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,ESSENTIAL

MATHEMATICAL

SKILLS

This page intentionally left blank

science and applied mathematics Dr Steven Dr Stephen + Ian Barry Alan Davis .MATHEMATICA SKILLS for engineering.

com.Problems. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry: Barry. science and applied mathematics. as permitted under the Copyright Act. Steven Ian.A UNSW Press book Published by University of New South Wales Press Ltd University of New South Wales UNSW Sydney NSW 2052 AUSTRALIA www. 2. Mathematics. Inquiries should be addressed to the publisher. Apart from any fair dealing for purposes of private study. Mathematics . research. II. 510 Printer BPA . Davis. I. Includes index. etc. no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission.au © Steven Ian Barry and Stephen Alan Davis 2002 First published 2002 This book is copyright. exercises.unswpress. Title. Essential mathematical skills for engineering. criticism or review. ISBN 0 86840 565 5. Stephen. 1.

1 Elementary Notation 1.5.5.. 1..2 Fractions 1. 2.. 2.5 Expansion and Factorisation 1.1 Rationalising Surd Denominators 1..11 Factorial Notation. ..2 Function Properties 2.1 Binomial Expansion 1. 1.. . 2.13 Combinations 1.4 Inequalities . 1. .5 Polynomials.6 Hyperbola.3 Modulus. ..14 Geometry .9 Quadratic Equation 1. .1 0 Ellipses .4 Quadratics.7 Polynomial Division . 1... . lX Algebra and Geometry 1.9 Circles... ..3 Straight Lines 2.1 The Basic Functions and Curves 2.CONTENTS Preface 1 .14.12 Permutations 1. 1..1 Circles 1. 1. 1.8.8 Surds .15 Example Questions Functions and Graphs 2..7 Exponential and Logarithm Functions 2.6 Partial Fractions . 2.10 Summation . ..... 2.8 Trigonometric Functions 2.2 Factorising Polynomials 1.11 Example Questions 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 2 17 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 . 1.

5 4. Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Identities Hyperbolic Functions Example Questions 31 31 32 33 35 36 38 39 4 Differentiation 4. The Definite Integral Areas .2 5. 6. Integration by Substitution Integration by Parts Example Questions 51 51 52 53 55 56 57 58 59 59 6 Matrices Addition.5.2 3.1 Two by Two Matrices....3 4.3 6. ..7 Antidifferentiation Simple Integrals ..4 4. . .1 5.11 First Principles Linearity. 6.....1 6..10 4.7 Matrix Manipulation .8 Systems of Equations ..4 3.4 6.3 Cofactors Matrix 6.1 4.6 Inverse.6 4.10 Trace . . Logarithm Rules . Transpose.11 Symmetric Matrices. . 6.5 5. 6. Chain Rule . 6.7 4.... Simple Derivatives Product Rule Quotient Rule .4 5..7 Exponential Function Index Laws .6.2 Partitioned Matrix 6.. .2 4. Multiplication Identity .Vi 3 Transcendental Functions 3. 6.6 5.6.6 3.9 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.8 4. .6.. Implicit Differentiation Parametric Differentiation Second Derivative.5 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 68 70 73 74 74 .. ...5 3.2 6.9 4. Determinants 6. Stationary Points Example Questions 41 41 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 50 5 Integration 5. . 6.3 3..1 Cofactor Expansion..3 5. 6..1 3.

CONTENTS Vll 6. De Moivre's Theorem.1.1 Limits ..2 L'H6pital's Rule..4 7..2 Second Order Differential Equations 10. Cartesian Unit Vectors Dot Product .3 7.6 7. ...7 7.3 8.3 Double Integrals.. 6.4 8.2 Grad.4 Example Questions 97 97 97 98 99 100 100 102 105 107 .5 9.. . 11. ..2 Inhomogeneous.. Asymptotics ..2 9.2 7.1.8 8 Addition and Scalar Multiplication Length . Cross Product . 10.1. Div and Curl 11. 10. Example Questions 91 91 92 92 93 94 95 10 Differential Equations 10.12 Diagonal Matrices.1 First Order Differential Equations 10.2.. 10. .1 Definition. Example Questions 87 87 88 88 89 90 9 Complex Numbers 9.1 Vector Notation 7..1 Integrable . 8.2 Separable .3 Example Questions 11 Multivariable Calculus 11.4 9.3 Integrating Factor . 107 108 111 114 . .3 9.. 8.1 Homogeneous . Euler's Equation .2. .. Linear Independence Example Questions .5 Taylor Series . .1 Partial Differentiation 11. .5 7.. 74 75 77 .13 Example Questions 7 Vectors 7. 9. 10.. . 77 78 79 80 80 82 83 86 Asymptotics and Approximations 8. 10.6 Addition and Multiplication Complex Conjugate .

.5 Test 5: Second Year 13. Two.3 Test 3: First Year 13. 12.1 Integration. Two.. 12.6 Example Questions 13 Practice Tests 13.1 Test 1: First Year 13.6 Test 6: Second Year 115 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 131 Semester Semester Semester Semester . One . One .2 Differentiation .4 Differential Equations.1 Even Fourier Series. .5 Fourier Series .Vlll 12 Numerical Skills 12. 12..3 Newton's Method 12.2 Test 2: First Year 13. 12. 12.. 14 Answers 15 Other Essential Skills Index 143 146 .2 Odd Fourier Series 12.5.5..4 Test 4: First Year 13.

If you can then you may need this book to help you revise those skills later on.. ..html It contains extra questions. So what skills do you need to have? This book contains the mathematical skills we think are essential for you to not only know but remember. As a guide.edu. fully worked solutions. • Second Year: Chapters 1-10. This book should act as a reminder to you of material you have already learned. We have left a number of blank pages at the back of the book for you to add in skills that you or your lecturers think are important to remember but we did not include. If you are in a first year undergraduate course you may not have covered some of the material included in this book.PREFACE lX PREFACE TO THE STUDENT There are certain mathematical skills that are essential for any of your courses that use mathematics.adfa. engineering or applied mathematics degree. If you are having trouble with a section or chapter then we suggest you consult a more thorough textbook. but that you have completely mastered these skills. You may also lose too many marks making 'silly' mistakes in exams. we expect our students at University College to have mastered (by the start of each semester) the following: • First Year • First Year Semester One: Chapters 1-3.not just a vague idea. Semester Two: Chapters 1-7.ma. If you want more questions to practice on then see our extensive website: http://www. • Third Year: Everything in the book! There are practice tests in Chapter 13 based on these divisions. practice tests and also code for the Maple algebraic manipulation package giving solutions for every example and question. Can you do the practice test at the end of these notes? If you can't then perhaps there are some skills you need to do some revision on. This book covers the essential mathematics in the first one to two years of a science. hence there are no long wordy explanations. Without these necessary skills.aul .sib/EMS. you will find present and later subjects extremely difficult. It is not a textbook and does not attempt to teach you. Your lecturer will assume that you know them perfectly .

. most students do not get full marks in their previous courses and a few weeks after the exam will only remember a small fraction of a course. in effect. This book can then act as guide to what material should realistically be remembered from previous courses.adfa.sib/EMS. 2600 email: s. learned the necessary skills.x TO THE LECTURER What do you assume your students know? What material do you expect them to have a vague idea about (say the proof of Taylor's Theorem) and what material do you want students to know thoroughly (say the derivative of sin z)? This book is an attempt to define what material students should have completely mastered at each year in an applied mathematics. They are also doing many other courses not involving mathematics and are not constantly using their mathematical skills. We are not concerned that students may access this database. Naturally we would like our students to know more than the bare essentials detailed in this book.aul .edu. which you can use to format your own tests and assignments.html It contains more questions.au . engineering or science degree. practice tests and Maple code. This book represents what we feel is appropriate to our students during their degrees. UNSW Canberra. Naturally both the material and the year in which the students see this material will vary from university to university.edu. There is a database of questions in LaTeX and pdf. We invite you to look at our extensive web site: http://www. However.barry@adfa. ACT. If you have any questions or queries please do not hesitate to email us..ma. solutions. Steven Barry and Stephen Davis School of Mathematics and Statistics University College. if they can do the questions in the database then they have.

Z: The set of integers.7> :5.3. 2. 8. (a. E 3. greater than or equal to. For example 3. 11. For example 5 < 6. This is . For example < x < 3. For example x E (1. b S = {x : x 2: 5.2.1 ELEMENTARY NOTATION I. 9. bE R} means W is the set of all functions f(x) are real numbers (constants). -+: Tends to. 3 E Z. also written as x E [5.CHAPTER 1 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. For example -1. For example x E [1. For example 3 E {I. 5.3] means 1 :5 x :5 3.~: Less than or equal to. 2. b): Bounds of a variable. W = {f(x) = a + b» : a. Becomes. l/x -+ 0 as x -+ 00. {}: A set of objects. EXAMPLES 1.2x E W. R: The set of real numbers. 2. ~: Approximately equal to. R. For example -2. 7. = a + b» where a.02 ~ 3. ===}: 5. greater than.3) means 1 10.J2 4. <. 0. [a. 6. E: A member of a set. x E R} means that S is the set of all numbers bigger than or equal to 5.3. Hence 1 + 2x E Wand 3 .2 = 3 ===} x = 5. b]: Bounds of a variable.1. 3}. For example x .. (0). >: Less than.

c.to find y write x y 10 1 Y = = ===> ===> 1 1 1 10 x x -10 Y lOx lOx NOT Y = 10.d~O) 2.d ~ 0) EXAMPLES I.= . To rearrange the equation .x y = x -10' .2)(x (x - + 2) 2)2 = (x2 + 4x + 4) (x2 - (x2 - 4x + 4) =~ x2 - 4) 4 11 1 4. a b a+ b -+-=-c c c (c ~ 0) (b. -x-=-=2.= .d ~ 0) (c.2 +2 + 2)2 (x .+ .=36 66 6 2 x +2 _ x .+.2 = (x x . b+d a a a c = ad+bc bel 3. 3 2 9 3 8 6 72 1 12 112131 +.=c d cd b ab ad x ~ = be 4.x .2 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. i where a is called the numerator and b is called the denomina- Rules for operating on fractions 1.2 FRACTIONS A fraction is of the form tor. b+d cad = b (b. x. .=.

> v. 2.2 :5 3 write -5x . EXAMPLES I. 2. EXAMPLES 1. but ax > y then ax > ay if a is positive.4 INEQUALITIES I. If x >y >y then x + a > y + a for any a. To find x such that -5x . To find values of x such that x + 1 > 2x < 6.MODULUS 3 1. .2:5 3 ===> ===> -5x:5 5 x 2:: -1. -x. 3. The absolute value is the magnitude of a number and ignores whether it is positive or negative. and u < ay if a is negative. written lxi.3 MODULUS The absolute value or modulus of x. 1+51 = 5 1-31 = 3 I-xllyl = Ixllyl = IxYI 1. then x + u > y + v.5 we write x+1>2x-5 ===> x . is defined by Ixl = { x. If x 3. If x 2. ~fx 2:: 0 lf x < O.

