is called the cofactors matrix.

The matrix has cofactors matrix C= hence the inverse [ -2 2 0] 3 -3 4 -2 1 0 6. . 2. When manipulating matrix expressions a distinction is made between multiplying from the left (pre-multiplication) and multiplying from the right (post-multiplication).68 MATRICES EXAMPLES l. Since IAI = -1we get A-1=__!_ -1 [ -1 ~ -~ _~ ]T 0 -1 = [ ~ -~ ~ 1 -1 -1 ].If then Cll =I ~ ~ 1=0 ~1=1 C21=(-1)1~ and so on.7 MATRIX MANIPULATION Matrices do not behave as real numbers.

If A = PDP-1. with eigenvector~. If Av = AV then if A-1 exists then A-1 Av = A-1 AV = AA-lV v = AA-lV :x-~=A 1 -1 ~. then A3 is A3 (PDP-1) (PDP-1) (PDP-1) PD (P-1 P) DP-1 PDP-1 PD2p-1 PDP-1 PD3p-1 since pp-1 = I again since pp-1 = I. Given that ABC = I find B? ABC (A-1A)BC IB(CC-1) B I A-1I A-lIC-1 A-1C-1 (CA)-l. 4. 3. See Section 6. then A -1 has eigenvalue 1/ A for the same eigenvector.9 on eigenvalues since this example shows that if A has eigenvalue A. If Av = AV then A3~ = AA A~ = AA(A~) = AAA~ =A2Av =A3V. pre-multiply both sides by A -1 post-multiply both sides by C-1 simplifying 2.MATRIX MANIPULATION 69 EXAMPLES 1. .

x+y+2z=1 2x+4y . Gaussian Elimination allows • a multiple of one row to be added to another row.3z 1 5 =2 3x+6y .2Rl means each element in Row 3 becomes the old Row 3 element minus two times the corresponding Row 2 element.5z = 2 is written as or Ax e b. For the following system 2x x+y+2z + 4y . • a row to be multiplied by a (non-zero) number. The augmented matrix is an easy way of writing systems of equations.3z = 5 3x+6y . Systems of equations are typically solved by Gaussian elimination. For example.5z .70 MATRICES 6.8 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Systems of m linear equations invol ving n unknowns may be written as a matrix equation. EXAMPLES I. If A is invertible then x = A -1h. Hence R3 -+ R3 .

SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS 71 the augmented matrix is [l 1 4 2 -3 6 -5 [! j] 1 [! -: 1 [! 1 [" 1 2 3 2 -7 -11 1 1 3 2 -7/2 -11 1 1 0 2 -7/2 -1/2 n 1 R2 R3 --t --t R2 .5y -2 4 -x + 3y written as Ax = b such that The matrix A has inverse A -1 = [~ ~] so .3R1 R2 --t R2/2 R3 --t R3 . Consider the system 2x .3R2 1 3/2 ] -11/2 R3 --t -2R3 o o 1 0 2 -7/2 1 3/~ ] 11 This gives the straightforward solution by back substitution of x = -61.2R1 R3 . y = 40. z = 11. 2.

1) or a line in three dimensional space. f are non-zero real numbers) then you get one unique solution.0) + t( -1. one solution) are typically represented by the following: I.t) . 3 .z) = (5 . EXAMPLE To solve the system: perform row reductions to obtain 1 -2 011 -1 [ 000 and setting z = t gives y = 3 - t and x .t. If you perform row operations to obtain (where a. infinite solutions.3. y. t is some parameter. .t = -1 so (e. t) = (5.t. If you perform row operations to obtain a [ then if k3 ¥- ° o Ode k2 0 0 k3 b C kl 1 you get no solution. and then express z . -1. .. 3. 2. If you perform row operations to obtain a [ o Ode kl k2 00 0 C b 1 then you get an infinite number of solutions that represent a line where you let z = t.2(3 .72 MATRICES After performing Gaussian reduction by row operations the three cases (no solution. . y in terms of t.

such that Av = AV. . called an eigenvector. EXAMPLE To find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for set up the characteristic equation which gives X}. For ).All To find the eigenvectors solve = o.~ ] = [ ~ ] .~] then [~ ~] [ .Yl = 0 so Yl is a free variable.2 = -I let ~ = [ . Yl ] then Both equations give Xl . Hence the eigenvector corresponding to Al = 1 is t(l. .l.EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS 73 6.1 = 0 so Al [ -A = 1 and A2 = -1 are the eigenvalues. where t is any number. For Al = 1 let VI '" = [ X. t ERe. if associated with it there is a non-zero vector~.9 EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS If A is an n x n matrix then a scalar A is called an eigenvalue of A. To find the eigenvectors solve 1 _A 1] ~ = O. 1). '" '" To find the eigenvalues solve the characteristic equation IA .

