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,ESSENTIAL

MATHEMATICAL

SKILLS

This page intentionally left blank

MATHEMATICA SKILLS for engineering. science and applied mathematics Dr Steven Dr Stephen + Ian Barry Alan Davis .

Davis. exercises. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry: Barry.com. II. Mathematics. ISBN 0 86840 565 5. research. criticism or review. Mathematics . 510 Printer BPA . Includes index.Problems. science and applied mathematics. 2. no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. I.A UNSW Press book Published by University of New South Wales Press Ltd University of New South Wales UNSW Sydney NSW 2052 AUSTRALIA www. Title. Inquiries should be addressed to the publisher. as permitted under the Copyright Act. Essential mathematical skills for engineering.au © Steven Ian Barry and Stephen Alan Davis 2002 First published 2002 This book is copyright. etc. Apart from any fair dealing for purposes of private study.unswpress. Steven Ian. Stephen. 1.

4 Quadratics.8 Surds .. .1 Elementary Notation 1.. lX Algebra and Geometry 1. 1.8 Trigonometric Functions 2.5.14 Geometry . . 1. . 1.7 Exponential and Logarithm Functions 2.5 Expansion and Factorisation 1.14. 2.9 Quadratic Equation 1.6 Hyperbola. 2...10 Summation . 2.1 0 Ellipses .7 Polynomial Division ..2 Fractions 1.5 Polynomials..2 Factorising Polynomials 1.5.11 Example Questions 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 6 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 2 17 17 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 .6 Partial Fractions . 2..3 Modulus.8.4 Inequalities .1 Circles 1.1 Rationalising Surd Denominators 1. 1..13 Combinations 1.15 Example Questions Functions and Graphs 2. 2.1 Binomial Expansion 1. . 1.11 Factorial Notation.. .1 The Basic Functions and Curves 2..CONTENTS Preface 1 ..9 Circles. . ...3 Straight Lines 2.. 1....12 Permutations 1. 1. 1.. .2 Function Properties 2.

.3 6.6 5.. 6.5 3.5 4. 6.11 Symmetric Matrices..3 3.5 5.3 Cofactors Matrix 6. Logarithm Rules .7 Matrix Manipulation .7 Antidifferentiation Simple Integrals .6 3. Multiplication Identity .8 Systems of Equations . .. Stationary Points Example Questions 41 41 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 50 5 Integration 5.7 4.3 4.11 First Principles Linearity. 6..6..2 5. . 6. 6. Simple Derivatives Product Rule Quotient Rule .2 3.. Integration by Substitution Integration by Parts Example Questions 51 51 52 53 55 56 57 58 59 59 6 Matrices Addition.10 4. Implicit Differentiation Parametric Differentiation Second Derivative.Vi 3 Transcendental Functions 3. Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Identities Hyperbolic Functions Example Questions 31 31 32 33 35 36 38 39 4 Differentiation 4.6 Inverse. Chain Rule .1 Two by Two Matrices.4 3.6.....7 Exponential Function Index Laws .. 6.. ..8 4.9 4.4 5.6 4. .4 6. Transpose.1 6..2 6.5 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 68 70 73 74 74 . 6. . Determinants 6.5.4 4..3 5.2 Partitioned Matrix 6.2 4..1 3.1 Cofactor Expansion.10 Trace ..1 4..6. The Definite Integral Areas ..1 5. .... 6. .9 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors. . .

77 78 79 80 80 82 83 86 Asymptotics and Approximations 8..CONTENTS Vll 6.4 9.1 Partial Differentiation 11.. Example Questions 91 91 92 92 93 94 95 10 Differential Equations 10. 6. 10. 8.1 Definition. 10.. 74 75 77 .1 Vector Notation 7.. Example Questions 87 87 88 88 89 90 9 Complex Numbers 9.7 7.4 Example Questions 97 97 97 98 99 100 100 102 105 107 ..3 Integrating Factor .2 Grad..3 Example Questions 11 Multivariable Calculus 11. Div and Curl 11. 107 108 111 114 . 9.1 Homogeneous .2 9.5 7.2 L'H6pital's Rule. 8. De Moivre's Theorem.1.1.3 9..8 8 Addition and Scalar Multiplication Length .6 7. . .1 Integrable .3 7.3 8. Cross Product .2 Inhomogeneous. 10. 10. 10.1 Limits . 11.4 7.13 Example Questions 7 Vectors 7. . ..2 Separable . . Euler's Equation .3 Double Integrals.2 Second Order Differential Equations 10. .6 Addition and Multiplication Complex Conjugate ..5 9. Asymptotics ...... Cartesian Unit Vectors Dot Product .1.2.12 Diagonal Matrices.. ..1 First Order Differential Equations 10. Linear Independence Example Questions . .4 8. .2 7.5 Taylor Series .2.

12.6 Example Questions 13 Practice Tests 13. 12. 12.1 Integration. One . 14 Answers 15 Other Essential Skills Index 143 146 .5 Test 5: Second Year 13..5 Fourier Series . Two.2 Test 2: First Year 13.3 Test 3: First Year 13.Vlll 12 Numerical Skills 12.1 Even Fourier Series. ... Two..5.4 Test 4: First Year 13.1 Test 1: First Year 13.3 Newton's Method 12.2 Differentiation .4 Differential Equations. 12.6 Test 6: Second Year 115 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 131 Semester Semester Semester Semester .2 Odd Fourier Series 12..5. One . 12.

We have left a number of blank pages at the back of the book for you to add in skills that you or your lecturers think are important to remember but we did not include. practice tests and also code for the Maple algebraic manipulation package giving solutions for every example and question.sib/EMS. As a guide. Can you do the practice test at the end of these notes? If you can't then perhaps there are some skills you need to do some revision on. hence there are no long wordy explanations. It is not a textbook and does not attempt to teach you. Without these necessary skills. You may also lose too many marks making 'silly' mistakes in exams. Semester Two: Chapters 1-7. This book covers the essential mathematics in the first one to two years of a science. This book should act as a reminder to you of material you have already learned. but that you have completely mastered these skills.html It contains extra questions.. • Second Year: Chapters 1-10.PREFACE lX PREFACE TO THE STUDENT There are certain mathematical skills that are essential for any of your courses that use mathematics. .ma.edu. engineering or applied mathematics degree. Your lecturer will assume that you know them perfectly ..adfa. If you can then you may need this book to help you revise those skills later on. So what skills do you need to have? This book contains the mathematical skills we think are essential for you to not only know but remember. If you are in a first year undergraduate course you may not have covered some of the material included in this book.not just a vague idea. fully worked solutions. you will find present and later subjects extremely difficult. we expect our students at University College to have mastered (by the start of each semester) the following: • First Year • First Year Semester One: Chapters 1-3. If you are having trouble with a section or chapter then we suggest you consult a more thorough textbook. If you want more questions to practice on then see our extensive website: http://www. • Third Year: Everything in the book! There are practice tests in Chapter 13 based on these divisions.aul .

in effect. However. Naturally we would like our students to know more than the bare essentials detailed in this book. We are not concerned that students may access this database. There is a database of questions in LaTeX and pdf. We invite you to look at our extensive web site: http://www. UNSW Canberra. They are also doing many other courses not involving mathematics and are not constantly using their mathematical skills. most students do not get full marks in their previous courses and a few weeks after the exam will only remember a small fraction of a course. if they can do the questions in the database then they have.adfa.ma. which you can use to format your own tests and assignments. practice tests and Maple code..barry@adfa. solutions.au . learned the necessary skills.edu. engineering or science degree.. ACT. If you have any questions or queries please do not hesitate to email us. This book represents what we feel is appropriate to our students during their degrees. Naturally both the material and the year in which the students see this material will vary from university to university.aul .html It contains more questions.edu.x TO THE LECTURER What do you assume your students know? What material do you expect them to have a vague idea about (say the proof of Taylor's Theorem) and what material do you want students to know thoroughly (say the derivative of sin z)? This book is an attempt to define what material students should have completely mastered at each year in an applied mathematics. Steven Barry and Stephen Davis School of Mathematics and Statistics University College. 2600 email: s. This book can then act as guide to what material should realistically be remembered from previous courses.sib/EMS.

This is . (0). [a. For example 3 E {I. x E R} means that S is the set of all numbers bigger than or equal to 5. For example -1. 6. For example x . 0. For example x E [1. For example < x < 3. <. W = {f(x) = a + b» : a. Z: The set of integers. 8.1. 2.3) means 1 10. also written as x E [5. E: A member of a set. For example x E (1.3. 11.1 ELEMENTARY NOTATION I. EXAMPLES 1. R: The set of real numbers.~: Less than or equal to. (a.2.7> :5.CHAPTER 1 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1.2x E W. 7. greater than. 9. ~: Approximately equal to. Hence 1 + 2x E Wand 3 . b): Bounds of a variable. R. greater than or equal to.02 ~ 3.3] means 1 :5 x :5 3. bE R} means W is the set of all functions f(x) are real numbers (constants). 3}. For example -2. {}: A set of objects. ===}: 5. -+: Tends to.J2 4. E 3. For example 3. Becomes. b]: Bounds of a variable. = a + b» where a. l/x -+ 0 as x -+ 00. For example 5 < 6.. 2. 2. >: Less than. b S = {x : x 2: 5. 3 E Z. 5.3.2 = 3 ===} x = 5.

b+d a a a c = ad+bc bel 3.=.= .2 FRACTIONS A fraction is of the form tor.2 +2 + 2)2 (x .d~O) 2. -x-=-=2.d ~ 0) (c.= . .d ~ 0) EXAMPLES I.2)(x (x - + 2) 2)2 = (x2 + 4x + 4) (x2 - (x2 - 4x + 4) =~ x2 - 4) 4 11 1 4. a b a+ b -+-=-c c c (c ~ 0) (b.2 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1.to find y write x y 10 1 Y = = ===> ===> 1 1 1 10 x x -10 Y lOx lOx NOT Y = 10.x y = x -10' .+ . b+d cad = b (b. To rearrange the equation . 3 2 9 3 8 6 72 1 12 112131 +.x . i where a is called the numerator and b is called the denomina- Rules for operating on fractions 1.=c d cd b ab ad x ~ = be 4.2 = (x x .+.=36 66 6 2 x +2 _ x . x.c.

is defined by Ixl = { x. . and u < ay if a is negative.3 MODULUS The absolute value or modulus of x. 1+51 = 5 1-31 = 3 I-xllyl = Ixllyl = IxYI 1.2:5 3 ===> ===> -5x:5 5 x 2:: -1. 3. > v. EXAMPLES I. EXAMPLES 1.4 INEQUALITIES I. If x 2.2 :5 3 write -5x . To find x such that -5x . 2. To find values of x such that x + 1 > 2x < 6.MODULUS 3 1. but ax > y then ax > ay if a is positive. written lxi. If x 3. If x >y >y then x + a > y + a for any a. 2. -x. then x + u > y + v. The absolute value is the magnitude of a number and ignores whether it is positive or negative. ~fx 2:: 0 lf x < O.5 we write x+1>2x-5 ===> x .

