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,ESSENTIAL

MATHEMATICAL

SKILLS

This page intentionally left blank

MATHEMATICA SKILLS for engineering. science and applied mathematics Dr Steven Dr Stephen + Ian Barry Alan Davis .

Problems.unswpress.com. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry: Barry. Essential mathematical skills for engineering.A UNSW Press book Published by University of New South Wales Press Ltd University of New South Wales UNSW Sydney NSW 2052 AUSTRALIA www. criticism or review. no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. I. as permitted under the Copyright Act. Includes index. exercises. 1. Steven Ian. science and applied mathematics. research. Stephen. Apart from any fair dealing for purposes of private study. Mathematics . 510 Printer BPA . II. etc. 2. Inquiries should be addressed to the publisher. Mathematics. ISBN 0 86840 565 5. Title. Davis.au © Steven Ian Barry and Stephen Alan Davis 2002 First published 2002 This book is copyright.

CONTENTS Preface 1 .6 Partial Fractions .1 The Basic Functions and Curves 2. .. .. 1.9 Quadratic Equation 1.4 Quadratics.1 Circles 1.9 Circles.. 1.3 Modulus..8 Surds ..2 Factorising Polynomials 1.8 Trigonometric Functions 2..8. lX Algebra and Geometry 1. 2.4 Inequalities .14 Geometry ..10 Summation . 1.5.7 Polynomial Division .15 Example Questions Functions and Graphs 2. 1. . 1... .1 Elementary Notation 1.5.3 Straight Lines 2. 2.12 Permutations 1.. 1.6 Hyperbola.1 Binomial Expansion 1.. . 2. .5 Polynomials.11 Factorial Notation.. 2. 1.2 Fractions 1.. ..5 Expansion and Factorisation 1. .1 0 Ellipses .1 Rationalising Surd Denominators 1. 2. 1..7 Exponential and Logarithm Functions 2....2 Function Properties 2.14.13 Combinations 1.11 Example Questions 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 2 17 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 .

. 6. .10 Trace . .2 Partitioned Matrix 6.3 5..2 4..5 5. Transpose..1 Two by Two Matrices. Chain Rule .7 4.7 Exponential Function Index Laws .6 4. Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Identities Hyperbolic Functions Example Questions 31 31 32 33 35 36 38 39 4 Differentiation 4...6 3.6.10 4.5 4.4 4.. . Determinants 6.. Implicit Differentiation Parametric Differentiation Second Derivative.11 Symmetric Matrices.8 Systems of Equations .2 3.....6 5.. 6.5 3. 6..11 First Principles Linearity...7 Antidifferentiation Simple Integrals .1 Cofactor Expansion.1 5. Simple Derivatives Product Rule Quotient Rule ..7 Matrix Manipulation . .3 4.. Stationary Points Example Questions 41 41 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 50 5 Integration 5.2 5.4 6..4 5.3 Cofactors Matrix 6. Multiplication Identity .1 4. .1 3. 6. .9 4.. .Vi 3 Transcendental Functions 3. Logarithm Rules . 6.6..3 3.6.4 3.1 6. Integration by Substitution Integration by Parts Example Questions 51 51 52 53 55 56 57 58 59 59 6 Matrices Addition.3 6.5.2 6... The Definite Integral Areas . 6.8 4.. 6.6 Inverse.9 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. 6.5 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 68 70 73 74 74 . .

. De Moivre's Theorem.. .2 Separable .. .3 8. Example Questions 91 91 92 92 93 94 95 10 Differential Equations 10.4 8. Cartesian Unit Vectors Dot Product . .1 Partial Differentiation 11. ..2 Grad.1 Vector Notation 7. 6.3 Example Questions 11 Multivariable Calculus 11. 11.1.. 74 75 77 .. 10.1 Integrable .5 9.1 Limits . 8..2 Inhomogeneous.2 Second Order Differential Equations 10..1 Definition.5 7.5 Taylor Series . .3 Double Integrals.4 7..6 7. 10. .1 First Order Differential Equations 10. Asymptotics . Cross Product .. 9.6 Addition and Multiplication Complex Conjugate . .8 8 Addition and Scalar Multiplication Length . ..CONTENTS Vll 6.2.12 Diagonal Matrices. .2...1 Homogeneous .7 7.1.13 Example Questions 7 Vectors 7. 10. 10. Euler's Equation . 107 108 111 114 .2 L'H6pital's Rule.2 7.4 9.3 7..1.3 Integrating Factor . Linear Independence Example Questions .. 8.4 Example Questions 97 97 97 98 99 100 100 102 105 107 ..2 9.3 9. 10. Div and Curl 11. Example Questions 87 87 88 88 89 90 9 Complex Numbers 9. 77 78 79 80 80 82 83 86 Asymptotics and Approximations 8.

2 Test 2: First Year 13.1 Integration.2 Odd Fourier Series 12.5.5. 12.2 Differentiation . . Two.. 12. Two.5 Fourier Series .1 Test 1: First Year 13.1 Even Fourier Series.3 Newton's Method 12. 14 Answers 15 Other Essential Skills Index 143 146 .Vlll 12 Numerical Skills 12.4 Differential Equations..6 Test 6: Second Year 115 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 131 Semester Semester Semester Semester . One . 12. 12. One ..6 Example Questions 13 Practice Tests 13.4 Test 4: First Year 13..3 Test 3: First Year 13. 12.5 Test 5: Second Year 13..

As a guide. but that you have completely mastered these skills. You may also lose too many marks making 'silly' mistakes in exams. fully worked solutions. hence there are no long wordy explanations... you will find present and later subjects extremely difficult. engineering or applied mathematics degree.sib/EMS.adfa. Your lecturer will assume that you know them perfectly . Semester Two: Chapters 1-7. If you are having trouble with a section or chapter then we suggest you consult a more thorough textbook. • Second Year: Chapters 1-10. So what skills do you need to have? This book contains the mathematical skills we think are essential for you to not only know but remember. . It is not a textbook and does not attempt to teach you. If you are in a first year undergraduate course you may not have covered some of the material included in this book.ma. This book should act as a reminder to you of material you have already learned. we expect our students at University College to have mastered (by the start of each semester) the following: • First Year • First Year Semester One: Chapters 1-3. practice tests and also code for the Maple algebraic manipulation package giving solutions for every example and question.PREFACE lX PREFACE TO THE STUDENT There are certain mathematical skills that are essential for any of your courses that use mathematics. If you can then you may need this book to help you revise those skills later on.aul . Can you do the practice test at the end of these notes? If you can't then perhaps there are some skills you need to do some revision on. Without these necessary skills. We have left a number of blank pages at the back of the book for you to add in skills that you or your lecturers think are important to remember but we did not include. • Third Year: Everything in the book! There are practice tests in Chapter 13 based on these divisions.html It contains extra questions.edu. This book covers the essential mathematics in the first one to two years of a science. If you want more questions to practice on then see our extensive website: http://www.not just a vague idea.

html It contains more questions.barry@adfa.edu.aul .ma. 2600 email: s. ACT. If you have any questions or queries please do not hesitate to email us.adfa. most students do not get full marks in their previous courses and a few weeks after the exam will only remember a small fraction of a course. There is a database of questions in LaTeX and pdf.sib/EMS. solutions. in effect. engineering or science degree. Steven Barry and Stephen Davis School of Mathematics and Statistics University College. UNSW Canberra.x TO THE LECTURER What do you assume your students know? What material do you expect them to have a vague idea about (say the proof of Taylor's Theorem) and what material do you want students to know thoroughly (say the derivative of sin z)? This book is an attempt to define what material students should have completely mastered at each year in an applied mathematics. if they can do the questions in the database then they have.edu.. However. learned the necessary skills.au . which you can use to format your own tests and assignments. practice tests and Maple code.. They are also doing many other courses not involving mathematics and are not constantly using their mathematical skills. Naturally both the material and the year in which the students see this material will vary from university to university. We invite you to look at our extensive web site: http://www. We are not concerned that students may access this database. This book represents what we feel is appropriate to our students during their degrees. This book can then act as guide to what material should realistically be remembered from previous courses. Naturally we would like our students to know more than the bare essentials detailed in this book.

5. For example -1. W = {f(x) = a + b» : a.~: Less than or equal to. 2. ===}: 5.3.CHAPTER 1 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. greater than. R: The set of real numbers.3] means 1 :5 x :5 3.02 ~ 3.2x E W. 8. ~: Approximately equal to. 3 E Z. bE R} means W is the set of all functions f(x) are real numbers (constants). For example 3 E {I. For example x E (1. = a + b» where a. 2.J2 4.1. also written as x E [5.3) means 1 10. 6. >: Less than.2. For example x E [1.1 ELEMENTARY NOTATION I. 2. l/x -+ 0 as x -+ 00. R. 11. (a. Hence 1 + 2x E Wand 3 . b]: Bounds of a variable. E: A member of a set. For example x .7> :5. x E R} means that S is the set of all numbers bigger than or equal to 5. E 3. EXAMPLES 1. b S = {x : x 2: 5. {}: A set of objects. For example 3.. 0. 3}. For example 5 < 6. This is .3. (0). Becomes. 7. <. Z: The set of integers. b): Bounds of a variable. 9. [a. greater than or equal to. For example < x < 3.2 = 3 ===} x = 5. For example -2. -+: Tends to.

x y = x -10' . a b a+ b -+-=-c c c (c ~ 0) (b. x.= .=36 66 6 2 x +2 _ x .2 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. .2)(x (x - + 2) 2)2 = (x2 + 4x + 4) (x2 - (x2 - 4x + 4) =~ x2 - 4) 4 11 1 4.x .2 = (x x . To rearrange the equation .+. -x-=-=2.= .c.+ . i where a is called the numerator and b is called the denomina- Rules for operating on fractions 1.d~O) 2. b+d a a a c = ad+bc bel 3.=c d cd b ab ad x ~ = be 4.2 +2 + 2)2 (x . 3 2 9 3 8 6 72 1 12 112131 +.=.d ~ 0) (c.2 FRACTIONS A fraction is of the form tor.d ~ 0) EXAMPLES I. b+d cad = b (b.to find y write x y 10 1 Y = = ===> ===> 1 1 1 10 x x -10 Y lOx lOx NOT Y = 10.

4 INEQUALITIES I.2 :5 3 write -5x . If x 3. To find x such that -5x .MODULUS 3 1. written lxi. . EXAMPLES I.5 we write x+1>2x-5 ===> x . If x 2. 2.3 MODULUS The absolute value or modulus of x. 2. ~fx 2:: 0 lf x < O. EXAMPLES 1. but ax > y then ax > ay if a is positive. is defined by Ixl = { x. and u < ay if a is negative. 3. then x + u > y + v. The absolute value is the magnitude of a number and ignores whether it is positive or negative. > v. If x >y >y then x + a > y + a for any a.2:5 3 ===> ===> -5x:5 5 x 2:: -1. 1+51 = 5 1-31 = 3 I-xllyl = Ixllyl = IxYI 1. -x. To find values of x such that x + 1 > 2x < 6.