To find x such that 12x .11 :s 3 write s3 ===} ===} ===} 12x .:::2 write or -- 3x-l <-2 43x S. To find x such that -4- 1 -11 x . The inequality Ix .bl > a can be x .b < a. Ix . The inequality 2.b) < -a.4 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY Inequalities with modulus I. 2. :s 3 3 2. EXAMPLES I.b > a or (x .5 EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION (a+b)(c+d) (a-b)(a+b) (a±b)2 = = = a(c+d)+b(c+d) a2_b2 a2±2ab+b2 =ac+ad+bc+bd EXAMPLES I. (x2 . -7 7 x <-3' x.11 -3:S 2x .bl < a can be written as -a written as < x .1 -2:S 2x:S 4 -1:S x S.3)2 = X4 + 2( -3)x2 + 9 = X4 - 6x2 +9 .::: 3 or 1.

5. (x . (a + 1)3 = (a + l)(a2 + 2a + 1) = a3 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 1.b + .13). To remember the coefficients of each term use Pascal's triangle where each number is the sum of the two numbers above it. 1 1 1 1 14 1 5 10 2 1 1 3 6 3 4 10 1 1 5 1 Each term in a row represents the coefficients of the corresponding term in the expansion. s2-4 2+s (s-2)(s+2) = -'-----:-'-'--_-'2+s =s-2 4. The coefficient of x3 in (2 22 = 40. EXAMPLES 2.3)(x + 5)2(x + 3) = (x .1 BINOMIAL EXPANSION (a + b)n = an + nan-1b +"n(n 2! -1) n 2 2 "a . (1 + X)4 = 1 + 4x + 6x2 + 4x3 + X4 + x)5 is 10 X 3..3)(x = (X " 2 - + 3)(x + 5)2 9)(x + lOx + 25) 2 " " " 3.EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION 5 2.. + nabn-1 + bn (See also Section 1. .

an). 3x2 4. a3 - 1 = (x .1)(x 3x + 1) + 2 = (x +2 = + 4x = . EXAMPLES I. x2 3. that is. splitting the polynomial into its factors: p(x) = (x .6 PARTIAL FRACTIONS It is sometimes convenient to write ex+d A . x2 2.. x3 5.:-:--= (x + a)(x + b) + --B x +a x +b where A and B are constants found by equating the numerators of both sides once the light hand side is written as one fraction: ex + d = A(x + b) + B(x + a).al)(x ..l)(x ...1) 7x 4x2 (3x . 1 Some similar partial fraction expansions are (x (x2 + aF(x + b) + a) = --+ x+a Ax+B x2 + bx ABC (x+aF +-x+b C 1 + bx + c)(x + c + x + a· .5.2)(x .<l2) .2 FACTORISING POLYNOMIALS Factorising a polynomial is the opposite of the expansion described above.6 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1.2)2 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 = (a + 1)3 1.2) x(x . (x .-----.---::-.

Thus -x +1 1) .-)--.. equating the coefficients of Ax gives + Bx .7:-.-( -x-+-7 + -x---3 .-( x-+----.1) ="2 1( 1 x-I and B = 1/2.PARTIAL FRACTIONS 7 EXAMPLES 1. The constants A and B can be found two simple ways. A(x . Alternatively. Hence 3x+l 2 1 --.3) + B(x + 7) + 1. Wntmg . x-_-3::--c-) = .3) = x +7 +x = 3x B -3 A(x . ( x+l 1 )( x-I .1) + B(x + 1) = 1.3A + 7B = 3x +1 A+B=3 -3A+ 7B = 1. First. expan d (x + 7)(x 1 3) using partiial fracti ractions wnte (x giving + 7) (x 3x+l A . 10 3x + _ . ) m the rorm -- x+l + -x-I implies . Setting x = 3 implies B = 1 and setting x = -7 implies A = 2. setting x=1 x=-1 ===} ===} Alternatively the equation could be expanded as Ax and the coefficients of Xl + Bx and xO -A +B =1 equated giving A+B=O -A+B=1. Solving these equations simultaneously gives A = -1/2 (x 2. . 'T' + 1)(x 1 . cAB. These simultaneous equations are solved for A and B to give A = 2 and B = 1.

----.-----------::-..=2 + -giving 3 (x2+x+l)(x+2) Ax+B x +x+l C x+2 3 = (Ax + B)(x + 2) + C(x2 + Hence X + 1)0 x =-2 x=O order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} C=1 3=2B+C O=A+C ===} ===} B= 1 A= -1. (x2 + X 3 + 1)(x + 2) 1 -- x+2 - ----0---- x-I x2 +x+ 1 0 .------~------.--=--+ (x+l)2(x+2) x+l giving (x+l)2 +-x+2 1 = A(x + 1)(x + 2) + B(x + 2) + C(x + 1)2 so that x =-1 x =-2 order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} I=B I=C O=A+C ===} A =-1.:---..8 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 30 The partial fraction for ( x+l )!(x+2 ) is 1 ABC --.------~------.--= 1 (x+l)2(x+2) 1 (x+l)2 ---+-- 1 x+l 1 x+2° 40 The partial fraction for ( 2 x +x+l 3 )( x+2 ) is --. --.--------:::-.

x. x- 3. Thus x(x + 1) = x2 + z. Thus x goes into x2. Dividing 3x3 + 2X2 + X + 1by x-I 3x+2x+x+l 32 . When dividing x2 + 3x + 4 by x + 1consider only the leading order terms to begin with. =x + 2· x+ 1 . x times.1 4x3+6x2+4x+l ------2x + 1 22 = x+ 3256 x+ 7 +--1' .7 POLYNOMIAL DIVISION Polynomial division is a type of long division for polynomials best illustrated by the following examples.POLYNOMIAL DIVISION 9 1. The first step is therefore x x + 1 ) x2 + 3x + 4 x2 +x 2x+4 The division is completed by considering that x (the leading order of x times. Subtracting 2(x + 1) from 2x + 4 gives + 1) goes into 2x + 4 two x+2 x+1)x2+3x+4 x2 +x 2x+4 2x+2 2 Thus x2 + 3x+ 4 ---1- X+ = (x+2)+--1' 2 " X+ gives 2. which is subtracted from x2 + 3x + 4. EXAMPLES 1.

-Vi4. ...jC it may be preferable to have a rational denominator. ~=J¥ 3.10 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1.1 RATIONALISING For an expression of the form a b+ ./27 = .v'c) 1? . 3v'iO . A surd denominator is rationalised by multiplying the expression by : a =~ a (= 1): b+ . v'2 {l4 V2 = .J9X3 = 3V3 .jC b-v'c = a(b .J7 SURD DENOMINATORS 1.jC = --x-- b+v'c b-.c . 14 = 3.8 SURDS A surd is of the form nJii (= a1/n): I.. v'5 x v'2 =v'iO .2v'W = v'W 4....8. bJii ± cVa = (b ± c)Jii EXAMPLES I. 2. 2. Jii x Vb = VQi.

. b. The roots of a quadratic equation (when y = 0) are A quadratic is factorised if it is written in the form EXAMPLES 1. The quadratic y = x2 +X 6 is factorised into y = (x + 3)(x .2JX 6x -12xy'x 1-4x 1.5-V5 (-4) 5V5-5 4 6x = = 6x 1.2y'X x-----=-= 1 + 2JX 1 . The solutions to x2 + 3x + 1= 0 are x= -3 +-V5 2 - or -3 --V5 2 2.2).QUADRATIC EOUATION II EXAMPLES 1. 3. c are constants. --=--x-1+V5 5 5 I-V5 I--V5 1+V5 = = = 2.9 QUADRATIC EaUATION A quadratic equation is of the form y = ax2 where + bx +c a.5-V5 (1)2 . --= 1 + 2JX 5 . The quadratic y = x2 + 2x + 1 is factorised into y = (x + 1) 2.(J5)2 5 .

11 FACTORIAL NOTATION The factorial notation is defined as follows: n! = n. O! = 1 by definition. 2)(1.2.(n . n! = n(n . 2n = (2.1)....1) + f(n). 3.1 where n is an integer.2.6.I)! 4..... 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120 2.(n .2 .12 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 4.4..10 SUMMATION The summation sign L is defined n as L:f(i) i=l = f(l) + f(2) + f(3) + . 3..2.8 .3 . + f(n . n) = 2nn! . 2.. The solutions to 3x2 + 5x + 1 = x= 0 are 6 -5 ± y'25 -12 so that x= -5+ vTI 6 or -5 -V13 6 1. EXAMPLE L:i2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 = 30 i=l 4 1. EXAMPLES I.2) .

is given by of per- pn= r (n . The number mutations of r unique objects.PERMUTATIONS 13 1. 1.13 COMBINATIONS If order is not important when choosing r things from a group of possible combinations is given by n then the number of cn= r r!(n-r)! n! EXAMPLES 1.r)! n! EXAMPLE The number of ways a batting lineup of 3 can be chosen from a squad of 8 cricket pi ayers is given by 8 8! 8! P3 = (8 _ 3)1 = 5! = 8 x 7 x 6 = 336. The number ways of choosing a team of 5 people from 7 is 11! 11! 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 cl = 21. The number of possible groups of 4 delegates chosen from a group of 11 is given by 11 C4 = 4!(11 _ 4)! = 4!7! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 330. . 2. chosen from a group of n.12 PERMUTATIONS A permutation is a particular ordering of a set of unique objects.

cosine and tangent of the common angles can be related to the following triangles: 1 1 v'2 Jrj4 1 J2 . a sin 0 =-. tan 0 = -b = --0· e e cos The longest length. opposite the right angle. Pythagoras' Theorem states The sine. is called the hypotenuse.14 GEOMETRY The trigonometric ratios can be expressed in terms of the sides of a right-angled triangle: c () a b b a sinO . cosO = -.14 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1.

equilateral: all three sides of of equal length. 1. A right angled triangle has one other angle -i. isosceles: any two sides are of equal length. circumference = 21fr EXAMPLES I. right angled: one of the angles is i. An equilateral triangle must have three identical angles of i. All triangles have three angles that sum to 1f. 3.14. The area of a circle with diameter d = 6 is 11"32 911".GEOMETRV 15 EXAMPLE The three common triangles are the I. Hence the third angle is 2. 2. . i.1 CIRCLES A circle of radius r has 2. The circumference of the circle with diameter d = 7 is 711". = 2. EXAMPLES 1.