b < a.bl < a can be written as -a written as < x .bl > a can be x . To find x such that -4- 1 -11 x . The inequality Ix . To find x such that 12x . (x2 .5 EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION (a+b)(c+d) (a-b)(a+b) (a±b)2 = = = a(c+d)+b(c+d) a2_b2 a2±2ab+b2 =ac+ad+bc+bd EXAMPLES I.b) < -a. :s 3 3 2.11 :s 3 write s3 ===} ===} ===} 12x .::: 3 or 1. EXAMPLES I.3)2 = X4 + 2( -3)x2 + 9 = X4 - 6x2 +9 .4 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY Inequalities with modulus I.11 -3:S 2x . Ix . -7 7 x <-3' x.:::2 write or -- 3x-l <-2 43x S.b > a or (x . 2. The inequality 2.1 -2:S 2x:S 4 -1:S x S.

b + . (x .5.. The coefficient of x3 in (2 22 = 40. To remember the coefficients of each term use Pascal's triangle where each number is the sum of the two numbers above it. .3)(x = (X " 2 - + 3)(x + 5)2 9)(x + lOx + 25) 2 " " " 3. (a + 1)3 = (a + l)(a2 + 2a + 1) = a3 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 1. (1 + X)4 = 1 + 4x + 6x2 + 4x3 + X4 + x)5 is 10 X 3. 1 1 1 1 14 1 5 10 2 1 1 3 6 3 4 10 1 1 5 1 Each term in a row represents the coefficients of the corresponding term in the expansion.3)(x + 5)2(x + 3) = (x .13). EXAMPLES 2. s2-4 2+s (s-2)(s+2) = -'-----:-'-'--_-'2+s =s-2 4. + nabn-1 + bn (See also Section 1.EXPANSION AND FACTORISATION 5 2.1 BINOMIAL EXPANSION (a + b)n = an + nan-1b +"n(n 2! -1) n 2 2 "a ..

a3 - 1 = (x .6 PARTIAL FRACTIONS It is sometimes convenient to write ex+d A . x3 5.:-:--= (x + a)(x + b) + --B x +a x +b where A and B are constants found by equating the numerators of both sides once the light hand side is written as one fraction: ex + d = A(x + b) + B(x + a). (x .2)(x .5.l)(x . EXAMPLES I.an). 1 Some similar partial fraction expansions are (x (x2 + aF(x + b) + a) = --+ x+a Ax+B x2 + bx ABC (x+aF +-x+b C 1 + bx + c)(x + c + x + a· ..2)2 + 3a2 + 3a + 1 = (a + 1)3 1.2 FACTORISING POLYNOMIALS Factorising a polynomial is the opposite of the expansion described above.1) 7x 4x2 (3x . x2 3..1)(x 3x + 1) + 2 = (x +2 = + 4x = . x2 2.<l2) ..-----. splitting the polynomial into its factors: p(x) = (x .6 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. 3x2 4.al)(x .---::-. that is.2) x(x ..

These simultaneous equations are solved for A and B to give A = 2 and B = 1.3) = x +7 +x = 3x B -3 A(x .-( -x-+-7 + -x---3 . A(x .3) + B(x + 7) + 1. Wntmg . The constants A and B can be found two simple ways. 'T' + 1)(x 1 . Hence 3x+l 2 1 --. 10 3x + _ .3A + 7B = 3x +1 A+B=3 -3A+ 7B = 1. equating the coefficients of Ax gives + Bx . ( x+l 1 )( x-I . Thus -x +1 1) .. First. x-_-3::--c-) = .1) + B(x + 1) = 1.-)--. cAB.1) ="2 1( 1 x-I and B = 1/2. Solving these equations simultaneously gives A = -1/2 (x 2.-( x-+----.7:-. ) m the rorm -- x+l + -x-I implies . Setting x = 3 implies B = 1 and setting x = -7 implies A = 2.PARTIAL FRACTIONS 7 EXAMPLES 1. expan d (x + 7)(x 1 3) using partiial fracti ractions wnte (x giving + 7) (x 3x+l A . . Alternatively. setting x=1 x=-1 ===} ===} Alternatively the equation could be expanded as Ax and the coefficients of Xl + Bx and xO -A +B =1 equated giving A+B=O -A+B=1.

.:---.8 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 30 The partial fraction for ( x+l )!(x+2 ) is 1 ABC --.--------:::-.=2 + -giving 3 (x2+x+l)(x+2) Ax+B x +x+l C x+2 3 = (Ax + B)(x + 2) + C(x2 + Hence X + 1)0 x =-2 x=O order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} C=1 3=2B+C O=A+C ===} ===} B= 1 A= -1.--=--+ (x+l)2(x+2) x+l giving (x+l)2 +-x+2 1 = A(x + 1)(x + 2) + B(x + 2) + C(x + 1)2 so that x =-1 x =-2 order x2 Thus ===} ===} ===} I=B I=C O=A+C ===} A =-1..------~------.----. (x2 + X 3 + 1)(x + 2) 1 -- x+2 - ----0---- x-I x2 +x+ 1 0 .--= 1 (x+l)2(x+2) 1 (x+l)2 ---+-- 1 x+l 1 x+2° 40 The partial fraction for ( 2 x +x+l 3 )( x+2 ) is --.-----------::-.------~------. --.

POLYNOMIAL DIVISION 9 1. When dividing x2 + 3x + 4 by x + 1consider only the leading order terms to begin with. which is subtracted from x2 + 3x + 4. Subtracting 2(x + 1) from 2x + 4 gives + 1) goes into 2x + 4 two x+2 x+1)x2+3x+4 x2 +x 2x+4 2x+2 2 Thus x2 + 3x+ 4 ---1- X+ = (x+2)+--1' 2 " X+ gives 2. =x + 2· x+ 1 . x- 3. EXAMPLES 1.1 4x3+6x2+4x+l ------2x + 1 22 = x+ 3256 x+ 7 +--1' .7 POLYNOMIAL DIVISION Polynomial division is a type of long division for polynomials best illustrated by the following examples. Thus x goes into x2. x times. The first step is therefore x x + 1 ) x2 + 3x + 4 x2 +x 2x+4 The division is completed by considering that x (the leading order of x times. Dividing 3x3 + 2X2 + X + 1by x-I 3x+2x+x+l 32 . Thus x(x + 1) = x2 + z. x.

A surd denominator is rationalised by multiplying the expression by : a =~ a (= 1): b+ . 14 = 3. -Vi4. ~=J¥ 3.jC it may be preferable to have a rational denominator.c .8.J9X3 = 3V3 ..1 RATIONALISING For an expression of the form a b+ .v'c) 1? . v'5 x v'2 =v'iO . bJii ± cVa = (b ± c)Jii EXAMPLES I.. .8 SURDS A surd is of the form nJii (= a1/n): I./27 = .J7 SURD DENOMINATORS 1.jC = --x-- b+v'c b-. 2. v'2 {l4 V2 = ..2v'W = v'W 4.. 2. Jii x Vb = VQi.10 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1.jC b-v'c = a(b ... 3v'iO .

5-V5 (1)2 . The quadratic y = x2 + 2x + 1 is factorised into y = (x + 1) 2. --=--x-1+V5 5 5 I-V5 I--V5 1+V5 = = = 2. The roots of a quadratic equation (when y = 0) are A quadratic is factorised if it is written in the form EXAMPLES 1. . --= 1 + 2JX 5 . The quadratic y = x2 +X 6 is factorised into y = (x + 3)(x .9 QUADRATIC EaUATION A quadratic equation is of the form y = ax2 where + bx +c a. c are constants. b.5-V5 (-4) 5V5-5 4 6x = = 6x 1. The solutions to x2 + 3x + 1= 0 are x= -3 +-V5 2 - or -3 --V5 2 2. 3.QUADRATIC EOUATION II EXAMPLES 1.(J5)2 5 .2).2y'X x-----=-= 1 + 2JX 1 .2JX 6x -12xy'x 1-4x 1.

(n ..8 ..2 .3 . 2)(1.11 FACTORIAL NOTATION The factorial notation is defined as follows: n! = n.2..12 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 4.I)! 4.1).2. EXAMPLES I. The solutions to 3x2 + 5x + 1 = x= 0 are 6 -5 ± y'25 -12 so that x= -5+ vTI 6 or -5 -V13 6 1...2. 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120 2. n) = 2nn! . n! = n(n .4.. 3. + f(n ...10 SUMMATION The summation sign L is defined n as L:f(i) i=l = f(l) + f(2) + f(3) + . O! = 1 by definition.1 where n is an integer.(n .1) + f(n). 2n = (2.. 2.6. EXAMPLE L:i2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 = 30 i=l 4 1..2) . 3.

12 PERMUTATIONS A permutation is a particular ordering of a set of unique objects.PERMUTATIONS 13 1. The number ways of choosing a team of 5 people from 7 is 11! 11! 11 x 10 x 9 x 8 cl = 21. The number of possible groups of 4 delegates chosen from a group of 11 is given by 11 C4 = 4!(11 _ 4)! = 4!7! = 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 330. chosen from a group of n. is given by of per- pn= r (n .r)! n! EXAMPLE The number of ways a batting lineup of 3 can be chosen from a squad of 8 cricket pi ayers is given by 8 8! 8! P3 = (8 _ 3)1 = 5! = 8 x 7 x 6 = 336. .13 COMBINATIONS If order is not important when choosing r things from a group of possible combinations is given by n then the number of cn= r r!(n-r)! n! EXAMPLES 1. 2. 1. The number mutations of r unique objects.

a sin 0 =-. cosine and tangent of the common angles can be related to the following triangles: 1 1 v'2 Jrj4 1 J2 .14 GEOMETRY The trigonometric ratios can be expressed in terms of the sides of a right-angled triangle: c () a b b a sinO .14 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRV 1. opposite the right angle. cosO = -. tan 0 = -b = --0· e e cos The longest length. Pythagoras' Theorem states The sine. is called the hypotenuse.

An equilateral triangle must have three identical angles of i. 3. isosceles: any two sides are of equal length.GEOMETRV 15 EXAMPLE The three common triangles are the I. circumference = 21fr EXAMPLES I. The circumference of the circle with diameter d = 7 is 711". i. right angled: one of the angles is i. EXAMPLES 1. The area of a circle with diameter d = 6 is 11"32 911".14. . equilateral: all three sides of of equal length.1 CIRCLES A circle of radius r has 2. 1. = 2. 2. A right angled triangle has one other angle -i. Hence the third angle is 2. All triangles have three angles that sum to 1f.