To find x such that -4- 1 -11 x . -7 7 x <-3' x.1 -2:S 2x:S 4 -1:S x S.::: 3 or 1.4 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY Inequalities with modulus I. Ix .bl > a can be x .11 -3:S 2x .b) < -a.:::2 write or -- 3x-l <-2 43x S.11 :s 3 write s3 ===} ===} ===} 12x . The inequality Ix . EXAMPLES I.5 EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION (a+b)(c+d) (a-b)(a+b) (a±b)2 = = = a(c+d)+b(c+d) a2_b2 a2±2ab+b2 =ac+ad+bc+bd EXAMPLES I.b < a.3)2 = X4 + 2( -3)x2 + 9 = X4 - 6x2 +9 . (x2 . The inequality 2. 2. :s 3 3 2.bl < a can be written as -a written as < x . To find x such that 12x .b > a or (x .

To remember the coefficients of each term use Pascal's triangle where each number is the sum of the two numbers above it.. (x . .1 BINOMIAL EXPANSION (a + b)n = an + nan-1b +"n(n 2! -1) n 2 2 "a . EXAMPLES 2. s2-4 2+s (s-2)(s+2) = -'-----:-'-'--_-'2+s =s-2 4. + nabn-1 + bn (See also Section 1.13).5.3)(x = (X " 2 - + 3)(x + 5)2 9)(x + lOx + 25) 2 " " " 3..b + .3)(x + 5)2(x + 3) = (x . (1 + X)4 = 1 + 4x + 6x2 + 4x3 + X4 + x)5 is 10 X 3. 1 1 1 1 14 1 5 10 2 1 1 3 6 3 4 10 1 1 5 1 Each term in a row represents the coefficients of the corresponding term in the expansion. The coefficient of x3 in (2 22 = 40. (a + 1)3 = (a + l)(a2 + 2a + 1) = a3 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 1.EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION 5 2.

1 Some similar partial fraction expansions are (x (x2 + aF(x + b) + a) = --+ x+a Ax+B x2 + bx ABC (x+aF +-x+b C 1 + bx + c)(x + c + x + a· .:-:--= (x + a)(x + b) + --B x +a x +b where A and B are constants found by equating the numerators of both sides once the light hand side is written as one fraction: ex + d = A(x + b) + B(x + a).1)(x 3x + 1) + 2 = (x +2 = + 4x = ..l)(x ..1) 7x 4x2 (3x .. that is.2)2 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 = (a + 1)3 1. 3x2 4.an).5. EXAMPLES I.6 PARTIAL FRACTIONS It is sometimes convenient to write ex+d A . (x .<l2) . a3 - 1 = (x . x2 2.2) x(x .---::-.-----.. x3 5.6 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1.2)(x . x2 3.al)(x .2 FACTORISING POLYNOMIALS Factorising a polynomial is the opposite of the expansion described above. splitting the polynomial into its factors: p(x) = (x .

First.1) + B(x + 1) = 1.7:-.1) ="2 1( 1 x-I and B = 1/2. Solving these equations simultaneously gives A = -1/2 (x 2. Wntmg . Alternatively. Hence 3x+l 2 1 --.. x-_-3::--c-) = . ( x+l 1 )( x-I .-( -x-+-7 + -x---3 . 'T' + 1)(x 1 . A(x .3) + B(x + 7) + 1. The constants A and B can be found two simple ways. These simultaneous equations are solved for A and B to give A = 2 and B = 1. ) m the rorm -- x+l + -x-I implies . cAB. 10 3x + _ . setting x=1 x=-1 ===} ===} Alternatively the equation could be expanded as Ax and the coefficients of Xl + Bx and xO -A +B =1 equated giving A+B=O -A+B=1.PARTIAL FRACTIONS 7 EXAMPLES 1.3) = x +7 +x = 3x B -3 A(x . expan d (x + 7)(x 1 3) using partiial fracti ractions wnte (x giving + 7) (x 3x+l A .-( x-+----. equating the coefficients of Ax gives + Bx . Thus -x +1 1) .3A + 7B = 3x +1 A+B=3 -3A+ 7B = 1. .-)--. Setting x = 3 implies B = 1 and setting x = -7 implies A = 2.

.=2 + -giving 3 (x2+x+l)(x+2) Ax+B x +x+l C x+2 3 = (Ax + B)(x + 2) + C(x2 + Hence X + 1)0 x =-2 x=O order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} C=1 3=2B+C O=A+C ===} ===} B= 1 A= -1.8 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 30 The partial fraction for ( x+l )!(x+2 ) is 1 ABC --.------~------.--= 1 (x+l)2(x+2) 1 (x+l)2 ---+-- 1 x+l 1 x+2° 40 The partial fraction for ( 2 x +x+l 3 )( x+2 ) is --.-----------::-. --.:---.--=--+ (x+l)2(x+2) x+l giving (x+l)2 +-x+2 1 = A(x + 1)(x + 2) + B(x + 2) + C(x + 1)2 so that x =-1 x =-2 order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} I=B I=C O=A+C ===} A =-1. (x2 + X 3 + 1)(x + 2) 1 -- x+2 - ----0---- x-I x2 +x+ 1 0 .----.--------:::-..------~------.

POLYNOMIAL DIVISION 9 1. x times.1 4x3+6x2+4x+l ------2x + 1 22 = x+ 3256 x+ 7 +--1' . Thus x(x + 1) = x2 + z. When dividing x2 + 3x + 4 by x + 1consider only the leading order terms to begin with. x. x- 3. The first step is therefore x x + 1 ) x2 + 3x + 4 x2 +x 2x+4 The division is completed by considering that x (the leading order of x times. Dividing 3x3 + 2X2 + X + 1by x-I 3x+2x+x+l 32 . Subtracting 2(x + 1) from 2x + 4 gives + 1) goes into 2x + 4 two x+2 x+1)x2+3x+4 x2 +x 2x+4 2x+2 2 Thus x2 + 3x+ 4 ---1- X+ = (x+2)+--1' 2 " X+ gives 2. which is subtracted from x2 + 3x + 4.7 POLYNOMIAL DIVISION Polynomial division is a type of long division for polynomials best illustrated by the following examples. Thus x goes into x2. EXAMPLES 1. =x + 2· x+ 1 .

c . 3v'iO .2v'W = v'W 4..8 SURDS A surd is of the form nJii (= a1/n): I.. bJii ± cVa = (b ± c)Jii EXAMPLES I. Jii x Vb = VQi.8. 2.. A surd denominator is rationalised by multiplying the expression by : a =~ a (= 1): b+ . -Vi4.J7 SURD DENOMINATORS 1.jC = --x-- b+v'c b-../27 = . . 14 = 3.. v'2 {l4 V2 = . v'5 x v'2 =v'iO . 2. ~=J¥ 3.jC b-v'c = a(b .10 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1..v'c) 1? .J9X3 = 3V3 .jC it may be preferable to have a rational denominator.1 RATIONALISING For an expression of the form a b+ .

2JX 6x -12xy'x 1-4x 1. The quadratic y = x2 + 2x + 1 is factorised into y = (x + 1) 2. --= 1 + 2JX 5 .2y'X x-----=-= 1 + 2JX 1 .9 QUADRATIC EaUATION A quadratic equation is of the form y = ax2 where + bx +c a. The roots of a quadratic equation (when y = 0) are A quadratic is factorised if it is written in the form EXAMPLES 1.(J5)2 5 .5-V5 (1)2 .2). The solutions to x2 + 3x + 1= 0 are x= -3 +-V5 2 - or -3 --V5 2 2. --=--x-1+V5 5 5 I-V5 I--V5 1+V5 = = = 2. . b. c are constants.5-V5 (-4) 5V5-5 4 6x = = 6x 1. The quadratic y = x2 +X 6 is factorised into y = (x + 3)(x . 3.QUADRATIC EOUATION II EXAMPLES 1.

. 2)(1.. O! = 1 by definition.2..1 where n is an integer. n! = n(n ..10 SUMMATION The summation sign L is defined n as L:f(i) i=l = f(l) + f(2) + f(3) + . n) = 2nn! . + f(n . 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120 2.(n .8 . The solutions to 3x2 + 5x + 1 = x= 0 are 6 -5 ± y'25 -12 so that x= -5+ vTI 6 or -5 -V13 6 1. 2n = (2. 3... EXAMPLE L:i2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 = 30 i=l 4 1.12 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 4. 2.(n .3 ..1).2) . 3.1) + f(n).I)! 4.6.2.2.. EXAMPLES I..2 ..4.11 FACTORIAL NOTATION The factorial notation is defined as follows: n! = n.

is given by of per- pn= r (n . The number mutations of r unique objects. The number ways of choosing a team of 5 people from 7 is 11! 11! 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 cl = 21.12 PERMUTATIONS A permutation is a particular ordering of a set of unique objects. 2. The number of possible groups of 4 delegates chosen from a group of 11 is given by 11 C4 = 4!(11 _ 4)! = 4!7! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 330. . chosen from a group of n.PERMUTATIONS 13 1.13 COMBINATIONS If order is not important when choosing r things from a group of possible combinations is given by n then the number of cn= r r!(n-r)! n! EXAMPLES 1.r)! n! EXAMPLE The number of ways a batting lineup of 3 can be chosen from a squad of 8 cricket pi ayers is given by 8 8! 8! P3 = (8 _ 3)1 = 5! = 8 x 7 x 6 = 336. 1.

14 GEOMETRY The trigonometric ratios can be expressed in terms of the sides of a right-angled triangle: c () a b b a sinO . Pythagoras' Theorem states The sine. cosine and tangent of the common angles can be related to the following triangles: 1 1 v'2 Jrj4 1 J2 .14 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1. tan 0 = -b = --0· e e cos The longest length. is called the hypotenuse. cosO = -. a sin 0 =-. opposite the right angle.

isosceles: any two sides are of equal length. The area of a circle with diameter d = 6 is 11"32 911". The circumference of the circle with diameter d = 7 is 711". EXAMPLES 1.14. = 2.GEOMETRV 15 EXAMPLE The three common triangles are the I. A right angled triangle has one other angle -i. Hence the third angle is 2. 3. An equilateral triangle must have three identical angles of i. right angled: one of the angles is i. circumference = 21fr EXAMPLES I. All triangles have three angles that sum to 1f. 1.1 CIRCLES A circle of radius r has 2. i. equilateral: all three sides of of equal length. 2. .