2 = -1 is p(l. -1). 789 6. .10 TRACE The trace of a matrix is the sum of its diagonal elements. 369 6. Hence the eigenvector corresponding to ). EXAMPLE The matrix [ 2 1 2 3] 5 6 is symmetric. '" '" 6. (Note that the trace is also equal to the sum of the eigenvalues.ATRICES The matrix A is symmetric if A = At.1).) EXAMPLE The trace of [ 4 1 23] 5 6 = 1 + 5 + 9 = 15.12 DIAGONAL MATRICES A diagonal matrix is one with only terms along the main diagonal.74 MATRICES Both equations give X2 + Y2 = 0 so Y2 is a free variable. EXAMPLE A 3 x 3 diagonal matrix has the form [~ g ~]. V2 = (1. -1).11 SYMMETRIC M. The length of the eigenvector is unimportant hence it is convenient to write Vi = (1.

For what values of a and c do you get (i) one solution. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A: (i) -5 (ii) A= [~ -:] (ii) 4.12z 7. Find At. solve 4x -y 4y -z 0 0 -4x + 17y - 4z o. of the matrices (i) [~ !] ~ (ii) 12 1 [ ~3 ] A=[~ 1 2 o~ ] . At A. (iii) infinite solutions. (ii) no solution. First showing that a non-trivial solution does indeed exist. AAt: (i) A= [ ~ -1 3 3 -1 1 1 x+5y+z x+6y-z 2x 0 2 c? + ay + z 9. for the system B= [ ~ j] (iii) A = [ _~ ] B = [1 3. Find A (i) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS + B. 1 A=[~ B = [ -~ (ii) A=[ B=[ (iii) o 3 (i) o [ [ ~ 6 2 o 2 1 2 1 1 -7 -6 2 6 4 9 1] -1 -1 -2 1 -1 ] -2 7 (ii) ~~ o ! ~] -7 6 (iii) [! x+2y-z oo o o o~ ~1 -S 6. Find the inverse. ] 1 Sx+3y-7z o 3 o~ o S o 2. (i) A = [! ~] 8.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 75 6. AB. Solve the system of equations 2 4 -S. (Answers are given in Chapter 14) BA and the trace(A): 5. Find the determinants of the following matrices. if it exists. FindAB: ] J] 1 1 -1 4y .13 1.

76 This page intentionally left blank .

or geometrically. b). y v b a ~------------------~x The vector has both length II~II and direction. . 2.0) points in the x direction and has length 1.CHAPTER VECTORS 7 7.1 VECTOR NOTATION A vector in R2 is represented by an ordered pair ~ = (a. by a directed line segment in the plane. 1) points in a direction with angle 7r / 4 to the x axis. EXAMPLES 1. The vector (1. The vector (1.

2.7). vn).-v 'V .-v = (2.5. .-v + 3j ~ .. If ~ = (1.. = W2. R5.7.1.. ~ = (1.2) and ~ = (2. ~ = (Wi.4) is a three dimensional vector so:e E R3. .6) . -4.3) = 2i then ~ .Vn+wn) V+W (Vi+Wl>tl2+W2.x). ..0) is not defined... -1.1 + x.5.3) then. cv EXAMPLES I.CiJ2.78 VECTORS A vector in R!' is represented by an ordered n-tuple EXAMPLES I.3. 2.2) is a five dimensional vector so:e E 7.x. + ~ = (3. ~ = (3.x. ~+ ~ and = (2.x) 4. (1. V2. (CIJt.1) then . -3.I. wn) and c is a scalar constant then .CiJn).0) and j = (0..2 + x.-4.. .16).2.4) and ~ = (1. + (4. . 3. If~ = (l.2 ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION If ~ = (Vl. If i = (1.-v . . . 4~ = (4.