y) 9. (i) 3 (x .5 (iv) y = x2 .3)(x (ii) + 3) + 3x .5 (v) y = 2X2 +x-l 8. + 3x + 4)/(x + 2) + 3x + 2)/(x + 2) (x3 + 5x2 + 7x + 2)/(x + 2) 1O! 7! (v) (x . Simplify the following.3X)2 + y)2(X .4 3 (4 . Use polynomial division to calculate the following.2 (v) y = x2 (vi) y = x2 +x - 3.4)3 4.15 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 5.1)(x + 2) 1 x2+5x+6 3x (x . + ----- 1 5 1 10 5 x+2 2x x-2 x-I x+2 x+ 3 x (ii) x x-3 (iii) ----- x-I x+2 6. (iv) l)i+ i=l 1) . Expand the following.1) 3+v'3 + 6x + 5 +5 2.4d-3 (ii) 3d-2>4d+6 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 7. Factorise the following quadratic equations. Use Pascal's triangle (Binomial theorem) to find (i) the expansion of (2 Find the following. Write the following expressions as partial fractions. Find the zeros of the following quadratics. Simplify the following. Find the solution set for the following inequalities. (i) Y = x2 (ii) Y = x2 . (i) 2d+2:::.4x .3) 10. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2x+ 1 (iv) x-4 ----- y'27v'3 v'5 y'45 v'I7 + 5v'I7 2v'I7 2 x2 .6x (iii) Y = x2 +4x . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1.16 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. (i) (x2 (ii) (x2 (iii) (iii) (x (iv) (3 + x)(3x + 2)(x .4) 4x -1 (x .2) :2 .2 (v) --+-x-I x3 _ x2 (vi) x(x2 . (i) (x .2)(x + 4) 1 (x + 3)2(X .(. (i) + x)4 (ii) p'6 2 (iii) 6 C2 6 (ii) the expansion of (1 + x)8 (iii) the coefficient of x5 in (1 + x)1. (i) Y = x2 +4x+4 (ii) Y = x2 Ix -101 < 5 Iz+31 ~ 8 la+41 > 1 1~-~1<2 + 7x + 6 (iii) Y = x2 +x -12 (iv) y = x2 +x .2)(x .

. Tangent: y = tan x 10.1 THE BASIC FUNCTIONS AND CURVES The standard functions and shapes are I. In x y2 + x2 = r2 y)2 + (X")2 Ellipses: ( a: b = 1. Logarithm: y = 7. Polynomials: y = anxn 1 4.2..CHAPTER 2 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . Cosine: y = cos x 9. Exponential: y = eo. + atX + ao 2. Hyperbola: y = - x 5. == expx 6. Circles: 11. . Sine: y = sin x 8. Straight Lines: y = mx +c + bx + c + . Quadratics (parabolas): y = ax2 3.

2. If f(x) 2. :5 y :5 1 since the sine function is always between positive and negative the domain is restricted to x E (0. Sometimes the domain is defined as part of the function such as y = x2 for 0 domain is restricted to be in the interval zero to three. Y = x2 + 4 has domain of all real numbers. 1 then f(l) The domain of a function is the set of all possible input values for that function. Y = sin x has range -1 one. Y = 1j(x .2 FUNCTION PROPERTIES A function is a IUle for mapping one number to another. EXAMPLES I.3) has range 0 °< x < 3 (so < y < 9. + 1.1. For example: f(x) mapping from x to x2 so that f(3) = 32 = 9.18 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. That is. < x < 3 so that the The range of a function is the set of all possible output values for that function. all real numbers except x = 1 can be used in this function. 2.1) has domain x t. = x2 is a EXAMPLES I. Y = x2 has range y ~ 0 since any squared number is positive. Y = x2. . If x = 1 then the function is undefined because of division by zero. 3. If f(z) = 3x = Z2 + 1 then - f(2) = 7 and f(a) = 3a = 0. EXAMPLES I.

1 then I(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) . f(x) . EXAMPLES 1. 3 2 2. = 2x + 1 and g(x) = cos(x) then f(g(x)) = 2 cos(x) + 1 and g(1(x)) = cos(2x + 1). 1(x) = x2 and g( x) =. are the values of x when I(x) = O. I(x). If f(x) = 3x . . The zeros of a function.jX'i = (vfx)2 = x. EXAMPLES 1. If f(x) 2.FUNCTION PROPERTIES 19 The argument of a function could be the value of another function. The inverse of a function is denoted 1-1(x) and has the property that EXAMPLES 1. For example if I(x) = x2 and g(x) = x + 1 then I(g(x)) = (g(X))2 = (x + 1)2.1 = 3x + 2. f(x) = x2 + 3x + 2 has zeros x = -1.jX are inverses since . -2. If J(x) = 3x2 + 1 then the inverse is found by rearrangement: f(x) = = 3x2 x ± ~ +1 ===> ± ~ f-l(X) ==> = . = 2x+3haszerox = --.. 2.

Y = f(x) = X4 is even since f( -x) = (_X)4 = X4 = f(x).4) has equation (y .1)2 + (y .0) if shifted to having turning point (3.2) has form (x . . b) is written y .4) = (x . Y = f(x) = x3 is odd since f( -x) = (-x)3 = -x3 =- f(x).20 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS A graph y = f(x) in the form shifted from being centred on (0. EXAMPLES I.2)2 = r2. A parabola y = x2 with turning point (0. y 11 to 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 4 X 5 6 A function is even if f(-x) = f(x) and odd if f(-x) = -f(x).3)2. A circle with centre (1.b = f(x .0) to being centred on (a. 2.a). EXAMPLES I. 2.

0+11 3- ° 3 .2. -1) and (3. The line y = 2x + 1 cuts the x axis when y = 0 giving x = . 3.Xl =--=-.0 Y ~--~--~----~--~----~--~x 1.0) is y = ~ -1."5' 1 4. 3 is found from m= Y2-Yl X2 .3 STRAIGHT LINES A line has the general form y=mx+a where a and m are real numbers and m is the slope of the line.6 . EXAMPLES I. The equation of a line that passes through the points (0. The gradient .STRAIGHT LINES 21 .x is drawn in the following diagram: 1. Part of the straight line y = 0..0 2. The line 5y = x-I has slope m = "5 1 since it can be rewritten as y = x "5 .~ as the zero.

ct}(x .0 +---.5 2. C2 then it can also be written as y = a(x .3)2. Y = (x .. one real zero or two real zeros.6) 2.5 . C!.4 QUADRATICS A quadratic (parabola) has the general form y = ax2 +bx+ c and can have either no real zeros.5 1.0 1.----. EXAMPLE Sections of the three quadratic functions y = (x .--------f------. o X 7 .-------\.1)2 are drawn in the following diagram: Y + 1.C2).22 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.0 .5)(x . If the quadratic has two real zeros. y = (x .--------"-f"------.

. i = O . - 3.3) = x3 for x E [0.l)(x . A polynomial of degree n has n zeros (some of which may be complex).2)(x . 2. 2.POLVNOMIALS 23 . The third degree polynomial y = (x .. The leading order term in the above polynomial is anxn since this is the term that dominates as x -+ 00. are real numbers. n. I. The constant term in the above polynomial is no. and has the following properties.5 POLYNOMIALS A polynomial has the general form where ai. y = x2 + 5x + 6 has two zeros x = -3 and x = -2. Y = 2x3 + 4x2 + 1 has degree 3. The polynomial has degree n if its highest power is xn. 3. constant term I and leading order term 2x3. 4.6 is plotted below x ·6 .4]: y 6 6x2 + llx . EXAMPLES 1.2.

5 1.24 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.5 X 0.15 is drawn in the following diagram: x y 1.0 1. .5 1.6 HYPERBOLA A hyperbola centred on the origin is usually written in the form k y= x although other orientations of hyperbolas can be written as or EXAMPLE The hyperbola y = 0.0 0.5 The hyperbola above is not defined for x = o.

2.AND LOGA. .RITHM FUNCTIONS The exponential function is y = e~ == expx with its inverse the logarithm function y = lnx.EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS 25 . The general properties of the exponential are listed in the next chapter on transcendental functions.7 EXPONENTIAL . EXAMPLE The exponential function y = e~ (upper curve) and logarithm function y = In x (lower curve) are drawn in the following diagram: 8 y 6 -4 The logarithm function is not defined for x :5 o.

which are cyclic with period 27r thus sin(x + 27r) = sin x.8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The main trigonometric functions are sinx and cos z.11: /2]. while tan x = sin x/cos x is plotted for x E [-7r /2. Y y 1.26 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.0 1. Sine and Cosine can be defined in terms of angles as discussed in sections 1. 2.14 and 3.4.------~-=----_. x 1112 tan x ·6 . The function y = sin 2x will have a period of 1f.0 sin x Y cos z 6 -rrJ2 . EXAMPLES I. 27r].0 0. The functions sin x and cos x are plotted below for the first period x E [0.------.------_.5 O+----4----~--~~--~x 2~ -1.

This is often written in parametric form x(t) = rcost. y(t) = rsint.3. The curve represented by x(t) centred on (1. which is a circle = 2 cost + 1.9 CIRCLES A circle centred on the origin has the general equation x2 + y2 = r2 where r is the radius. -3).2) with radius I. t E [0. 3.2111 EXAMPLES I.2.2)2 y 3 + (y . t E [0.211")is the circle radius 2 . The curve x2 + 2x + y2 + 4y = -4 can be written as (x centred on (-1.1. + 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 1.5)2 = 1 are drawn in the following diagram: 2 ~----~----~~----~----~ -1 2 3 X 2. The circles x2 + y2 = 1 and (x . . y(t) = 2 sin t .CIRCLES 27 .

y(t) = bcost.28 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. An ellipse is often written in parametric form x(t) = asint.0) with major axis of length 2 in the x direction and minor axis of length ~. If the x and y axes are the axes of the ellipse then it is usually written in the form x2 y2 a2+62=1 where 2a is the length of the ellipse in the x direction and 2b the length of the ellipse in the y direction. t E [0. The ellipse (~) 2 + x2 = 1 is drawn in the following diagram: v -2 -. The curve (x . x 2 2. .2x].2)2 + 16y2 = 1 is an ellipse centred on (2.10 ELLIPSES An ellipse centred on the origin has the general equation C1X 2 + C2XY + C3y2 = 1. EXAMPLES I.