4 3 (4 . (i) + x)4 (ii) p'6 2 (iii) 6 C2 6 (ii) the expansion of (1 + x)8 (iii) the coefficient of x5 in (1 + x)1.1) 3+v'3 + 6x + 5 +5 2.2)(x .3)(x (ii) + 3) + 3x . Find the zeros of the following quadratics. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1. Simplify the following. + 3x + 4)/(x + 2) + 3x + 2)/(x + 2) (x3 + 5x2 + 7x + 2)/(x + 2) 1O! 7! (v) (x .3) 10.2 (v) --+-x-I x3 _ x2 (vi) x(x2 .y) 9. Use polynomial division to calculate the following. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2x+ 1 (iv) x-4 ----- y'27v'3 v'5 y'45 v'I7 + 5v'I7 2v'I7 2 x2 .2) :2 . Find the solution set for the following inequalities. + ----- 1 5 1 10 5 x+2 2x x-2 x-I x+2 x+ 3 x (ii) x x-3 (iii) ----- x-I x+2 6.2 (v) y = x2 (vi) y = x2 +x - 3. (i) Y = x2 +4x+4 (ii) Y = x2 Ix -101 < 5 Iz+31 ~ 8 la+41 > 1 1~-~1<2 + 7x + 6 (iii) Y = x2 +x -12 (iv) y = x2 +x .2)(x + 4) 1 (x + 3)2(X .3X)2 + y)2(X . (i) (x . Expand the following.4) 4x -1 (x . (i) (x2 (ii) (x2 (iii) (iii) (x (iv) (3 + x)(3x + 2)(x .5 (iv) y = x2 . Simplify the following. (iv) l)i+ i=l 1) .16 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1.4x . Factorise the following quadratic equations.15 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 5. Use Pascal's triangle (Binomial theorem) to find (i) the expansion of (2 Find the following.4)3 4.1)(x + 2) 1 x2+5x+6 3x (x . (i) 2d+2:::.4d-3 (ii) 3d-2>4d+6 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 7.(.6x (iii) Y = x2 +4x . (i) 3 (x . (i) Y = x2 (ii) Y = x2 . Write the following expressions as partial fractions.5 (v) y = 2X2 +x-l 8.

Exponential: y = eo. Cosine: y = cos x 9. . Straight Lines: y = mx +c + bx + c + .. Tangent: y = tan x 10. Hyperbola: y = - x 5.2.. + atX + ao 2. In x y2 + x2 = r2 y)2 + (X")2 Ellipses: ( a: b = 1. Quadratics (parabolas): y = ax2 3.CHAPTER 2 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . Logarithm: y = 7. Circles: 11. Sine: y = sin x 8.1 THE BASIC FUNCTIONS AND CURVES The standard functions and shapes are I. == expx 6. Polynomials: y = anxn 1 4.

all real numbers except x = 1 can be used in this function. If x = 1 then the function is undefined because of division by zero. = x2 is a EXAMPLES I.2 FUNCTION PROPERTIES A function is a IUle for mapping one number to another. Y = 1j(x . That is.1. EXAMPLES I. For example: f(x) mapping from x to x2 so that f(3) = 32 = 9. If f(x) 2. Y = x2 has range y ~ 0 since any squared number is positive. Y = x2. . 2. + 1.3) has range 0 °< x < 3 (so < y < 9. Sometimes the domain is defined as part of the function such as y = x2 for 0 domain is restricted to be in the interval zero to three. EXAMPLES I.1) has domain x t. Y = sin x has range -1 one. 3. If f(z) = 3x = Z2 + 1 then - f(2) = 7 and f(a) = 3a = 0. 1 then f(l) The domain of a function is the set of all possible input values for that function.18 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. Y = x2 + 4 has domain of all real numbers. < x < 3 so that the The range of a function is the set of all possible output values for that function. :5 y :5 1 since the sine function is always between positive and negative the domain is restricted to x E (0. 2.

EXAMPLES 1.1 then I(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) . f(x) = x2 + 3x + 2 has zeros x = -1.jX are inverses since . If f(x) 2. The inverse of a function is denoted 1-1(x) and has the property that EXAMPLES 1. For example if I(x) = x2 and g(x) = x + 1 then I(g(x)) = (g(X))2 = (x + 1)2. = 2x + 1 and g(x) = cos(x) then f(g(x)) = 2 cos(x) + 1 and g(1(x)) = cos(2x + 1). 3 2 2. The zeros of a function. EXAMPLES 1.. 1(x) = x2 and g( x) =.FUNCTION PROPERTIES 19 The argument of a function could be the value of another function.1 = 3x + 2. I(x). f(x) . If J(x) = 3x2 + 1 then the inverse is found by rearrangement: f(x) = = 3x2 x ± ~ +1 ===> ± ~ f-l(X) ==> = . = 2x+3haszerox = --. -2. are the values of x when I(x) = O.jX'i = (vfx)2 = x. If f(x) = 3x . . 2.

Y = f(x) = x3 is odd since f( -x) = (-x)3 = -x3 =- f(x).2)2 = r2.2) has form (x . EXAMPLES I. 2.4) has equation (y . A circle with centre (1. A parabola y = x2 with turning point (0. y 11 to 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 4 X 5 6 A function is even if f(-x) = f(x) and odd if f(-x) = -f(x). 2.a).b = f(x .4) = (x .0) if shifted to having turning point (3.3)2. Y = f(x) = X4 is even since f( -x) = (_X)4 = X4 = f(x). b) is written y .1)2 + (y .20 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS A graph y = f(x) in the form shifted from being centred on (0. EXAMPLES I. .0) to being centred on (a.

0) is y = ~ -1.0 Y ~--~--~----~--~----~--~x 1. EXAMPLES I. The gradient .3 STRAIGHT LINES A line has the general form y=mx+a where a and m are real numbers and m is the slope of the line.2.. The equation of a line that passes through the points (0.~ as the zero."5' 1 4. Part of the straight line y = 0. The line y = 2x + 1 cuts the x axis when y = 0 giving x = . 3 is found from m= Y2-Yl X2 .Xl =--=-. 0+11 3- ° 3 . 3. The line 5y = x-I has slope m = "5 1 since it can be rewritten as y = x "5 .6 .x is drawn in the following diagram: 1.0 2. -1) and (3.STRAIGHT LINES 21 .

ct}(x .5)(x . C!.-------\. o X 7 .0 .1)2 are drawn in the following diagram: Y + 1.----.0 +---. If the quadratic has two real zeros.5 2.--------"-f"------.5 .0 1. C2 then it can also be written as y = a(x . y = (x .6) 2.. EXAMPLE Sections of the three quadratic functions y = (x . Y = (x .--------f------.C2).5 1.4 QUADRATICS A quadratic (parabola) has the general form y = ax2 +bx+ c and can have either no real zeros.22 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. one real zero or two real zeros.3)2.

2.. y = x2 + 5x + 6 has two zeros x = -3 and x = -2. The constant term in the above polynomial is no. Y = 2x3 + 4x2 + 1 has degree 3. 2.4]: y 6 6x2 + llx . and has the following properties. The leading order term in the above polynomial is anxn since this is the term that dominates as x -+ 00. are real numbers.2.3) = x3 for x E [0. The third degree polynomial y = (x . - 3.POLVNOMIALS 23 .2)(x . A polynomial of degree n has n zeros (some of which may be complex). 4. I.5 POLYNOMIALS A polynomial has the general form where ai. n.. The polynomial has degree n if its highest power is xn. i = O .l)(x . constant term I and leading order term 2x3. EXAMPLES 1.6 is plotted below x ·6 . 3.

5 1. .0 0.6 HYPERBOLA A hyperbola centred on the origin is usually written in the form k y= x although other orientations of hyperbolas can be written as or EXAMPLE The hyperbola y = 0.5 1.24 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.5 The hyperbola above is not defined for x = o.5 X 0.15 is drawn in the following diagram: x y 1.0 1.

AND LOGA.7 EXPONENTIAL . .RITHM FUNCTIONS The exponential function is y = e~ == expx with its inverse the logarithm function y = lnx.EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS 25 .2. The general properties of the exponential are listed in the next chapter on transcendental functions. EXAMPLE The exponential function y = e~ (upper curve) and logarithm function y = In x (lower curve) are drawn in the following diagram: 8 y 6 -4 The logarithm function is not defined for x :5 o.

x 1112 tan x ·6 .11: /2]. 2.8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The main trigonometric functions are sinx and cos z. The function y = sin 2x will have a period of 1f.------_.0 0.4.14 and 3.26 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.0 1. Sine and Cosine can be defined in terms of angles as discussed in sections 1.------~-=----_.5 O+----4----~--~~--~x 2~ -1. while tan x = sin x/cos x is plotted for x E [-7r /2. EXAMPLES I.0 sin x Y cos z 6 -rrJ2 .------. Y y 1. which are cyclic with period 27r thus sin(x + 27r) = sin x. The functions sin x and cos x are plotted below for the first period x E [0. 27r].

-3).2) with radius I. t E [0.9 CIRCLES A circle centred on the origin has the general equation x2 + y2 = r2 where r is the radius. t E [0. which is a circle = 2 cost + 1. y(t) = rsint. The curve x2 + 2x + y2 + 4y = -4 can be written as (x centred on (-1.2)2 y 3 + (y . 3. This is often written in parametric form x(t) = rcost.211")is the circle radius 2 . The curve represented by x(t) centred on (1.2. + 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 1.2111 EXAMPLES I.1.5)2 = 1 are drawn in the following diagram: 2 ~----~----~~----~----~ -1 2 3 X 2.CIRCLES 27 .3. y(t) = 2 sin t . The circles x2 + y2 = 1 and (x . .

The ellipse (~) 2 + x2 = 1 is drawn in the following diagram: v -2 -. t E [0. An ellipse is often written in parametric form x(t) = asint.10 ELLIPSES An ellipse centred on the origin has the general equation C1X 2 + C2XY + C3y2 = 1. The curve (x .28 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.2)2 + 16y2 = 1 is an ellipse centred on (2. . x 2 2.0) with major axis of length 2 in the x direction and minor axis of length ~.2x]. y(t) = bcost. If the x and y axes are the axes of the ellipse then it is usually written in the form x2 y2 a2+62=1 where 2a is the length of the ellipse in the x direction and 2b the length of the ellipse in the y direction. EXAMPLES I.