0) 2 3 4 .J6 + 1 +4+ 1 +9 =. EXAMPLE (0.3) (0.3) (4.2.. 11(1.. 3 2 (4.2. EXAMPLES I. 11(1.3) + (4. 11(4.3)11= 3..LENGTH 79 7.1)11 = Vip + 22 + 12 = .0) = (4.1.3 LENGTH The length of a vector in B" is given by II~II = Jv~+ vi + .0)11= 4.11(4. + v~.3) and 11(0.ji6 =4 2.3)11 =V1 The triangle inequality states that That is the length of the sum of vectors must be less than the length of the two individual vectors added.1.3)11 = V32 y 4 + 42 =5 < 3 + 4.

: ...4 CARTESIAN UNIT VECTORS The Cartesian unit vectors for R3 are t=(O...:.V3) = VI i ~ + V2j~ + V3k.2.0).2..5 DOT PRODUCT If ~ and'!!.. (0.1).2.3)· (1.0. EXAMPLES I..1) = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 2.3) = i + 2j + 3~ 2j 2.80 VECTORS 7...3) = 12 + 22 + 32 = 14 3. The result of a dot product is a scalar...1. 1I~1I2 ='!. (VI.. EXAMPLES I. (1. ~=(O. Vectors in If3 are often written as the sum of the components in the direction of the Cartesian unit vectors: v= .. (1.3)· (1.are vectors in R!' then the dot product is defined by This is also called an inner product on H". .2.O.2.'!.V2.1.0) = 7. ~=(1.. (1..0).

2) = a + 2b = 0 hence the simplest choice is (a. -1) are at right angles since (1. b). b) = (-2. b) . (a. (1.1.2) write (a.1. perpendicular to (1. Two vectors. ~ = (1. For example (2.DOT PRODUCT 81 The angle 0 between two vectors is given by EXAMPLES 1.2) are still perpendicular to (1.2). -4) are perpendicular since ~ .2. = 2+2- 4 = O. 2.1. To find a vector.1) and ~ = (2. .2.3) and (1.. 2. 3) and (1.1) although any multiple of this will be perpendicular to (1. 1.2. -1) and (-4. The angle 0 between (1. (1. '!!.2). EXAMPLES 1. (1. ~ and ~ are orthogonal if they are perpendicular to each other and U·V =0. 1) is such that 6 J42' 2.3) . -1) = 0 hence cosO = O.

1) is: "" i j 2 0 k 3 1 (1. V2 .0.2. The cross product (1.0) = (0. .j(-12 ~ ~ + ~ + 36) k(8 = 14i "" + 24j + 44k = "" (14. 1) and ~ = (12.0) x (0.24.2.0. If ~ = (2.1).2) x (1.~ 11~ -12) -! "" -! 1+ ~ 11~ -~ 1 = i(18 .-2).-v ~ = k. 1.0) = i "" j k 1 1 1 -1 ° 2 = (2.3) x (1. . 1£2Vt) EXAMPLES I.-2).2.1£3V2. The cross product (1.0) (1.-v 2.2 V2 1_ j 1 1£1 "" Vl 1£3 V3 1+ k 1 'Ul "" 1£IV2 - VI 'U. -6). .4) .1) = is: 1 1 = (2. .44).-1.2) x (1. then w=uxv= "" "" "" 2 -3 12 4 = ~ 1 -~ "" i j "" k 1 -6 1.1.1.2. (1.0. -1.6 CROSS PRODUCT If ~ and!: are two vectors in R3.1£IV3. 3.4. 1£3Vl .3) x (1. -3. then the cross product ~ x ~ is defined in determinant notation by ~j tt X 11 k 1£3 V3 = 1£1 Vl 1£2 V2 'U3 V3 = = "" i 1 'U.0. That is i x j . 2 (1£2V3 .82 VECTORS 7. 4.