What is the equation of the shape below: x Sines and cosines 17.) of quadratics see 0+-----. Where is the zero of the line y = x-I? 13. . 25. 8. If I(x) 3. = 1.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 29 2. Draw the circle y2 (Answers are given in Chapter 14) = x3 = x3 = x3 = x3 + 1 what is 1(2)? + 1 what is I(g)? + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 find 1(I(x)).-------. Draw the curve y = 2sin3x 18. from x = 0 to y :z. What type of curve has equation 2y + (x . 2 x = 47r.1]. If I(x) 9. 2) with radius 2? 29.1)2 = 1.x+ 3 = Of or x E [0. 21. If I(x) 4.2 = O? 10.1)2 . . What is the equation for a circle centred on (1. y-1 35. What type of curve has equation y2 + (x .1)2 and g(x) and g(l(x)). What is the period of y = sin(3x x . 24._ General 30. 32. Where does the ellipse (x .---.1)2 axis? + 2y2 = 1 cut the x = x2 and g(z) = sin z find I(g(a)) = x2 27. Draw the ellipse y2 1) what is I(g(x))? 1) what is I(g(b))? and g(l(x)). If I(x) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS Circles and ellipses 23.-----. 4 3 2 y = (x . If I(x) 6. Draw the curve y = cos from x = 0 to x = n.2x 16.1)2 . Draw 3y . Lines 11.0) with x axis twice as long as the y axis? 28. Draw the ellipse + (x + 2x2 4y2 + (x 2)2 = 4.3)(x . What type of curve has equation 2y2 + (x . What is the period of y = cos 3x? 22.4)? (For more questions on manipulation Chapter 1. If I(x) 1 = 2" x + 1 find the inverse I lex). Draw the quadratic y = x2 . 26.4].+ (x -1) = O? 12. Where does the line 2y + x-I What is the slope of the line? = 0 cross the y axis? 14. What type of curve has equation 2 -.2 = O? 31.1) = O? 34. If I(x) 2. What is the equation for a circle centred on (a. Where are the zeros of the curve + 1 for x E [0. Draw the line y = -2x + 1 for x E [0. What is the equation of the quadratic below: Quadratics 15.2].1 find I(g(x)) x . What is the equation for an ellipse centred on (0. = -- x+1 . o 234 36. What is the period of y + 1 from x = sin(x + I)? + I)? = 0 to x = 27r. If I(x) 1 =- = x2 ._ + 1 find the mverse 1 I lex).2) radius 3? with 7. If I(x) 5. What type of curve has equation 2y+(x-1)2-2=0? 33. If I(x) = (x .11 1. _ find the mverse I lex). Draw the curve y = cos 2x 20. 19.

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so that x = log. If 2 = 10glO Y then y = 102 = 100. 4. EXAMPLES I. a> 0. .CHAPTER 3 FUNCTIONS TRANSCENDENTAL 3.1 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION An exponential function is defined by I(x) = a. If y = log2 16 then since 16 = 2 Y = 4. where a is the base and x is the index. If 8 2. 4 . The most useful exponential function is I(x) = e" == exp e where e = 2.71828 . 3.. I..l:. If 3 = log2 y then y = 23 = 8. = x3 then x = 81/3 = 2.

.2 INDEX LAWS I. a. aman = am+n am 3. 0. :: } Equal Bases Rule = G)m 1 } Equal Indices Rule 6...0 =1 EXAMPLES 3. i times 2. 0. for i an integer . = am-n an 4.32 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3. a/ = . ambm = (ab)m 5.0. ._. .. (am)n = amn Power of a Power Rule 8.__.. To simplify y = 3293 write 9 = 32 so that -= soy 4 y 641/3 =4 = 1. a-n =an 7.

In! = 0 means eC = X == In X z. is loge (also denoted log x): ln z = c Note that: I. a = 1 =x EXAMPLES 3.RITHM RULES I. log2 (~:) The natural logarithm of z. .Y + 3 log b = 8 + 27 = 35. x·P = p log.1ne=1 4. a1og"z=x 6. log. 1 = 0 and log.LOGARITHM RULES 33 3. x 4. the inverse of the exponential function eX. Ifloga = 4. log. Inez = x 2. log b = 9 then log(a2b3) = 210ga = x. log.l:) 5. e1nz = x 3. lo~(a.3 LOGA. y LQg of a Product Log of a Quotient LQg of a Power 2.) = logax -logaY 3. lo~(xy) = log. (. 4. x + log.

Ify = a'" then In y = x In a ===} y = e'" In a . 3 .-2Iny = _e_ = ~ e21ny y2 4. e". Ifln X = 2 and In y = 5 then to find In(x3y2) we write In(x3y2) = Inx3 + Iny2 = 3Inx + 2Iny = 3(2) + 2(5) = 16. 6.34 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES 1. + 2y) write 8.+ln2 eln".+2y = e"'(ey)2 = 3 x 42 = 48. If x = In 3 and y = In 4 then to find exp( x e". 2. . exp(3In 2) = exp(In 23) = exp(In 8) = 8 = e"'eln2 = 2e'" In". = kexp(In (2x)3). 5. If In y = 3In 2x + c then to find y write Iny = In (2x)3 +c + c) where eC = k ===} y = exp(In (2x)3 = k(2x)3.

sm 6 .. cos(n7r) = (-1)'\ 5. 6. By symmetry all the other major angles can be found.±2.51r=. n = 0. ? ~. ±2.~_! "4 =-1 n = 0.±I. For example. sinO -1 EXAMPLES 1. cos 7r /6 =. 4.. tan 4 = -tan 11" . sm 6 .. ±1. n .2 37r 3.SlD .. sin(n7r) = 0. . ±2..TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 35 3. .n=0. .J2' 1 11" cos "3 = 2' 1 CQS7r = -1. ±1. From the diagram we see that 11" cosij = 2' va 7r cos "4 = ./3/2...4 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The unit circle can be used as an aid for finding the sin and cos of common angles. (2n+ 1)7r 2 =-(-I).

tan a: 1 3.- 1 ---cosxsinx 2. cos a: 1 cosec a: = -. by simply dividing = sedl x cot x + 1 = cosec2 x sin2 a: + cos2 a: = 1 by either sin2 a: or cos" a:. It is easy to prove 1+ tan2 x 2 cose sine 2 Si8 x + cos2 x cos x sin x = see x cosec x. sm z cot e = --. .-. The Reciprocallligonometric Functions are 1 see a: = --.5 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES A fundamental trigonometric identity is EXAMPLES I.36 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS sin(-a:) = -sin(a:). To prove the identity tan a: + cot a: = sec a:cosec a: consider the left hand side: sin a: cos z tan x + cot a: = -+ -. cos(-a:) = cos e Sine is an odd function while cosine is an even function.

cos(x = cos x COS1r.cos x siny 2. • 11: . 2 . To find sin ~ consider 6. sin(x .TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES 37 sin(a: + y) cos(a: + y) sin2a: cos2x = sin e cosp + cos e siny a: = CQS cos y . Alternatively the following method can be used: sm-=· 12 -. cos(a: .y) = cos XCQsy + sin a: sin y 3.y) = sin x cosy .sin x sin 11 = .sin a: sin y 2 sin a:cos a: cos2 x .Jl- Jl- CQs1rj6 .sin2 a: 1.cos2a: sin2a: = 2 1+ cos2x CQS2a: = 2 EXAMPLES 1.cos x 5. sin (x + ~) = sin + 11) X cos ~ + cosx sin ~ = cos z 4. 2 V3j2 .

21.0 .6 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES I. The plots of sinh x and cosh x are illustrated below on the interval x E [.5 -5. sinh x -2. It is easy to show that sinh 0 = 0 cosh 0 = 1 and that COSh2 X since - sinh2 x = 1 2.2.38 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3.

Simplify as much as possible (i) 6x 3y-2 2 x 1 5y4 24 _x- 7. A = 3 X 105. In an experiment you have to calculate the time to melt a block of ice using the formula t = _l (. and sec (J: + 2e4t (i) (J=7r_ 4 3. P = 1 X 103. Prove the following identities: 1 + sin(J (i) --. h = 10. C~n) Find t. 10.o.-. (iv) sec ( 4. Is I(x) tan2 (J c = 2 X 103. 12 12.3cos2 (J (iii) sinh x . Use the trigonometric addition of angle formulae to show cos'lr_ = ~(v'6 12 4 + h).1. If In s = 2 and In t = 3 calculate (i) In(st) (ii) In(st2) (iii) In(Vsi) (iv) In~ (v) Int s (ii) (J = 137r_ 6 (iii) (J = 2n 3 (iv) (J = _ 5n 3 (v) (J = 5n 4 11. -(J = (sec (J + tan (J)2 1-sm (ii) 3sin2 (J .02)t (iii) 3t7 = 2t5 (iv) Q = Qoant (v) y=3-2Int (vi) 3y = 1 + cosh x = e" 9. tan (J. Use the multiple angle formulae to find cos 'lr_. Solve the following for values of (J between 0 and 2n (i) cos2 (J + 3sin2 (J = 2 (ii) 2 cos2 (J = 3 sin (J 10glO 2 8. (6n) 8 l = 0. Simplify (i) _1 __ cos2 (J (ii) (sin x (iii) tan(J = x cos X an odd or even function? + COSX)2 (J + (sin x- COSX)2 VI + tan2 .cosh x = _e-x (iv) sinh x (ii) 8-"3 (iii) 210g105 + 10glO 8 - (iv) 3-1og3 p (v) Inx2 + Iny -Inx (vi) e21nx _lny2 2. Ta = 20.7 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1. If x t3 = In 3 and y = In 5 then find (i) eXeY (ii) eX+Y (iii) e2x (iv) eX + eY where 5. ._) 4. Solve for t using natural logarithms: (i) 5t = 7 (ii) 2 = (1.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 39 3.2 = 1. Evaluate (i) tan(n) (ii) sm (iii) cos tcr.---. sin (J. To = -20. For the following angles find cos (J.p_. ) 6. 13.--A_:_P_-_c_T.

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CHAPTER 4 DIFFERENTIATION 4.1 FIRST PRINCIPLES The definition of a derivative of a function f(x) is: f(x) = df = lim f(x dx h-+O + h) h .f(x). The following diagram This is the slope of the tangent to the function iIIustra tes: f (x) y= f(x} tangent f(x + h} f(x) x x+h . at the point x.

2 LINEARITY ! where c is a constant. 4. = lim sin(a.42 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I.sin x sin x CQS + cos x sin h . + 2hx + h2 .sin x h = lim----------~--------h-->O h = lim sinx(cos h -1) + cos x sin h h-->O h = CQSX since lim CQsh-1 h-+O h =0 ' (see the Asymptotics chapter for how to evaluate these limits). If lex) = x2 then f'(x) .. If f(x) sin x then f'(x) .x2 = h-->O hm------~----h = lim 2hx+ h h-->O 2 x2 = = h-->O h lim 2x+ h = 2x. = lim (x h-->O + h)2 h -x 2 . h-->O + h) h . 2. (f(x) + g(x)) ~(c!(x)) dx .