= -- x+1 .1)2 and g(x) and g(l(x)). 2) with radius 2? 29. If I(x) = (x . 2 x = 47r. Draw the curve y = cos 2x 20. What is the period of y = sin(3x x . from x = 0 to y :z. Draw the ellipse + (x + 2x2 4y2 + (x 2)2 = 4.1)2 . 32. Lines 11. Where are the zeros of the curve + 1 for x E [0. What is the period of y = cos 3x? 22.-----.1 find I(g(x)) x .1)2 = 1.-------. .+ (x -1) = O? 12. 24. What type of curve has equation 2 -. If I(x) 4.1)2 axis? + 2y2 = 1 cut the x = x2 and g(z) = sin z find I(g(a)) = x2 27. If I(x) 1 =- = x2 . What is the equation of the quadratic below: Quadratics 15. 26.1)2 .11 1.1) = O? 34. What type of curve has equation y2 + (x .2 = O? 10. 19._ General 30. If I(x) 5. If I(x) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS Circles and ellipses 23. _ find the mverse I lex). Draw the curve y = cos from x = 0 to x = n. 4 3 2 y = (x . What type of curve has equation 2y + (x .---.3)(x . If I(x) 3.2x 16. What is the equation of the shape below: x Sines and cosines 17.4].EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 29 2. 21. What type of curve has equation 2y+(x-1)2-2=0? 33. What is the equation for a circle centred on (1. . Where is the zero of the line y = x-I? 13. What is the equation for an ellipse centred on (0. o 234 36. = 1.2) radius 3? with 7. What type of curve has equation 2y2 + (x . Draw the curve y = 2sin3x 18. Draw the circle y2 (Answers are given in Chapter 14) = x3 = x3 = x3 = x3 + 1 what is 1(2)? + 1 what is I(g)? + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 find 1(I(x)). If I(x) 6.1]. Draw 3y . 8. Where does the line 2y + x-I What is the slope of the line? = 0 cross the y axis? 14. What is the period of y + 1 from x = sin(x + I)? + I)? = 0 to x = 27r.4)? (For more questions on manipulation Chapter 1. Draw the quadratic y = x2 ._ + 1 find the mverse 1 I lex).) of quadratics see 0+-----. If I(x) 2.0) with x axis twice as long as the y axis? 28. Draw the ellipse y2 1) what is I(g(x))? 1) what is I(g(b))? and g(l(x)). Draw the line y = -2x + 1 for x E [0. If I(x) 1 = 2" x + 1 find the inverse I lex). Where does the ellipse (x . 25.2]. y-1 35. If I(x) 9.x+ 3 = Of or x E [0.2 = O? 31. What is the equation for a circle centred on (a.

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4. If 3 = log2 y then y = 23 = 8. a> 0. If 8 2.. = x3 then x = 81/3 = 2. 3. If 2 = 10glO Y then y = 102 = 100.1 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION An exponential function is defined by I(x) = a. . so that x = log. EXAMPLES I.71828 . 4 ..CHAPTER 3 FUNCTIONS TRANSCENDENTAL 3. The most useful exponential function is I(x) = e" == exp e where e = 2. If y = log2 16 then since 16 = 2 Y = 4. where a is the base and x is the index.l:. I.

for i an integer . a-n =an 7. aman = am+n am 3.0 =1 EXAMPLES 3.. a/ = .__. (am)n = amn Power of a Power Rule 8. ....0.. To simplify y = 3293 write 9 = 32 so that -= soy 4 y 641/3 =4 = 1. 0. .2 INDEX LAWS I.32 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3. i times 2. ambm = (ab)m 5._. = am-n an 4. :: } Equal Bases Rule = G)m 1 } Equal Indices Rule 6. 0. a.

a = 1 =x EXAMPLES 3. 1 = 0 and log. is loge (also denoted log x): ln z = c Note that: I. a1og"z=x 6. lo~(xy) = log. x 4.Y + 3 log b = 8 + 27 = 35. log. log2 (~:) The natural logarithm of z.RITHM RULES I. lo~(a. e1nz = x 3.) = logax -logaY 3. (.LOGARITHM RULES 33 3. log b = 9 then log(a2b3) = 210ga = x. x + log.l:) 5. log.3 LOGA. log. y LQg of a Product Log of a Quotient LQg of a Power 2. 4. .1ne=1 4. Inez = x 2. In! = 0 means eC = X == In X z. the inverse of the exponential function eX. Ifloga = 4. x·P = p log.

exp(3In 2) = exp(In 23) = exp(In 8) = 8 = e"'eln2 = 2e'" In". .34 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES 1. Ify = a'" then In y = x In a ===} y = e'" In a . e". + 2y) write 8. = kexp(In (2x)3). 2. Ifln X = 2 and In y = 5 then to find In(x3y2) we write In(x3y2) = Inx3 + Iny2 = 3Inx + 2Iny = 3(2) + 2(5) = 16. 6. If In y = 3In 2x + c then to find y write Iny = In (2x)3 +c + c) where eC = k ===} y = exp(In (2x)3 = k(2x)3.+ln2 eln". If x = In 3 and y = In 4 then to find exp( x e".+2y = e"'(ey)2 = 3 x 42 = 48.-2Iny = _e_ = ~ e21ny y2 4. 5. 3 .

n=0..TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 35 3. From the diagram we see that 11" cosij = 2' va 7r cos "4 = . cos(n7r) = (-1)'\ 5..2 37r 3. sm 6 . . n . . .. sinO -1 EXAMPLES 1.. sin(n7r) = 0.J2' 1 11" cos "3 = 2' 1 CQS7r = -1./3/2.±I. 6. ±2..51r=. ±1.SlD . cos 7r /6 =.sm 6 .4 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The unit circle can be used as an aid for finding the sin and cos of common angles.. For example. ±1. (2n+ 1)7r 2 =-(-I). n = 0. ? ~. ±2.. 4.±2.~_! "4 =-1 n = 0. tan 4 = -tan 11" . By symmetry all the other major angles can be found.

It is easy to prove 1+ tan2 x 2 cose sine 2 Si8 x + cos2 x cos x sin x = see x cosec x.-.5 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES A fundamental trigonometric identity is EXAMPLES I.36 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS sin(-a:) = -sin(a:). The Reciprocallligonometric Functions are 1 see a: = --. To prove the identity tan a: + cot a: = sec a:cosec a: consider the left hand side: sin a: cos z tan x + cot a: = -+ -. sm z cot e = --.- 1 ---cosxsinx 2. cos(-a:) = cos e Sine is an odd function while cosine is an even function. by simply dividing = sedl x cot x + 1 = cosec2 x sin2 a: + cos2 a: = 1 by either sin2 a: or cos" a:. cos a: 1 cosec a: = -. . tan a: 1 3.

2 .cos2a: sin2a: = 2 1+ cos2x CQS2a: = 2 EXAMPLES 1. cos(a: .Jl- Jl- CQs1rj6 .sin2 a: 1.cos x siny 2. sin (x + ~) = sin + 11) X cos ~ + cosx sin ~ = cos z 4. To find sin ~ consider 6.cos x 5.sin a: sin y 2 sin a:cos a: cos2 x . 2 V3j2 .TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES 37 sin(a: + y) cos(a: + y) sin2a: cos2x = sin e cosp + cos e siny a: = CQS cos y .y) = sin x cosy .sin x sin 11 = . cos(x = cos x COS1r. • 11: . sin(x .y) = cos XCQsy + sin a: sin y 3. Alternatively the following method can be used: sm-=· 12 -.

It is easy to show that sinh 0 = 0 cosh 0 = 1 and that COSh2 X since - sinh2 x = 1 2.6 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES I.38 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3.2.5 -5. The plots of sinh x and cosh x are illustrated below on the interval x E [.0 . sinh x -2. 21.

--A_:_P_-_c_T. Is I(x) tan2 (J c = 2 X 103. . (iv) sec ( 4.p_. Simplify (i) _1 __ cos2 (J (ii) (sin x (iii) tan(J = x cos X an odd or even function? + COSX)2 (J + (sin x- COSX)2 VI + tan2 .EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 39 3. P = 1 X 103. For the following angles find cos (J.---. ) 6. -(J = (sec (J + tan (J)2 1-sm (ii) 3sin2 (J . A = 3 X 105.2 = 1. sin (J. To = -20.o. If In s = 2 and In t = 3 calculate (i) In(st) (ii) In(st2) (iii) In(Vsi) (iv) In~ (v) Int s (ii) (J = 137r_ 6 (iii) (J = 2n 3 (iv) (J = _ 5n 3 (v) (J = 5n 4 11. Solve for t using natural logarithms: (i) 5t = 7 (ii) 2 = (1.-. tan (J. (6n) 8 l = 0. and sec (J: + 2e4t (i) (J=7r_ 4 3.7 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1. In an experiment you have to calculate the time to melt a block of ice using the formula t = _l (.02)t (iii) 3t7 = 2t5 (iv) Q = Qoant (v) y=3-2Int (vi) 3y = 1 + cosh x = e" 9.3cos2 (J (iii) sinh x ._) 4. h = 10. 12 12. Solve the following for values of (J between 0 and 2n (i) cos2 (J + 3sin2 (J = 2 (ii) 2 cos2 (J = 3 sin (J 10glO 2 8. Ta = 20. 10. 13.cosh x = _e-x (iv) sinh x (ii) 8-"3 (iii) 210g105 + 10glO 8 - (iv) 3-1og3 p (v) Inx2 + Iny -Inx (vi) e21nx _lny2 2. Prove the following identities: 1 + sin(J (i) --. Evaluate (i) tan(n) (ii) sm (iii) cos tcr. C~n) Find t. Use the multiple angle formulae to find cos 'lr_. If x t3 = In 3 and y = In 5 then find (i) eXeY (ii) eX+Y (iii) e2x (iv) eX + eY where 5. Use the trigonometric addition of angle formulae to show cos'lr_ = ~(v'6 12 4 + h). Simplify as much as possible (i) 6x 3y-2 2 x 1 5y4 24 _x- 7.1.

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The following diagram This is the slope of the tangent to the function iIIustra tes: f (x) y= f(x} tangent f(x + h} f(x) x x+h .f(x). at the point x.CHAPTER 4 DIFFERENTIATION 4.1 FIRST PRINCIPLES The definition of a derivative of a function f(x) is: f(x) = df = lim f(x dx h-+O + h) h .

(f(x) + g(x)) ~(c!(x)) dx ..sin x h = lim----------~--------h-->O h = lim sinx(cos h -1) + cos x sin h h-->O h = CQSX since lim CQsh-1 h-+O h =0 ' (see the Asymptotics chapter for how to evaluate these limits). 2.x2 = h-->O hm------~----h = lim 2hx+ h h-->O 2 x2 = = h-->O h lim 2x+ h = 2x. If lex) = x2 then f'(x) . = lim sin(a. If f(x) sin x then f'(x) . = lim (x h-->O + h)2 h -x 2 . + 2hx + h2 .sin x sin x CQS + cos x sin h .2 LINEARITY ! where c is a constant. 4. h-->O + h) h .42 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I.