2.1). . (0. .J where Cl. Note that (2. (14. -1) .7.0.1) is not a linear combination of (1. (1.0) = 0.2.1.44) = 0.7. (2. .0)..72 + 44 = O.44) and (2. Un if it can be written as + C2U2 + .4.(0. . EXAMPLES 1. (2. 2.3.0) (2.UNEAAINDEPENDENCE 83 Note that the result of taking the cross product of two vectors is another vector where the direction of ~ x ~ is perpendicular to both ~ and~.2) = 0 and 2. 0). (14. -6) . c) in R3 can be found from a linear combination of {(I. 1) x (12.1..2.-1. 3.2) x (1.0).1. -2). Any vector (a.2. 11 11 = ClUl t"'o. EXAMPLES 1. (1..0) since we can never combine the three vectors to get the third component of (1. -6) = (14.J t"'o. 1.2. -3.Cn are constants.2. . 0).J U2. (1.0) + 3(0.0) since (2. = (2.0. 1.1. Similarly (12. 2.3) is a linear combination of (1. b. -2) .1.7 LlNEA. I)}.0). 0.R INDEPENDENCE A vector ~ is a linear combination of the vectors Ul. + CnUn t"'o. In a previous example (2.1.1).-2)· (1.24. 7. -1.1) . In a previous example (1.4....1. (0.24. (0.0)...3) = 2(1..44) = 28 .24..J t"'o. (0.

1.. C2 = -1.1) + Cs(0..0) are independent since Cl(1. Un are linearly independent that satisfy ClUJ.. 3. 1. + CnUn .. . ° =° 2.. i...0) are dependent since implies Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 2Cl + 2C2 = O... The vectors i. (1. if the only constants Cl.2. one being Cl = 1. (1. C2. .0) implies Cl = Cl+C2+CS=0 C2 which gives Cl = C2= Cs= O.2). k are independent since for any vector v ~~~ ~ = (a. c) = Cl i ~ + C2j . (1. b.0.0) + C2 (0.1). 4. 1.0). (0. .0).1. The vectors (1.. Cs to satisfy these equations... =0 are Cl = C2= . Since we have two equations in three unknowns we can always find a non-zero Cl. Cs = 1.. C2= -1.. (0. Cs= 1. .0). (2..c) it is possible to write (a..0. U2.. (2.-v hence if ~ = ~ then Cl = C2= Cs= O.0) are dependent (not linearly independent) since Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 Cl+C2=0 0=0 has an infinite number of solutions. (1.+ C2U2 + . .1. More than two vectors in R2 can never be independent. . b.84 VECTORS A set of vectors U1. EXAMPLES I...-v + csk = ai + bj + ck ~ ~ .0) = (0.. for example Cl = 1.2.1. Cn .. = Cn = O.1).

UNEAAINDEPENDENCE

85

A set of vectors is linearly independent if the determinant of the matrix with vectors as columns is not zero.

**EXAMPLES I. For (1, 1,0), (0,2,1), (0, 1,0) the determinant
**

100 12 010 1

=

-1

f:-

0

hence the vectors are independent. 2. For (1,1,0), (2,1,0), (1,0,0) the determinant

121

110

000

=

0

hence the vectors are dependent. We can show that

(2,1,0) = (1,1,0)

so they are not independent of each other.

+ (1,0,0)

86

VECTORS

7.8

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS +~, 3~

II~II:

**(Answers are given in Chapter 14)
**

1. Evaluate the sum ~ and 5. Find ~ . ~, ~ the u and v: (i) ~=(1,2,1),~=(-1,3,1) (ii) ~ = (-3,2, -1), ~ = (6,1,1) (iii) ~ = (2,3, 0), ~ = (4, 1, -2) (iv) ~ = (0,0, 0), ~ = (1,4,3) (v) ~ = (3,3, 3), ~ = (-1, -1, -1) (vi) ~ = (1,2, 4), ~ = (2,4, -2) 6. For the previous question verify that ~ = ~ orthogonal (at right angles) to both ~ and ~. 7. Determine whether the following vectors are linearly independent (i) {(4, 1), (1, 2)}

X~ X~

and cos

e where e is the angle between

**(i) ~ = (-2, -1), ~ = (1,1) (ii) ~ = (3,4), ~ = (4,3) (iii) ~=(-2,1),~=(-1,-1) (iv) ~ = (3,4, 2), ~ = (1,1,1) (v) ~ = (3,1,1, 0), ~ = (1,0,1,1) (vi) ~ = 2i_ + 3j (vii) u = i
**

r'V r'V

+~, ~ = i_ r'V

j-~

+ j,

r'V

v = i - 3j

r'V

2. For the above vectors verify the triangle inequality that

is

**II~+ ~II :::; I~II+ II~II· I
**

3. In the diagram below write down the two vectors ~ and ~ in algebraic form then find and draw the vector ~

+ ~.