If f(x) = sin x + e~ then !. 4. 1. 4. xn sin x cos x e1: ln z sinh x cosh x x eosh z sinh x - 1 EXAMPLES 1. = 1 4x 2. (41nx) d x .3 SIMPLE DERIVATIVES The following derivatives of elementary functions are standard: f(x) c -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ f'(x) 0 nxn-1 cos x -sinx e1: where c is a constant. dx (3smx) = d. -d. ~SinX 2. If J(x) = 5x2 + sinh x then J'(x) = lOx + cosh x.(x) = +~ e~ = cosx + eX. 3 dx sm z = 3 cosx.4 PRODUCT RULE dx[f(x)g(x)] d df = dx g(x) + f(x) dx dg .SIMPLE DERIVATIVES 43 EXAMPLES d.

= li[x 2 .f(X)gl(X) (g(x))2 EXAMPLES I.x) dxx2 + 2. = lnx cos x then P(x) = . If !(x) 2.!:. If f(x) = X2 sin x then f(x) = 2x sinx + x2 coax. then smx f'(x) x2 = 2' x smx. CQSX-lnx x 4. j_ 4. sm2x 2. sin z.(x2 = ~--~~~~~--~(x2 + 2)2 x2 +4x.5 QUOTIENT RULE .!!_ [f(X)] dx = jI(x)g(x) g(x) .1)(x + 2) .(x2 . If f(x) = -. If f(x) sin x = -then cos x f (x) = Thus I.2 (x2 + 2)2 + 2)2 - x) 2x .sin x) = cos2 x' 1 3.44 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I. -. .x) ~[X2 + 2] (x2 2 (2x .x 2 CQSx.x] (x2 + 2) . cos X CQS X - cos2 X sin x( . (Sinx) dx" x2 = CQs(x)x2 X4 2xsinx !!_ (x2 .

CHAIN RULE 45 4.sin«x2 + 3x)5)5(x2 + 3X)4(2x + 3) = -5(2x + 3)(x2 + 3X)4 sin«x2 + 3X)5). [x2] 2. Since ~ x3 = 3x2 and ~ sin x ![sin3x] = = cos x then 3sin2x cos z.sin«x2 + 3X)5)5(x2 + 3X)4 d~ [(x2 + 3x)] = . 4. +x 2 ] 1+2x 3. Since ! ln x = ~ then d dx [In(x +x 2' )] = x + x2 1 dx [x d. Since ! cos x = .sin x and dx ' ! x5 = 5x4 then ~ [CQS«X2+ 3X)5)] = . EXAMPLES 1.sin«x2 + 3X)5) ~ [(x2 dx + 3X)5] = . Since ~ sin x = cos x then d d 2 2 dx [sin(x )] = cos(x ) dx = cos(x2)2x.6 CHAIN RULE d dx [f(g(x))] = dg dx = /. .(g(x))g'(x) df dg Differentiate the outer function first then multiply by the derivative of the inner function.

dx 1. Differentiating 2x 2x CQsy ±Vl- X4 ±y'l- sin'. differentiate normally but treat each y as an unknown function of x.46 DIFFERENTIATION 4. EXAMPLES I....7 IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION To find y'(x) where y(x) is given implicitly. + dx = 3x 2 dy 3x2 . For example.:!y = ±-v'f="X4.:. if given f(y) = g(x) then differentiating gives f'(y): = g'(x) ===} dy dx g'(x) f'(y) where the chain rule has been used to obtain the left hand side. Differentiating siny = x2 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives dy cosy dx = 2x or dy dx since CQsy = 2.xsm(y) which can be rearranged to give dY) dy dx .xsiny . xcosy+y = x3 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives • ( cosy .CQsy =---.

= ~ (!). 4.!I(t)' EXAMPLES 1. dyjdx dy _ dy/dt may be calculated as dx .(x) = 4x3and r(x) = 12x2. EXAMPLES 1. 51 2. If 5(t) = e2t is the position of a particle with time t. (t) = 2e2t is the velocity and .9 SECOND DERIVATIVE The second (or double) derivative is the derivative of the derivative: f'(x) = ~. If y(t) = t2 and x(t) = sin t then dy = dyjdt dxjdt = 2t cos dx 2. Ify(t) t = sin r and x(t) = cost then dy = dyjdt dx dxjdt = cost .RAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION Given y = f(t) and x = g(t).dxjdt _ /.(t) .PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION 47 4.8 PA. then 5"(t) = 4e2t is the acceleration.sint = _ cott . If J(x) = X4 then /. Higher derivatives are found by repeated differentiation.

.---. The function y = xe-z has a maximum when x = 1. 2. = O. x ---.-- . A local minimum is lower than the surrounding points. ~n . At this point the tangent to the EXAMPLES I..48 DIFFERENTIATION 4. The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary dy =2x+2=O dx point when x = -1. Y : o :"J minimum r>. The function y = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary + 12 = 0 points when dy = 6x2 _ 18x dx x= 1.---.----. y) where f'(x) graph is flat.10 STATIONARY POINTS A stationary point is a point (x..2. 5 6 2 3 4 maximum 0+----. 3.. An inflection point is where the graph is flat but neither a maximum nor minimum. A local maximum is when the function at the stationary point is higher than the surrounding points..

The function y is = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary points at x = 1 and x = 2. The double derivative is so x = -1 is a minimum. The function y = (x . if f'(a) = a is a local maximum. 2. The double derivative ~ dx which is positive at x ~y = 12x-18 = y 2 (a minimum) and negative at x = 1 (a maximum). if f'(a) 3. EXAMPLES 1. if f'(a) > 0 then x = a is a local < 0 then x minimum. The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary point at x = -1. 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 X 3. . = 0 then x = a is an inflection point. Note that x = a is a stationary point so f(a) = O.STATIONARV POINTS 49 At a stationary point x = a the second derivative indicates the type of stationary point I. 2.1)3 + 3 has derivatives ' dx which are both zero at x dy = 3(x _1)2 -= ~2 ~y 6(x -1) " = 1. which is therefore an inflection point.

1)2e'" 9. is drawn below.6x2 (iv) y = xe-'" (v) y = x2In(x) (vi) y=sinx+(1-x)cosx.1) (ii) cos(2y) = (1 _ X2)1/2 (iii) In(y) = xe'" .5cosx 5.50 DIFFERENTIATION 4. Roughly sketch x2 (iii) Y = e"'sinx (iv) y=lnx x4 lnx e'" (v) Y = sinx cos x (vi) y=- + 9x + 1 (iii) Y = 3x4 . Use the product rule or the quotient rule to find dy / dx: (i) y= xe'" cos x (ii) y=-- (i) yet) = cos t. Use linearity to find dy / dx: (i) y = 3sinx . Use parametric differentiation to find dy / dx: (iii) Y = (x + 4)3 (iv) Y = (x + sinx)5 (v) y = sin(lnx2) (vi) y = exp(cos2 x) (vii) y = cosh(2x2) 3.y2 = x 6. Find dy / dx for these more difficult problems: (i) y = exp(x cos x2) (ii) Y = e'" cos((2x (iii) (iv) 1 + 1)2) 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 y X 5 Y = . x(t) = sin t 7. Use implicit differentiation to find dy/dx: (i) y2 = sin(x .x2 (iii) Y = 3lnx (iv) y = 2sinhx +5 2.forxE[-1.3coshx (iv) eY = e3".2)2 (ii) Y = x3 . (v) y (ii) Y = 3e'" . For the following functions find the stationary points and classify them. Find the derivative dT / dt: T=texp(~) where a is a constant. (i) Y = (x . Use the chain rule to find dy / dx: (i) y = sin(2x) (ii) y = sin(x + x3) + y3 = x2 (vi) y2 + siny = sinx (vii) y(x + 1) .8x3 + 6x2 (vii) y = x2sinx (viii) y = cosh x sinh x (ix) y=- ell'" x 4. 8.11 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1. x(t) = t2 (iii) yet) = t2.2] (vii) y = (x . The function y = f(x) the function fl(x).j2+x2 sinx y= (x+1)2 expx2 (v) Y = sin(x2 + exp(x3 + x)) (vi) y=-- x2 . x(t) = sin(t2) (ii) yet) = et.

1 ANTIDIFFERENTIATION The indefinite integral (antiderivative) of ! f with respect to x is f(x) dx = F(x) +c where F1(x) = f(x) and c is known as the constant of integration. If dx sinh x = cosh x then ! I cos x dx = sin x . 2.CHAPTER INTEGRATION 5 5. 4. EXAMPLES 1. 3. If d~ sin x = cos z d... If ! dx x2 = 2x then !2X dx = x2 + c. If ~ In x = _!_ x then !~. + c. . + c. then dx = In Ixl + c.cosh x dx = sinh x .

.. EXAMPLES I. 2. ! ! (sin x + eX) dx = .cosx + c / sinxdx / eXdx = e" +c In [z] + c = = cosh z + c sinh x + c /1 / .52 INTEGRATION 5. -1 cosxdx = sin x + c . where cis a constant. c / f(x) dx. Simple application of the Chain Rule in differentiation gives coskx dx = / Ii sin kx 1 + c.2 SIMPLE INTEGRALS The following integrals of elementary functions are standard: / / xndx = __ 1 xn+l +c n+l where n f:. dx sinhxdx / coshxdx Integration is linear so that /U(x) +g(x))dx / cf(x) dx = / f(x) dx +/ g(x) dx.cos x + e" + c 5 cos x da: = 5 sin x + c 3.

cos 7rX 7r 1 [1] 1 0 = --(COS7r 7r 1 - cos O) = - 2 7r 3. 1-1 r sinh x dx = coshj l). This is the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. f f 6x dx = 3 f 2x dx = 3x 2 +C 6. EXAMPLES 2.3 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL The definite integral with respect to lb x over the interval [a. 11 x dx = [3 3 [X4]3 '4 1= '4 .4: = 20 81 1 4. 3sin(2x)dx = -~COS(2X) +C 5.F(a) where F' (x) = f (z). 1 o sin 7rxdx = -.THE DEFINITE INTEGFIAL 53 4.cosh( -1) = 0 since cosh(x) is even. b] is written as: [F(x)]! f(x) da: = = F(b) . .

If f(x) = {!: : ~~' then 3. }_1 r [z] dx r Ixl dx + 10 [z] dx r = r -xdx + (2 z d» }_1 10 = 1-1 ==- [~2[1+ [~2J: [0 . If f(x) is odd then fa {o (a i-a f(x) dx = }_a f(x) dx + 10 f(x) dx = O.~] + [2 .0] = ~ 2. f(x)dx=O f(x) dx = f(x) dx + l -i c a f(x) dx f(x) dx = lC f(x) dx can be integrated over the required intervals).54 INTEGRATION la lb lb (assuming f(x) EXAMPLES I. .