SIMPLE DERIVATIVES 43 EXAMPLES d. 3 dx sm z = 3 cosx. dx (3smx) = d. = 1 4x 2. If f(x) = sin x + e~ then !. 4. xn sin x cos x e1: ln z sinh x cosh x x eosh z sinh x - 1 EXAMPLES 1. ~SinX 2. (41nx) d x . 1.4 PRODUCT RULE dx[f(x)g(x)] d df = dx g(x) + f(x) dx dg . 4.(x) = +~ e~ = cosx + eX. If J(x) = 5x2 + sinh x then J'(x) = lOx + cosh x. -d.3 SIMPLE DERIVATIVES The following derivatives of elementary functions are standard: f(x) c -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ f'(x) 0 nxn-1 cos x -sinx e1: where c is a constant.

x) dxx2 + 2. If f(x) sin x = -then cos x f (x) = Thus I. sm2x 2.x) ~[X2 + 2] (x2 2 (2x . If f(x) = X2 sin x then f(x) = 2x sinx + x2 coax.x] (x2 + 2) .sin x) = cos2 x' 1 3. -.(x2 = ~--~~~~~--~(x2 + 2)2 x2 +4x. CQSX-lnx x 4. (Sinx) dx" x2 = CQs(x)x2 X4 2xsinx !!_ (x2 . = li[x 2 . sin z. cos X CQS X - cos2 X sin x( .2 (x2 + 2)2 + 2)2 - x) 2x . then smx f'(x) x2 = 2' x smx.f(X)gl(X) (g(x))2 EXAMPLES I.x 2 CQSx.44 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I. If !(x) 2. = lnx cos x then P(x) = . .(x2 . If f(x) = -.!!_ [f(X)] dx = jI(x)g(x) g(x) .1)(x + 2) .5 QUOTIENT RULE .!:. j_ 4.

sin x and dx ' ! x5 = 5x4 then ~ [CQS«X2+ 3X)5)] = . 4. EXAMPLES 1. .CHAIN RULE 45 4. Since ! cos x = .sin«x2 + 3X)5)5(x2 + 3X)4 d~ [(x2 + 3x)] = . [x2] 2. Since ~ x3 = 3x2 and ~ sin x ![sin3x] = = cos x then 3sin2x cos z. Since ~ sin x = cos x then d d 2 2 dx [sin(x )] = cos(x ) dx = cos(x2)2x.6 CHAIN RULE d dx [f(g(x))] = dg dx = /.sin«x2 + 3x)5)5(x2 + 3X)4(2x + 3) = -5(2x + 3)(x2 + 3X)4 sin«x2 + 3X)5).sin«x2 + 3X)5) ~ [(x2 dx + 3X)5] = . Since ! ln x = ~ then d dx [In(x +x 2' )] = x + x2 1 dx [x d. +x 2 ] 1+2x 3.(g(x))g'(x) df dg Differentiate the outer function first then multiply by the derivative of the inner function.

dx 1.xsiny . differentiate normally but treat each y as an unknown function of x. For example. xcosy+y = x3 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives • ( cosy .46 DIFFERENTIATION 4..:!y = ±-v'f="X4. + dx = 3x 2 dy 3x2 .7 IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION To find y'(x) where y(x) is given implicitly.:. Differentiating 2x 2x CQsy ±Vl- X4 ±y'l- sin'.. EXAMPLES I. Differentiating siny = x2 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives dy cosy dx = 2x or dy dx since CQsy = 2..CQsy =---. if given f(y) = g(x) then differentiating gives f'(y): = g'(x) ===} dy dx g'(x) f'(y) where the chain rule has been used to obtain the left hand side.xsm(y) which can be rearranged to give dY) dy dx .

(x) = 4x3and r(x) = 12x2.RAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION Given y = f(t) and x = g(t).8 PA. (t) = 2e2t is the velocity and .PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION 47 4. 4.!I(t)' EXAMPLES 1. If J(x) = X4 then /.(t) . dyjdx dy _ dy/dt may be calculated as dx . then 5"(t) = 4e2t is the acceleration. Higher derivatives are found by repeated differentiation. If 5(t) = e2t is the position of a particle with time t. = ~ (!).sint = _ cott . EXAMPLES 1.9 SECOND DERIVATIVE The second (or double) derivative is the derivative of the derivative: f'(x) = ~. If y(t) = t2 and x(t) = sin t then dy = dyjdt dxjdt = 2t cos dx 2.dxjdt _ /. 51 2. Ify(t) t = sin r and x(t) = cost then dy = dyjdt dx dxjdt = cost .

5 6 2 3 4 maximum 0+----. The function y = xe-z has a maximum when x = 1. Y : o :"J minimum r>.---.. An inflection point is where the graph is flat but neither a maximum nor minimum. A local minimum is lower than the surrounding points. 3.-- . = O. y) where f'(x) graph is flat.. At this point the tangent to the EXAMPLES I. ~n ..---. The function y = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary + 12 = 0 points when dy = 6x2 _ 18x dx x= 1. 2. A local maximum is when the function at the stationary point is higher than the surrounding points...----.10 STATIONARY POINTS A stationary point is a point (x.48 DIFFERENTIATION 4. x ---.2. The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary dy =2x+2=O dx point when x = -1.

EXAMPLES 1. 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 X 3. . The function y is = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary points at x = 1 and x = 2. Note that x = a is a stationary point so f(a) = O. if f'(a) 3. The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary point at x = -1. if f'(a) > 0 then x = a is a local < 0 then x minimum. 2. 2. The double derivative ~ dx which is positive at x ~y = 12x-18 = y 2 (a minimum) and negative at x = 1 (a maximum). if f'(a) = a is a local maximum. The double derivative is so x = -1 is a minimum.1)3 + 3 has derivatives ' dx which are both zero at x dy = 3(x _1)2 -= ~2 ~y 6(x -1) " = 1.STATIONARV POINTS 49 At a stationary point x = a the second derivative indicates the type of stationary point I. which is therefore an inflection point. The function y = (x . = 0 then x = a is an inflection point.

Use linearity to find dy / dx: (i) y = 3sinx . x(t) = sin(t2) (ii) yet) = et.1) (ii) cos(2y) = (1 _ X2)1/2 (iii) In(y) = xe'" . x(t) = sin t 7.11 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1.2)2 (ii) Y = x3 .8x3 + 6x2 (vii) y = x2sinx (viii) y = cosh x sinh x (ix) y=- ell'" x 4. Find the derivative dT / dt: T=texp(~) where a is a constant.3coshx (iv) eY = e3". (v) y (ii) Y = 3e'" .1)2e'" 9. Use the product rule or the quotient rule to find dy / dx: (i) y= xe'" cos x (ii) y=-- (i) yet) = cos t. Roughly sketch x2 (iii) Y = e"'sinx (iv) y=lnx x4 lnx e'" (v) Y = sinx cos x (vi) y=- + 9x + 1 (iii) Y = 3x4 . Find dy / dx for these more difficult problems: (i) y = exp(x cos x2) (ii) Y = e'" cos((2x (iii) (iv) 1 + 1)2) 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 y X 5 Y = .6x2 (iv) y = xe-'" (v) y = x2In(x) (vi) y=sinx+(1-x)cosx. The function y = f(x) the function fl(x). For the following functions find the stationary points and classify them.2] (vii) y = (x . x(t) = t2 (iii) yet) = t2. is drawn below.j2+x2 sinx y= (x+1)2 expx2 (v) Y = sin(x2 + exp(x3 + x)) (vi) y=-- x2 . Use parametric differentiation to find dy / dx: (iii) Y = (x + 4)3 (iv) Y = (x + sinx)5 (v) y = sin(lnx2) (vi) y = exp(cos2 x) (vii) y = cosh(2x2) 3. (i) Y = (x .forxE[-1.x2 (iii) Y = 3lnx (iv) y = 2sinhx +5 2. Use implicit differentiation to find dy/dx: (i) y2 = sin(x . 8.y2 = x 6.5cosx 5.50 DIFFERENTIATION 4. Use the chain rule to find dy / dx: (i) y = sin(2x) (ii) y = sin(x + x3) + y3 = x2 (vi) y2 + siny = sinx (vii) y(x + 1) .

4.. If ~ In x = _!_ x then !~. 3. 2. + c. . then dx = In Ixl + c. If dx sinh x = cosh x then ! I cos x dx = sin x . If ! dx x2 = 2x then !2X dx = x2 + c. If d~ sin x = cos z d.. EXAMPLES 1. + c.1 ANTIDIFFERENTIATION The indefinite integral (antiderivative) of ! f with respect to x is f(x) dx = F(x) +c where F1(x) = f(x) and c is known as the constant of integration.cosh x dx = sinh x .CHAPTER INTEGRATION 5 5.

52 INTEGRATION 5. EXAMPLES I.cos x + e" + c 5 cos x da: = 5 sin x + c 3.. -1 cosxdx = sin x + c . ! ! (sin x + eX) dx = .2 SIMPLE INTEGRALS The following integrals of elementary functions are standard: / / xndx = __ 1 xn+l +c n+l where n f:. 2. Simple application of the Chain Rule in differentiation gives coskx dx = / Ii sin kx 1 + c. where cis a constant. . dx sinhxdx / coshxdx Integration is linear so that /U(x) +g(x))dx / cf(x) dx = / f(x) dx +/ g(x) dx. c / f(x) dx.cosx + c / sinxdx / eXdx = e" +c In [z] + c = = cosh z + c sinh x + c /1 / .

3 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL The definite integral with respect to lb x over the interval [a. 1-1 r sinh x dx = coshj l).F(a) where F' (x) = f (z). 1 o sin 7rxdx = -. 3sin(2x)dx = -~COS(2X) +C 5.cos 7rX 7r 1 [1] 1 0 = --(COS7r 7r 1 - cos O) = - 2 7r 3. f f 6x dx = 3 f 2x dx = 3x 2 +C 6.THE DEFINITE INTEGFIAL 53 4.cosh( -1) = 0 since cosh(x) is even.4: = 20 81 1 4. 11 x dx = [3 3 [X4]3 '4 1= '4 . This is the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. . b] is written as: [F(x)]! f(x) da: = = F(b) . EXAMPLES 2.

}_1 r [z] dx r Ixl dx + 10 [z] dx r = r -xdx + (2 z d» }_1 10 = 1-1 ==- [~2[1+ [~2J: [0 . f(x)dx=O f(x) dx = f(x) dx + l -i c a f(x) dx f(x) dx = lC f(x) dx can be integrated over the required intervals).~] + [2 . .54 INTEGRATION la lb lb (assuming f(x) EXAMPLES I. If f(x) is odd then fa {o (a i-a f(x) dx = }_a f(x) dx + 10 f(x) dx = O.0] = ~ 2. If f(x) = {!: : ~~' then 3.