Factorise the following quadratic equations.6x (iii) Y = x2 +4x . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1.4) 4x -1 (x .3)(x (ii) + 3) + 3x .3X)2 + y)2(X . (i) (x2 (ii) (x2 (iii) (iii) (x (iv) (3 + x)(3x + 2)(x .4d-3 (ii) 3d-2>4d+6 (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 7.(.2 (v) --+-x-I x3 _ x2 (vi) x(x2 . + ----- 1 5 1 10 5 x+2 2x x-2 x-I x+2 x+ 3 x (ii) x x-3 (iii) ----- x-I x+2 6.2)(x + 4) 1 (x + 3)2(X .15 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 5. Expand the following. Simplify the following.2 (v) y = x2 (vi) y = x2 +x - 3.5 (iv) y = x2 .y) 9. Write the following expressions as partial fractions. Find the zeros of the following quadratics. (i) 2d+2:::. (iv) l)i+ i=l 1) .1) 3+v'3 + 6x + 5 +5 2. Use Pascal's triangle (Binomial theorem) to find (i) the expansion of (2 Find the following. (i) 3 (x . (i) (x .4x .4)3 4.1)(x + 2) 1 x2+5x+6 3x (x . (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 2x+ 1 (iv) x-4 ----- y'27v'3 v'5 y'45 v'I7 + 5v'I7 2v'I7 2 x2 . (i) Y = x2 (ii) Y = x2 .3) 10.4 3 (4 .2)(x .5 (v) y = 2X2 +x-l 8. Use polynomial division to calculate the following.2) :2 . Simplify the following. Find the solution set for the following inequalities.16 ALGEBRA AND GEOMETRY 1. (i) Y = x2 +4x+4 (ii) Y = x2 Ix -101 < 5 Iz+31 ~ 8 la+41 > 1 1~-~1<2 + 7x + 6 (iii) Y = x2 +x -12 (iv) y = x2 +x . (i) + x)4 (ii) p'6 2 (iii) 6 C2 6 (ii) the expansion of (1 + x)8 (iii) the coefficient of x5 in (1 + x)1. + 3x + 4)/(x + 2) + 3x + 2)/(x + 2) (x3 + 5x2 + 7x + 2)/(x + 2) 1O! 7! (v) (x .

Straight Lines: y = mx +c + bx + c + . Logarithm: y = 7. .. Polynomials: y = anxn 1 4. Sine: y = sin x 8. Hyperbola: y = - x 5. == expx 6. In x y2 + x2 = r2 y)2 + (X")2 Ellipses: ( a: b = 1..2. Tangent: y = tan x 10. Circles: 11. Exponential: y = eo. Cosine: y = cos x 9.1 THE BASIC FUNCTIONS AND CURVES The standard functions and shapes are I.CHAPTER 2 FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS . + atX + ao 2. Quadratics (parabolas): y = ax2 3.

+ 1. Y = 1j(x . < x < 3 so that the The range of a function is the set of all possible output values for that function. . Y = sin x has range -1 one. 1 then f(l) The domain of a function is the set of all possible input values for that function. 2. 2.3) has range 0 °< x < 3 (so < y < 9.1. Sometimes the domain is defined as part of the function such as y = x2 for 0 domain is restricted to be in the interval zero to three.2 FUNCTION PROPERTIES A function is a IUle for mapping one number to another. Y = x2 + 4 has domain of all real numbers. For example: f(x) mapping from x to x2 so that f(3) = 32 = 9. If f(z) = 3x = Z2 + 1 then - f(2) = 7 and f(a) = 3a = 0. = x2 is a EXAMPLES I. That is. all real numbers except x = 1 can be used in this function. 3. :5 y :5 1 since the sine function is always between positive and negative the domain is restricted to x E (0. EXAMPLES I. EXAMPLES I. Y = x2 has range y ~ 0 since any squared number is positive.18 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.1) has domain x t. If x = 1 then the function is undefined because of division by zero. Y = x2. If f(x) 2.

The zeros of a function. For example if I(x) = x2 and g(x) = x + 1 then I(g(x)) = (g(X))2 = (x + 1)2.FUNCTION PROPERTIES 19 The argument of a function could be the value of another function. I(x). are the values of x when I(x) = O. EXAMPLES 1. If f(x) 2. EXAMPLES 1.1 then I(x + 1) = 3(x + 1) . = 2x+3haszerox = --. If f(x) = 3x . .jX'i = (vfx)2 = x. 3 2 2.. 2. f(x) = x2 + 3x + 2 has zeros x = -1.jX are inverses since . 1(x) = x2 and g( x) =. The inverse of a function is denoted 1-1(x) and has the property that EXAMPLES 1. f(x) . If J(x) = 3x2 + 1 then the inverse is found by rearrangement: f(x) = = 3x2 x ± ~ +1 ===> ± ~ f-l(X) ==> = .1 = 3x + 2. = 2x + 1 and g(x) = cos(x) then f(g(x)) = 2 cos(x) + 1 and g(1(x)) = cos(2x + 1). -2.

a). EXAMPLES I.b = f(x .2) has form (x . . EXAMPLES I. 2.4) = (x . Y = f(x) = X4 is even since f( -x) = (_X)4 = X4 = f(x). Y = f(x) = x3 is odd since f( -x) = (-x)3 = -x3 =- f(x).20 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS A graph y = f(x) in the form shifted from being centred on (0.1)2 + (y . b) is written y . 2.0) to being centred on (a.3)2. A circle with centre (1.2)2 = r2. A parabola y = x2 with turning point (0.4) has equation (y . y 11 to 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 4 X 5 6 A function is even if f(-x) = f(x) and odd if f(-x) = -f(x).0) if shifted to having turning point (3.

0+11 3- ° 3 .0 Y ~--~--~----~--~----~--~x 1. -1) and (3.2. Part of the straight line y = 0. The line y = 2x + 1 cuts the x axis when y = 0 giving x = ."5' 1 4.Xl =--=-.x is drawn in the following diagram: 1.STRAIGHT LINES 21 .6 . The line 5y = x-I has slope m = "5 1 since it can be rewritten as y = x "5 . The gradient .0 2. 3 is found from m= Y2-Yl X2 . The equation of a line that passes through the points (0. 3.~ as the zero.3 STRAIGHT LINES A line has the general form y=mx+a where a and m are real numbers and m is the slope of the line..0) is y = ~ -1. EXAMPLES I.

one real zero or two real zeros.1)2 are drawn in the following diagram: Y + 1.5 1.-------\. If the quadratic has two real zeros.0 1.6) 2. EXAMPLE Sections of the three quadratic functions y = (x .22 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.--------f------. o X 7 .--------"-f"------.5 .C2)..5)(x .0 . y = (x .ct}(x .----.4 QUADRATICS A quadratic (parabola) has the general form y = ax2 +bx+ c and can have either no real zeros.0 +---. C2 then it can also be written as y = a(x .3)2. C!. Y = (x .5 2.

Y = 2x3 + 4x2 + 1 has degree 3.2)(x .POLVNOMIALS 23 . 2. The third degree polynomial y = (x .5 POLYNOMIALS A polynomial has the general form where ai. i = O . The constant term in the above polynomial is no. 4. The leading order term in the above polynomial is anxn since this is the term that dominates as x -+ 00.3) = x3 for x E [0.4]: y 6 6x2 + llx . I.l)(x . 3. EXAMPLES 1. and has the following properties.2. n. A polynomial of degree n has n zeros (some of which may be complex). The polynomial has degree n if its highest power is xn. are real numbers. y = x2 + 5x + 6 has two zeros x = -3 and x = -2. constant term I and leading order term 2x3.. - 3. 2..6 is plotted below x ·6 .

15 is drawn in the following diagram: x y 1.6 HYPERBOLA A hyperbola centred on the origin is usually written in the form k y= x although other orientations of hyperbolas can be written as or EXAMPLE The hyperbola y = 0.5 1.0 1.24 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2.5 1.5 X 0.5 The hyperbola above is not defined for x = o.0 0. .

EXPONENTIAL AND LOGARITHM FUNCTIONS 25 .RITHM FUNCTIONS The exponential function is y = e~ == expx with its inverse the logarithm function y = lnx.AND LOGA.2.7 EXPONENTIAL . EXAMPLE The exponential function y = e~ (upper curve) and logarithm function y = In x (lower curve) are drawn in the following diagram: 8 y 6 -4 The logarithm function is not defined for x :5 o. . The general properties of the exponential are listed in the next chapter on transcendental functions.

Y y 1.0 1.14 and 3.------~-=----_.11: /2]. The functions sin x and cos x are plotted below for the first period x E [0.26 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. x 1112 tan x ·6 .------. Sine and Cosine can be defined in terms of angles as discussed in sections 1.0 0. which are cyclic with period 27r thus sin(x + 27r) = sin x.5 O+----4----~--~~--~x 2~ -1. The function y = sin 2x will have a period of 1f. while tan x = sin x/cos x is plotted for x E [-7r /2.0 sin x Y cos z 6 -rrJ2 . 2. EXAMPLES I. 27r].4.------_.8 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The main trigonometric functions are sinx and cos z.

The circles x2 + y2 = 1 and (x . + 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = 1. -3).CIRCLES 27 . t E [0.211")is the circle radius 2 .2.1. The curve represented by x(t) centred on (1.2)2 y 3 + (y . y(t) = rsint.2) with radius I.5)2 = 1 are drawn in the following diagram: 2 ~----~----~~----~----~ -1 2 3 X 2. t E [0. 3.9 CIRCLES A circle centred on the origin has the general equation x2 + y2 = r2 where r is the radius. .3. which is a circle = 2 cost + 1. This is often written in parametric form x(t) = rcost.2111 EXAMPLES I. y(t) = 2 sin t . The curve x2 + 2x + y2 + 4y = -4 can be written as (x centred on (-1.

10 ELLIPSES An ellipse centred on the origin has the general equation C1X 2 + C2XY + C3y2 = 1. The curve (x . If the x and y axes are the axes of the ellipse then it is usually written in the form x2 y2 a2+62=1 where 2a is the length of the ellipse in the x direction and 2b the length of the ellipse in the y direction.28 FUNCTIONS AND GFiAPHS 2. t E [0. x 2 2. .2)2 + 16y2 = 1 is an ellipse centred on (2. An ellipse is often written in parametric form x(t) = asint. y(t) = bcost. The ellipse (~) 2 + x2 = 1 is drawn in the following diagram: v -2 -.2x].0) with major axis of length 2 in the x direction and minor axis of length ~. EXAMPLES I.