25 =0.9x2 + 26x .4 A.AREAS 55 5.4). .REAS If f is an integrable function then fal:> f(x) in the region a dx = (area above the z-axis) .5 1 2.24 = (x . c). Consider the curve given by f(x) = x3 .O) is the same as for x E [0.25+0. The area between the curve and the z-axis between x = 2 and x = 4 is given by: y 0.3)(x .(area below the z-axis) :5 x :5 b.2)(x .5. EXAMPLES 1. If /(x) 411(X)1x = d 1 = 3 f(x) dx - fs4 /(x) dx = 0. is an even function (so f( -x) f(x)) then f c f(x) dx = 2 -c 10 r l(x) dx since the area for x E [-c.

= f(x).56 INTEGRATION 5.. ] 1 - sin(O) 5 0 1 =-. upon which the integral becomes f(u) du = F(u) + c = F(g(x)) + c. For definite integrals the limits of the integration are also trans- EXAMPLES I.x2 = cos u and dx = cos 1£du so that 1 --===dx = ~ f cos -cos 1£ 1£ d1£= U • = arcsmx+c. .1 . where F'(x) formed. To evaluate 1) + c./2 sin" x cos x d$ let 1£ = sin x so that the integral becomes 4.. To find! h l-x2 l f S iU (. To evaluate f 2x sin( x2 + 1) dx 2x sin(x2 let u = x2 + 1 then = ~: = 2x so that f vx+ 1 r::-71 + 1) dx f sin udu = -cosu+c = . 5 dx let x = sin 1£ since ". 3.x + 1 +c.cos(x2 + 2.. To find 1 0 .-/2) u4du= [1£5.5 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION Integrals that can be written in the form f f(g(x))g'(x) dx are solved by the substitution f u = g(x).x + 1 dx = f du -d = 1 so that x u-! du = 2u! +c = 2". f 1 dx let u = x 1 + 1 then f ---== "'..

so that dv du .cosx) + C./ sinxdx = xsinx = z sin z .INTEGRATION BV PARTS 57 5.6 INTEGRATION BY PA. To evaluate / x cos x dx let u = x and d$ = cos x then dx = 1and v = sm z. cos x +2 (e 2 :t:sin x- 21 e 2 :t:sin x dx) so by rearranging ! e2:t:sinxdx = 5 (2sinx e2:t: .(. UOl' UOl' 2 3. The integral Then we have J0 t' xe :t: dx is performed 2 by setting u = x.IdUdx dx uvu dv = uv - 1 1 v duo EXAMPLES 1. 2.cosx + cd + cosx + C2. Integrating by parts twice we can evaluate / e2:t:sin xdx = _e2o. dV dx dx = uv . ~~ = e2:t: so that ~~ = 1and v = !e2:t:. . cos x + 2 / e2:t:cosxdx = _e2o. / xcosxdx = xsinx .RTS Integration of a product of two functions can sometimes be solved by integration by parts: I or in short hand.

y --dy 2. Evaluate (i) (i) I (~ l-: + I+ I I (x9 sinh(2x) +X5) dx (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) e-14".58 INTEGRATION 5. Find EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 4.1 dx +5 d x z cos ( _z2) dz 4cosh(x) .) dx x10 + Xll + X12) dx dx I I I I I i4 xe-". x2:1. x.2 dx x+2 x2 +4x --dy 1 ylny 2x3y'7x4 .2x . sin x dx (integrate twice). Find te= dx 2 I(x) dx where I(x) = { 1. Find the following integrals using any method. 1. (iv) j_11 I(x) dx where I(x) = Ix31. 10 10 10 7r x (i) (ii) fo7r x cos 12 xdx sin(3x) dx (--) X 3 (v) 57r 4 1/ 7r/4 3 -sin dx (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3. (iv) 1v'U(U+1)dU (v) I ~+ 1 x2 dx (let x = sinhu).e'" dx (vi) lev's -ds (vii) 10 5 e= dz VB fo7r xsin(x2) 9 dx (ii) (iii) (iv) 137r/2 sinxdx 7r/2 11/2 -dx 16 1/4 (viii) e-. x2:1. Evaluate the following integrals using integration by parts.7 1.3 e2".. (iii) 10 I I l="» cosz sinz dz x2 sinxdx 00 I(x) dx where I(x) = { x~. x < 1. (vi) (i) I I I I 1 dx o x2 . 6. I(x) = { x3 .dx x3 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 2. x < 1... (x + 1) sinxdx x2e'" dx In x dx by using u = In x and dv = 1. . (iii) X x < 0. (i) 12. (i) (ii) j_11 I(x) dx where (ii) _x2. 2: o.ffj 5. Evaluate the following integrals using a substitution.

EXAMPLES 1.DDITION If A and Bare m x n matrices such that A= [ au au . + bmi amn+ bmn Addition of matrices of different sizes is not defined. amI bu and B= .1 A. i~ 1 [~~ + [-~ 379 3 -14 -~ -~ 1 1 = [-~ 6 -7 ~ 10 ~ 1 2. [~ ~] + [ ~] cannot be done. . U22 amI au + bu + h22 ai n a2n + bIn + h2n .CHAPTER MATRICES 6 6. 1 . h21 [ bml then A+B = [ :~ :~~ .

. [1 2] 3412 [1 -1] = [3 75 3] 2 [1 -1] [1 2] [-2 -2] .. . . EXAMPLES I . . 1234 = 710 3.BA. . In general AB ai2 b2j + .60 MATRICES 6. . . 10 -9 . . that is. ... .. a22 .. . + That is. #. . . . al2 . ....12 ~2 . .ll A= [ <l2l . a. If a.2 MULTIPLICATION AB is defined if A is size m x rand B size r x n. . airbrj. matrices are noncommutative. 1 and B= [ bu ~1 b. arl ar2 arm bnl bn2 then AB = C is an m x n matrix. . . where Gij = ail b1j + Gij is the dot product of row i of A and column j of B.1m <l2m .] [ -q = [ -i and B= -4 -1 2 then 2 -1 12 -~ 3 0 -4 -1 = [ -8+0+27 6+0+3 -4+ 0+6 -28 -4 8+0-36 -6+ 0-4 4+0-8 -16+ 2-9] 12 -1-1 -8+ 1-2 =[ 1: -10 2 -23] . . . . If A = [ -~ 4 2 9] -~ ~ AB [-~3 ~ -~] ...

IA=AI= EXAMPLE The 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 identity matrices are .8 -4 . for all n x n matrices A. A.4 .4 -18 + 2 . 4.1 27 .2 .2 6+ 4.2 -22 -10 -24 ] 2 2 1 [ 22 9 21 f: AB. is and is defined such that.8] 0+0+2 0+0+1 0+0+2 [ 12+ 12.IDENTITY 61 while BA = = = [ -2 0 3 2 -4] 0 1 -4 -1 [ 4 2 9] -3 -1 1 2 12 -8 . defined only for square matrices (n x n).6 . 6.3 IDENTITY The identity matrix.

4 TRANSPOSE The transpose of a matrix is formed by writing its columns as rows. If A ~ [~ _~ 1 men A' ~ [~ ~ _:]." ] U2n amn then At = [ au an . aln au a22 aml a 7. that is. The transpose of an m x n matrix A is an n x m matrix denoted by At.] am2 a2n amn EXAMPLES I.62 MATRICES 6. then I. (cA)t = cAt 4. If A and Bare matrices and c is a scalar. (A + B)t = At + Bt 3. if A= [ U2l an aml al2 a22 a. (At)t = A 2. (AB)t = Bt At EXAMPLE .

5 DETERMINANTS The determinant of a 2 x 2 matrix A = [~ :] is det(A) = IAI = ad . I~ :1 7 2 . 2 -3 1 = -3(5 = -75 + ~1 18) . -3 21 4 5 6 = -31 5 -3 ~ 1. 75 026 003 1 _112 0 ~I+o+o =lx2x3=6 is not possible. all The determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix A= [ an a:n (expanding by the first row).: I (-12 -10) 3.21 . 34 1 2 1 -1 2 1= -1- 4 = -5. 4. EXAMPLES 1. .2(4 -12) + + 11 .DETERMINANTS 63 6. 2 1= 4.be. 2.6 = -2.

(cofactor expansion along the det(A) = <lilCi1 ph column) + <li2Ci2 + ..64 MATRICES 6.[1(-28 -4 4 5 -5 3 -7 + (-2)(-1)7 1 3 2 4 -4 -3 9 43 + 15) - 3(28 . + tlnjCnj. 3. 1 5 3 -5 4 -3 4 -4 2 0 1 9 0 3 -2 -7 (Expansion is along the 3rd column since it has two zeros.15) + 2(20 .. The matrix of elements Cij is called the cofactors matrix. EXAMPLES I. (cofactor expansion along the ith row) where Cij is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted.144 + 8] = -310. + 2[1(-9 2. 1 10 = -21 1 1 21 = -2(11 2) = 2 by expanding along the second row.3(12 + 36) + 2(16 . The full cofactors matrix for the previous question is found by crossing out each row and column ..ljC1j + a2jC2j + .1 COFACTOR EXPANSION The determinant of an n x n matrix may be found by choosing a row (or column) and summing the products of the entries of the chosen row (or column) and their cofactors: det(A) = o. multiplied by (-1) i+J.39] + 2[-45 .12)] = -[13 . ~~.36) .20)] .5.) = (O)Cn + (I)C23 + (O)C33 + (-2)C43 1 3 2 = (1)(-1)5 = .. + <linCin.

INVERSE

65

in tum remembering to multiply by (-l)i+j:

**Cll = +11 ~ ~ 1= -2 C12=<-I)1 ~ ~ 1=2 C13 = +11 ~ ~ 1=
**

and so one, giving 0

6.6

INVERSE

A square matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists B such that

AB=BA=I.

B is denoted A-I and is unique.

If det(A) = 0 then a matrix is not invertible.

EXAMPLE

The matrix B = [~

~] is the inverse of A =

AB =

and

[31 5] [ -12 2

3

[-i -!] -5] = [1 0] = I 1

since

3

0

BA =

[ -12 -5] [3 5] = [1 0]

12

0

1

=

I.

66

MATRICES

6.6.1

TWO BY TWO MATRICES

For 2 x 2 matrices, if A = [~

~]

then

A

If det(A)=

-1 _

- ad _ be

1 [d -ab]

-e

providing ad - be

f- O.

ad - be = 0 then A -1 does not exist.

EXAMPLES I.IfA=[!

~

2. If A = [ ~

] ;]

then

A -1

= __!_ [

-2

4 -3

-2 ]

1 .

.

then

A -1 = ~ [ 3 30

-2 ]

1

6.6.2

PARTITIONED MATRIX

Inverses can also be found by considering the partitioned matrix

then performing row operations until the final partitioned matrix is of the form

EXAMPLE The inverse of 121 010 [1 1 0

1

can be calculated using row reductions where R3 --t R3 - Rl means that Row 3 becomes the old

INVERSE

67

Row 3 minus Row I.