25+0.REAS If f is an integrable function then fal:> f(x) in the region a dx = (area above the z-axis) .3)(x . If /(x) 411(X)1x = d 1 = 3 f(x) dx - fs4 /(x) dx = 0.9x2 + 26x . EXAMPLES 1.24 = (x .4).(area below the z-axis) :5 x :5 b. The area between the curve and the z-axis between x = 2 and x = 4 is given by: y 0. is an even function (so f( -x) f(x)) then f c f(x) dx = 2 -c 10 r l(x) dx since the area for x E [-c.5. c).25 =0. Consider the curve given by f(x) = x3 .O) is the same as for x E [0.2)(x .AREAS 55 5.5 1 2. .4 A.

f 1 dx let u = x 1 + 1 then f ---== "'.. To find 1 0 .56 INTEGRATION 5.cos(x2 + 2.. For definite integrals the limits of the integration are also trans- EXAMPLES I./2 sin" x cos x d$ let 1£ = sin x so that the integral becomes 4.x + 1 dx = f du -d = 1 so that x u-! du = 2u! +c = 2".x + 1 +c. 5 dx let x = sin 1£ since ".. where F'(x) formed.1 .-/2) u4du= [1£5. To evaluate 1) + c. = f(x).x2 = cos u and dx = cos 1£du so that 1 --===dx = ~ f cos -cos 1£ 1£ d1£= U • = arcsmx+c.5 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION Integrals that can be written in the form f f(g(x))g'(x) dx are solved by the substitution f u = g(x). ] 1 - sin(O) 5 0 1 =-. . 3. upon which the integral becomes f(u) du = F(u) + c = F(g(x)) + c.. To evaluate f 2x sin( x2 + 1) dx 2x sin(x2 let u = x2 + 1 then = ~: = 2x so that f vx+ 1 r::-71 + 1) dx f sin udu = -cosu+c = . To find! h l-x2 l f S iU (.

cos x +2 (e 2 :t:sin x- 21 e 2 :t:sin x dx) so by rearranging ! e2:t:sinxdx = 5 (2sinx e2:t: .(. UOl' UOl' 2 3.6 INTEGRATION BY PA.IdUdx dx uvu dv = uv - 1 1 v duo EXAMPLES 1.RTS Integration of a product of two functions can sometimes be solved by integration by parts: I or in short hand. dV dx dx = uv . The integral Then we have J0 t' xe :t: dx is performed 2 by setting u = x. 2.cosx) + C./ sinxdx = xsinx = z sin z . Integrating by parts twice we can evaluate / e2:t:sin xdx = _e2o. ~~ = e2:t: so that ~~ = 1and v = !e2:t:. To evaluate / x cos x dx let u = x and d$ = cos x then dx = 1and v = sm z. cos x + 2 / e2:t:cosxdx = _e2o.INTEGRATION BV PARTS 57 5. . / xcosxdx = xsinx .cosx + cd + cosx + C2. so that dv du .

1 dx +5 d x z cos ( _z2) dz 4cosh(x) .7 1. x2:1.ffj 5.3 e2".2x . (iii) 10 I I l="» cosz sinz dz x2 sinxdx 00 I(x) dx where I(x) = { x~. Evaluate the following integrals using integration by parts.e'" dx (vi) lev's -ds (vii) 10 5 e= dz VB fo7r xsin(x2) 9 dx (ii) (iii) (iv) 137r/2 sinxdx 7r/2 11/2 -dx 16 1/4 (viii) e-. Evaluate the following integrals using a substitution. 6. (iv) 1v'U(U+1)dU (v) I ~+ 1 x2 dx (let x = sinhu). 10 10 10 7r x (i) (ii) fo7r x cos 12 xdx sin(3x) dx (--) X 3 (v) 57r 4 1/ 7r/4 3 -sin dx (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3.dx x3 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 2. 1.. (vi) (i) I I I I 1 dx o x2 .58 INTEGRATION 5. I(x) = { x3 . Evaluate (i) (i) I (~ l-: + I+ I I (x9 sinh(2x) +X5) dx (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) e-14". (i) 12. sin x dx (integrate twice). Find the following integrals using any method. x2:1.. Find EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 4. 2: o. x. x < 1. . Find te= dx 2 I(x) dx where I(x) = { 1.) dx x10 + Xll + X12) dx dx I I I I I i4 xe-". x < 1. (iii) X x < 0. (i) (ii) j_11 I(x) dx where (ii) _x2.y --dy 2. (iv) j_11 I(x) dx where I(x) = Ix31..2 dx x+2 x2 +4x --dy 1 ylny 2x3y'7x4 . (x + 1) sinxdx x2e'" dx In x dx by using u = In x and dv = 1.

h21 [ bml then A+B = [ :~ :~~ .1 A. [~ ~] + [ ~] cannot be done.DDITION If A and Bare m x n matrices such that A= [ au au . i~ 1 [~~ + [-~ 379 3 -14 -~ -~ 1 1 = [-~ 6 -7 ~ 10 ~ 1 2.CHAPTER MATRICES 6 6. 1 . . U22 amI au + bu + h22 ai n a2n + bIn + h2n . EXAMPLES 1. + bmi amn+ bmn Addition of matrices of different sizes is not defined. amI bu and B= .

. . . EXAMPLES I .60 MATRICES 6. #. . + That is. . airbrj. a22 . where Gij = ail b1j + Gij is the dot product of row i of A and column j of B. .ll A= [ <l2l . In general AB ai2 b2j + . . .1m <l2m ... 10 -9 . arl ar2 arm bnl bn2 then AB = C is an m x n matrix.2 MULTIPLICATION AB is defined if A is size m x rand B size r x n. . . . . .. ...12 ~2 .. If a. . . If A = [ -~ 4 2 9] -~ ~ AB [-~3 ~ -~] .BA.. . .. . 1 and B= [ bu ~1 b. . [1 2] 3412 [1 -1] = [3 75 3] 2 [1 -1] [1 2] [-2 -2] . al2 .. . that is. .. 1234 = 710 3. a.] [ -q = [ -i and B= -4 -1 2 then 2 -1 12 -~ 3 0 -4 -1 = [ -8+0+27 6+0+3 -4+ 0+6 -28 -4 8+0-36 -6+ 0-4 4+0-8 -16+ 2-9] 12 -1-1 -8+ 1-2 =[ 1: -10 2 -23] . matrices are noncommutative.

is and is defined such that.IDENTITY 61 while BA = = = [ -2 0 3 2 -4] 0 1 -4 -1 [ 4 2 9] -3 -1 1 2 12 -8 .1 27 .3 IDENTITY The identity matrix. for all n x n matrices A.4 .6 .8 -4 . defined only for square matrices (n x n).4 -18 + 2 . IA=AI= EXAMPLE The 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 identity matrices are . 4.2 -22 -10 -24 ] 2 2 1 [ 22 9 21 f: AB.2 6+ 4. 6. A.2 .8] 0+0+2 0+0+1 0+0+2 [ 12+ 12.

if A= [ U2l an aml al2 a22 a.62 MATRICES 6. (A + B)t = At + Bt 3." ] U2n amn then At = [ au an .4 TRANSPOSE The transpose of a matrix is formed by writing its columns as rows. (cA)t = cAt 4. then I. (AB)t = Bt At EXAMPLE . If A ~ [~ _~ 1 men A' ~ [~ ~ _:].] am2 a2n amn EXAMPLES I. that is. If A and Bare matrices and c is a scalar. (At)t = A 2. The transpose of an m x n matrix A is an n x m matrix denoted by At. aln au a22 aml a 7.

75 026 003 1 _112 0 ~I+o+o =lx2x3=6 is not possible. 4. 2. all The determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix A= [ an a:n (expanding by the first row).: I (-12 -10) 3.DETERMINANTS 63 6. 2 -3 1 = -3(5 = -75 + ~1 18) . EXAMPLES 1.be.21 . . I~ :1 7 2 . 34 1 2 1 -1 2 1= -1- 4 = -5.6 = -2.2(4 -12) + + 11 . 2 1= 4. -3 21 4 5 6 = -31 5 -3 ~ 1.5 DETERMINANTS The determinant of a 2 x 2 matrix A = [~ :] is det(A) = IAI = ad .

3(12 + 36) + 2(16 .1 COFACTOR EXPANSION The determinant of an n x n matrix may be found by choosing a row (or column) and summing the products of the entries of the chosen row (or column) and their cofactors: det(A) = o.39] + 2[-45 . The full cofactors matrix for the previous question is found by crossing out each row and column .. (cofactor expansion along the det(A) = <lilCi1 ph column) + <li2Ci2 + .. multiplied by (-1) i+J.) = (O)Cn + (I)C23 + (O)C33 + (-2)C43 1 3 2 = (1)(-1)5 = .ljC1j + a2jC2j + .. 3.64 MATRICES 6.144 + 8] = -310.5.15) + 2(20 .[1(-28 -4 4 5 -5 3 -7 + (-2)(-1)7 1 3 2 4 -4 -3 9 43 + 15) - 3(28 .36) . + tlnjCnj.. + 2[1(-9 2. 1 10 = -21 1 1 21 = -2(11 2) = 2 by expanding along the second row. + <linCin.20)] . (cofactor expansion along the ith row) where Cij is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted. The matrix of elements Cij is called the cofactors matrix. ~~. EXAMPLES I.12)] = -[13 . 1 5 3 -5 4 -3 4 -4 2 0 1 9 0 3 -2 -7 (Expansion is along the 3rd column since it has two zeros.

INVERSE

65

in tum remembering to multiply by (-l)i+j:

**Cll = +11 ~ ~ 1= -2 C12=<-I)1 ~ ~ 1=2 C13 = +11 ~ ~ 1=
**

and so one, giving 0

6.6

INVERSE

A square matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists B such that

AB=BA=I.

B is denoted A-I and is unique.

If det(A) = 0 then a matrix is not invertible.

EXAMPLE

The matrix B = [~

~] is the inverse of A =

AB =

and

[31 5] [ -12 2

3

[-i -!] -5] = [1 0] = I 1

since

3

0

BA =

[ -12 -5] [3 5] = [1 0]

12

0

1

=

I.

66

MATRICES

6.6.1

TWO BY TWO MATRICES

For 2 x 2 matrices, if A = [~

~]

then

A

If det(A)=

-1 _

- ad _ be

1 [d -ab]

-e

providing ad - be

f- O.

ad - be = 0 then A -1 does not exist.

EXAMPLES I.IfA=[!

~

2. If A = [ ~

] ;]

then

A -1

= __!_ [

-2

4 -3

-2 ]

1 .

.

then

A -1 = ~ [ 3 30

-2 ]

1

6.6.2

PARTITIONED MATRIX

Inverses can also be found by considering the partitioned matrix

then performing row operations until the final partitioned matrix is of the form

EXAMPLE The inverse of 121 010 [1 1 0

1

can be calculated using row reductions where R3 --t R3 - Rl means that Row 3 becomes the old

INVERSE

67

Row 3 minus Row I.