y

(ii) {(2, 1), (4, 2)} (iii) {(I, 1), (1,2), (3, I)}

6 5 4 3 2 1

x

(~) {(1,1,1),(0,2,0),(1,3,2)}

(v) {(I, 1,1), (0,2,0),(1,3,

I)}

(vi) {(I, 2, 0,1), (1, 1,0,1), (2, 1,3,1), (0,2, -3, I)} 8. Find a number c so that (1, 2, c) is orthogonal to (2,1,2). 9. Find the vector which goes from the point (1, 3,1) to the point (2, 5, 3). What is the length of this vector? 10. Show that the line through the points (1, 1, 1) and (2, 3, 4) is perpendicular to the line through the points (1,0,0) and (3, -1,0). 11. Show that a . (b xc) can be written as

al a2 b2

C2

a3 b3

C3

1

4. Evaluate the sum ~

2

3

4

5

6

a . (b xc) =

bl

+ ~ and II~+ ~II:

I

C1

= Ulb2C3 - alb3c2

- a2blc3 - a3b2C1.

(i) ~ = (3,2, -1), ~ = (-1, -2, 1) (ii) ~ = (1,0, 9), ~ = (-2, -2, -2) (iii) ~ = (4, -4, -3), ~ = (8,7,1)

+ a2b3C1 + a3blc2

12. Verify the above equation using the vectors a = (1,1,2), b = (1,0,1), c = (0,1,1).

CHAPTER

8

ASYMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS

8.1

LIMITS

As x

-+ 0 then

I. xn

< xm

if 1 < m

< n, 0 < x < 1

2. lim !(x)

;l)-tO" ;l)-tO

+ g(x) "

= lim !(x)

z-tO z-tO

+ ;l)-tO g(x) lim

3. lim !(x)g(x)

;l)-tO"

= lim !(x) lim g(x)

;l)-tO z-tO

assuming lim !(x) and lim g(x) exist.

EXAMPLES

" 1. (0.1 )3

<. (0.1 )2

**3. lim sin x cos x = lim sinx lim cos z = 0 x 1 = 0
**

;l)-tO z-tO z-tO

4. lim

;l)-tO

x(x - 1) 1 =x(x - 2) 2

z-tZe lim f(X)) = lim f'(x)f 9 . "'-to x = "'-to I'.)2 1"(0.0.. sin x 1m 2 "'-tl I. 2x Im-= 2 1 2.2 L'HOPITAL'S RULE If -( ) has lUlllt . 0 0 00 00 as x -+ Xc then lim g'(x)..- x3 6 coso + .. =x--+··· 6 2... cos x 1m -=1 1 8.) 2 Maclaurin series + a) = + (x .. Taylor series EXAMPLES I..)1'(0. 2 3 2 6 .3 TAYLOR SERIES f(x) f(x = f(O) 1(0..88 ASVMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS 8.) + x!.'.or - f(x) 9x .+ x + . + (x .. eX = 1+ x x + .x z-tz< z-tz< EXAMPLES I. '. sin x = sin 0 + x sin' 0 + = sinO x2 2 sin" 0 + 6 sin'" 0 + ..x IIm--=1 "'-tl x-I I' .) 2! + . x2 2 x3 + xcosO x3 -- sinO .(O) + ~! f"(x) + ..0.

(100)0.. < e~/I0 _ ~ as x -+ 00. x +".. 5.. ell' 2 cosh e ell' as x -+ 00. x -700.. > ell"'. 4. < ell"'.5 x9 1 3... 7. . if if if m<n a>O a <0..2 < (100)0. 2... EXAMPLES 1.-. x2 + 1 2x +x+3 x2 + 1 2x3+x+3""" -+ x2 1 -+ 2x 2 -2 as x -+ 00.4 ASYMPTOTICS As x -+ +00 then Xffi Xffi Xffi n < x.ASYMPTOTlCS 89 8. x2 1 2x3""" 2x as as x -700. 9. -2 > e x 2 as x -7 00. e2ll' 2e2ll' -.x2 + 2x + 1 as x -+ 00.. 8. 6.

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