If I(x) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS Circles and ellipses 23. . 25.x+ 3 = Of or x E [0. If I(x) = (x . y-1 35. Draw 3y .-------. o 234 36.2 = O? 31.1)2 .) of quadratics see 0+-----.1)2 and g(x) and g(l(x)). What type of curve has equation 2 -. What is the period of y = sin(3x x . Where is the zero of the line y = x-I? 13. What is the equation of the shape below: x Sines and cosines 17._ + 1 find the mverse 1 I lex). Where does the ellipse (x . 2) with radius 2? 29. 4 3 2 y = (x . What is the equation for a circle centred on (1. Where are the zeros of the curve + 1 for x E [0. Draw the curve y = cos 2x 20. If I(x) 5. Draw the curve y = cos from x = 0 to x = n.4)? (For more questions on manipulation Chapter 1. 21.2x 16. What is the equation for an ellipse centred on (0.---.0) with x axis twice as long as the y axis? 28. 2 x = 47r. Draw the quadratic y = x2 . What type of curve has equation 2y2 + (x . 26. What type of curve has equation 2y + (x .-----. 32. If I(x) 6. What is the equation of the quadratic below: Quadratics 15. Draw the circle y2 (Answers are given in Chapter 14) = x3 = x3 = x3 = x3 + 1 what is 1(2)? + 1 what is I(g)? + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 and g(x) = (x + 1 find 1(I(x)).4]. 8. What type of curve has equation 2y+(x-1)2-2=0? 33. If I(x) 2. What is the equation for a circle centred on (a.1]. What is the period of y + 1 from x = sin(x + I)? + I)? = 0 to x = 27r. If I(x) 4. What is the period of y = cos 3x? 22. Draw the curve y = 2sin3x 18. Lines 11.3)(x .1)2 axis? + 2y2 = 1 cut the x = x2 and g(z) = sin z find I(g(a)) = x2 27. . = 1.+ (x -1) = O? 12.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 29 2. Draw the ellipse y2 1) what is I(g(x))? 1) what is I(g(b))? and g(l(x)). from x = 0 to y :z. If I(x) 3.2]. 24. If I(x) 1 =- = x2 ._ General 30. 19.11 1. If I(x) 9.2 = O? 10.1)2 .2) radius 3? with 7. _ find the mverse I lex).1)2 = 1. Draw the line y = -2x + 1 for x E [0.1 find I(g(x)) x .1) = O? 34. What type of curve has equation y2 + (x . Draw the ellipse + (x + 2x2 4y2 + (x 2)2 = 4. Where does the line 2y + x-I What is the slope of the line? = 0 cross the y axis? 14. = -- x+1 . If I(x) 1 = 2" x + 1 find the inverse I lex).

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4 . 3..1 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION An exponential function is defined by I(x) = a. If 8 2.. . If 2 = 10glO Y then y = 102 = 100.71828 . I. If 3 = log2 y then y = 23 = 8. a> 0. If y = log2 16 then since 16 = 2 Y = 4. The most useful exponential function is I(x) = e" == exp e where e = 2.l:. 4.CHAPTER 3 FUNCTIONS TRANSCENDENTAL 3. so that x = log. EXAMPLES I. = x3 then x = 81/3 = 2. where a is the base and x is the index.

_.0.. 0. for i an integer .2 INDEX LAWS I. .. a/ = .. To simplify y = 3293 write 9 = 32 so that -= soy 4 y 641/3 =4 = 1. ambm = (ab)m 5. :: } Equal Bases Rule = G)m 1 } Equal Indices Rule 6. 0. i times 2. aman = am+n am 3. . (am)n = amn Power of a Power Rule 8. a-n =an 7... a.__. = am-n an 4.0 =1 EXAMPLES 3.32 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3.

e1nz = x 3. a1og"z=x 6. log2 (~:) The natural logarithm of z. In! = 0 means eC = X == In X z. Ifloga = 4.RITHM RULES I. the inverse of the exponential function eX. log. 1 = 0 and log. log. log b = 9 then log(a2b3) = 210ga = x.LOGARITHM RULES 33 3. lo~(xy) = log. .1ne=1 4. a = 1 =x EXAMPLES 3. x·P = p log. y LQg of a Product Log of a Quotient LQg of a Power 2. lo~(a.) = logax -logaY 3. 4. log.Y + 3 log b = 8 + 27 = 35.l:) 5. is loge (also denoted log x): ln z = c Note that: I.3 LOGA. (. Inez = x 2. x + log. x 4.

If In y = 3In 2x + c then to find y write Iny = In (2x)3 +c + c) where eC = k ===} y = exp(In (2x)3 = k(2x)3. = kexp(In (2x)3).34 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES 1. + 2y) write 8. e".-2Iny = _e_ = ~ e21ny y2 4. 2. 6. If x = In 3 and y = In 4 then to find exp( x e".+ln2 eln". . 5. Ifln X = 2 and In y = 5 then to find In(x3y2) we write In(x3y2) = Inx3 + Iny2 = 3Inx + 2Iny = 3(2) + 2(5) = 16.+2y = e"'(ey)2 = 3 x 42 = 48. exp(3In 2) = exp(In 23) = exp(In 8) = 8 = e"'eln2 = 2e'" In". 3 . Ify = a'" then In y = x In a ===} y = e'" In a .

sinO -1 EXAMPLES 1.. .TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 35 3. tan 4 = -tan 11" .. sm 6 .n=0.2 37r 3. .J2' 1 11" cos "3 = 2' 1 CQS7r = -1. .. ±2.~_! "4 =-1 n = 0. From the diagram we see that 11" cosij = 2' va 7r cos "4 = .4 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS The unit circle can be used as an aid for finding the sin and cos of common angles. ±1. n = 0. By symmetry all the other major angles can be found.±2.sm 6 . 4. (2n+ 1)7r 2 =-(-I). ±1. cos(n7r) = (-1)'\ 5. sin(n7r) = 0. 6.. ±2. n . ? ~. cos 7r /6 =.±I. For example..../3/2.51r=.SlD .

by simply dividing = sedl x cot x + 1 = cosec2 x sin2 a: + cos2 a: = 1 by either sin2 a: or cos" a:. The Reciprocallligonometric Functions are 1 see a: = --. . To prove the identity tan a: + cot a: = sec a:cosec a: consider the left hand side: sin a: cos z tan x + cot a: = -+ -. cos(-a:) = cos e Sine is an odd function while cosine is an even function. sm z cot e = --. cos a: 1 cosec a: = -.5 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES A fundamental trigonometric identity is EXAMPLES I.- 1 ---cosxsinx 2. tan a: 1 3.36 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS sin(-a:) = -sin(a:). It is easy to prove 1+ tan2 x 2 cose sine 2 Si8 x + cos2 x cos x sin x = see x cosec x.-.

sin x sin 11 = . cos(x = cos x COS1r. • 11: .sin2 a: 1.y) = sin x cosy . 2 .cos x 5.y) = cos XCQsy + sin a: sin y 3.TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES 37 sin(a: + y) cos(a: + y) sin2a: cos2x = sin e cosp + cos e siny a: = CQS cos y .Jl- Jl- CQs1rj6 .sin a: sin y 2 sin a:cos a: cos2 x . 2 V3j2 . sin (x + ~) = sin + 11) X cos ~ + cosx sin ~ = cos z 4.cos x siny 2. sin(x .cos2a: sin2a: = 2 1+ cos2x CQS2a: = 2 EXAMPLES 1. cos(a: . To find sin ~ consider 6. Alternatively the following method can be used: sm-=· 12 -.

It is easy to show that sinh 0 = 0 cosh 0 = 1 and that COSh2 X since - sinh2 x = 1 2. 21.5 -5. sinh x -2.38 TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 3.0 . The plots of sinh x and cosh x are illustrated below on the interval x E [.2.6 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS EXAMPLES I.

---. 10. 13. Solve the following for values of (J between 0 and 2n (i) cos2 (J + 3sin2 (J = 2 (ii) 2 cos2 (J = 3 sin (J 10glO 2 8. 12 12. (iv) sec ( 4.--A_:_P_-_c_T. Evaluate (i) tan(n) (ii) sm (iii) cos tcr. To = -20. For the following angles find cos (J._) 4. If x t3 = In 3 and y = In 5 then find (i) eXeY (ii) eX+Y (iii) e2x (iv) eX + eY where 5.-. P = 1 X 103. (6n) 8 l = 0.cosh x = _e-x (iv) sinh x (ii) 8-"3 (iii) 210g105 + 10glO 8 - (iv) 3-1og3 p (v) Inx2 + Iny -Inx (vi) e21nx _lny2 2. Use the multiple angle formulae to find cos 'lr_. .1. Is I(x) tan2 (J c = 2 X 103. Ta = 20. A = 3 X 105. h = 10. Solve for t using natural logarithms: (i) 5t = 7 (ii) 2 = (1.02)t (iii) 3t7 = 2t5 (iv) Q = Qoant (v) y=3-2Int (vi) 3y = 1 + cosh x = e" 9.7 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1.p_.EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 39 3. ) 6. -(J = (sec (J + tan (J)2 1-sm (ii) 3sin2 (J . If In s = 2 and In t = 3 calculate (i) In(st) (ii) In(st2) (iii) In(Vsi) (iv) In~ (v) Int s (ii) (J = 137r_ 6 (iii) (J = 2n 3 (iv) (J = _ 5n 3 (v) (J = 5n 4 11. Use the trigonometric addition of angle formulae to show cos'lr_ = ~(v'6 12 4 + h). Simplify (i) _1 __ cos2 (J (ii) (sin x (iii) tan(J = x cos X an odd or even function? + COSX)2 (J + (sin x- COSX)2 VI + tan2 . Simplify as much as possible (i) 6x 3y-2 2 x 1 5y4 24 _x- 7. Prove the following identities: 1 + sin(J (i) --.o. sin (J. In an experiment you have to calculate the time to melt a block of ice using the formula t = _l (.3cos2 (J (iii) sinh x . C~n) Find t.2 = 1. tan (J. and sec (J: + 2e4t (i) (J=7r_ 4 3.

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f(x). at the point x.1 FIRST PRINCIPLES The definition of a derivative of a function f(x) is: f(x) = df = lim f(x dx h-+O + h) h . The following diagram This is the slope of the tangent to the function iIIustra tes: f (x) y= f(x} tangent f(x + h} f(x) x x+h .CHAPTER 4 DIFFERENTIATION 4.

sin x sin x CQS + cos x sin h .sin x h = lim----------~--------h-->O h = lim sinx(cos h -1) + cos x sin h h-->O h = CQSX since lim CQsh-1 h-+O h =0 ' (see the Asymptotics chapter for how to evaluate these limits).2 LINEARITY ! where c is a constant. = lim sin(a. 2.42 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I. h-->O + h) h . If f(x) sin x then f'(x) .x2 = h-->O hm------~----h = lim 2hx+ h h-->O 2 x2 = = h-->O h lim 2x+ h = 2x.. If lex) = x2 then f'(x) . + 2hx + h2 . (f(x) + g(x)) ~(c!(x)) dx . 4. = lim (x h-->O + h)2 h -x 2 .

dx (3smx) = d. -d. (41nx) d x . xn sin x cos x e1: ln z sinh x cosh x x eosh z sinh x - 1 EXAMPLES 1.3 SIMPLE DERIVATIVES The following derivatives of elementary functions are standard: f(x) c -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ f'(x) 0 nxn-1 cos x -sinx e1: where c is a constant. ~SinX 2.4 PRODUCT RULE dx[f(x)g(x)] d df = dx g(x) + f(x) dx dg . = 1 4x 2. 3 dx sm z = 3 cosx. 1. 4.(x) = +~ e~ = cosx + eX. 4. If J(x) = 5x2 + sinh x then J'(x) = lOx + cosh x. If f(x) = sin x + e~ then !.SIMPLE DERIVATIVES 43 EXAMPLES d.