[ [ [ [ [

hence

2 110 10 0 1 ~ 10 0 0

~

2 1 10 1 0 01 -1 -1 -1 0

1

n n n

J] j]

R3-t R3 -Rl

~0

2 1

1

1

R3-t R3+ R2

0

-1

10 01 -1 1

1 1 -2 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

0

1

Rl-t Rl- 2R2

R3-t -R3

0 0 0 -1 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

1

Rl-t Rl- R3

[

6.6.3

2 1 ~1

~r[

=

~

-1 1 ~ -1 -1

]

COFACTORS MATRIX

The inverse of a n x n matrix A can be found by considering the transpose of the cofactors matrix divided by the determinant:

A-I = _1_Ct

IAI

where Gil is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted., multiplied by (-1 )i+l. The matrix C is called the cofactors matrix.

Since IAI = -1we get A-1=__!_ -1 [ -1 ~ -~ _~ ]T 0 -1 = [ ~ -~ ~ 1 -1 -1 ]. When manipulating matrix expressions a distinction is made between multiplying from the left (pre-multiplication) and multiplying from the right (post-multiplication). .68 MATRICES EXAMPLES l.If then Cll =I ~ ~ 1=0 ~1=1 C21=(-1)1~ and so on. 2.7 MATRIX MANIPULATION Matrices do not behave as real numbers. The matrix has cofactors matrix C= hence the inverse [ -2 2 0] 3 -3 4 -2 1 0 6.

If A = PDP-1. If Av = AV then if A-1 exists then A-1 Av = A-1 AV = AA-lV v = AA-lV :x-~=A 1 -1 ~.MATRIX MANIPULATION 69 EXAMPLES 1. If Av = AV then A3~ = AA A~ = AA(A~) = AAA~ =A2Av =A3V. Given that ABC = I find B? ABC (A-1A)BC IB(CC-1) B I A-1I A-lIC-1 A-1C-1 (CA)-l. then A3 is A3 (PDP-1) (PDP-1) (PDP-1) PD (P-1 P) DP-1 PDP-1 PD2p-1 PDP-1 PD3p-1 since pp-1 = I again since pp-1 = I. 4. See Section 6.9 on eigenvalues since this example shows that if A has eigenvalue A. 3. with eigenvector~. pre-multiply both sides by A -1 post-multiply both sides by C-1 simplifying 2. then A -1 has eigenvalue 1/ A for the same eigenvector. .

5z .3z 1 5 =2 3x+6y . Hence R3 -+ R3 . EXAMPLES I. Systems of equations are typically solved by Gaussian elimination.70 MATRICES 6.3z = 5 3x+6y . x+y+2z=1 2x+4y . For example.5z = 2 is written as or Ax e b. If A is invertible then x = A -1h. Gaussian Elimination allows • a multiple of one row to be added to another row. The augmented matrix is an easy way of writing systems of equations.8 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Systems of m linear equations invol ving n unknowns may be written as a matrix equation. For the following system 2x x+y+2z + 4y . • a row to be multiplied by a (non-zero) number.2Rl means each element in Row 3 becomes the old Row 3 element minus two times the corresponding Row 2 element.

z = 11.SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS 71 the augmented matrix is [l 1 4 2 -3 6 -5 [! j] 1 [! -: 1 [! 1 [" 1 2 3 2 -7 -11 1 1 3 2 -7/2 -11 1 1 0 2 -7/2 -1/2 n 1 R2 R3 --t --t R2 .3R1 R2 --t R2/2 R3 --t R3 . Consider the system 2x .3R2 1 3/2 ] -11/2 R3 --t -2R3 o o 1 0 2 -7/2 1 3/~ ] 11 This gives the straightforward solution by back substitution of x = -61.2R1 R3 . y = 40.5y -2 4 -x + 3y written as Ax = b such that The matrix A has inverse A -1 = [~ ~] so . 2.

infinite solutions.1) or a line in three dimensional space. y. If you perform row operations to obtain a [ o Ode kl k2 00 0 C b 1 then you get an infinite number of solutions that represent a line where you let z = t.0) + t( -1. -1. EXAMPLE To solve the system: perform row reductions to obtain 1 -2 011 -1 [ 000 and setting z = t gives y = 3 - t and x ..t.2(3 .t. . If you perform row operations to obtain (where a. 2. y in terms of t. If you perform row operations to obtain a [ then if k3 ¥- ° o Ode k2 0 0 k3 b C kl 1 you get no solution. 3 .3. . f are non-zero real numbers) then you get one unique solution. t) = (5. .72 MATRICES After performing Gaussian reduction by row operations the three cases (no solution. 3.t) . and then express z .t = -1 so (e. t is some parameter.z) = (5 . one solution) are typically represented by the following: I.

1 = 0 so Al [ -A = 1 and A2 = -1 are the eigenvalues. called an eigenvector. if associated with it there is a non-zero vector~. . . Hence the eigenvector corresponding to Al = 1 is t(l. For ).2 = -I let ~ = [ . t ERe. where t is any number. Yl ] then Both equations give Xl . '" '" To find the eigenvalues solve the characteristic equation IA .~] then [~ ~] [ . 1).l. To find the eigenvectors solve 1 _A 1] ~ = O.9 EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS If A is an n x n matrix then a scalar A is called an eigenvalue of A.EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS 73 6. For Al = 1 let VI '" = [ X.~ ] = [ ~ ] . EXAMPLE To find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for set up the characteristic equation which gives X}. such that Av = AV.Yl = 0 so Yl is a free variable.All To find the eigenvectors solve = o.

2 = -1 is p(l. '" '" 6. Hence the eigenvector corresponding to ). V2 = (1. (Note that the trace is also equal to the sum of the eigenvalues. 789 6. . 369 6.10 TRACE The trace of a matrix is the sum of its diagonal elements. The length of the eigenvector is unimportant hence it is convenient to write Vi = (1.1).) EXAMPLE The trace of [ 4 1 23] 5 6 = 1 + 5 + 9 = 15. -1). EXAMPLE The matrix [ 2 1 2 3] 5 6 is symmetric.74 MATRICES Both equations give X2 + Y2 = 0 so Y2 is a free variable. -1).11 SYMMETRIC M. EXAMPLE A 3 x 3 diagonal matrix has the form [~ g ~].12 DIAGONAL MATRICES A diagonal matrix is one with only terms along the main diagonal.ATRICES The matrix A is symmetric if A = At.

First showing that a non-trivial solution does indeed exist. Find the determinants of the following matrices. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A: (i) -5 (ii) A= [~ -:] (ii) 4. 1 A=[~ B = [ -~ (ii) A=[ B=[ (iii) o 3 (i) o [ [ ~ 6 2 o 2 1 2 1 1 -7 -6 2 6 4 9 1] -1 -1 -2 1 -1 ] -2 7 (ii) ~~ o ! ~] -7 6 (iii) [! x+2y-z oo o o o~ ~1 -S 6. (i) A = [! ~] 8. ] 1 Sx+3y-7z o 3 o~ o S o 2. Find At. At A. AAt: (i) A= [ ~ -1 3 3 -1 1 1 x+5y+z x+6y-z 2x 0 2 c? + ay + z 9.12z 7. Find the inverse.13 1. For what values of a and c do you get (i) one solution. (ii) no solution. FindAB: ] J] 1 1 -1 4y . Find A (i) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS + B. of the matrices (i) [~ !] ~ (ii) 12 1 [ ~3 ] A=[~ 1 2 o~ ] . if it exists. Solve the system of equations 2 4 -S. solve 4x -y 4y -z 0 0 -4x + 17y - 4z o. (iii) infinite solutions. AB.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 75 6. (Answers are given in Chapter 14) BA and the trace(A): 5. for the system B= [ ~ j] (iii) A = [ _~ ] B = [1 3.

76 This page intentionally left blank .

The vector (1.0) points in the x direction and has length 1. by a directed line segment in the plane. . b). or geometrically. y v b a ~------------------~x The vector has both length II~II and direction.1 VECTOR NOTATION A vector in R2 is represented by an ordered pair ~ = (a. The vector (1. EXAMPLES 1. 1) points in a direction with angle 7r / 4 to the x axis.CHAPTER VECTORS 7 7. 2.

x.4) is a three dimensional vector so:e E R3. . .0) and j = (0. (1..x) 4. ~ = (1. (CIJt.3) then.I.x)..Vn+wn) V+W (Vi+Wl>tl2+W2.7.4) and ~ = (1.-4.3) = 2i then ~ . If i = (1.2. 2.1. ~+ ~ and = (2..2) and ~ = (2.. . wn) and c is a scalar constant then . . = W2. + (4.-v . cv EXAMPLES I.7).-v = (2.1) then . vn).CiJn). 2. 3.. .-v 'V .5. 4~ = (4.2 ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION If ~ = (Vl. . -1.16).-v + 3j ~ .x. .5. R5. If~ = (l.. + ~ = (3. ~ = (Wi.0) is not defined.1 + x.2) is a five dimensional vector so:e E 7.3. ~ = (3. If ~ = (1.CiJ2. V2.6) ...78 VECTORS A vector in R!' is represented by an ordered n-tuple EXAMPLES I. -4.2 + x. -3.

11(1.3) and 11(0.3) + (4.3) (0.3 LENGTH The length of a vector in B" is given by II~II = Jv~+ vi + .11(4.2.1. EXAMPLE (0...0)11= 4. EXAMPLES I.3) (4.0) 2 3 4 .3)11 = V32 y 4 + 42 =5 < 3 + 4.3)11 =V1 The triangle inequality states that That is the length of the sum of vectors must be less than the length of the two individual vectors added.2. 11(4. 11(1.1.ji6 =4 2.0) = (4..3)11= 3.J6 + 1 +4+ 1 +9 =.1)11 = Vip + 22 + 12 = . + v~.LENGTH 79 7. 3 2 (4.

:.. (1.3)· (1.2.0).3) = 12 + 22 + 32 = 14 3... (1. (1..: .. ~=(1.1).3)· (1.V2. 1I~1I2 ='!. EXAMPLES I...1. ~=(O.....80 VECTORS 7.... (VI.5 DOT PRODUCT If ~ and'!!.2.V3) = VI i ~ + V2j~ + V3k.0).1) = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 2.'!.are vectors in R!' then the dot product is defined by This is also called an inner product on H".3) = i + 2j + 3~ 2j 2.4 CARTESIAN UNIT VECTORS The Cartesian unit vectors for R3 are t=(O. Vectors in If3 are often written as the sum of the components in the direction of the Cartesian unit vectors: v= .2.0.2. . EXAMPLES I..2. The result of a dot product is a scalar. (0.O.1.0) = 7.

