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Distinctive values, rituals, ideologies and beliefs. Ongoing reality construction.






Some of the things that form the culture of organizations include artifacts. retired. 2010). the culture is casually viewed as something the employees have accepted in their day-to-day work. Ceremonies and rituals are also considered part of the organization culture. Culture of the organization is also evidenced by the rules. Attitudes of the employees tell us of the underlying beliefs of the organizations and hence are part of the culture. Culture of the organization is usually transmitted through stories. The channel of communication and the language of the organization tell us more about the culture and the leadership style in the organization. adaptability. Rituals act as a rite of passage that are performed when employees are promoted. According to Denilson model. This should not be the case and organizations should evaluate the culture and its implication on the strategic direction of the company (Richman. The Denilson model of organizational culture was formulated after twenty-five years of research and focuses on four critical traits of culture that is the mission. Artifacts act as reminders to the employees about the culture of the organization. The stories may be true or false but they form part of the culture (Schein. norms. ORGANIZATIONS AS CULTURES 2 Organizational culture comprises the shared values. Ceremonies include birthday parties for the employees and the end of the year party. involvement and consistency. 1999). histories and jokes. norms and expectations that guide the organization and its members in their work and their interaction (Jain. For many organizations. Artifacts may also include a bunch of flowers at the reception office that has a special meaning to the visitors of the organization. culture involves defining the long-term goals and objectives of the organization to enable the employees see how their daily activities connect with . or a new product is launched in the market. ethical codes and values that the employees must abide by. These physical things have a particular symbolism in the organization and include awards of excellence and prizes won in different competitions. 2005).

1998). Wolff. This trait helps in integration. The mission statement. The model is the best because it attaches organizational performance to the culture of the organization. employees should join efforts towards that common goal. The Denilson model focuses on individual and departmental efforts and hence the best in analyzing the administrators’ and staff’s efforts at Tui University. 2005). ORGANIZATIONS AS CULTURES 3 the strategic objectives of the business. Consistency creates a strong culture based on the beliefs. Involvement of every member of the organization in the affairs of the company is another trait of the Denilson culture model. career development and advancement procedures should form part of the culture of the organization. values and symbols of the organization. Another valuable trait according to the Denilson culture model is consistency. 1998). this is the best model of assessing and understanding the corporate culture since it focuses on the individual as well as the organizational parameters. purpose statement. & Thierry. norms and values of the organization should be replicated in every activity the employees are involved. Everyone in the organization should be given enough training to exploit his or her potential. The culture model emphasizes on empowerment and capacity development of all employees (Diederik & et al. The beliefs. Effective training programs. The Denilson culture model is more effective in analyzing and understanding Tui University effectiveness since all the other model may not be applicable in a learning environment where stakeholders like students come and leave without staying there for long. Drenth. coordination and control (Diederik. . vision and the objectives of the business should guide and shape the behaviors of the employees (Jain. To achieve the goals of the organizations. Employees can understand how their work affects the others and hence the work is well coordinated and integrated for the benefit of the organization as a whole. The model can be universally applicable to all industries and hence a comparison between two or more firms can be made. According to Tui University.

The human resource manager will employ only the candidates whose values. grow and develop. 2008). For organizations to succeed they should remain focused to their customers and competitors ever-changing needs and restructure themselves in a way that makes them remain competitive as well as fulfill the customers need. A symbolic action like rewarding excellent performance is a way of changing the culture since it motivates employees’ behavior towards high performance. interpret and transfer messages from the environment in to the internal behavioral changes hence this enables it to adapt. In times of crises. ORGANIZATIONS AS CULTURES 4 Organizations receive. . High. train or teach employees when new systems or products launched by the company. The top management possesses behaviors that are regarded as a role model to employees and hence the employees may be required to identify with and demonstrate this behavior in their work. the leader can send a strong message about the values and assumptions by supporting a particular value hence emphasizing its importance in the organization. The process of cultural change can occur in different ways. 1999). the socialization process is another way the cultures change and sustain itself. Some informal statements that employees make about the working relations help in imparting the culture to new employees (Alvesson & Sveningsson. Tracy & Simpson. management is not only interested in the formal qualifications but also on the ability of the applicant to fit in the established organizational culture.performing organizations welcome change and new ways of doing things and thus they are able to meet customer expectations (Jain. According to Alvesson & Sveningsson (2008). Statement of principles that expresses culture in writing can be issued to the employees when the management is certain that the culture of the organization is fading away (Deetz. 2005). beliefs and goals can be aligned with the corporate goals and values. The employer may instruct. Schabracq (2007) asserts that in the selection of new employees.