If !(x) 2.!:. = lnx cos x then P(x) = . j_ 4.(x2 . cos X CQS X - cos2 X sin x( . = li[x 2 . sm2x 2. then smx f'(x) x2 = 2' x smx.x) ~[X2 + 2] (x2 2 (2x . sin z.1)(x + 2) .x) dxx2 + 2.sin x) = cos2 x' 1 3. CQSX-lnx x 4.(x2 = ~--~~~~~--~(x2 + 2)2 x2 +4x.2 (x2 + 2)2 + 2)2 - x) 2x .!!_ [f(X)] dx = jI(x)g(x) g(x) .5 QUOTIENT RULE .f(X)gl(X) (g(x))2 EXAMPLES I. -. If f(x) sin x = -then cos x f (x) = Thus I. .44 DIFFERENTIATION EXAMPLES I. (Sinx) dx" x2 = CQs(x)x2 X4 2xsinx !!_ (x2 .x] (x2 + 2) .x 2 CQSx. If f(x) = -. If f(x) = X2 sin x then f(x) = 2x sinx + x2 coax.

4. .sin x and dx ' ! x5 = 5x4 then ~ [CQS«X2+ 3X)5)] = . Since ~ x3 = 3x2 and ~ sin x ![sin3x] = = cos x then 3sin2x cos z. EXAMPLES 1. +x 2 ] 1+2x 3.sin«x2 + 3X)5)5(x2 + 3X)4 d~ [(x2 + 3x)] = .(g(x))g'(x) df dg Differentiate the outer function first then multiply by the derivative of the inner function.sin«x2 + 3X)5) ~ [(x2 dx + 3X)5] = . Since ! ln x = ~ then d dx [In(x +x 2' )] = x + x2 1 dx [x d. Since ~ sin x = cos x then d d 2 2 dx [sin(x )] = cos(x ) dx = cos(x2)2x.sin«x2 + 3x)5)5(x2 + 3X)4(2x + 3) = -5(2x + 3)(x2 + 3X)4 sin«x2 + 3X)5). Since ! cos x = .CHAIN RULE 45 4.6 CHAIN RULE d dx [f(g(x))] = dg dx = /. [x2] 2.

+ dx = 3x 2 dy 3x2 .. differentiate normally but treat each y as an unknown function of x. dx 1. if given f(y) = g(x) then differentiating gives f'(y): = g'(x) ===} dy dx g'(x) f'(y) where the chain rule has been used to obtain the left hand side.CQsy =---.. EXAMPLES I. For example.xsm(y) which can be rearranged to give dY) dy dx . Differentiating siny = x2 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives dy cosy dx = 2x or dy dx since CQsy = 2.:!y = ±-v'f="X4.7 IMPLICIT DIFFERENTIATION To find y'(x) where y(x) is given implicitly.46 DIFFERENTIATION 4.:. Differentiating 2x 2x CQsy ±Vl- X4 ±y'l- sin'. xcosy+y = x3 with respect to x where y = y(x) gives • ( cosy ..xsiny .

If J(x) = X4 then /. (t) = 2e2t is the velocity and .RAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION Given y = f(t) and x = g(t).(x) = 4x3and r(x) = 12x2.sint = _ cott .(t) . 4.9 SECOND DERIVATIVE The second (or double) derivative is the derivative of the derivative: f'(x) = ~.8 PA. then 5"(t) = 4e2t is the acceleration. If 5(t) = e2t is the position of a particle with time t.dxjdt _ /. Higher derivatives are found by repeated differentiation. If y(t) = t2 and x(t) = sin t then dy = dyjdt dxjdt = 2t cos dx 2. 51 2. = ~ (!).!I(t)' EXAMPLES 1. Ify(t) t = sin r and x(t) = cost then dy = dyjdt dx dxjdt = cost .PARAMETRIC DIFFERENTIATION 47 4. EXAMPLES 1. dyjdx dy _ dy/dt may be calculated as dx .

. ~n . The function y = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary + 12 = 0 points when dy = 6x2 _ 18x dx x= 1...----...2. At this point the tangent to the EXAMPLES I. 3.---.-- . Y : o :"J minimum r>. The function y = xe-z has a maximum when x = 1.---. A local minimum is lower than the surrounding points. 2. An inflection point is where the graph is flat but neither a maximum nor minimum. = O.48 DIFFERENTIATION 4. 5 6 2 3 4 maximum 0+----. The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary dy =2x+2=O dx point when x = -1. x ---. A local maximum is when the function at the stationary point is higher than the surrounding points. y) where f'(x) graph is flat.10 STATIONARY POINTS A stationary point is a point (x.

2. if f'(a) 3. The function y = (x . = 0 then x = a is an inflection point. EXAMPLES 1. Note that x = a is a stationary point so f(a) = O. which is therefore an inflection point. The function y = x2 + 2x + 2 has a stationary point at x = -1. The function y is = 2x3 - 9x2 + 12x has stationary points at x = 1 and x = 2. if f'(a) > 0 then x = a is a local < 0 then x minimum. The double derivative is so x = -1 is a minimum. . if f'(a) = a is a local maximum. 2. 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 3 X 3. The double derivative ~ dx which is positive at x ~y = 12x-18 = y 2 (a minimum) and negative at x = 1 (a maximum).STATIONARV POINTS 49 At a stationary point x = a the second derivative indicates the type of stationary point I.1)3 + 3 has derivatives ' dx which are both zero at x dy = 3(x _1)2 -= ~2 ~y 6(x -1) " = 1.

Roughly sketch x2 (iii) Y = e"'sinx (iv) y=lnx x4 lnx e'" (v) Y = sinx cos x (vi) y=- + 9x + 1 (iii) Y = 3x4 . (v) y (ii) Y = 3e'" . 8.2] (vii) y = (x . (i) Y = (x . is drawn below.11 EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 1. For the following functions find the stationary points and classify them.8x3 + 6x2 (vii) y = x2sinx (viii) y = cosh x sinh x (ix) y=- ell'" x 4.6x2 (iv) y = xe-'" (v) y = x2In(x) (vi) y=sinx+(1-x)cosx. Use the product rule or the quotient rule to find dy / dx: (i) y= xe'" cos x (ii) y=-- (i) yet) = cos t.2)2 (ii) Y = x3 .y2 = x 6. The function y = f(x) the function fl(x).1)2e'" 9. Use parametric differentiation to find dy / dx: (iii) Y = (x + 4)3 (iv) Y = (x + sinx)5 (v) y = sin(lnx2) (vi) y = exp(cos2 x) (vii) y = cosh(2x2) 3. Use implicit differentiation to find dy/dx: (i) y2 = sin(x . Find the derivative dT / dt: T=texp(~) where a is a constant. Use the chain rule to find dy / dx: (i) y = sin(2x) (ii) y = sin(x + x3) + y3 = x2 (vi) y2 + siny = sinx (vii) y(x + 1) . x(t) = sin t 7.1) (ii) cos(2y) = (1 _ X2)1/2 (iii) In(y) = xe'" .forxE[-1.5cosx 5. Find dy / dx for these more difficult problems: (i) y = exp(x cos x2) (ii) Y = e'" cos((2x (iii) (iv) 1 + 1)2) 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 y X 5 Y = . x(t) = sin(t2) (ii) yet) = et. Use linearity to find dy / dx: (i) y = 3sinx .x2 (iii) Y = 3lnx (iv) y = 2sinhx +5 2. x(t) = t2 (iii) yet) = t2.3coshx (iv) eY = e3".j2+x2 sinx y= (x+1)2 expx2 (v) Y = sin(x2 + exp(x3 + x)) (vi) y=-- x2 .50 DIFFERENTIATION 4.

.CHAPTER INTEGRATION 5 5.cosh x dx = sinh x . + c. If ~ In x = _!_ x then !~. 4. If d~ sin x = cos z d. then dx = In Ixl + c. If ! dx x2 = 2x then !2X dx = x2 + c.. 3. If dx sinh x = cosh x then ! I cos x dx = sin x . + c. 2.1 ANTIDIFFERENTIATION The indefinite integral (antiderivative) of ! f with respect to x is f(x) dx = F(x) +c where F1(x) = f(x) and c is known as the constant of integration. EXAMPLES 1..

where cis a constant. EXAMPLES I. 2. ! ! (sin x + eX) dx = . c / f(x) dx.52 INTEGRATION 5. Simple application of the Chain Rule in differentiation gives coskx dx = / Ii sin kx 1 + c.cos x + e" + c 5 cos x da: = 5 sin x + c 3..cosx + c / sinxdx / eXdx = e" +c In [z] + c = = cosh z + c sinh x + c /1 / . -1 cosxdx = sin x + c . dx sinhxdx / coshxdx Integration is linear so that /U(x) +g(x))dx / cf(x) dx = / f(x) dx +/ g(x) dx. .2 SIMPLE INTEGRALS The following integrals of elementary functions are standard: / / xndx = __ 1 xn+l +c n+l where n f:.

f f 6x dx = 3 f 2x dx = 3x 2 +C 6.3 THE DEFINITE INTEGRAL The definite integral with respect to lb x over the interval [a.4: = 20 81 1 4.F(a) where F' (x) = f (z). b] is written as: [F(x)]! f(x) da: = = F(b) . 1 o sin 7rxdx = -. 11 x dx = [3 3 [X4]3 '4 1= '4 . 1-1 r sinh x dx = coshj l). EXAMPLES 2. . 3sin(2x)dx = -~COS(2X) +C 5.THE DEFINITE INTEGFIAL 53 4. This is the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.cos 7rX 7r 1 [1] 1 0 = --(COS7r 7r 1 - cos O) = - 2 7r 3.cosh( -1) = 0 since cosh(x) is even.

0] = ~ 2. If f(x) is odd then fa {o (a i-a f(x) dx = }_a f(x) dx + 10 f(x) dx = O. If f(x) = {!: : ~~' then 3. f(x)dx=O f(x) dx = f(x) dx + l -i c a f(x) dx f(x) dx = lC f(x) dx can be integrated over the required intervals).54 INTEGRATION la lb lb (assuming f(x) EXAMPLES I. . }_1 r [z] dx r Ixl dx + 10 [z] dx r = r -xdx + (2 z d» }_1 10 = 1-1 ==- [~2[1+ [~2J: [0 .~] + [2 .