1.2) write (a. b).2. To find a vector.. ~ and ~ are orthogonal if they are perpendicular to each other and U·V =0. -1) are at right angles since (1.2.DOT PRODUCT 81 The angle 0 between two vectors is given by EXAMPLES 1. 3) and (1.1. '!!. -1) = 0 hence cosO = O. 2.2) = a + 2b = 0 hence the simplest choice is (a. The angle 0 between (1. (a.1. Two vectors.2) are still perpendicular to (1. perpendicular to (1. ~ = (1. -4) are perpendicular since ~ . -1) and (-4. b) . . 1. 2. = 2+2- 4 = O.1) and ~ = (2. (1. EXAMPLES 1. b) = (-2. (1.2). For example (2. 1) is such that 6 J42' 2.2).1) although any multiple of this will be perpendicular to (1. (1.3) and (1.3) .2.

3) x (1.0) = (0.2.1£IV3. 3. V2 .2. That is i x j . . -3. .0.1£3V2.6 CROSS PRODUCT If ~ and!: are two vectors in R3.2.0) (1.-2). then w=uxv= "" "" "" 2 -3 12 4 = ~ 1 -~ "" i j "" k 1 -6 1. If ~ = (2.j(-12 ~ ~ + ~ + 36) k(8 = 14i "" + 24j + 44k = "" (14.4.1. (1. 1. The cross product (1.-v ~ = k.0) x (0.82 VECTORS 7.-2).1.0) = i "" j k 1 1 1 -1 ° 2 = (2.1) = is: 1 1 = (2.2) x (1.2 V2 1_ j 1 1£1 "" Vl 1£3 V3 1+ k 1 'Ul "" 1£IV2 - VI 'U. 1£2Vt) EXAMPLES I.24. . then the cross product ~ x ~ is defined in determinant notation by ~j tt X 11 k 1£3 V3 = 1£1 Vl 1£2 V2 'U3 V3 = = "" i 1 'U. 2 (1£2V3 .0. 4.0.0. The cross product (1.4) .-v 2.1) is: "" i j 2 0 k 3 1 (1.-1. -6). 1) and ~ = (12.3) x (1.2) x (1. 1£3Vl .~ 11~ -12) -! "" -! 1+ ~ 11~ -~ 1 = i(18 . . -1.44).2.1).

1. -2) .0) + 3(0. (1. EXAMPLES 1.1) .1).24.2.0.-1.0.1.7. . EXAMPLES 1.7. (0. (14. (0. (1. (2.J U2.2.2. 7. Similarly (12.4. Any vector (a.UNEAAINDEPENDENCE 83 Note that the result of taking the cross product of two vectors is another vector where the direction of ~ x ~ is perpendicular to both ~ and~. .J where Cl.1.2.44) and (2. (0...72 + 44 = O.R INDEPENDENCE A vector ~ is a linear combination of the vectors Ul. = (2.2..0) = 0.3) = 2(1. (1. -6) = (14. I)}..1.0) since we can never combine the three vectors to get the third component of (1. 2. (0. -3. .. In a previous example (1. In a previous example (2.7 LlNEA. -1) . 1.24.0).1.4. Note that (2. 1. 0).0).. Un if it can be written as + C2U2 + . 11 11 = ClUl t"'o.-2)· (1.1.J t"'o. (14..24. .. 0.1) is not a linear combination of (1. (2.2) = 0 and 2.2..(0. 3.Cn are constants.44) = 0.3) is a linear combination of (1. -1.2) x (1.44) = 28 . -2).3. 2. -6) . c) in R3 can be found from a linear combination of {(I. 1) x (12.1. b. + CnUn t"'o.1).0). 0).0) since (2.J t"'o.0).0) (2.. .

k are independent since for any vector v ~~~ ~ = (a.. The vectors (1. 1.. C2= -1.0). (0.. =0 are Cl = C2= .84 VECTORS A set of vectors U1. .0) are dependent (not linearly independent) since Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 Cl+C2=0 0=0 has an infinite number of solutions.-v hence if ~ = ~ then Cl = C2= Cs= O. 1... .0). i.. 3.. = Cn = O.0). c) = Cl i ~ + C2j .0. (1. (2. . b.-v + csk = ai + bj + ck ~ ~ . C2 = -1.2). (1.2. .. (0. EXAMPLES I..2.1... Since we have two equations in three unknowns we can always find a non-zero Cl. (1. 4. The vectors i.1. U2.1.0) are independent since Cl(1. (2..0.1) + Cs(0.. Cn . (1. b..0) = (0...1).0) are dependent since implies Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 2Cl + 2C2 = O.1. Un are linearly independent that satisfy ClUJ. + CnUn .+ C2U2 + ..0) + C2 (0. one being Cl = 1.. . ° =° 2. Cs to satisfy these equations. .c) it is possible to write (a. Cs = 1.. More than two vectors in R2 can never be independent. C2.1).0) implies Cl = Cl+C2+CS=0 C2 which gives Cl = C2= Cs= O... if the only constants Cl. Cs= 1. for example Cl = 1.

UNEAAINDEPENDENCE

85

A set of vectors is linearly independent if the determinant of the matrix with vectors as columns is not zero.

**EXAMPLES I. For (1, 1,0), (0,2,1), (0, 1,0) the determinant
**

100 12 010 1

=

-1

f:-

0

hence the vectors are independent. 2. For (1,1,0), (2,1,0), (1,0,0) the determinant

121

110

000

=

0

hence the vectors are dependent. We can show that

(2,1,0) = (1,1,0)

so they are not independent of each other.

+ (1,0,0)

86

VECTORS

7.8

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS +~, 3~

II~II:

**(Answers are given in Chapter 14)
**

1. Evaluate the sum ~ and 5. Find ~ . ~, ~ the u and v: (i) ~=(1,2,1),~=(-1,3,1) (ii) ~ = (-3,2, -1), ~ = (6,1,1) (iii) ~ = (2,3, 0), ~ = (4, 1, -2) (iv) ~ = (0,0, 0), ~ = (1,4,3) (v) ~ = (3,3, 3), ~ = (-1, -1, -1) (vi) ~ = (1,2, 4), ~ = (2,4, -2) 6. For the previous question verify that ~ = ~ orthogonal (at right angles) to both ~ and ~. 7. Determine whether the following vectors are linearly independent (i) {(4, 1), (1, 2)}

X~ X~

and cos

e where e is the angle between

**(i) ~ = (-2, -1), ~ = (1,1) (ii) ~ = (3,4), ~ = (4,3) (iii) ~=(-2,1),~=(-1,-1) (iv) ~ = (3,4, 2), ~ = (1,1,1) (v) ~ = (3,1,1, 0), ~ = (1,0,1,1) (vi) ~ = 2i_ + 3j (vii) u = i
**

r'V r'V

+~, ~ = i_ r'V

j-~

+ j,

r'V

v = i - 3j

r'V

2. For the above vectors verify the triangle inequality that

is

**II~+ ~II :::; I~II+ II~II· I
**

3. In the diagram below write down the two vectors ~ and ~ in algebraic form then find and draw the vector ~

+ ~.

y

(ii) {(2, 1), (4, 2)} (iii) {(I, 1), (1,2), (3, I)}

6 5 4 3 2 1

x

(~) {(1,1,1),(0,2,0),(1,3,2)}

(v) {(I, 1,1), (0,2,0),(1,3,

I)}

(vi) {(I, 2, 0,1), (1, 1,0,1), (2, 1,3,1), (0,2, -3, I)} 8. Find a number c so that (1, 2, c) is orthogonal to (2,1,2). 9. Find the vector which goes from the point (1, 3,1) to the point (2, 5, 3). What is the length of this vector? 10. Show that the line through the points (1, 1, 1) and (2, 3, 4) is perpendicular to the line through the points (1,0,0) and (3, -1,0). 11. Show that a . (b xc) can be written as

al a2 b2

C2

a3 b3

C3

1

4. Evaluate the sum ~

2

3

4

5

6

a . (b xc) =

bl

+ ~ and II~+ ~II:

I

C1

= Ulb2C3 - alb3c2

- a2blc3 - a3b2C1.

(i) ~ = (3,2, -1), ~ = (-1, -2, 1) (ii) ~ = (1,0, 9), ~ = (-2, -2, -2) (iii) ~ = (4, -4, -3), ~ = (8,7,1)

+ a2b3C1 + a3blc2

12. Verify the above equation using the vectors a = (1,1,2), b = (1,0,1), c = (0,1,1).

CHAPTER

8

ASYMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS

8.1

LIMITS

As x

-+ 0 then

I. xn

< xm

if 1 < m

< n, 0 < x < 1

2. lim !(x)

;l)-tO" ;l)-tO

+ g(x) "

= lim !(x)

z-tO z-tO

+ ;l)-tO g(x) lim

3. lim !(x)g(x)

;l)-tO"

= lim !(x) lim g(x)

;l)-tO z-tO

assuming lim !(x) and lim g(x) exist.

EXAMPLES

" 1. (0.1 )3

<. (0.1 )2

**3. lim sin x cos x = lim sinx lim cos z = 0 x 1 = 0
**

;l)-tO z-tO z-tO

4. lim

;l)-tO

x(x - 1) 1 =x(x - 2) 2

sin x = sin 0 + x sin' 0 + = sinO x2 2 sin" 0 + 6 sin'" 0 + .. "'-to x = "'-to I'.. z-tZe lim f(X)) = lim f'(x)f 9 .0. x2 2 x3 + xcosO x3 -- sinO .0. =x--+··· 6 2. 0 0 00 00 as x -+ Xc then lim g'(x).+ x + .3 TAYLOR SERIES f(x) f(x = f(O) 1(0.x IIm--=1 "'-tl x-I I' .- x3 6 coso + .or - f(x) 9x . + (x . 2 3 2 6 .)2 1"(0.x z-tz< z-tz< EXAMPLES I.) + x!. Taylor series EXAMPLES I.(O) + ~! f"(x) + .. eX = 1+ x x + .) 2! + .) 2 Maclaurin series + a) = + (x .88 ASVMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS 8.)1'(0. cos x 1m -=1 1 8.... 2x Im-= 2 1 2... sin x 1m 2 "'-tl I.'... '..2 L'HOPITAL'S RULE If -( ) has lUlllt .

ell' 2 cosh e ell' as x -+ 00. x2 1 2x3""" 2x as as x -700.... 5.. 8. x +". -2 > e x 2 as x -7 00. 6.. < e~/I0 _ ~ as x -+ 00.. (100)0. 9. > ell"'. 2.ASYMPTOTlCS 89 8. EXAMPLES 1.. if if if m<n a>O a <0.. 7.-. x2 + 1 2x +x+3 x2 + 1 2x3+x+3""" -+ x2 1 -+ 2x 2 -2 as x -+ 00. . 4.5 x9 1 3. x -700. e2ll' 2e2ll' -.x2 + 2x + 1 as x -+ 00.. < ell"'.4 ASYMPTOTICS As x -+ +00 then Xffi Xffi Xffi n < x..2 < (100)0.

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