[ [ [ [ [

hence

2 110 10 0 1 ~ 10 0 0

~

2 1 10 1 0 01 -1 -1 -1 0

1

n n n

J] j]

R3-t R3 -Rl

~0

2 1

1

1

R3-t R3+ R2

0

-1

10 01 -1 1

1 1 -2 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

0

1

Rl-t Rl- 2R2

R3-t -R3

0 0 0 -1 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

1

Rl-t Rl- R3

[

6.6.3

2 1 ~1

~r[

=

~

-1 1 ~ -1 -1

]

COFACTORS MATRIX

The inverse of a n x n matrix A can be found by considering the transpose of the cofactors matrix divided by the determinant:

A-I = _1_Ct

IAI

where Gil is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted., multiplied by (-1 )i+l. The matrix C is called the cofactors matrix.

When manipulating matrix expressions a distinction is made between multiplying from the left (pre-multiplication) and multiplying from the right (post-multiplication). Since IAI = -1we get A-1=__!_ -1 [ -1 ~ -~ _~ ]T 0 -1 = [ ~ -~ ~ 1 -1 -1 ]. .If then Cll =I ~ ~ 1=0 ~1=1 C21=(-1)1~ and so on. The matrix has cofactors matrix C= hence the inverse [ -2 2 0] 3 -3 4 -2 1 0 6.68 MATRICES EXAMPLES l.7 MATRIX MANIPULATION Matrices do not behave as real numbers. 2.

If Av = AV then if A-1 exists then A-1 Av = A-1 AV = AA-lV v = AA-lV :x-~=A 1 -1 ~. See Section 6. 3. If Av = AV then A3~ = AA A~ = AA(A~) = AAA~ =A2Av =A3V. . pre-multiply both sides by A -1 post-multiply both sides by C-1 simplifying 2. 4. then A -1 has eigenvalue 1/ A for the same eigenvector. with eigenvector~. then A3 is A3 (PDP-1) (PDP-1) (PDP-1) PD (P-1 P) DP-1 PDP-1 PD2p-1 PDP-1 PD3p-1 since pp-1 = I again since pp-1 = I.9 on eigenvalues since this example shows that if A has eigenvalue A. Given that ABC = I find B? ABC (A-1A)BC IB(CC-1) B I A-1I A-lIC-1 A-1C-1 (CA)-l.MATRIX MANIPULATION 69 EXAMPLES 1. If A = PDP-1.

70 MATRICES 6. EXAMPLES I.3z = 5 3x+6y .8 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Systems of m linear equations invol ving n unknowns may be written as a matrix equation. Gaussian Elimination allows • a multiple of one row to be added to another row.5z . For the following system 2x x+y+2z + 4y .2Rl means each element in Row 3 becomes the old Row 3 element minus two times the corresponding Row 2 element. Systems of equations are typically solved by Gaussian elimination.3z 1 5 =2 3x+6y . The augmented matrix is an easy way of writing systems of equations. x+y+2z=1 2x+4y . • a row to be multiplied by a (non-zero) number.5z = 2 is written as or Ax e b. For example. If A is invertible then x = A -1h. Hence R3 -+ R3 .

3R1 R2 --t R2/2 R3 --t R3 .3R2 1 3/2 ] -11/2 R3 --t -2R3 o o 1 0 2 -7/2 1 3/~ ] 11 This gives the straightforward solution by back substitution of x = -61. y = 40.2R1 R3 . Consider the system 2x .5y -2 4 -x + 3y written as Ax = b such that The matrix A has inverse A -1 = [~ ~] so .SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS 71 the augmented matrix is [l 1 4 2 -3 6 -5 [! j] 1 [! -: 1 [! 1 [" 1 2 3 2 -7 -11 1 1 3 2 -7/2 -11 1 1 0 2 -7/2 -1/2 n 1 R2 R3 --t --t R2 . z = 11. 2.

f are non-zero real numbers) then you get one unique solution.t = -1 so (e.1) or a line in three dimensional space.t. 3. t is some parameter.0) + t( -1. and then express z .. If you perform row operations to obtain (where a. 2. infinite solutions.3. EXAMPLE To solve the system: perform row reductions to obtain 1 -2 011 -1 [ 000 and setting z = t gives y = 3 - t and x . If you perform row operations to obtain a [ o Ode kl k2 00 0 C b 1 then you get an infinite number of solutions that represent a line where you let z = t. y.t. . If you perform row operations to obtain a [ then if k3 ¥- ° o Ode k2 0 0 k3 b C kl 1 you get no solution. y in terms of t. -1.2(3 .72 MATRICES After performing Gaussian reduction by row operations the three cases (no solution. one solution) are typically represented by the following: I.t) . . t) = (5.z) = (5 . . 3 .

. 1). '" '" To find the eigenvalues solve the characteristic equation IA . t ERe. such that Av = AV. For Al = 1 let VI '" = [ X. EXAMPLE To find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for set up the characteristic equation which gives X}.~] then [~ ~] [ .All To find the eigenvectors solve = o. To find the eigenvectors solve 1 _A 1] ~ = O. For ). called an eigenvector. where t is any number.~ ] = [ ~ ] . Yl ] then Both equations give Xl .2 = -I let ~ = [ . .1 = 0 so Al [ -A = 1 and A2 = -1 are the eigenvalues.Yl = 0 so Yl is a free variable.EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS 73 6.l. Hence the eigenvector corresponding to Al = 1 is t(l. if associated with it there is a non-zero vector~.9 EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS If A is an n x n matrix then a scalar A is called an eigenvalue of A.

'" '" 6.) EXAMPLE The trace of [ 4 1 23] 5 6 = 1 + 5 + 9 = 15. -1). . EXAMPLE The matrix [ 2 1 2 3] 5 6 is symmetric. 789 6.12 DIAGONAL MATRICES A diagonal matrix is one with only terms along the main diagonal.ATRICES The matrix A is symmetric if A = At.2 = -1 is p(l. (Note that the trace is also equal to the sum of the eigenvalues.10 TRACE The trace of a matrix is the sum of its diagonal elements. The length of the eigenvector is unimportant hence it is convenient to write Vi = (1.1). -1).11 SYMMETRIC M. V2 = (1. EXAMPLE A 3 x 3 diagonal matrix has the form [~ g ~]. Hence the eigenvector corresponding to ). 369 6.74 MATRICES Both equations give X2 + Y2 = 0 so Y2 is a free variable.

FindAB: ] J] 1 1 -1 4y . ] 1 Sx+3y-7z o 3 o~ o S o 2. AB. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A: (i) -5 (ii) A= [~ -:] (ii) 4. if it exists.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 75 6. Find the inverse. For what values of a and c do you get (i) one solution.13 1. (i) A = [! ~] 8. At A. Solve the system of equations 2 4 -S. Find At. (ii) no solution. for the system B= [ ~ j] (iii) A = [ _~ ] B = [1 3. 1 A=[~ B = [ -~ (ii) A=[ B=[ (iii) o 3 (i) o [ [ ~ 6 2 o 2 1 2 1 1 -7 -6 2 6 4 9 1] -1 -1 -2 1 -1 ] -2 7 (ii) ~~ o ! ~] -7 6 (iii) [! x+2y-z oo o o o~ ~1 -S 6. Find A (i) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS + B. solve 4x -y 4y -z 0 0 -4x + 17y - 4z o. AAt: (i) A= [ ~ -1 3 3 -1 1 1 x+5y+z x+6y-z 2x 0 2 c? + ay + z 9. (iii) infinite solutions.12z 7. Find the determinants of the following matrices. First showing that a non-trivial solution does indeed exist. (Answers are given in Chapter 14) BA and the trace(A): 5. of the matrices (i) [~ !] ~ (ii) 12 1 [ ~3 ] A=[~ 1 2 o~ ] .

76 This page intentionally left blank .

. b). 2. The vector (1. EXAMPLES 1. 1) points in a direction with angle 7r / 4 to the x axis.CHAPTER VECTORS 7 7. or geometrically. y v b a ~------------------~x The vector has both length II~II and direction. by a directed line segment in the plane. The vector (1.1 VECTOR NOTATION A vector in R2 is represented by an ordered pair ~ = (a.0) points in the x direction and has length 1.

3.78 VECTORS A vector in R!' is represented by an ordered n-tuple EXAMPLES I.7. ..1. .16). + ~ = (3.-v 'V .5. 4~ = (4.2 + x.2) is a five dimensional vector so:e E 7.-v .3. V2. ~ = (1.4) is a three dimensional vector so:e E R3. 2.7)..2.-v + 3j ~ . -1. . ~ = (3. R5..2 ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION If ~ = (Vl. If ~ = (1.x) 4. -3.0) and j = (0. + (4.-4. .x..CiJ2.6) . vn). . ~+ ~ and = (2. = W2.2) and ~ = (2. cv EXAMPLES I. . (1.I. If~ = (l..1 + x. If i = (1.Vn+wn) V+W (Vi+Wl>tl2+W2.x)....3) then.1) then .4) and ~ = (1.0) is not defined. wn) and c is a scalar constant then .-v = (2. ~ = (Wi. 2. (CIJt.CiJn). .3) = 2i then ~ . -4.x.5.

0)11= 4.3)11= 3.2. EXAMPLE (0.1)11 = Vip + 22 + 12 = . 11(4.0) 2 3 4 .3)11 =V1 The triangle inequality states that That is the length of the sum of vectors must be less than the length of the two individual vectors added..11(4.J6 + 1 +4+ 1 +9 =.1.2...3) (0.3)11 = V32 y 4 + 42 =5 < 3 + 4.0) = (4.3) + (4.ji6 =4 2.LENGTH 79 7. 11(1.3) and 11(0.3 LENGTH The length of a vector in B" is given by II~II = Jv~+ vi + .3) (4.1. + v~. 3 2 (4. EXAMPLES I. 11(1.

Vectors in If3 are often written as the sum of the components in the direction of the Cartesian unit vectors: v= .'!.80 VECTORS 7.. ~=(O.: . ~=(1..3) = 12 + 22 + 32 = 14 3.3)· (1.3)· (1. (1.. (1.. The result of a dot product is a scalar..O. EXAMPLES I.2.2.5 DOT PRODUCT If ~ and'!!.2.3) = i + 2j + 3~ 2j 2. (0.4 CARTESIAN UNIT VECTORS The Cartesian unit vectors for R3 are t=(O. 1I~1I2 ='!...0) = 7..:.are vectors in R!' then the dot product is defined by This is also called an inner product on H"..2.0).V2.1.1). . (VI.2.1. (1.1) = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 2. EXAMPLES I....0)..0...V3) = VI i ~ + V2j~ + V3k.