These include logos. 2010). The fourth element according to the Johnson and Scholes’ model is the power structures that are in place. According to the theory. This structure plays a critical role in influencing the core values of the organization as well as reflecting the power structure in the organization. Schein describes culture from an observational point of view (Schein. 2010). Routine activities like training and personnel recruitment procedure usually reinforce to the employees that the senior management values a particular behavior. The last but not the least element according to the above model is the routine and rituals. culture is one of the most difficult attributes to change in an organization. ORGANIZATIONS AS CULTURES 5 According to the Johnson and Scholes’ cultural web model. The first element is the organizational structure. office carpets and company cars. The third element according to the model is the corporate symbols. The first are the visible things like artifacts. both the formal and the informal. These symbols provide a visible reflection of the culture of the company as well as an impression to the employees on the standards they are expected to adhere (Schein. These affect on the employees morale and character and make them channel all their efforts towards attainment of corporate goals. six inter-related elements comprise the culture of the organization. The second level of culture is the values that are . Stories about charismatic leaders of the past will strengthen the employees’ beliefs about the organization. The next element is the stories and jokes that focus on past events of the organization which are told to people inside or outside the organization. status symbols. According to Schein’s model. dress code and mission statements. The second important element is the control structures including the measurement and reward systems used in the organization. Senior managers and directors with the most power are considered as more influential in the organization and employees will emulate their behaviors and even the dress code. culture involves three different aspects.

2010). 2008). . Beliefs are specific and are actually talked about in the company (Schein. Culture echoes the prevailing management style and since managers hire new employees with the same traits as them. The top management should show their commitment to the change process since they are viewed by the employees as the mentors in the organization. The organization must plan its future objectives. ORGANIZATIONS AS CULTURES 6 expressed in the organization and the organizational behavior. culture comprises of practices. Organizations with core values are successful in the long –term. Organizational culture also focuses on the human side of the organizational life (Alvesson & Sveningsson. mission and objectives of the business and are usually documented. vision and values before initiating a cultural change. Changing organizational culture is the toughest task that the management may be tasked with. The last aspects of culture according to Schein are the assumptions that are not necessarily identifiable in the day-to-day interaction of the employees (Schein. 2010). Hofstede’s ‘onion’ model of culture defines culture as both visible and invisible. symbols. mission. The culture of the organization significantly contributes to the brand image in the market. The change of culture should concentrate on the positive aspects since it is easier to enlarge the positive aspects than to get rid of the negative ones (Deetz & et al. The culture is a source of motivation. the existing culture is further reinforced. 2007). External stakeholders like suppliers ought to be consulted to give their input. Values include the purpose. stories and values. 1999). The thinking of organizations as cultures is very important since the culture is linked to the economic performance and the organizational success. Organizations should enhance their culture because it creates appropriate systems of shared meaning that help employees work together towards the desired corporate goals (Schabracq. According to Hofstede.

(1999). (2007). from http://www. London. Routledge Deetz. C. Inc. S. San Fracisco. London. Atlantic publishers &distributors. S. Richman.J. H. The Culture Wars. M. (2005). Sage publications limited. T. N. Organisational behaviour.L.. . Wolff. Changing organizational culture: the change agent’s guidebook. M. New York. Changing organizational culture: cultural change work in progress. Drenth. & Thierry. John Wiley & sons Ltd. E.H. J. Tracy. Leading organizations through transitions: communication and cultural change. J. (2010). (2008).J & Simpson. Alvesson. & Sveningsson. S. Jossey-Bass. East Sussex. Psychological press. Magazine.html Schein. Retrieved February 21. 2011. (1999). ORGANIZATIONS AS CULTURES 7 References: Schabracq. (1998).K. New Delhi.. Organizational culture and leadership. H. Handbook of work and organizational psychology.