4). If /(x) 411(X)1x = d 1 = 3 f(x) dx - fs4 /(x) dx = 0.25 =0.5. c). The area between the curve and the z-axis between x = 2 and x = 4 is given by: y 0.3)(x . . is an even function (so f( -x) f(x)) then f c f(x) dx = 2 -c 10 r l(x) dx since the area for x E [-c.25+0.AREAS 55 5.4 A.5 1 2.2)(x .O) is the same as for x E [0.24 = (x . Consider the curve given by f(x) = x3 . EXAMPLES 1.9x2 + 26x .(area below the z-axis) :5 x :5 b.REAS If f is an integrable function then fal:> f(x) in the region a dx = (area above the z-axis) .

56 INTEGRATION 5. For definite integrals the limits of the integration are also trans- EXAMPLES I.x2 = cos u and dx = cos 1£du so that 1 --===dx = ~ f cos -cos 1£ 1£ d1£= U • = arcsmx+c. To evaluate f 2x sin( x2 + 1) dx 2x sin(x2 let u = x2 + 1 then = ~: = 2x so that f vx+ 1 r::-71 + 1) dx f sin udu = -cosu+c = . 5 dx let x = sin 1£ since ". To find 1 0 .5 INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION Integrals that can be written in the form f f(g(x))g'(x) dx are solved by the substitution f u = g(x)..1 . = f(x).x + 1 dx = f du -d = 1 so that x u-! du = 2u! +c = 2".-/2) u4du= [1£5. To evaluate 1) + c.. To find! h l-x2 l f S iU (.. 3. upon which the integral becomes f(u) du = F(u) + c = F(g(x)) + c. where F'(x) formed. f 1 dx let u = x 1 + 1 then f ---== "'.. ./2 sin" x cos x d$ let 1£ = sin x so that the integral becomes 4.cos(x2 + 2.x + 1 +c. ] 1 - sin(O) 5 0 1 =-.

. The integral Then we have J0 t' xe :t: dx is performed 2 by setting u = x. dV dx dx = uv ./ sinxdx = xsinx = z sin z .6 INTEGRATION BY PA. cos x +2 (e 2 :t:sin x- 21 e 2 :t:sin x dx) so by rearranging ! e2:t:sinxdx = 5 (2sinx e2:t: . UOl' UOl' 2 3. so that dv du .cosx + cd + cosx + C2. Integrating by parts twice we can evaluate / e2:t:sin xdx = _e2o. To evaluate / x cos x dx let u = x and d$ = cos x then dx = 1and v = sm z.IdUdx dx uvu dv = uv - 1 1 v duo EXAMPLES 1. cos x + 2 / e2:t:cosxdx = _e2o.(.cosx) + C.RTS Integration of a product of two functions can sometimes be solved by integration by parts: I or in short hand.INTEGRATION BV PARTS 57 5. 2. ~~ = e2:t: so that ~~ = 1and v = !e2:t:. / xcosxdx = xsinx .

Find te= dx 2 I(x) dx where I(x) = { 1. I(x) = { x3 ..3 e2". x2:1. Evaluate the following integrals using integration by parts. 6.7 1. x < 1.2 dx x+2 x2 +4x --dy 1 ylny 2x3y'7x4 . Find EXAMPLE QUESTIONS (Answers are given in Chapter 14) 4.e'" dx (vi) lev's -ds (vii) 10 5 e= dz VB fo7r xsin(x2) 9 dx (ii) (iii) (iv) 137r/2 sinxdx 7r/2 11/2 -dx 16 1/4 (viii) e-. (iv) j_11 I(x) dx where I(x) = Ix31. Evaluate the following integrals using a substitution. (iii) 10 I I l="» cosz sinz dz x2 sinxdx 00 I(x) dx where I(x) = { x~. .ffj 5. 10 10 10 7r x (i) (ii) fo7r x cos 12 xdx sin(3x) dx (--) X 3 (v) 57r 4 1/ 7r/4 3 -sin dx (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3.. (iv) 1v'U(U+1)dU (v) I ~+ 1 x2 dx (let x = sinhu).. Evaluate (i) (i) I (~ l-: + I+ I I (x9 sinh(2x) +X5) dx (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) e-14". (x + 1) sinxdx x2e'" dx In x dx by using u = In x and dv = 1. (i) (ii) j_11 I(x) dx where (ii) _x2. (vi) (i) I I I I 1 dx o x2 .dx x3 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 2. (i) 12.1 dx +5 d x z cos ( _z2) dz 4cosh(x) . x. x < 1. Find the following integrals using any method. 2: o.58 INTEGRATION 5.y --dy 2. sin x dx (integrate twice). x2:1. (iii) X x < 0. 1.) dx x10 + Xll + X12) dx dx I I I I I i4 xe-".2x .

U22 amI au + bu + h22 ai n a2n + bIn + h2n . i~ 1 [~~ + [-~ 379 3 -14 -~ -~ 1 1 = [-~ 6 -7 ~ 10 ~ 1 2.DDITION If A and Bare m x n matrices such that A= [ au au .CHAPTER MATRICES 6 6. amI bu and B= . .1 A. + bmi amn+ bmn Addition of matrices of different sizes is not defined. EXAMPLES 1. 1 . h21 [ bml then A+B = [ :~ :~~ . [~ ~] + [ ~] cannot be done.

airbrj. 1 and B= [ bu ~1 b.] [ -q = [ -i and B= -4 -1 2 then 2 -1 12 -~ 3 0 -4 -1 = [ -8+0+27 6+0+3 -4+ 0+6 -28 -4 8+0-36 -6+ 0-4 4+0-8 -16+ 2-9] 12 -1-1 -8+ 1-2 =[ 1: -10 2 -23] . 10 -9 . . + That is. .BA. . .. . . [1 2] 3412 [1 -1] = [3 75 3] 2 [1 -1] [1 2] [-2 -2] . If a.. that is.. .. .60 MATRICES 6. . a. . matrices are noncommutative. .1m <l2m . In general AB ai2 b2j + . where Gij = ail b1j + Gij is the dot product of row i of A and column j of B.. . . . a22 . arl ar2 arm bnl bn2 then AB = C is an m x n matrix.. . #.ll A= [ <l2l .. . EXAMPLES I . If A = [ -~ 4 2 9] -~ ~ AB [-~3 ~ -~] .. 1234 = 710 3. . al2 . .. .2 MULTIPLICATION AB is defined if A is size m x rand B size r x n.12 ~2 . . . ..

4. IA=AI= EXAMPLE The 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 identity matrices are .IDENTITY 61 while BA = = = [ -2 0 3 2 -4] 0 1 -4 -1 [ 4 2 9] -3 -1 1 2 12 -8 .8] 0+0+2 0+0+1 0+0+2 [ 12+ 12.3 IDENTITY The identity matrix. A.1 27 .6 .4 -18 + 2 . for all n x n matrices A. defined only for square matrices (n x n). 6.2 6+ 4. is and is defined such that.8 -4 .4 .2 .2 -22 -10 -24 ] 2 2 1 [ 22 9 21 f: AB.

The transpose of an m x n matrix A is an n x m matrix denoted by At. (cA)t = cAt 4.] am2 a2n amn EXAMPLES I. If A ~ [~ _~ 1 men A' ~ [~ ~ _:]. aln au a22 aml a 7. (A + B)t = At + Bt 3. if A= [ U2l an aml al2 a22 a.4 TRANSPOSE The transpose of a matrix is formed by writing its columns as rows. If A and Bare matrices and c is a scalar. then I. (At)t = A 2." ] U2n amn then At = [ au an .62 MATRICES 6. (AB)t = Bt At EXAMPLE . that is.

34 1 2 1 -1 2 1= -1- 4 = -5. 75 026 003 1 _112 0 ~I+o+o =lx2x3=6 is not possible. -3 21 4 5 6 = -31 5 -3 ~ 1. 2 -3 1 = -3(5 = -75 + ~1 18) .2(4 -12) + + 11 .be.5 DETERMINANTS The determinant of a 2 x 2 matrix A = [~ :] is det(A) = IAI = ad . 2 1= 4. EXAMPLES 1. I~ :1 7 2 . 2. .DETERMINANTS 63 6.: I (-12 -10) 3.21 .6 = -2. all The determinant of a 3 x 3 matrix A= [ an a:n (expanding by the first row). 4.

1 10 = -21 1 1 21 = -2(11 2) = 2 by expanding along the second row..[1(-28 -4 4 5 -5 3 -7 + (-2)(-1)7 1 3 2 4 -4 -3 9 43 + 15) - 3(28 . + 2[1(-9 2.1 COFACTOR EXPANSION The determinant of an n x n matrix may be found by choosing a row (or column) and summing the products of the entries of the chosen row (or column) and their cofactors: det(A) = o. The matrix of elements Cij is called the cofactors matrix. + tlnjCnj. EXAMPLES I.144 + 8] = -310.) = (O)Cn + (I)C23 + (O)C33 + (-2)C43 1 3 2 = (1)(-1)5 = .. The full cofactors matrix for the previous question is found by crossing out each row and column .39] + 2[-45 .5.64 MATRICES 6. + <linCin. (cofactor expansion along the det(A) = <lilCi1 ph column) + <li2Ci2 + .36) ...ljC1j + a2jC2j + .20)] . ~~.3(12 + 36) + 2(16 . (cofactor expansion along the ith row) where Cij is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted.15) + 2(20 .12)] = -[13 . multiplied by (-1) i+J. 1 5 3 -5 4 -3 4 -4 2 0 1 9 0 3 -2 -7 (Expansion is along the 3rd column since it has two zeros. 3.

INVERSE

65

in tum remembering to multiply by (-l)i+j:

**Cll = +11 ~ ~ 1= -2 C12=<-I)1 ~ ~ 1=2 C13 = +11 ~ ~ 1=
**

and so one, giving 0

6.6

INVERSE

A square matrix A is said to be invertible if there exists B such that

AB=BA=I.

B is denoted A-I and is unique.

If det(A) = 0 then a matrix is not invertible.

EXAMPLE

The matrix B = [~

~] is the inverse of A =

AB =

and

[31 5] [ -12 2

3

[-i -!] -5] = [1 0] = I 1

since

3

0

BA =

[ -12 -5] [3 5] = [1 0]

12

0

1

=

I.

66

MATRICES

6.6.1

TWO BY TWO MATRICES

For 2 x 2 matrices, if A = [~

~]

then

A

If det(A)=

-1 _

- ad _ be

1 [d -ab]

-e

providing ad - be

f- O.

ad - be = 0 then A -1 does not exist.

EXAMPLES I.IfA=[!

~

2. If A = [ ~

] ;]

then

A -1

= __!_ [

-2

4 -3

-2 ]

1 .

.

then

A -1 = ~ [ 3 30

-2 ]

1

6.6.2

PARTITIONED MATRIX

Inverses can also be found by considering the partitioned matrix

then performing row operations until the final partitioned matrix is of the form

EXAMPLE The inverse of 121 010 [1 1 0

1

can be calculated using row reductions where R3 --t R3 - Rl means that Row 3 becomes the old

INVERSE

67

Row 3 minus Row I.