. EXAMPLES 1. 3) and (1. b) = (-2. For example (2. perpendicular to (1.2.3) . ~ = (1. To find a vector.1) and ~ = (2. (a.1. b) . -4) are perpendicular since ~ . (1. (1. 1.. 2.2.1. ~ and ~ are orthogonal if they are perpendicular to each other and U·V =0.2) = a + 2b = 0 hence the simplest choice is (a.2) are still perpendicular to (1. 1) is such that 6 J42' 2.1. '!!. The angle 0 between (1. -1) and (-4. -1) = 0 hence cosO = O.2). = 2+2- 4 = O.2) write (a.2. (1.2).DOT PRODUCT 81 The angle 0 between two vectors is given by EXAMPLES 1.3) and (1. b). 2.1) although any multiple of this will be perpendicular to (1. -1) are at right angles since (1. Two vectors.

2 (1£2V3 .4.2.1. .4) .-1. then w=uxv= "" "" "" 2 -3 12 4 = ~ 1 -~ "" i j "" k 1 -6 1.2.2. 1£2Vt) EXAMPLES I. 1.0.-2).2) x (1. -1.2 V2 1_ j 1 1£1 "" Vl 1£3 V3 1+ k 1 'Ul "" 1£IV2 - VI 'U.0.0. -3. The cross product (1. 4.-v ~ = k. then the cross product ~ x ~ is defined in determinant notation by ~j tt X 11 k 1£3 V3 = 1£1 Vl 1£2 V2 'U3 V3 = = "" i 1 'U.0) = (0.2. 1£3Vl . If ~ = (2. The cross product (1.0) = i "" j k 1 1 1 -1 ° 2 = (2. .j(-12 ~ ~ + ~ + 36) k(8 = 14i "" + 24j + 44k = "" (14.0) x (0.24.6 CROSS PRODUCT If ~ and!: are two vectors in R3. -6).2) x (1. . That is i x j . 3.3) x (1.-v 2.1). .82 VECTORS 7.1) = is: 1 1 = (2. (1.-2).3) x (1.0.0) (1.1) is: "" i j 2 0 k 3 1 (1. 1) and ~ = (12. V2 .1£IV3.44).1.~ 11~ -12) -! "" -! 1+ ~ 11~ -~ 1 = i(18 .1£3V2.

-2) .1.Cn are constants. .J t"'o.7. (1.0).3) = 2(1. . In a previous example (2. Any vector (a. .0) + 3(0. (1.1). -6) . Note that (2. = (2.(0.0) (2. 7.2.J U2.2) x (1. c) in R3 can be found from a linear combination of {(I.3) is a linear combination of (1.2.2. (0.. 1. 1) x (12.1.J where Cl..0).1.0). 0... (2. b. (0.44) = 0. 2. I)}.UNEAAINDEPENDENCE 83 Note that the result of taking the cross product of two vectors is another vector where the direction of ~ x ~ is perpendicular to both ~ and~.1) is not a linear combination of (1.0) = 0.0).0) since we can never combine the three vectors to get the third component of (1.1. 1..1.24. -3.0. .4.1..2. Un if it can be written as + C2U2 + .-2)· (1.1).2) = 0 and 2. 0).. 0). (0. + CnUn t"'o. 2.1. (14.24.7. EXAMPLES 1. (14.1) . -1.3. 11 11 = ClUl t"'o..24. 3.44) and (2. In a previous example (1.J t"'o. (2.R INDEPENDENCE A vector ~ is a linear combination of the vectors Ul..2. (0. (1.7 LlNEA. Similarly (12.72 + 44 = O. .0) since (2. -2)..4. -6) = (14.44) = 28 . EXAMPLES 1. -1) .2.-1.0.

0) = (0. (1. 1. Cn . b. i. Cs= 1.0) are independent since Cl(1... Un are linearly independent that satisfy ClUJ. .0)... k are independent since for any vector v ~~~ ~ = (a. (0. C2 = -1. for example Cl = 1... The vectors i. 4.+ C2U2 + .. =0 are Cl = C2= ..2. (1. . . (2. EXAMPLES I. More than two vectors in R2 can never be independent. .2.. ° =° 2. c) = Cl i ~ + C2j .-v + csk = ai + bj + ck ~ ~ . 1.-v hence if ~ = ~ then Cl = C2= Cs= O.. one being Cl = 1.0) are dependent (not linearly independent) since Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 Cl+C2=0 0=0 has an infinite number of solutions..1).. Since we have two equations in three unknowns we can always find a non-zero Cl.0) implies Cl = Cl+C2+CS=0 C2 which gives Cl = C2= Cs= O.. + CnUn .c) it is possible to write (a.1.84 VECTORS A set of vectors U1.0) + C2 (0.0) are dependent since implies Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 2Cl + 2C2 = O.2)....1).1) + Cs(0.0. b. The vectors (1. (1. ..0). (1. U2.1.0). C2. (0...0. .1.. if the only constants Cl. (2. C2= -1. Cs to satisfy these equations. 3. = Cn = O. Cs = 1..1.

UNEAAINDEPENDENCE

85

A set of vectors is linearly independent if the determinant of the matrix with vectors as columns is not zero.

**EXAMPLES I. For (1, 1,0), (0,2,1), (0, 1,0) the determinant
**

100 12 010 1

=

-1

f:-

0

hence the vectors are independent. 2. For (1,1,0), (2,1,0), (1,0,0) the determinant

121

110

000

=

0

hence the vectors are dependent. We can show that

(2,1,0) = (1,1,0)

so they are not independent of each other.

+ (1,0,0)

86

VECTORS

7.8

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS +~, 3~

II~II:

**(Answers are given in Chapter 14)
**

1. Evaluate the sum ~ and 5. Find ~ . ~, ~ the u and v: (i) ~=(1,2,1),~=(-1,3,1) (ii) ~ = (-3,2, -1), ~ = (6,1,1) (iii) ~ = (2,3, 0), ~ = (4, 1, -2) (iv) ~ = (0,0, 0), ~ = (1,4,3) (v) ~ = (3,3, 3), ~ = (-1, -1, -1) (vi) ~ = (1,2, 4), ~ = (2,4, -2) 6. For the previous question verify that ~ = ~ orthogonal (at right angles) to both ~ and ~. 7. Determine whether the following vectors are linearly independent (i) {(4, 1), (1, 2)}

X~ X~

and cos

e where e is the angle between

**(i) ~ = (-2, -1), ~ = (1,1) (ii) ~ = (3,4), ~ = (4,3) (iii) ~=(-2,1),~=(-1,-1) (iv) ~ = (3,4, 2), ~ = (1,1,1) (v) ~ = (3,1,1, 0), ~ = (1,0,1,1) (vi) ~ = 2i_ + 3j (vii) u = i
**

r'V r'V

+~, ~ = i_ r'V

j-~

+ j,

r'V

v = i - 3j

r'V

2. For the above vectors verify the triangle inequality that

is

**II~+ ~II :::; I~II+ II~II· I
**

3. In the diagram below write down the two vectors ~ and ~ in algebraic form then find and draw the vector ~

+ ~.

y

(ii) {(2, 1), (4, 2)} (iii) {(I, 1), (1,2), (3, I)}

6 5 4 3 2 1

x

(~) {(1,1,1),(0,2,0),(1,3,2)}

(v) {(I, 1,1), (0,2,0),(1,3,

I)}

(vi) {(I, 2, 0,1), (1, 1,0,1), (2, 1,3,1), (0,2, -3, I)} 8. Find a number c so that (1, 2, c) is orthogonal to (2,1,2). 9. Find the vector which goes from the point (1, 3,1) to the point (2, 5, 3). What is the length of this vector? 10. Show that the line through the points (1, 1, 1) and (2, 3, 4) is perpendicular to the line through the points (1,0,0) and (3, -1,0). 11. Show that a . (b xc) can be written as

al a2 b2

C2

a3 b3

C3

1

4. Evaluate the sum ~

2

3

4

5

6

a . (b xc) =

bl

+ ~ and II~+ ~II:

I

C1

= Ulb2C3 - alb3c2

- a2blc3 - a3b2C1.

(i) ~ = (3,2, -1), ~ = (-1, -2, 1) (ii) ~ = (1,0, 9), ~ = (-2, -2, -2) (iii) ~ = (4, -4, -3), ~ = (8,7,1)

+ a2b3C1 + a3blc2

12. Verify the above equation using the vectors a = (1,1,2), b = (1,0,1), c = (0,1,1).

CHAPTER

8

ASYMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS

8.1

LIMITS

As x

-+ 0 then

I. xn

< xm

if 1 < m

< n, 0 < x < 1

2. lim !(x)

;l)-tO" ;l)-tO

+ g(x) "

= lim !(x)

z-tO z-tO

+ ;l)-tO g(x) lim

3. lim !(x)g(x)

;l)-tO"

= lim !(x) lim g(x)

;l)-tO z-tO

assuming lim !(x) and lim g(x) exist.

EXAMPLES

" 1. (0.1 )3

<. (0.1 )2

**3. lim sin x cos x = lim sinx lim cos z = 0 x 1 = 0
**

;l)-tO z-tO z-tO

4. lim

;l)-tO

x(x - 1) 1 =x(x - 2) 2

.+ x + ...)2 1"(0.. sin x = sin 0 + x sin' 0 + = sinO x2 2 sin" 0 + 6 sin'" 0 + ..- x3 6 coso + .x z-tz< z-tz< EXAMPLES I... cos x 1m -=1 1 8.. eX = 1+ x x + .0. =x--+··· 6 2.x IIm--=1 "'-tl x-I I' .)1'(0.) 2 Maclaurin series + a) = + (x . 2x Im-= 2 1 2.3 TAYLOR SERIES f(x) f(x = f(O) 1(0. + (x . Taylor series EXAMPLES I.. "'-to x = "'-to I'. '.(O) + ~! f"(x) + .'..88 ASVMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS 8. x2 2 x3 + xcosO x3 -- sinO .) 2! + . 2 3 2 6 . z-tZe lim f(X)) = lim f'(x)f 9 ..0. 0 0 00 00 as x -+ Xc then lim g'(x). sin x 1m 2 "'-tl I.) + x!.2 L'HOPITAL'S RULE If -( ) has lUlllt .or - f(x) 9x .

4 ASYMPTOTICS As x -+ +00 then Xffi Xffi Xffi n < x..-.5 x9 1 3. < ell"'..2 < (100)0. if if if m<n a>O a <0.. ell' 2 cosh e ell' as x -+ 00.x2 + 2x + 1 as x -+ 00. x +". 9.. (100)0. -2 > e x 2 as x -7 00.. x2 + 1 2x +x+3 x2 + 1 2x3+x+3""" -+ x2 1 -+ 2x 2 -2 as x -+ 00. x2 1 2x3""" 2x as as x -700. EXAMPLES 1. 8. ..ASYMPTOTlCS 89 8. 5. x -700. 4. e2ll' 2e2ll' -. 2..... 7. 6. > ell"'. < e~/I0 _ ~ as x -+ 00.

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