[ [ [ [ [

hence

2 110 10 0 1 ~ 10 0 0

~

2 1 10 1 0 01 -1 -1 -1 0

1

n n n

J] j]

R3-t R3 -Rl

~0

2 1

1

1

R3-t R3+ R2

0

-1

10 01 -1 1

1 1 -2 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

0

1

Rl-t Rl- 2R2

R3-t -R3

0 0 0 -1 10 0 1 ~ 0 1 1 -1

1

Rl-t Rl- R3

[

6.6.3

2 1 ~1

~r[

=

~

-1 1 ~ -1 -1

]

COFACTORS MATRIX

The inverse of a n x n matrix A can be found by considering the transpose of the cofactors matrix divided by the determinant:

A-I = _1_Ct

IAI

where Gil is the determinant of A with row i and column j deleted., multiplied by (-1 )i+l. The matrix C is called the cofactors matrix.

The matrix has cofactors matrix C= hence the inverse [ -2 2 0] 3 -3 4 -2 1 0 6. Since IAI = -1we get A-1=__!_ -1 [ -1 ~ -~ _~ ]T 0 -1 = [ ~ -~ ~ 1 -1 -1 ].68 MATRICES EXAMPLES l.7 MATRIX MANIPULATION Matrices do not behave as real numbers. . 2.If then Cll =I ~ ~ 1=0 ~1=1 C21=(-1)1~ and so on. When manipulating matrix expressions a distinction is made between multiplying from the left (pre-multiplication) and multiplying from the right (post-multiplication).

Given that ABC = I find B? ABC (A-1A)BC IB(CC-1) B I A-1I A-lIC-1 A-1C-1 (CA)-l. 4. with eigenvector~. . pre-multiply both sides by A -1 post-multiply both sides by C-1 simplifying 2.MATRIX MANIPULATION 69 EXAMPLES 1. then A3 is A3 (PDP-1) (PDP-1) (PDP-1) PD (P-1 P) DP-1 PDP-1 PD2p-1 PDP-1 PD3p-1 since pp-1 = I again since pp-1 = I.9 on eigenvalues since this example shows that if A has eigenvalue A. If Av = AV then if A-1 exists then A-1 Av = A-1 AV = AA-lV v = AA-lV :x-~=A 1 -1 ~. then A -1 has eigenvalue 1/ A for the same eigenvector. See Section 6. If Av = AV then A3~ = AA A~ = AA(A~) = AAA~ =A2Av =A3V. If A = PDP-1. 3.

Hence R3 -+ R3 . The augmented matrix is an easy way of writing systems of equations. EXAMPLES I.8 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Systems of m linear equations invol ving n unknowns may be written as a matrix equation. If A is invertible then x = A -1h. Gaussian Elimination allows • a multiple of one row to be added to another row.2Rl means each element in Row 3 becomes the old Row 3 element minus two times the corresponding Row 2 element.5z = 2 is written as or Ax e b. Systems of equations are typically solved by Gaussian elimination. x+y+2z=1 2x+4y . • a row to be multiplied by a (non-zero) number.5z .70 MATRICES 6.3z = 5 3x+6y . For example.3z 1 5 =2 3x+6y . For the following system 2x x+y+2z + 4y .

z = 11.2R1 R3 .3R2 1 3/2 ] -11/2 R3 --t -2R3 o o 1 0 2 -7/2 1 3/~ ] 11 This gives the straightforward solution by back substitution of x = -61.3R1 R2 --t R2/2 R3 --t R3 . 2.5y -2 4 -x + 3y written as Ax = b such that The matrix A has inverse A -1 = [~ ~] so . y = 40.SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS 71 the augmented matrix is [l 1 4 2 -3 6 -5 [! j] 1 [! -: 1 [! 1 [" 1 2 3 2 -7 -11 1 1 3 2 -7/2 -11 1 1 0 2 -7/2 -1/2 n 1 R2 R3 --t --t R2 . Consider the system 2x .

1) or a line in three dimensional space. 3 .2(3 . . t) = (5. 2.0) + t( -1.t.t) . and then express z . one solution) are typically represented by the following: I. . EXAMPLE To solve the system: perform row reductions to obtain 1 -2 011 -1 [ 000 and setting z = t gives y = 3 - t and x .z) = (5 . .72 MATRICES After performing Gaussian reduction by row operations the three cases (no solution. -1. If you perform row operations to obtain (where a.3. infinite solutions. y.t. t is some parameter. y in terms of t.. If you perform row operations to obtain a [ o Ode kl k2 00 0 C b 1 then you get an infinite number of solutions that represent a line where you let z = t. If you perform row operations to obtain a [ then if k3 ¥- ° o Ode k2 0 0 k3 b C kl 1 you get no solution. 3. f are non-zero real numbers) then you get one unique solution.t = -1 so (e.

'" '" To find the eigenvalues solve the characteristic equation IA .1 = 0 so Al [ -A = 1 and A2 = -1 are the eigenvalues. For ). .l.~ ] = [ ~ ] .All To find the eigenvectors solve = o. Yl ] then Both equations give Xl .EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS 73 6.9 EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS If A is an n x n matrix then a scalar A is called an eigenvalue of A.~] then [~ ~] [ . t ERe.Yl = 0 so Yl is a free variable. To find the eigenvectors solve 1 _A 1] ~ = O. called an eigenvector. such that Av = AV. EXAMPLE To find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors for set up the characteristic equation which gives X}. For Al = 1 let VI '" = [ X. Hence the eigenvector corresponding to Al = 1 is t(l. . 1).2 = -I let ~ = [ . if associated with it there is a non-zero vector~. where t is any number.

'" '" 6. -1).74 MATRICES Both equations give X2 + Y2 = 0 so Y2 is a free variable. 789 6. The length of the eigenvector is unimportant hence it is convenient to write Vi = (1.) EXAMPLE The trace of [ 4 1 23] 5 6 = 1 + 5 + 9 = 15. Hence the eigenvector corresponding to ).ATRICES The matrix A is symmetric if A = At. EXAMPLE A 3 x 3 diagonal matrix has the form [~ g ~].10 TRACE The trace of a matrix is the sum of its diagonal elements. -1). EXAMPLE The matrix [ 2 1 2 3] 5 6 is symmetric. . (Note that the trace is also equal to the sum of the eigenvalues.2 = -1 is p(l.1). 369 6. V2 = (1.12 DIAGONAL MATRICES A diagonal matrix is one with only terms along the main diagonal.11 SYMMETRIC M.

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS 75 6.13 1. AAt: (i) A= [ ~ -1 3 3 -1 1 1 x+5y+z x+6y-z 2x 0 2 c? + ay + z 9. for the system B= [ ~ j] (iii) A = [ _~ ] B = [1 3. (iii) infinite solutions. of the matrices (i) [~ !] ~ (ii) 12 1 [ ~3 ] A=[~ 1 2 o~ ] . At A. Find the inverse. For what values of a and c do you get (i) one solution. if it exists. 1 A=[~ B = [ -~ (ii) A=[ B=[ (iii) o 3 (i) o [ [ ~ 6 2 o 2 1 2 1 1 -7 -6 2 6 4 9 1] -1 -1 -2 1 -1 ] -2 7 (ii) ~~ o ! ~] -7 6 (iii) [! x+2y-z oo o o o~ ~1 -S 6. Find At. AB. solve 4x -y 4y -z 0 0 -4x + 17y - 4z o. ] 1 Sx+3y-7z o 3 o~ o S o 2. (ii) no solution.12z 7. Find A (i) EXAMPLE QUESTIONS + B. First showing that a non-trivial solution does indeed exist. Solve the system of equations 2 4 -S. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A: (i) -5 (ii) A= [~ -:] (ii) 4. FindAB: ] J] 1 1 -1 4y . (Answers are given in Chapter 14) BA and the trace(A): 5. (i) A = [! ~] 8. Find the determinants of the following matrices.

76 This page intentionally left blank .

EXAMPLES 1. by a directed line segment in the plane. b). y v b a ~------------------~x The vector has both length II~II and direction. The vector (1.CHAPTER VECTORS 7 7. 1) points in a direction with angle 7r / 4 to the x axis.0) points in the x direction and has length 1. or geometrically.1 VECTOR NOTATION A vector in R2 is represented by an ordered pair ~ = (a. . The vector (1. 2.

~ = (3.2) and ~ = (2.0) and j = (0. R5.3) then..4) is a three dimensional vector so:e E R3.5. 4~ = (4.5. = W2.16).-v = (2.-v .6) . If ~ = (1. + ~ = (3.3.2.2) is a five dimensional vector so:e E 7.0) is not defined.7).3) = 2i then ~ . . (1. wn) and c is a scalar constant then . (CIJt. 3. + (4. 2.. -3.x) 4.. . 2. . ~+ ~ and = (2.2 ADDITION AND SCALAR MULTIPLICATION If ~ = (Vl..1.7. cv EXAMPLES I. ~ = (1. If i = (1.. .x.4) and ~ = (1.-v 'V . .2 + x.. vn)..x. ~ = (Wi.CiJ2..x). -1.Vn+wn) V+W (Vi+Wl>tl2+W2.-v + 3j ~ . -4.1 + x. .I.-4. If~ = (l.CiJn). V2.78 VECTORS A vector in R!' is represented by an ordered n-tuple EXAMPLES I. .1) then .

J6 + 1 +4+ 1 +9 =.11(4.3)11= 3.. EXAMPLES I. 3 2 (4.1.3 LENGTH The length of a vector in B" is given by II~II = Jv~+ vi + .3)11 = V32 y 4 + 42 =5 < 3 + 4. EXAMPLE (0.3) and 11(0.0)11= 4.1.0) = (4. + v~.3) (4. 11(1.LENGTH 79 7.0) 2 3 4 .ji6 =4 2.1)11 = Vip + 22 + 12 = . 11(1..3) + (4..3)11 =V1 The triangle inequality states that That is the length of the sum of vectors must be less than the length of the two individual vectors added.3) (0.2.2. 11(4.

1.: ... EXAMPLES I..1.. EXAMPLES I.80 VECTORS 7. (VI. .2. Vectors in If3 are often written as the sum of the components in the direction of the Cartesian unit vectors: v= ...'!. The result of a dot product is a scalar.1)..V3) = VI i ~ + V2j~ + V3k.1) = 1 + 2 + 3 = 6 2.are vectors in R!' then the dot product is defined by This is also called an inner product on H".0) = 7.0.. (1. ~=(O... (1. (1.O.0).:.2..4 CARTESIAN UNIT VECTORS The Cartesian unit vectors for R3 are t=(O..0)..3) = 12 + 22 + 32 = 14 3.5 DOT PRODUCT If ~ and'!!.3) = i + 2j + 3~ 2j 2.V2. 1I~1I2 ='!.2..3)· (1.2.3)· (1. (0.2.. ~=(1.

2) = a + 2b = 0 hence the simplest choice is (a. Two vectors. (1. '!!.. (1.2). 1) is such that 6 J42' 2.3) . (1.1.2) write (a.1.1. To find a vector.2. -4) are perpendicular since ~ . perpendicular to (1.2) are still perpendicular to (1. The angle 0 between (1.3) and (1.1) and ~ = (2. For example (2.2. EXAMPLES 1. . b). 2. (a. -1) and (-4. 2. -1) are at right angles since (1. 3) and (1. 1.DOT PRODUCT 81 The angle 0 between two vectors is given by EXAMPLES 1. b) = (-2. = 2+2- 4 = O.1) although any multiple of this will be perpendicular to (1. b) . ~ = (1.2). -1) = 0 hence cosO = O. ~ and ~ are orthogonal if they are perpendicular to each other and U·V =0.2.

then the cross product ~ x ~ is defined in determinant notation by ~j tt X 11 k 1£3 V3 = 1£1 Vl 1£2 V2 'U3 V3 = = "" i 1 'U.2.-v 2.2. If ~ = (2.~ 11~ -12) -! "" -! 1+ ~ 11~ -~ 1 = i(18 .0) = i "" j k 1 1 1 -1 ° 2 = (2. .0) x (0. .2) x (1.4.1) is: "" i j 2 0 k 3 1 (1.1£IV3.0) = (0. 2 (1£2V3 . . 1£2Vt) EXAMPLES I. That is i x j .4) .1.2) x (1. -3.2.3) x (1.0.-2). then w=uxv= "" "" "" 2 -3 12 4 = ~ 1 -~ "" i j "" k 1 -6 1.82 VECTORS 7.6 CROSS PRODUCT If ~ and!: are two vectors in R3.-2).2 V2 1_ j 1 1£1 "" Vl 1£3 V3 1+ k 1 'Ul "" 1£IV2 - VI 'U.2.1.-1.1£3V2. 1£3Vl .1). The cross product (1.j(-12 ~ ~ + ~ + 36) k(8 = 14i "" + 24j + 44k = "" (14.0) (1. 3. 4. 1) and ~ = (12.0. .0.-v ~ = k. V2 .0. 1. The cross product (1. -1.24. (1. -6).3) x (1.44).1) = is: 1 1 = (2.

44) = 0. = (2. I)}. (1.2.1.7 LlNEA.UNEAAINDEPENDENCE 83 Note that the result of taking the cross product of two vectors is another vector where the direction of ~ x ~ is perpendicular to both ~ and~.4.1. Un if it can be written as + C2U2 + . 2. 0).1). 11 11 = ClUl t"'o.J t"'o. (0.24.0.1. (2. . -6) = (14.0) since we can never combine the three vectors to get the third component of (1. 2.7.1) .. (14.24... 1.2. (0. .. 1) x (12.1) is not a linear combination of (1..3.1.2) = 0 and 2.0).(0.1.44) = 28 . 7.44) and (2.-1. In a previous example (1. Any vector (a. + CnUn t"'o.3) is a linear combination of (1. (0. 0).0. (0.2. -2) . (1.0) + 3(0..1). Note that (2. Similarly (12.7.0). In a previous example (2. -3. .0) (2.J where Cl.0) since (2.2.2) x (1.4.1. EXAMPLES 1. 0.0)... .3) = 2(1.72 + 44 = O.R INDEPENDENCE A vector ~ is a linear combination of the vectors Ul. (2.J t"'o. . (14. -1) .24.-2)· (1. -6) .0).2.0) = 0. (1.Cn are constants. b.. -1. -2).J U2. 3..1.2. c) in R3 can be found from a linear combination of {(I. EXAMPLES 1. 1.

. The vectors i.-v hence if ~ = ~ then Cl = C2= Cs= O. (1.0) are dependent since implies Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 2Cl + 2C2 = O. 1. (2.. .. 3. . C2= -1.0) = (0.0) are independent since Cl(1.2). Cs= 1.0).. (0. for example Cl = 1. k are independent since for any vector v ~~~ ~ = (a..1. (2. = Cn = O. if the only constants Cl. b.1. (1. (1.. 1. C2 = -1.-v + csk = ai + bj + ck ~ ~ .. (0. (1. More than two vectors in R2 can never be independent.1.+ C2U2 + .2.. Un are linearly independent that satisfy ClUJ.. c) = Cl i ~ + C2j .1).0.1). i. The vectors (1. .84 VECTORS A set of vectors U1..1) + Cs(0.2. Since we have two equations in three unknowns we can always find a non-zero Cl. C2. ..0) implies Cl = Cl+C2+CS=0 C2 which gives Cl = C2= Cs= O. Cs = 1.0). b. ..0). U2.. 4.. Cn ..0. + CnUn ... EXAMPLES I.0) are dependent (not linearly independent) since Cl + 2C2 + Cs = 0 Cl+C2=0 0=0 has an infinite number of solutions... =0 are Cl = C2= .c) it is possible to write (a. ° =° 2.0) + C2 (0..1. one being Cl = 1. Cs to satisfy these equations...

UNEAAINDEPENDENCE

85

A set of vectors is linearly independent if the determinant of the matrix with vectors as columns is not zero.

**EXAMPLES I. For (1, 1,0), (0,2,1), (0, 1,0) the determinant
**

100 12 010 1

=

-1

f:-

0

hence the vectors are independent. 2. For (1,1,0), (2,1,0), (1,0,0) the determinant

121

110

000

=

0

hence the vectors are dependent. We can show that

(2,1,0) = (1,1,0)

so they are not independent of each other.

+ (1,0,0)

86

VECTORS

7.8

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS +~, 3~

II~II:

**(Answers are given in Chapter 14)
**

1. Evaluate the sum ~ and 5. Find ~ . ~, ~ the u and v: (i) ~=(1,2,1),~=(-1,3,1) (ii) ~ = (-3,2, -1), ~ = (6,1,1) (iii) ~ = (2,3, 0), ~ = (4, 1, -2) (iv) ~ = (0,0, 0), ~ = (1,4,3) (v) ~ = (3,3, 3), ~ = (-1, -1, -1) (vi) ~ = (1,2, 4), ~ = (2,4, -2) 6. For the previous question verify that ~ = ~ orthogonal (at right angles) to both ~ and ~. 7. Determine whether the following vectors are linearly independent (i) {(4, 1), (1, 2)}

X~ X~

and cos

e where e is the angle between

**(i) ~ = (-2, -1), ~ = (1,1) (ii) ~ = (3,4), ~ = (4,3) (iii) ~=(-2,1),~=(-1,-1) (iv) ~ = (3,4, 2), ~ = (1,1,1) (v) ~ = (3,1,1, 0), ~ = (1,0,1,1) (vi) ~ = 2i_ + 3j (vii) u = i
**

r'V r'V

+~, ~ = i_ r'V

j-~

+ j,

r'V

v = i - 3j

r'V

2. For the above vectors verify the triangle inequality that

is

**II~+ ~II :::; I~II+ II~II· I
**

3. In the diagram below write down the two vectors ~ and ~ in algebraic form then find and draw the vector ~

+ ~.

y

(ii) {(2, 1), (4, 2)} (iii) {(I, 1), (1,2), (3, I)}

6 5 4 3 2 1

x

(~) {(1,1,1),(0,2,0),(1,3,2)}

(v) {(I, 1,1), (0,2,0),(1,3,

I)}

(vi) {(I, 2, 0,1), (1, 1,0,1), (2, 1,3,1), (0,2, -3, I)} 8. Find a number c so that (1, 2, c) is orthogonal to (2,1,2). 9. Find the vector which goes from the point (1, 3,1) to the point (2, 5, 3). What is the length of this vector? 10. Show that the line through the points (1, 1, 1) and (2, 3, 4) is perpendicular to the line through the points (1,0,0) and (3, -1,0). 11. Show that a . (b xc) can be written as

al a2 b2

C2

a3 b3

C3

1

4. Evaluate the sum ~

2

3

4

5

6

a . (b xc) =

bl

+ ~ and II~+ ~II:

I

C1

= Ulb2C3 - alb3c2

- a2blc3 - a3b2C1.

(i) ~ = (3,2, -1), ~ = (-1, -2, 1) (ii) ~ = (1,0, 9), ~ = (-2, -2, -2) (iii) ~ = (4, -4, -3), ~ = (8,7,1)

+ a2b3C1 + a3blc2

12. Verify the above equation using the vectors a = (1,1,2), b = (1,0,1), c = (0,1,1).

CHAPTER

8

ASYMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS

8.1

LIMITS

As x

-+ 0 then

I. xn

< xm

if 1 < m

< n, 0 < x < 1

2. lim !(x)

;l)-tO" ;l)-tO

+ g(x) "

= lim !(x)

z-tO z-tO

+ ;l)-tO g(x) lim

3. lim !(x)g(x)

;l)-tO"

= lim !(x) lim g(x)

;l)-tO z-tO

assuming lim !(x) and lim g(x) exist.

EXAMPLES

" 1. (0.1 )3

<. (0.1 )2

**3. lim sin x cos x = lim sinx lim cos z = 0 x 1 = 0
**

;l)-tO z-tO z-tO

4. lim

;l)-tO

x(x - 1) 1 =x(x - 2) 2

cos x 1m -=1 1 8.)1'(0.0.)2 1"(0..'. sin x 1m 2 "'-tl I. + (x .88 ASVMPTOTICS AND APPROXIMATIONS 8. Taylor series EXAMPLES I. z-tZe lim f(X)) = lim f'(x)f 9 . sin x = sin 0 + x sin' 0 + = sinO x2 2 sin" 0 + 6 sin'" 0 + . =x--+··· 6 2. 2x Im-= 2 1 2. 2 3 2 6 .) 2! + ..2 L'HOPITAL'S RULE If -( ) has lUlllt .. "'-to x = "'-to I'..3 TAYLOR SERIES f(x) f(x = f(O) 1(0. '..x z-tz< z-tz< EXAMPLES I..x IIm--=1 "'-tl x-I I' .. 0 0 00 00 as x -+ Xc then lim g'(x).0..+ x + ..or - f(x) 9x . x2 2 x3 + xcosO x3 -- sinO . eX = 1+ x x + .) 2 Maclaurin series + a) = + (x ..) + x!.(O) + ~! f"(x) + .- x3 6 coso + ..

if if if m<n a>O a <0. 9. x2 1 2x3""" 2x as as x -700..2 < (100)0..5 x9 1 3. 7. < ell"'.. x +". x -700. (100)0.. < e~/I0 _ ~ as x -+ 00. 6. x2 + 1 2x +x+3 x2 + 1 2x3+x+3""" -+ x2 1 -+ 2x 2 -2 as x -+ 00. EXAMPLES 1.. 5. 8. 4.4 ASYMPTOTICS As x -+ +00 then Xffi Xffi Xffi n < x... ... e2ll' 2e2ll' -..ASYMPTOTlCS 89 8.x2 + 2x + 1 as x -+ 00. -2 > e x 2 as x -7 00.-. ell' 2 cosh e ell' as x -+ 00. > ell"'. 2.

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